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professional practices

Project Term paper


Submitted to:
Maam Sundus Mughees
Submitted By:
Muhammad Adeel


Syed shoiab


Wahaab Hassan Butt


Tufail Ch


word surveil

lance comes

a Frenc

h phrase




means "from

above" and
means "to


Surveillance is the
of the behavior, activities, or other changing


usually of people for the purpose of influencing, managing, directing, or protecting them. This can
include observation from a distance by means of electronic equipment (such as CCTV cameras), or
interception of electronically transmitted information (such as Internet traffic or phone calls); and it can
include simple, relatively no- or low-technology methods such as human intelligence agents and postal
Surveillance is used by governments for intelligence gathering, the prevention of crime, the
protection of a process, person, group or object, or for the investigation of crime. It is also used by
criminal organizations to plan and commit crimes such as robbery and kidnapping, by businesses to
gather intelligence, and by private investigators.
Surveillance is often a violation of privacy, and is opposed by various civil liberties groups and
activists. Liberal democracies have laws which restrict domestic government and private use of
surveillance, usually limiting it to circumstances where public safety is at risk. Authoritarian government
seldom have any domestic restrictions; and international espionage is common among all types of

In history, surveillance is often referred to as spying or espionage. Most often, surveillance
historically occurred as a means to gather and collect information, supervise the actions of other people
(usually enemies), and to use this information to increase ones understanding of the party being ancient
times, surveillance occurred most often through the use of an individual spy, or a small group of spies. As
technology such as spyglasses, telescopes and radios developed, surveillance technologies continually
effected the way in which surveillance occurred. Modern surveillance technologies such CCTV, RFID
and GPS help to highlight the extent to which surveillance practices have evolved throughout history.

Espionage in Islam 2nd Battle of Damascus:

With the victory at Fahl, the Muslim army split, Amr ibn al-Aas and Shurhabil ibn Hasana moved
south to capture Palestine, while Abu Ubaidah and Khalid moved north to capture Northern Syria. While
the Muslims were occupied at Fahl, Heraclius, sensing the opportunity, quickly sent an army under
General Theodras to recapture Damascus. Shortly after Heraclius dispatched this new army, the Muslims
having finished the business at Fahl, were on their way to Emesa. The Byzantine army met the Muslims
half way to Emesa, at Maraj-al-Rome. During the night Theodras sent half of his army towards Damascus

to launch a surprise attack on the Muslim garrison. Khalid's spy informed him about the move, Khalid
having received permission from Abu Ubaidah, quickly moved towards Damascus with his mobile guard.
While Abu Ubaidah fought and defeated the Roman army in the Battle of Maraj-al-Rome, Khalid moved
to Damascus with his Mobile guard attacking and routing General the odras in the 2nd battle of
Damascus. A week later, Abu Ubaida capture Baalbek (Heliopolis), where the great Temple
of Jupiter stood, and sent Khalid straight towards mesa.

Biblical surveillance:
The history of surveillance found in the Bible. One example in 2 Samuel, is that
of David and Bathsheba found in the second book of Samuel. David, while walking on the roof of his
palace, noticed Bathsheba bathing and as he continued to watch her his desire grew, even though
she was already the wife of Uriah. In this example, surveillance was used for Davids own personal
gains and pleasure rather than for a greater good.

Espionage in Ancient Egypt:

According to Terry Crowdy in his book The Enemy Within: A History of Espionage:
"The earliest surviving record of espionage dates from the time of Pharaoh Rameses war with
the Hittites and the battle of Kadesh. (c.1274 BC)The Hittite king Muwatallis sent two spies into the
Egyptian camp posing as deserters to convince pharaoh that the Hittite army was still quite distant.
Rameses believed their story and unwittingly allowed part of his army to march into a Hittite ambush.
Fortunately for the pharaoh, he captured two more Hittite spies and had his officers interrogate themthe
Hittites spies revealed that an ambush had been setRamses was therefore able to bring up reserves and
avert disaster at what became known as the battle of Kadesh.

Pakistan Surveillance Agencies:

Pakistan has three main intelligence services IB/MI/ISI

Intelligence Bureau (IB):


Grew in importance following Bhuttos reelection in 1993 way to root out influence of military
her Director General, Masood Sharif, was arrested, however, after she left office

Military Intelligence (MI):

Active during 1964 presidential election keeping politicians, particularly East Pakistanis, under

Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI):


Founded 1948 by British army officer, Maj Gen R. Cawthome, then Deputy Chief of Staff in
Pakistan Army

Field Marshal Ayub Khan, the president of Pakistan in the 1950s, expanded the role of the ISI in
safeguarding Pakistans interests, monitoring opposition politicians, and sustaining military rule
in Pakistan

Active during 1964 presidential election keeping politicians, particularly East Pakistanis, under

We choose this topic to highlight the importance of Surveillance. We must know that surveillance
is need of time for a country like Pakistan. We can avoid many danger incidents like bomb blasts and
other terrorist activities using good surveillance techniques. If we have proper surveillance system in
schools like Army Public School Peshawar and Bacha Khan University Charsadda, we could have saved
many innocent lives. Drones cameras, CCTVs, Human Chips and data mining technology can increase
the level of personal security and also at the government level. We can track our children with their exact
location. Human chips can tell exactly about your health condition within minutes. In addition to the
benefits we also want to highlight the some key risks involved in this technique like private data leakage
which may lead to physical harm.

Main Body:
Types of Surveillance:

1- Computer and Network Surveillance:

Computer and network surveillance is the

monitoring of computer activity and data stored on
a hard drive, or data being transferred over computer
networks such as the Internet. The monitoring is often
carried out covertly and may be completed by
governments, corporations, criminal organizations, or
individuals. It may or may not be legal and may or may
not require authorization from a court or other
independent government agency.

Surveillance allows governments and other agencies to maintain social control, recognize and
monitor threats, and prevent and investigate criminal activity. With the advent of programs such as
the Total Information Awareness program, technologies such as high speed surveillance
computers and biometrics software, and laws such as the Communications Assistance For Law
Enforcement Act, governments now possess an unprecedented ability to monitor the activities of citizens

Another form of computer surveillance, known as van Eck phreaking, involves reading
electromagnetic emanations from computing devices in order to extract data from them at distances of
hundreds of meters. Information that drives the video display takes the form of high frequency electrical

Computers can be a surveillance target because of the personal data stored on them. If someone is
able to install software, such as the FBI's Magic Lantern and CIPAV, on a computer system, they can
easily gain unauthorized access to this data. Such software could be installed physically or remotely. The
NSA runs a database known as "Pinwale", which stores and indexes large numbers of emails of both
American citizens and foreigners.
Malicious Software: A surveillance program installed on a computer can search the contents of
the hard drive for suspicious data, can monitor computer use, collect passwords, and/or report back
activities in real-time to its operator through the Internet connection There are multiple ways of installing
such software. The most common is remote installation, using a backdoor created by a computer

virus or Trojan. Another method is "cracking" into the computer to gain access over a network. An

attacker can then install surveillance software remotely.

2- Biometric surveillance:
Biometric surveillance is any technology that measures and analyzes human physical and/or
behavioral characteristics for authentication, identification, or screening purposes. Examples of
physical characteristics include fingerprints, DNA, and facial patterns. Examples of mostly behavioral
characteristics include gait (a person's manner of walking) or voice.

In recent times, biometrics based on brain (electroencephalogram) and heart
(electrocardiogram) signals have emerged. The research group at University of Kent led by

Ramaswamy Palaniappan has shown that people have certain distinct brain and heart patterns that
are specific for each individual. The advantage of such 'futuristic' technology is that it is more fraud
resistant compared to conventional biometrics like fingerprints. However, such technology is
generally more cumbersome and still has issues such as lower accuracy and poor reproducibility
over time.

Operator signatures: An operator signature is a biometric mode where the manner in which a
person using a device or complex system is recorded as a verification template. One potential use for this
type of biometric signature is to distinguish among remote users of telerobotic surgery systems that utilize
public networks for communication.

Privacy and discrimination: It is possible that data obtained during biometric enrollment may
be used in ways for which the enrolled individual has not consented. For example, most biometric
features could disclose physiological and/or pathological medical conditions (e.g., some fingerprint
patterns are related to chromosomal diseases, iris patterns could reveal genetic sex, hand vein patterns
could reveal vascular diseases, most behavioral biometrics could reveal neurological diseases, and
so). Moreover, second generation biometrics, notably behavioral and electro-physiologic biometrics (e.g.,
based on electrocardiography, electroencephalography, electromyography), could be also used for
emotion detection.
There are three categories of privacy concerns:

1. Unintended functional scope: The authentication goes further than authentication, such as finding
a tumor.
2. Unintended application scope: The authentication process correctly identifies the subject when
the subject did not wish to be identified.
3. Covert identification: The subject is identified without seeking identification or authentication,
i.e. a subject's face is identified in a crowd.
Danger to owners of secured items: When thieves cannot get access to secure properties,
there is a chance that the thieves will stalk and assault the property owner to gain access. If the item is
secured with a biometric device, the damage to the owner could be irreversible, and potentially cost more
than the secured property. For example, in 2005, Malaysian car thieves cut off the finger of a MercedesBenz S-Class owner when attempting to steal the car.

3- Telephone
Phone surveillance and Lawful interception
The official and unofficial tapping of telephone lines is
widespread. Human agents are not required to monitor most
calls. Speech-to-text software creates machine-readable text from
intercepted audio, which is then processed by automated call-analysis
programs, such as those developed by agencies such as
the Information Awareness Office, or companies such as Verint, and Narus, which search for certain
words or phrases, to decide whether to dedicate a human agent to the call.
Law enforcement and intelligence services in the United Kingdom and the United States possess
technology to activate the microphones in cell phones remotely, by accessing phones' diagnostic or
maintenance features in order to listen to conversations that take place near the person who holds the

Mobile phones are also commonly used to collect location data. The geographical location of a
mobile phone (and thus the person carrying it) can be determined easily even when the phone is not being
used, using a technique known as multilateration to calculate the differences in time for a signal to travel
from the cell phone to each of several cell towers near the owner of the phone.

The legality of such techniques has been questioned in the United States, in particular whether a
court warrant is required. In response to customers privacy concerns in the post Edward Snowden era,
Apples iPhone 6 has been designed to disrupt investigative wiretapping efforts. The phone encrypts emails, contacts, and photos with a code generated by a complex mathematical algorithm that is unique to
an individual phone, and is inaccessible to Apple. The encryption feature on the iPhone 6 has drawn
criticism from FBI director James B. Comey and other law enforcement officials since even lawful
requests to access user content on the iPhone 6 will result in Apple supplying "gibberish" data that
requires law enforcement personnel to either break the code themselves or to get the code from the
phones owner. Because the Snowden leaks demonstrated that American agencies can access phones
anywhere in the world, privacy concerns in countries with growing markets for smart phones have
intensified, providing a strong incentive for companies like Apple to address those concerns in order to
secure their position in the global market.

Child Safety: Cellphone tracking makes it possible for parents to know where their children are
at all times. Some vendors sell phones with embedded software that periodically sends data on the phone's
current location to a central server via the cellular network. By logging in to the service over the Internet,
you can view your child's current location and where he has been previously, revealing if your child has
been dishonest about his activities or is in a potentially dangerous location
Friend Tracking: Some mobile phones have tracking features that may enhance your social life.
"Find My Friends" -- a downloadable application for the iPhone -- is an example of such a service that
displays on a map dots that represent your friends' locations, allowing you to find each other in a crowded

Privacy Concerns: Reduced privacy is the primary drawback of cellphone tracking. According
to the Electronic Frontier Foundation, "Location information collected by cellphone companies can
provide an extraordinarily invasive glimpse into the private lives of cellphone users." For this reason, it is
possible to disable casual location tracking features such as the "Find My Friends" iPhone application.
Tracking information remains available to phone providers and emergency services, however.

4- Cameras:

Surveillance cameras are video cameras used for the purpose of

observing an area.
They are often connected to a recording device or IP network, and
may be watched by a security guard or law enforcement officer.
Cameras and recording equipment used to be relatively expensive
and required human personnel to monitor camera footage, but analysis
of footage has been made easier by automated software that organizes
digital video footage into a searchable database, and by video analysis
software (such as VIRAT and Human ID). The amount of footage is
also drastically reduced by motion sensors which only record when
motion is detected. With cheaper production techniques, surveillance cameras are simple and
inexpensive enough to be used in home security systems, and for everyday surveillance.
In the United Kingdom, the vast majority of video surveillance cameras are not operated by
government bodies, but by private individuals or companies, especially to monitor the interiors of
shops and businesses.

Advantages of Wireless IP Surveillance Cameras:

Wi-Fi based wireless broadband services could be used for public surveillance systems
(Surveillance of a locality, street, traffic junctions, etc.).
Wireless surveillance cameras can be useful in situations where it is difficult to lay cables
Museums, Heritage buildings, Industrial plants, etc.
Wireless surveillance system is cost effective (when compared to wired networks
involving Fiber Cables, Trenching, etc.) to install and maintain.
Wireless Networks can be deployed quickly and wireless surveillance can be used for
providing temporary Wi-Fi to fairs/ exhibitions, etc.
Wireless Point-to-Point back-haul networks could extend the network to more than 5 KM
over the wireless medium, if required.
Wireless networks are quite secure these days as most of them use 802.1x
authentication & encrypt communications using WPA2.
Wi-Fi Mesh networks can connect to each other (over the wireless medium) to form a
nearly all wireless network in a given location. These Mesh networks allow multi-path
propagation & can automatically choose alternate paths to avoid single point
(link/device) failure.

A WI-Fi network supports QoS (Quality of Service) parameters to be configured for

carrying real-time traffic. Basically, the real time traffic is identified in the network and is
given higher priority over data traffic.
Wireless IP Surveillance cameras can be moved from one place to another without
worrying if cable/network jack is available at the new location. In fact, entire wireless
setup (including access points, etc) can be moved to a new location easily and quickly.
Mobile video footage capture Its possible to capture video footage using a wireless IP
surveillance camera installed over a police car when it is moving (for example).
The quality of indoor wireless cameras could be enhanced by using Wireless
Controllers to create and maintain a wireless network.
Digital Compression techniques like H.264 & H.264 SVC offer a quality video stream
in low bandwidths.

Dis-advantages of Wireless IP Surveillance Cameras:

If the wireless network is not properly configured, there would
be interference from access points operating in the same channel (From
internal and neighboring APs) which would reduce the quality of the Wi-Fi
The most commonly used Wi-Fi network band 2.4 Ghz has only three nonoverlapping channels and is always over-crowded. Besides, non-Wi-Fi devices
like Microwave Owens, Bluetooth devices, etc can interfere with Wireless
For long-haul backbone wireless networks, Line of Sight might be required.
Even for Wi-Fi access networks (that dont require a Line of Sight), the signal
strength and signal quality might be affected due to interfering objects like
Glass, Trees, Elevators, Metallic Racks, etc.
Wireless networks offer sufficient bandwidth when IP Surveillance Cameras
are placed near the Wireless Access Points. But the bandwidth decreases
with increasing distance.

IEEE 802.11n is the latest wireless standard that offers more bandwidth +
increased wireless coverage distance. But many Wireless IP Surveillance
Cameras do not support this standard and even if they do, they might
support areduced MIMO configuration.
Packets arriving out-of-order (due to wireless transmission) may result in
degraded video quality & stateful compression techniques are intolerant to
packet loss.
Performance of Wireless Mesh Networks decreases considerably with each
(additional) hop. So, the area that a mesh network can cover (and hence its
size) is limited.
Quality of Service (QoS) parameters should be set end to end to ensure good
quality video transmission over IP networks and all the active devices used in
the network should be configured for consistent QoS settings.
POE Injectors / POE Switches cannot be used with Wireless IP Surveillance
Cameras. So, power cables / power source should be arranged for each of
them separately.
Each video stream occupies a certain bandwidth. So when a lot of video
streams are simultaneously transmitted over a wireless network, it might be

5- Data mining and profiling:

Data mining is the application of statistical techniques and programmatic algorithms to discover

previously unnoticed relationships within the data. Data profiling in this context is the process of
assembling information about a particular individual or group in order to generate a profile that is, a
picture of their patterns and behavior. Data profiling can be an extremely powerful tool for psychological
and social network analysis. A skilled analyst can discover facts about a person that they might not even
be consciously aware of themselves.
Economic (such as credit card purchases) and social (such as telephone calls and emails)
transactions in modern society create large amounts of stored data and records. In the past, this data was

documented in paper records, leaving a "paper trail", or was simply not documented at all. Correlation of
paper-based records was a laborious processit required human intelligence operators to manually dig
through documents, which was time-consuming and incomplete, at best.
But today many of these records are electronic, resulting in an "electronic trail". Every use of a
bank machine, payment by credit card, use of a phone card, and call from home, checked out library
book, rented video, or otherwise complete recorded transaction generates an electronic record. Public
recordssuch as birth, court, tax and other recordsare increasable being digitized and made available
online. In addition, due to laws like CALEA, web traffic and online purchases are also available for
profiling. Electronic record-keeping makes data easily collectable, storable, and accessibleso that highvolume, efficient aggregation and analysis is possible at significantly lower costs.
Information relating too many of these individual transactions is often easily available because it
is generally not guarded in isolation, since the information, such as the title of a movie a person has
rented, might not seem sensitive. However, when many such transactions are aggregated they can be
used to assemble a detailed profile revealing the actions, habits, beliefs, locations frequented, social
connections, and preferences of the individual. This profile is then used, by programs such

as ADVICE and TALON, to determine whether the person is a military, criminal, or political threat.
In addition to its own aggregation and profiling tools, the government is able to access
information from third parties for example, banks, credit companies or employers, etc. by
requesting access informally, by compelling access through the use of subpoenas or other procedures, or
by purchasing data from commercial data aggregators or data brokers.

6- Human Microchips:
A human microchip implant is an identifying
integrated circuit device or RFID transponder encased
in silicate glass and implanted in the body of a human
being. A subdermal implant typically contains a unique ID
number that can be linked to information contained in an
external database, such as personal identification,
medical history, medications, allergies, and contact

Several types of microchips have been developed in order to control and monitor certain
types of people, such as criminals, political figures and spies, a "killer" tracking chip patent was filed
at the German Patent and Trademark Office(DPMA) around May 2009.

7- GPS Tracking:

In the U.S., police have planted hidden GPS tracking devices in people's
vehicles to monitor their movements, without a warrant. In early 2009,
they were arguing in court that they have the right to do this.

Several cities are running pilot projects to require parolees to
wear GPS devices to track their movements when they get out of prison.
GPS is extremely easy to navigate as it tells you to the direction for each turns you take or you have to take
to reach to your destination.
GPS works in all weather so you need not to worry of the climate as in other navigating devices.
The GPS costs you very low in comparison other navigation systems.
The most attractive feature of this system is its100% coverage on the planet.
It also helps you to search the nearby restaurants, hotels and gas stations and is very useful for a new place.
Due to its low cost, it is very easy to integrate into other technologies like cell phone.
The system is updated regularly by the US government and hence is very advance.
This is the best navigating system in water as in larger water bodies we are often misled due to lack of
proper directions.


Sometimes the GPS may fail due to certain reasons and in that case you need to carry a backup map and
If you are using GPS on a battery operated device, there may be a battery failure and you may need a
external power supply which is not always possible.
Sometimes the GPS signals are not accurate due to some obstacles to the signals such as buildings, trees
and sometimes by extreme atmospheric conditions such as geomagnetic storms.

8- Human Intelligence Agency:

Pakistan has three main intelligence services IB/MI/ISI

Functionality of IB
monitor politicians, political activists, suspected terrorists, and suspected foreign intelligence
agents from countries hostile to Pakistan; watches domestic opposition parties

Functionality of MI
counterinsurgency operations, identifying/eliminating sleeper cells, foreign agents, and other antiPakistan elements w/in Pakistan monitor high-level military/political leaders safeguard
critical facilities such as military/non-military installations limited external role
operations in Sindh against Indian intelligence operatives

Functionality of ISI
used to collect foreign/domestic intelligence;
coordinate intelligence functions of the three
military services; do surveillance over its cadre,
foreigners, the media, politically active segments
Pakistani society, diplomats of other countries in
Pakistan and Pakistani diplomats abroad;
interception/monitoring of communications; conduct of covert offensive operations

The three main intelligence agencies in Pakistan are ISI, Military Intelligence [MI] and the Intelligence
Bureau [IB]. Each agency has its own specific responsibilities, but all share the common goal of
preserving Pakistans national security. Since any significant domestic or foreign political activity


impinges on national security, there has traditionally been considerable overlap in the activities of these
three agencies. The ISI and MI have generally focused on matters of immediate military interest, and the
IB concentrated on domestic political activities

Surveillance Ethical Issue:

Surveillance involves paying close and sustained attention to another person. Furthermore the
design is not to pay attention to just anyone, but to pay attention to some entity (a person or group) in
particular and for a particular reason. Nor does surveillance have to involve watching. It may also involve
listening, as when a telephone conversation is bugged, or even smelling, as in the case of dogs trained to
discover drugs, or hardware which is able to discover explosives at a distance.
The ethics of surveillance considers the moral aspects of how surveillance is employed. Is it a
value-neutral activity which may be used for good or ill, or is it always problematic and if so why? What
are the benefits and harms of surveillance? Who is entitled to carry out surveillance, when and under what
circumstances? Are there any circumstances under which someone should never be under surveillance?

1. Privacy:
One of the core arguments against surveillance is that it poses a threat to privacy, which is of
value to the individual and to society. This raises a number of questions about privacy, what it is and to
what extent and why it is valuable.
Despite the disagreements, most would agree that on an individual level, privacy affords us the
space to be ourselves and to define ourselves through giving us a degree of autonomy and protecting our
dignity. In our interactions with others we may define the intimacy of our relationships with them through
the amount of privacy we relinquish in that relationship. As we engage with society at large we gain
confidence and security from our privacy, safe that those we do not know do not in turn know all about
us. We fear the stranger and what they might do if they knew our vulnerabilities. Through keeping those
vulnerabilities private, we maintain a level of personal safety.
Privacy is also of value to society at large. As noted, we may appear in public safe in the
knowledge that our weaknesses are not on display for all to see, allowing for confident personal
interaction. When we vote we do so in the belief that no-one can see our decision and treat us well or
poorly in the light of how we voted. Privacy is thus important in the social context of democracy. In many

cases we do not want to know everything about everyone around us and so privacy can protect the rest of
us from being exposed to too much information.

2. Trust and Autonomy

Linked closely to the issue of privacy is that of trust. Privacy is often held in an inverse
relationship to trust such that the more trust exists between two people, the less need there is for privacy.
Nonetheless committed relationships are often marked by a higher degree of trust and a reduced level of
privacy. When one of those elements is breached, either through intruding on (limited) privacy or through
a breaking of trust, the relationship is damaged. One reflection of diminished trust in a relationship is
increased surveillance, as when suspicious partners hire private investigators to determine an infidelity.
Conversely, the discovery of increased surveillance, especially when the surveilled party is innocent, may
also lead to decreased levels of trust. At a personal level trust is often reciprocal: Why should I trust you if
you dont trust me? The discovery of surveillance could well therefore damage personal relationships.
Surveillance also limits the opportunity to present oneself in the manner of ones own choosing. It
is hence limiting on the individuals autonomy, impacting how that individual interacts with the
Surveillance therefore diminishes the need to trust the surveilled person. Its presence will
pressure that person to conform and so render his actions more predictable. Surveilled people therefore
can become more predictable if they fear reprisals for acting in ways that merit the disapproval of the
surveillant. In that sense they are therefore more trustworthy (an authority can trust that they will act in
such a manner). If the purpose of surveillance is to control or deter people, then surveillance of which the
subject is aware could be effective. If, on the other hand, the purpose is to assess the character of people
as that character is expressed in integrity, then surveillance of which the subject is aware will be of little

3. Authority:
Much of the justification of surveillance, and particularly the cause of that surveillance, will
depend on who it is that is carrying out the surveillance. State security can and should be carried out by
state intelligence agencies. By contrast it should not be carried out by journalists or foreign aid workers,
who need to maintain a level of neutrality in order to carry out their work effectively. If this is the role of
state intelligence agencies then those agencies would not be justified in the surveillance of domestic
employers to ensure that they are not abusing their workforce. This should rather be the domain of
domestic law enforcement.

State surveillance of genuine enemies of the state is one of the less controversial elements of
surveillance. Even here, though, it is important to be clear as to precisely whose security is being guarded:
That of the state or of those currently empowered to run the state?
The decision to employ surveillance does not lie entirely with the state, although the state may
choose to regulate the use of surveillance. Employers sometimes monitor their employees, either to
prevent theft or whistle-blowing or to ensure that they are working to their maximum ability. Retailers, as
noted above, monitor customer spending habits to improve efficiency and sales. Parents monitor sleeping
infants so as to respond should the child wake in the night. In each case the ethical authority to carry out
surveillance is intimately linked to the justifying cause of that surveillance. Hence an individual is
justified in carrying out surveillance of his property if it is to secure the property from theft, but not if it is
to spy on his tenants. Parents are justified (indeed, often expected) to monitor their infant children as they
sleep, but whether they are also justified in monitoring the babysitter watching over their children is far
more controversial. Groups of people are justified in watching their street, particularly if it has been
subject to a recent spate of theft, through Neighbourhood Watch schemes, but not in intimidating an
unpopular neighbour through persistent overt surveillance. This is not to suggest that intention alone can
justify surveillance. A landlord might wish to secure his property by placing a camera in the bathroom
(lest a burglar enter through the window). While his intention might not be to spy on his tenants the effect
will be precisely that. Similarly, baby monitors left in areas where they are likely to record intimate phone
conversations of a babysitter are still an invasion of the babysitters privacy, irrespective of the parents

4. Necessity
Necessity is often cited as an important condition for justified surveillance. Article 8 of the
European Union Convention on Human Rights, for example, states that there shall be no interference by
a public authority with the exercise of this right [to privacy] except such as is in accordance with the law
and is necessary in a democratic society in the interests of national security, public safety or the economic
well-being of the country, for the prevention of disorder or crime, for the protection of health or morals,
or for the protection of the rights and freedoms of others (Council of Europe 1950). When is surveillance
necessary, though? Should surveillance, like war, be a matter of last resort? If so, when is that moment of
last resort reached?
The concept of necessity can limit surveillance from being undertaken arbitrarily or prematurely.
An authority may not monitor anyone at any time. Surveillance must rather be required by the
circumstances of the case. However, this is simply to replace necessary with required and so does not
help. We are still left with the question as to when surveillance is required by the circumstances of the

John Lango (Lango 2006) has suggested two criteria for necessity: The feasibility standard and
the awfulness standard. The first occurs when there is sufficient evidence to suggest that there is no
feasible alternative, the second when the alternatives are worse than the proposed course of action. When
one of these criteria is met the action may be deemed necessary. Given the harms of surveillance, it
should therefore be avoided if there are less harmful alternatives. However, surveillance becomes
necessary when either there is no alternative, or when the alternatives such as physical intrusion or arrest
are more harmful than the surveillance itself.

5. Means
How surveillance is carried out is a further consideration which should be taken into account. Is
the surveillance proportionate to its aim and is it discriminate in whom it targets? Proportionality of action
is a familiar concept in legal and military ethics, but it has application to surveillance as well. More
recent, non-fictional cases exist in the surveillance of school children through using fingerprinting
technology either to grant entrance and egress from the school, or to pay for school lunches. While the
former case might be seen as providing protection to the children from those who should not be in the
school, the latter seems highly invasive and an extreme manner to respond to playground bullies stealing
lunch money or parents desire to know what food their children are eating. Similar questions have been
raised about the full-body screening of airline passengers which was introduced in 2009 in the US and the
UK, leading to monochrome nude images of all those who went through the scanners. Irrespective of
health concerns associated with the scanners, they were seen by many to be extremely invasive of privacy
without offering a concomitant level of security to those flying on the airline.
If proportionality questions the depth, or intrusiveness of surveillance, discrimination considers
its breadth. It asks how many people are likely to be monitored as a result of the particular form of
surveillance. Some aspects of surveillance, such as wiretapping, are highly discriminating and target only
those using the particular phone under observation. Others, such as CCTV in public places, are broadly
indiscriminate and collect information about a great number of people, only some of which will be of
interest to the surveillant. We may ask if there is an onus on the surveillant to be as discriminating as
possible and only collect information or invade the privacy of as few people as absolutely necessary,
given the confines of what is reasonably possible.
A related question is whether any form of surveillance should be absolutely prohibited. Possible
candidates for impermissible surveillance would be that of public toilets or private bedrooms. However
even here it would appear as if there are cases when these might become of critical importance to
justifying causes, such as state security. This might occur if a civil servant with access to state secrets is
believed to be involved in a sexual liaison with a member of a foreign intelligence agency. Less
exotically, an organized crime syndicate might use a public toilet as a dead letter drop for passing drugs,
guns or money. In each of these cases it might be felt that the perhaps obvious places for banning

surveillance could in fact become legitimate contexts. In these cases, however, it would be important to
protect the innocent as much as possible by limiting the intrusion. Film which is not useful as evidence
should be promptly deleted; the monitoring of toilets should be carried out by a member of the same sex;
and if possible software should be used which grants anonymity to all captured on film by default and can
only reveal individual details upon request.

6. Social
There is a further potential harm of surveillance in the form of social sorting. The purpose of
surveillance, it is argued, is to sort people into categories for ends which are either good or ill. The result
is that anyone falling into these categories is more likely to be caught if doing something wrong than
someone else, thus perpetuating the stereotype. Furthermore, as these groups were being watched more
frequently than others, they were more likely to be seen as doing something suspicious. This in turn could
lead to disproportionate response rates by security forces on the ground, contributing to a sense of
alienation and rejection by society.

7. Distance Between Relationships

Surveillance typically puts a distance between the surveillant and the person or group surveilled.
This can be of benefit to both as it removes the surveillant from the immediacy of the situation
and may provide her with time and space to deliberate before reacting to a situation. It might also
mean that she does not feel personally threatened in a situation and so react more calmly than
would otherwise be the case. However it also simplifies everyday levels of human interaction
such as negotiation, discretion, and the use of subtlety: From the surveillants perspective
someone is either a target or not, and the surveilled subject is not given a platform to respond.
This is a concern which is exacerbated by the automation of surveillance and threat detection as
the software operating the surveillance can only see people in these terms. There is a further
concern that the distance between operator and subject means that the two might never meet. Yet
without personal confrontation an operator with social prejudices may never be challenged in her
views. She might never meet a person from an ethnic minority (or not one from the minority of
which she is suspicious) and so fail to be challenged in her view that all members of that social
group are, by virtue of their membership, inherently worthy of suspicion.
8. Power
Through the act of surveillance the surveillant gains power over the surveilled, either through the
gathering of information regarding that person which they would rather keep secret (or, at least, keep
control over its distribution), or through distancing the person and treating them as acceptable or
unacceptable for whatever is the purpose of that surveillance. The balance of power between individuals,

or between individuals and groups such as employers or the state, is therefore an important consideration
in assessing what it is that is wrong or dangerous about many forms of surveillance.
If we return to the parental monitoring of infants, the context is one of the empowered over the
powerless and the cause of the monitoring is paternal care. As noted, this is often seen as a duty of the
parent and so one which is justified. As children grow and become more independent, however, they
require less care and gain an increasingly strong claim to their own privacy. This is true of surveillance in
general as it transfers power from the surveilled to the surveillant. When consent is given then this is
more, although possibly not always, justifiable. In the absence of consent, however, this disempowerment
of the individual is highly problematic, threatening their dignity and ultimately their responsibility for
their own lives.

The key to a successful surveillance operation is to maintain discretion, plan meticulously and
develop counter strategies. Following these basic guidelines will help to protect against technical
surveillance threats. Keep in mind, not all counter tactics can be successfully executed if you are dealing
with a professional, organized and determine surveillance team.
To improve privacy of data we can use encryption to secure the data and we should have proper
backup plan if by any chance our data gets leaked.
The objective of utilizing technical spying gear is to allow the surveillance gear to function over
an extended period of time. Checking the gear frequently adds to the potential risk to the
technical operation being exposed.
Proper authentication methods should be used where private data is at stake. Private data gathered
from surveillance should only be accessible to Authorized personal only.

If one suspects being under any type of surveillance, care should be

taken to avoid disclosing knowledge of the technical spying device is
installed. Alerting a surveillance team to concerning knowledge of the
spying gear installed may have serious consequences.
A good surveillance operator will regularly check the spying gear
installed. Many spying devices have motion detection capabilities and
functioning capabilities to allow the device to be activated from a
remote location. This allows the battery life of spying gear to be

If one does discover some form of technical surveillance, discretion and secrecy of this
knowledge are paramount. Knowledge of a surveillance operation should not be
discussed openly because one can never be 100% certain surveillance is not being
conducted by a close friend, associate or business partner.

At the end we come to know that surveillance has benefits and as well as some risks. One thing is
clear that we need this surveillance technology as we are in state of war against terrorism. The key to
enabling the good while prevailing in the struggle against the bad involves finding the right balance.
Government should gain trust among its people and make sure that all its motives are crystal clear to the
nation that why they are using surveillance, how much data is being used and make sure that data is in
safe hands. Private data should only be used for the good of the country and good data protected
techniques should be used to avoid any harm to the data.