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This study aimed to design a Solar Power Generation and Distribution

on University of Perpetual Help System Dalta Calamba, Engineering
Ergonomics Laboratory that focuses on the main electrical source of the
lighting fixtures and ceiling fans and that provide resources for teaching
electrical power generation and distribution system and renewable energy
concepts mainly in Solar energy. The set up consist of a photo-voltaic solar
panel, charge controller, Deep cycle Batteries, Relays, Indicator Lamps,
fuse, and test instruments for measuring voltages and currents. This Solar
power generation and distribution with automatic transfer switch extensively
used to illustrate electrical concepts and promote renewable energy and
getting intact with households Meralco lines with an ease which is available
from the environment.
Some possible loads that the device can supply if the DC supply
from the battery can be converted into AC supply are household lightings









Solar AC Combined Electricity in Ergonomics Laboratory

An Undergraduate Research Design
Presented to
The Faculty of College of Engineering
University of Perpetual Help System DALTA-Calamba
Brgy. Paciano Rizal, Calamba City

In Partial Fulfillment
Of the Requirements for the Degree
Bachelor of Science in Electrical Engineering


August 2016

Background of the Study
The demographic factor implies that population is an important factor
that might influence electricity demand; with growing population, the total energy
requirement in all sectors is expected to rise. Technological factors imply that
introducing new technologies in the production side, improvement of raw material
processing and purification, increase in the efficiency of the machineries may
influence energy demand. Global and regional policy changes may influence
energy consumption, government financial policies, building regulations, taxation,
and commitment to reduce Green House Gas emission, shifting towards
renewable and cleaner energy, use of energy efficient equipment may play
significant role in the variation of demand of electricity (Momani, 2012).
According to the research of World Renewable Energy Congress
(2015), one of the most effective organizations in supporting and enhancing the
utilization and implementation of renewable energy sources, the world population
in the year 2100 will be in excess of 12 billion. If the current trends in
technological progress and innovation continue, the demand for energy then will
be five times greater than what it is now. If we continue the policy of using coal,
oil and gas at the present rate, then by the year 2020 the global temperature will
have increased by two degrees Celsius.

Achieving solutions to environmental problems that we face today

requires long-term potential actions for sustainable development. In this regard,
renewable energy resources appear to be the one of the most efficient and
effective solutions (Dincer, 2000). Furthermore, the previous study by Jacobson
and Delucchi (2011) states that only those technologies that have low impacts
on wildlife, water pollution, and land, do not have significant waste-disposal or
terrorism risks associated with them, and are based on primary resources that
are indefinitely renewable or recyclable are to be considered. Thus, Panwar
(2011) said that renewable technologies are considered as clean sources of
energy and optimal use of these resources minimize environmental impacts
produce minimum secondary wastes and are sustainable based on current and
future economic and social societal needs. Renewable energy technologies
provide an excellent opportunity for mitigation of greenhouse gas emission and
reducing global warming through substituting conventional energy sources.

Statement of the Problem

According to Gross (2014), or the longest time, electricity sales and
consumption went hand in hand with economic growth. In the last several years,
not so much. Electricity retail sales peaked at 3.77 trillion kilowatt-hours in 2008,
dropped in 2008 and 2010, recovered a bit in 2011, and fell in each of the next
two years. The 2013 total of 3.69 trillion kilowatt-hours was down 2 percent from
2008. The culprits are many: changes in the economy (less industry, more
services), higher prices and low wages pushing people to cut usage, more
people and companies generating their own electricity on their rooftops, and a
renewed focus on efficiency. His statements are supported by the research of
Beard (2009) saying, technical challenges for the Electric Power Industry
and Climate Change arise from: 1) impacts on system operating strategies,
configuration, and expansion plans of emission-reducing technologies; 2) power
infrastructure response to extreme weather events; 3) effects of government
policies including an expanded use of renewable and alternative energy
technologies; and 4) impacts of market rules on power system operation.
Possible lessons from other industries responses to climate change are
explored. He also stated that The interaction of the electric power industry with
climate is manifested in both the effect that severe weather has on the power
system and the contribution of electric power to the production of greenhouse
gases (GHGs) and other pollutants. It is estimated that the United States is the
source of one-fourth of the worlds GHG emissions and that the electric power

industry accounts for one-third of these. Within the total GHG emissions, CO2
emissions account for more than 80% of the overall U.S. contribution and 38% of
this amount is derived from the electric power sector.
To be able to obtain definite information and data regarding the
effectiveness of using solar energy to support the Electrical Engineering
Laboratory at University of Perpetual Help Calamba Campus, this study will seek
answer to the following sub-problems such as:
1. What are the factors to be considered in using a solar system to
provide adequate electricity supply at Electrical Engineering
Laboratory of University of Perpetual Help Calamba Campus?
1. To design a backup system if in case there is no availability of solar
radiation to be able to sustain the normal electricity in the EE
2. What value of lighting consumption and cost can be minimized in
developing a solar charger with digital metering at Electrical
Engineering Laboratory of University of Perpetual Help Calamba

Objectives of the Study

General objective
The objective of this study is to develop a solar charger with digital
metering that can supply lighting consumption at Electrical Engineering
Laboratory of University of Perpetual Help Calamba Campus.
Specific Objectives
1. To determine the factors to be considered in using a solar
energy system to provide adequate electricity supply at
Electrical Engineering Laboratory of University of Perpetual
Help Calamba Campus.
2. To be able to sustain the voltage of the system if lack of battery
voltage occurs when it is rainy days or gloomy days.
3. To minimize lighting consumption and in developing a solar
charger at Electrical Engineering Laboratory of University of
Perpetual Help Calamba Campus.

Significance of the Study

The proposed design project will help University of Perpetual Help
Calamba Campus to have a new source of energy. Thus, this new system of
lighting electricity supply will help the University reduce its lighting electricity
consumption and so its cost. This project will also serve as an additional
reference material for University of Perpetual Help Calamba Campus as a
reference in producing renewable energy. The engineering faculty and
students could use this research design as an instructional material for their
design in new alternative energy and in renewable energy. The significance
of this study is to save energy using a solar charger. This also serves as an
alternative source of power charger during outage. This device also helps
reducing the GHG (Green House Gases).
Field of Engineering
This project design can serve as a sample technical project for
renewable energy especially in solar energy that will be benefited to the
discipline of Electrical Engineering, Electronics Engineering, Agricultural
Engineering and other related Engineering courses. This study gives an
overall view on the different processes in designing this technology.

Future Researchers
The research will help the future researchers by giving basic concepts of

converting energy as prime movers and other mediums. It can be used as

reference for the future researchers that will also focus on conversion of
energy-related topics.
The Researchers
The research will also help the researchers to gain new knowledge
throughout the study.

Scope and Limitations

The researchers will focus on developing a solar charger with digital
metering that will support energy supply to the lights used in Electrical
Engineering Laboratory of University of Perpetual Help Calamba Campus.
This study is intended to use of alternative sources of energy, which is the
solar energy.

Definition of Terms

For the completion of the study, the researcher used the following terms

Demographic Factor Characteristics assigned to age, sex, education,

income, marital status, job, religion, birth rate, death rate, family size, and
marriage age. It is done to every member of the population.

Electricity Demand- overall demand follows regular patterns with a fairly

large variation in demand over the course of the day.

Raw Material- is a basic material that is used to produce goods, finished

products, energy, or intermediate materials which are feedstock for future
finished products.

Green House Gas Emission- these are the pollutants that are available at
the global, national, facility, and individual levels.

Renewable energy- energy that is collected from resources which are

naturally replenished on a human timescale, such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides,
waves, and geothermal heat.
Global Warming- used to describe a gradual increase in the average
temperature of the Earth's atmosphere and its oceans, a change that is believed
to be permanently changing the Earth's climate.

Digital metering- measurement and display of all major electrical and power
quality parameters including true rms values, power quality data and
measurement of total harmonic distortion.

Optimal- best or most effective.

Climate change- is a change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns

when that change lasts for an extended period of time.

Solar Energy- is energy from the sun that is converted into thermal or
electrical energy.



In this chapter, explanations about all the world history and literature reviews
2.1 Related Studies and World History
2.1.1 Solar Energy
Solar energy is the light and radiant heat from the Sun that
influences Earths climate and weather and sustains life. Solar power is
sometimes used as a synonym for solar energy or more specifically to refer
to electricity generated from solar radiation. Solar radiation is secondary
resources like as wind and wave power hydroelectricity and biomass
account for most of the available flow of renewable energy on earth.
Solar energy technologies can provide electrical generation by
heat engine or photovoltaic means, space heating and cooling in active and
passive solar buildings, portable water via distillation and disinfection, day
lighting, hot water, thermal energy for cooking, and high temperature process
heat for industrial purposes.
Solar energy refers primarily to the use of solar radiation for
practical ends. All other renewable energies other than geothermal derive
their energy from energy received. From the sun.

Solar technologies are broadly characterized as either passive or active

depending on the way they capture it, convert and distribute the sunlight.
Active solar techniques use photovoltaic panels, pumps and fans to convert
sunlight into useful outputs. Passive solar techniques include selecting
materials with favorable thermal properties, designing spaces that naturally
circulate air, and referencing the position of a building to the Sun. active
solar technologies increase the supply of energy and are considered supply
side technologies, while passive solar technologies reduce the need of
alternate resources and are generally considered demand side technologies.
2.1.2 Photovoltaic Cell
A photovoltaic cell or solar cell is a semiconductor PN junction
diode, normally without an external bias, that provides electrical power to a
load when illuminated.

Fig 2.1 Basic Solar cell structure

The structure of photovoltaic cells is quite simple, the consist of six different

layers of materials as the researchers can see in the figure, firstly there is a
black cover glass surface which helps in increasing the protons absorption
and protects the cell from the atmosphere elements as well. After that there
is an antireflective coating which reduces the reflection losses from the
photons to more thah 5%. The contact grid which follows helps to minimize
the distance which the photons have to travel in order to reach the
semiconductors. The two thin layers or semiconductors p and n follow and
they are the heart of the photovoltaic system, finally there is the back contact
which allows a better conduction.

Fig 2.2 The six different layers of PV cell Operation of Solar Cells
Photovoltaic (PV) cells are made of special materials called
semiconductors such as silicon, which is currently the most commonly used.

Basically, when the light strikes the cell, a certain proton of it is absorbed
within the semiconductor material. This means that the energy of the
absorbed light is transferred to the semiconductor. The energy knocks
electrons loose, allowing them to flow freely, PV cells also all have one or
more electric fields that act to force electrons freed by light absorption to flow
in a certain direction.
This flow of electrons is a current, and by placing metal contacts
on the top and bottom of the PV cell, the researchers can draw that current
off to use externally. For example, the current can power a calculator. This
current, together with the cells voltage (which is a result of its built-in electric
fields), defines the power (wattage) that the solar cell can produce. Anatomy of a Solar Cell
Before now, our silicon was all electrically neutral, our extra
electrons were balanced out by the extra protons in the phosphorous. Our
missing electrons (holes) were balanced out by the missing protons in the
boron. When the holes and electrons mix at the junction between the N- type
and P-type silicon, however, that neutrally is disrupted. Do all the free
electrons fill all the free holes? Definitely NO. If they did, then the whole
arrangement wouldnt be very useful. Right at the junction, however, they do
mix and form a barrier, making it a harder and harder for the electrons on the
N- side to cross to the P- side. Eventually, equilibrium is reached, and the
researchers have an electric field separating the two sides.

This electric field acts as a diode, allowing (and even pushing)

electrons to flow from the P-side to the N-side, but not the other way around.
Its like a hill electrons can easily go down the hill (to the N-side), but cant
climb (to the P-side)
So the researchers gets an electric field that acts as a diode
which electrons will only move in one direction
When the light, in the form of photons, hits the solar cell, frees the
electron-hole pairs.
Each proton with enough energy will normally free exactly one
electron, and result in a free hole as well, if this happens close enough to the
electric field, or if free electron and free hole happens to enter into its range
of influence, the field will send the electron to the N-side and the hole to the
P-side. This causes disruption of electrical neutrality, and provided an
external path, electrons will flow through the path to their original side (the Pside) to unite with holes that the electric field sent there , doing work for us
along the way. The electron flow provides the current and the cells electric
field which will end up to a voltage. With both current and voltage, there is
power, which is the product of the two.
There are few more steps that is left behind before we can really
use our cells. Silicon happened to be a very shinny material, which only
means that it reflects really high. Photons that are reflected cant be used by
the cell. By means, an antireflective coating is applied to the top of the cell to

reduce reflection losses to less than five percent.

The final step is the glass cover plate that protects the cell from
the elements. PV modules are made by connecting several cells (usually 36)
in series an parallel to achieve useful levels of voltages, current and putting
them in a sturdy frame complete with a glass cover having a positive and
negative terminals on the back. Factors Affecting Electricity Output in Solar Panel
1. Module Area more PV module means more electricity is
2. Brightness of the Sun PV module output is sensitive to the
Sun. A clear, sunny sky means more electricity is produced. An
overcast or cloudy sky means less electricity from the PV module
3. PV module operation to get most electricity from the PV
module, it must face towards the Sun.
2.1.3 Battery Charger
A battery charger is a device used to put energy into a secondary
cell or rechargeable battery by forcing an electric current through it. The
charge current depends upon the technology and capacity of the battery
being charged. For example, the current that should be applying for us to
recharge a 12 car battery would be extremely different from the current from

a mobile phone battery. A simple charger works by connecting a constant DC

power source to the battery being charged. The simple charger does not
modify its output based on time or the charge on the battery. This simplicity
means that a simple charger is inexpensive, but there is a tradeoff in quality.
Typically, a simple charger will take a long time to charge a battery for us to
prevent over-charging. In that case, a battery that is left charging in a simple
charger for a long period of time will be shorted and weakened or even
destroyed because of overcharging. These chargers can supply either a
constant voltage or a constant current to the battery.
2.1.4 Lithium-ion Battery
A lithium-ion battery (sometimes Li-ion battery or LIB) is a
member of a family of rechargeable battery types in which lithium ions move
from the negative electrode to the positive electrode during discharge and
back when charging. Li-ion batteries use an intercalated lithium compound
as one electrode material, compared to the metallic lithium used in a nonrechargeable lithium battery. The electrolyte, which allows for ionic
movement, and the two electrodes are the constituent components of a
lithium-ion battery cell.
Lithium-ion batteries are common in consumer electronics. They are
one of the most popular types of rechargeable batteries for portable
electronics, with a high energy density, small memory effect, and only a slow
loss of charge when not in use. Beyond consumer electronics, LIBs are also

growing in popularity for military, battery electric vehicle and aerospace

applications. For example, lithium-ion batteries are becoming a common
replacement for the lead acid batteries that have been used historically for
golf carts and utility vehicles. Instead of heavy lead plates and acid
electrolyte, the trend is to use lightweight lithium-ion battery packs that can
provide the same voltage as lead-acid batteries, so no modification to the
vehicle's drive system is required. Research is yielding a stream of
innovations and improvements to traditional LIB technology, focusing on
energy density, durability, cost, and intrinsic safety.

2.2 Literature Review

Technological infrastructure is an enabling environment required for
rapid growth of technological and industrial development and comprises physical
and human variables like energy, water, transport, communication, financial and
human capital (Okafor, 2008). The future global economy is likely to consume
ever more energy, especially with the rising energy demand of developing

countries such as China and India. At the same time, the tremendous risk of
climate change associated with the use of fossil fuels makes supplying this
energy increasingly difficult (Global Economic Symposium, 2016).
According to world Energy Crisis, abundant and economical energy is
the life blood of modern civilizations. Coals, nuclear and hydro are used primarily
to make electricity. Natural gas is widely used for heating. Biomass, which
usually means wood or dried dung, is used for heating and cooking. The red
sliver is wind and solar power, primarily. The red sliver may be small, but it is the
future because wind and solar power are sustainable. The bar graph shows oil,
coal and natural gas together supplying 85 percent of the world's energy supply
in 2008.

Figure 2.1 Percentage Of The Worlds Energy Supply (2008)

Their research was supported by Browne (2016) saying that the

security of global energy supplies continues to be problematic. Today, oil and gas

reserves are in the hands of a small group of nations, several of which are
considered political unstable or have testy relationships with large consuming
countries. Furthermore, he also found three solutions to these differing energy
crisis demands which 1.) To reduce growing energy demand through improved
energy efficiency and conservation, 2.) Research, develop and deploy a broad
range of energy sources, both domestic and international, to work with properly
functioning global markets to help meet future energy demands and 3.)
Research, develop and deploy a broad range of energy sources, both domestic
and international, to work with properly functioning global markets to help meet
future energy demands.
The Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Soitec, CEALeti and the Helmholtz Center Berlin jointly announced today having achieved a
new world record for the conversion of sunlight into electricity using a new solar
cell structure with four solar subcells. Surpassing competition after only over
three years of research, and entering the roadmap at world class level, a new
record efficiency of 44.7% was measured at a concentration of 297 suns. This
indicates that 44.7% of the solar spectrum's energy, from ultraviolet through to
the infrared, is converted into electrical energy. This is a major step towards
reducing further the costs of solar electricity and continues to pave the way to the
50% efficiency roadmap (Soitec, 2016).

According to Maehlum (2014), Solar power remains, after hydro and

wind, the third most important renewable energy source in terms of globally
installed capacity. In addition, EPIA`s annual Global Market Outlook (2013) have
released the top 10 countries with the highest installed capacity of solar PV
power. Table is shown below.

Table 2.1 Top 10 Countries With The Highest Installed Capacity Of Solar PV



Installed PV [MW]




















Czech Republic


Maehlum (2014) also stated that solar energy exists in abundance all
over the globe, but not every place would be suitable for solar PV panels,
solar thermal collectors or other means of converting sunlight into useful
energy. The figure below shows the higher solar density of the countries.

Figure 2.2 Solar Density of the Countries

As shown in the figure above, the Philippines has 2000 kWh/m 2 solar density
which means that solar energy supply in the Philippines is efficient.

Based on the results of the 2011 Household Energy Consumption

Survey (HECS), electricity remains as the most common source of energy
used by households in the Philippines. About 87 percent of 21.0 million
households used electricity from March to August 2011. n 2011, electricity
was mostly used for lighting purposes with 74 percent of households
reporting the use of electricity for such purpose(Philippines Statistics
Authority, 2013). The National Transmission Corporation(TransCo) and
National Grid Corporation Of The Philippines(NGCP) have released a
monthly system peak demand of Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao in 2014.
Tables expressed in MW are shown below.

Table 2.2 Monthly System Peak Demand in Luzon

Table 2.2 Monthly System Peak Demand in Visayas

Table 2.4 Monthly System Peak Demand in Mindanao

The system approach (Input Process Output) will be used in
describing the conceptual framework of the study which is shown in the Figure
3.1 which the researchers used as guide in order to achieve the objectives
stated in Chapter 1.

Pulse Width
Solar Panel
Dc Charger
Dc Lamp



Figure 3.1 Theoretical Framework

efficiency on
when solar
panel is lack
of voltage
Minimized AC
electrical cost

Research Locale
The research proposed system is primarily applicable only at the
Electrical Engineering Laboratory of the University of Perpetual Help Calamba
Research Instrument
Technology has been the other half of this research. Browsing internet
serves a big role in the research; it is used in finding journals relative in the topic.
It is also use for learning unusual words often use in the study.
As the target location of the study, the researchers will be requesting
for the data they will need to start the study from the University of the Perpetual
Help Calamba Campus. After the data gathering and documentations, a solar
charger with digital metering prototype will be created.

2.2 Literature Review

Local Research
1. MLQU now Manila's first solar-powered university

According to report of Bea Montenegro of GMA news, 2014.

Manuel L. Quezon University has unveiled its newly-installed 96
kilowatt-peak solar panel system on Nov. 19, making it the first solarpowered university in Manila.

Covering a total area of 621 sq.m., the solar panels are capable of
providing around 28 percent of the schools daily energy needs.

The use of renewable energy is ideal for a country like the

Philippines, said Dr. Isagani Germar, MLQU president. The
Philippines relies mostly on energy from fossil fuels, which emit high
levels of pollution. By shifting to using more renewable energy

sources, pollution will go down.

The installation of the solar panels was handled by Propmech

Corporation which entered into a memorandum of agreement with
MLQU and the Department of Energy for the solar panel system.

According to Energy Secretary Carlos Jericho Petilla, ownership of the

solar panels will be transferred to MLQU after 15 years.
This is all part of DOEs goal of increasing the countrys total
renewable energy installation of 5,521 megawatts by installing up to
100 kW rooftop solar PV systems in multiple schools across the
country.Other schools that are planning on following MLQUs lead are
Mapua Institute of Technology, St. Scholasticas College, and La
Consolacion College-Manila.

Solar power supply has been in the country for five years. But when
you ask people about it they still respond with whats that? said
Secretary Petilla. Through this project, we can show people that solar
panels are here to stay.

2. La Consolacion College switches to solar power

According to Euan Paulo C. Aonuevo,, 2014. La

Consolacion College has completed the installation of solar panels in
its Manila campus, the first under a government program aimed at
promoting renewable energy use in academic institutions.
"When we started this endeavor, we envisioned it to project an idea
that can convince other institutions from different sectors to follow the
bandwagon of putting solar panels in their respective buildings,"
Energy Secretary Carlos Jericho Petilla said during Fridays launch of
the solar facility.

Besides La Consolacion, other academic institutions that expressed

interest in installing a solar PV net-metering facility in their campuses
are Manuel Luis Quezon University, St. Scholasticas College Manila,
St. Scholasticas Academy Marikina, University of Perpetual Help
and Miriam College.
Under the Department of Energy (DOE) initiated program, the solar
power developer will sell the output of its facility to the school at rates

lower than that charged by Manila Electric Co (Meralco).

The first phase of the project involves the installation of solar panels
with a total capacity of 42.84 kilowatts (kW). The second phase would
produce an additional capacity of 90.27 kW once completed.
The net-metering facility allows La Consolacion to revert surplus
electricity from the solar panels back to the grid, offsetting the
equivalent amount to its power bill.

La Consolacion tapped Trademaster Resources Corp to install the

solar panels and net metering facility. The company will also maintain
the solar panels.

Trademaster is obliged to clean the panels if necessary from time to

time since La Consolacion would pay the amount of solar power they
produced for a particular time, Petilla said.

3. St. Scholasticas College joins list of solar power users

According to Iris C. Gonzales (The Philippine Star), 2014. St.

Scholasticas College (SSC) in Manila has joined the growing number
of establishments that have installed solar panels in their buildings for
their power requirements.
In a ceremony yesterday, SSC turned a portion of its rooftop into a 96kilowatt solar power facility that can generate 38.88 percent of the daily
requirements of the schools St. Cecille Hall at 813 kilowatt-hours.
This will bring us P400,000 savings per month, which will be equal to
P4 million per year said, SSC president Mary Frances Dizon said.
Energy Secretary Carlos Jericho Petilla said with the schools solar
panel installation, SSC joins the ranks of other schools such as Manuel
L. Quezon University, Mapua Institute of Technology, and La
Consolacion College-Manila, in utilizing renewable energy.
Through the initiative of the Department of Energy SSC tapped

Filipino-owned Propmech Corp. to outfit their rooftops with a solar

power plant. SSCs power plant will operate through the net-metering
mechanism of power distributor Manila Electric Co. (Meralco), which
will allow the school to sell its excess energy back to the grid.
Since SSCs consumption is at its peak during the day when classes
are ongoing and offices are operating, their solar PV system earns
them the best savings, Propmech said.
SSC signed a memorandum of agreement with the DoE and
Propmech for the installation of solar PV net-metering facilities on their
campus earlier this year.
The DoE hopes to double the countrys total renewable energy
installation of 5,521 megawatts.
For the schools project, the DOE aims to install up to 100 kW rooftop
solar PV systems to help schools lower their power costs.
Propmech is a Filipino-owned business and a local solar PV system
provider. Several of Propmechs projects include the ADB solar power
plant, the Rural Electrification Program of the Philippine government,
as well as Meralcos solar PV system installed at the Meralco Fitness

4. St. Paul College of Paraaque goes solar

St. Paul College of Paraaque has joined the solar energy bandwagon
in the Philippines.
SPCP launched a 96-kilowatt peak solar photovoltaic system,
becoming the first solar-powered school in Paraaque City.

St. Paul College of Paraaque director Sr. Mary Edwardine Columbano,

Green Heat Corp. chief operating officer Helen Tong and Paraaque
Rep. Eric Olivarez press the switch to launch the schools 96-kilowatt
peak solar power plant installed on the rooftop of its high school
gymnasium, making SPCP the first solar-powered school in
Paraaque City. The solar rooftop can generate 2.22 percent of
the schools daily energy need estimated at 14,500 kilowatt-hours,
allowing the school to save P3,900 a month. Using the system over
a year has the equivalent of planting 525 trees.

The schools solar panels were installed by solar solutions provider

Green Heat Corp. at the rooftop of SPCPS high school gymnasium.
Green Heat, which specializes in small to large solar installations for
homes and businesses, is the same company behind the solar
rooftops of Asian Development Bank, Department of Budgets PSPhilGEPS and Meralco fitness center.

SPCP, a 70-year-old institution which offers elementary and high

school education, will save close to P50,000 every year on electricity

The schools solar rooftop can generate 2.22 percent of its daily
energy needs estimated at 14,500 kilowatt-hours, which translates into
P3,900 in savings a month. Using the system over a year has the
equivalent of planting 525 trees.

Conservation is a state of harmony between man and the land, which

is what these solar panels are all about, SPCP director Sr. Mary
Edwardine Columbano said during the ceremonial launching of the
solar rooftop.

SPCP joins other schools that now use solar energy to cover part of
their power requirements over the past two years, including the Manila
campuses of Manuel L. Quezon University, St. Scholasticas College,
Mapua Institute of Technology and La Consolacion College.

The high school unit of SPCP will benefit from the use of solar panels
installed on 621 square meters of its gymnasium roof.
Paraaque Rep. Eric Olivarez, guest of honor at the launching of the
SPCP solar rooftop on July 6, lauded St. Paul College for being the
first school in the city to install solar panels.Olivarez encouraged other
schools to follow St. Paul Colleges renewable energy effort as the city
undertakes similar green initiatives such as installing LED lamp
posts.Green Heat chief operating officer Helen Tong said the
companys partnership with St. Paul College was significant because
children, being our future, are exposed to renewable energy at a
young age and become better stewards of our planet.

Since the energy consumption of SPCP is at its peak during the day

when classes are being held and its offices are open, operating its
solar power plant gives the school its best savings, Tong said.
SPCP students and teachers who attended the launching also learned
about the many benefits of using solar energy during the open forum.

5. De La Salle Goes Greener

Reported by The Philippine Star, 2015. With its recent award as Most
Sustainable and Eco-friendly School (tertiary level) in the Philippines and its
Dark Green status accreditation, De La Salle University-Dasmarinas (DLSUD) is indeed in the forefront of environmental advocacies.

In a bid to become a carbon-neutral university, it has recently launched

the use of solar-powered lighting system and LED lamps in its
Environment Resource Management and Campus Development Office
(ERMCDO). The solar panels, LED lamps were donated by
Greenpeace Southeast Asia, a partner organization of DLSU-D. By
shifting to solar power, the school save in energy consumption and
reduce the universitys carbon footprint by about 11,855 kilos (11.85
metric tons) per year.

Offices in the university are also observing Green Hour wherein lights
in offices and idle monitors are turned off during lunch breaks. Further,
the university is encouraging more members of the community to bike

their way to school to lessen carbon emissions. Bike racks will be

installed and bike lanes will be provided for bike commuters. All of
these are part of the universitys long-term campaign dubbed Black
Out. Green In: DLSU-D Goes Project Carbon Neutral which aims to
involve the community in performing activities that will help reduce and
offset carbon footprint. Meanwhile, DLSU-D witnessed the signing of
the memorandum of agreement between the Department of
Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) and the local government
units of Cavite for the national governments National Greening
Program. This program aims to plant more than a billion trees by 2016
with the help of the participating units.

The activity was preceded by a mangrove planting activity in Kawit,

Cavite participated in by DLSU-D, DepEd, DILG, DENR, Philippine
Navy, Philippine Bottlers Inc., and Philippine Army.

Proposal of the Project

The proposed location of the said project will be located at the
College of Engineering building, University of Perpetual Help System Dalta
Calamba Campus. As per approved in the previous proposal, the group should
build one scale classroom model and will be using Solar Powered Electricity. To
be able to build the project, the group must know the basic parts of the solar
electricity. Such as the Panel itself, batteries, controllers, inverters, etc.6
The group decided to locate the project at Ergonomics Laboratory.

Cost of the Project

The proposed project has three options to choose.






P 3,900
P 1,850
P 4,000
P 31,000
P 100
P 1,150
P 6,000
P 86,650









P 3,900
P 16,000
P 8,000
P 100
P 1,150
P 6,000
P 72,250









P 3,700
P 1,000
P 4,000
P 10,000
P 100
P 1,125
P 6,000
P 68, 850



Parts of the Project

I. Solar panel
Refers to a panel designed to absorb the sun's rays as a source of energy for
generating electricity or heating.

A photovoltaic (in short pv) module is a packaged, connected assembly of

typically 610 solar cells. Solar photovoltaic panels constitute the solar array of
a photovoltaic system that generates and supplies solar electricity in commercial
and residential applications. Each module is rated by its dc output power under

standard test conditions, and typically ranges from 100 to 365 watts.
The efficiency of a module determines the area of a module given the same
rated output an 8% efficient 230 watt module will have twice the area of a 16%
efficient 230 watt module. There are a few commercially available solar panels
available that exceed 22% efficiency and reportedly also exceeding 24%. A
single solar module can produce only a limited amount of power; most
installations contain multiple modules. A photovoltaic system typically includes a
panel or an array of solar modules, a solar inverter, and sometimes
a battery and/or solar tracker and interconnection wiring.

I.a Brands
Bosca (Germany)
Glomax (China)
Sun Power (Philippines)
I.b Specifications
Peak Power (PmaK):200W
Voltage (Vmp):35.64V
Current (Imp):5.62A
Open Circuit Voltage(Voc):42.84V

Short Circuit Current(ISC):6.17A

I.c Classifications
Monocrystalline Silicon Solar Cells
Solar cells made of monocrystalline silicon (mono-Si), also called singlecrystalline silicon (single-crystal-Si), are quite easily recognizable by an external
even coloring and uniform look, indicating high-purity silicon, as you can see on
the picture below:
Monocrystalline solar cells are made out of silicon ingots, which are cylindrical in
shape. To optimize performance and lower costs of a single monocrystalline
solar cell, four sides are cut out of the cylindrical ingots to make silicon wafers,
which is what gives monocrystalline solar panels their characteristic look.

Monocrystalline solar panels have the highest efficiency rates since they are
made out of the highest-grade silicon. The efficiency rates of monocrystalline
solar panels are typically 15-20%. SunPower produces the highest efficiency
solar panels on the U.S. market today. Their E20 series provide panel conversion
efficiencies of up to 20.1%.[3]Update (April, 2013): SunPower has now released
the X-series at a record-breaking efficiency of 21.5%.
Monocrystalline silicon solar panels are space-efficient. Since these solar panels
yield the highest power outputs, they also require the least amount of space

compared to any other types. Monocrystalline solar panels produce up to four

times the amount of electricity as thin-film solar panels.
Monocrystalline solar panels live the longest. Most solar panel manufacturers put
a 25-year warranty on their monocrystalline solar panels.
Tend to perform better than similarly rated polycrystalline solar panels at low-light
Monocrystalline solar panels are the most expensive. From a financial
standpoint, a solar panel that is made of polycrystalline silicon (and in some
cases thin-film) can be a better choice for some homeowners.
If the solar panel is partially covered with shade, dirt or snow, the entire circuit
can break down.

Consider getting micro-inverters instead of central string inverters if you think

coverage will be a problem. Micro-inverters will make sure that not the entire
solar array is affected by shading issues with only one of the solar panels.
The Czochralski process is used to produce monocrystalline silicon. It results in
large cylindrical ingots. Four sides are cut out of the ingots to make silicon
wafers. A significant amount of the original silicon ends up as waste.
Monocrystalline solar panels tend to be more efficient in warm
weather. Performance suffers as temperature goes up, but less so than

polycrystalline solar panels. For most homeowners temperature is not a concern.

Polycrystalline Silicon Solar Cells
The first solar panels based on polycrystalline silicon, which also is known as
polysilicon (p-Si) and multi-crystalline silicon (mc-Si), were introduced to the
market in 1981. Unlike monocrystalline-based solar panels, polycrystalline solar
panels do not require the Czochralski process. Raw silicon is melted and poured
into a square mold, which is cooled and cut into perfectly square wafers.
The process used to make polycrystalline silicon is simpler and cost less. The
amount of waste silicon is less compared to monocrystalline.
Polycrystalline solar panels tend to have slightly lower heat tolerance than
monocrystalline solar panels. This technically means that they perform slightly
worse than monocrystalline solar panels in high temperatures. Heat can affect
the performance of solar panels and shorten their lifespans. However, this effect
is minor, and most homeowners do not need to take it into account.
The efficiency of polycrystalline-based solar panels is typically 13-16%. Because
of lower silicon purity, polycrystalline solar panels are not quite as efficient as
monocrystalline solar panels.
Lower space-efficiency. You generally need to cover a larger surface to output
the same electrical power as you would with a solar panel made of
monocrystalline silicon. However, this does not mean every monocrystalline solar
panel perform better than those based on polycrystalline silicon.

Monocrystalline and thin-film solar panels tend to be more aesthetically pleasing

since they have a more uniform look compared to the speckled blue color of
polycrystalline silicon.

II. Solar Charge Controller

A charge controller, or charge regulator is basically a voltage and/or
current regulator to keep batteries from overcharging. It regulates the voltage
and current coming from the solar panels going to the battery. Most "12 volt"
panels put out about 16 to 20 volts, so if there is no regulation the batteries will
be damaged from overcharging. Most batteries need around 14 to 14.5 volts to
get fully charged.

II.a. Brands

II.b. Specifications
Rated system voltage

12/24V auto work

Rated battery current


Rated load current


Max.battery voltage 32V

Max.PV open circuit voltage 100VDC
Max.PV input power 12V 520W; 24V 1040W
Self-consumption <10mA(24V)

Charge Circuit Voltage Drop <0.26V

Discharge Circuit Voltage Drop <0.15V
Communication TTL232 / 8 pin RJ45
Temp.compensation -30mV/C/12V(25 C)
Working temperature 35~+55 C
Storage temperature range -35~+80 C
Humidity 10%-90% NC
Enclosure IP30
Altitude <3000m
imension 242mm x 169mm x 91mm
Mounting holes
180mm x 160mm
Mounting hole size 5
Terminal 25mm2
Weight 2.05k
II.c. Classifications
The PWM charge controller is a good low cost solution for small systems only,
when solar cell temperature is moderate to high (between 45C and 75C).
To fully exploit the potential of the MPPT controller, the array voltage should be
substantially higher than the battery voltage. The MPPT controller is the solution
of choice for higher power systems (because of the lowest overall system cost

due to smaller cable cross sectional areas). The MPPT controller will also
harvest substantially more power when the solar cell temperature is low (below
45C), or very high (above 75C), or when irradiance is very low.
III. Battery
An electric battery is a device consisting of one or more electrochemical
cells with external connections provided to power electrical devices. When a
battery is supplying power, its positive terminal is the cathode and its negative
terminal is the anode. The terminal marked negative is the source of electrons
that when connected to an external circuit will flow and deliver energy to an
external device. When a battery is connected to an external
circuit, electrolytes are able to move as ions within, allowing the chemical
reactions to be completed at the separate terminals and so deliver energy to the
external circuit. It is the movement of those ions within the battery which allows
current to flow out of the battery to perform work. Historically the term "battery"
specifically referred to a device composed of multiple cells, however the usage
has evolved to additionally include devices composed of a single cell.
Primary (single-use or "disposable") batteries are used once and discarded; the
electrode materials are irreversibly changed during discharge. Common
examples are the alkaline battery used for flashlights and a multitude of portable
devices. Secondary(rechargeable) batteries can be discharged and recharged
multiple times; the original composition of the electrodes can be restored by
reverse current. Examples include the lead-acid batteries used in vehicles
and lithium-ion batteries used for portable electronics.

Batteries come in many shapes and sizes, from miniature cells used to
power hearing aids and wristwatches to battery banks the size of rooms that
provide standby power for telephone exchanges and computer data centers.
According to a 2005 estimate, the worldwide battery industry generates
US$48 billion in sales each year, with 6% annual growth.
Batteries have much lower specific energy (energy per unit mass) than
common fuels such as gasoline. This is somewhat offset by the higher
arefficiency of electric motors in producing mechanical work, compared to
combustion engines.

III.a Brands

III.b Specifications

Variants are 7AH, 45AH, 60AH, 70AH, 100AH, and 200AH

Ampere hour depends on the capacity of the battery
III.b Types
Deep Cycle Battery
A deep-cycle battery is a lead-acid battery designed to be regularly deeply
discharged using most of its capacity. In contrast, starter batteries (e.g.
most automotive batteries) are designed to deliver short, high-current bursts for
cranking the engine, thus frequently discharging only a small part of their
capacity. While a deep-cycle battery can be used as a starting battery, the lower

"cranking current" implies that an oversized battery may be required.

A deep-cycle battery is designed to discharge between 45% and 75% of its
capacity, depending on the manufacturer and the construction of the battery.
Although these batteries can be cycled down to 20% charge, the best lifespan vs
cost method is to keep the average cycle at about 45% discharge.[1] There is an
indirect correlation between the depth of discharge of the battery, and the
number of charge and discharge cycles it can perform.[2]

AGM Battery
AGM technology became popular in the early 1980s as a sealed lead acid
battery for military aircraft, vehicles and UPS to reduce weight and improve
reliability. The sulfuric acid is absorbed by a very fine fiberglass mat, making the
battery spill-proof. This enables shipment without hazardous material restrictions.
The plates can be made flat to resemble a standard flooded lead acid pack in a
rectangular case; they can also be wound into a cylindrical cell.

AGM has very low internal resistance, is capable to deliver high currents on
demand and offers a relatively long service life, even when deep cycled. AGM is
maintenance free, provides good electrical reliability and is lighter than the
flooded lead acid type. While regular lead acid batteries need a topping charge
every six months to prevent the buildup of sulfation, AGM batteries are less
prone to sulfation and can sit in storage for longer before a charge becomes
necessary. The battery stands up well to low temperatures and has a low self-


The leading advantages of AGM are a charge that is up to five times faster than
the flooded version, and the ability to deep cycle. AGM offers a depth-ofdischarge of 80 percent; the flooded, on the other hand, is specified at 50
percent DoD to attain the same cycle life. The negatives are slightly lower
specific energy and higher manufacturing costs than the flooded.

IV. Power Inverters

A power inverter, or inverter, is an electronic device or circuitry that
changes direct current (DC) to alternating current (AC).[1]
The input voltage, output voltage and frequency, and overall power handling
depend on the design of the specific device or circuitry. The inverter does not
produce any power; the power is provided by the DC source.
A power inverter can be entirely electronic or may be a combination of
mechanical effects (such as a rotary apparatus) and electronic circuitry. Static
inverters do not use moving parts in the conversion process.

IV.a Brands

IV. Specification

12V, 24V, 48V variants

1000W 5000W

IV. c Classification
Output waveform
An inverter can produce a square wave, modified sine wave, pulsed sine wave,
pulse width modulated wave (PWM) or sine wave depending on circuit design.
The two dominant commercialized waveform types of inverters as of 2007 are
modified sine wave and sine wave.
There are two basic designs for producing household plug-in voltage from a
lower-voltage DC source, the first of which uses a switching boost converter to
produce a higher-voltage DC and then converts to AC. The second method
converts DC to AC at battery level and uses a line-frequency transformer to
create the output voltage.[3]

Square wave
Square wave
This is one of the simplest waveforms an inverter design can produce and is
best suited to low-sensitivity applications such as lighting and heating. Square

wave output can produce "humming" when connected to audio equipment and is
generally unsuitable for sensitive electronics.

Sine wave
Sine wave
A power inverter device which produces a multiple step sinusoidal AC waveform
is referred to as a sine wave inverter. To more clearly distinguish the inverters
with outputs of much less distortion than the "modified sine wave" (three step)
inverter designs, the manufacturers often use the phrase pure sine wave inverter.
Almost all consumer grade inverters that are sold as a "pure sine wave inverter"
do not produce a smooth sine wave output at all,[citation needed] just a less
choppy output than the square wave (one step) and modified sine wave (three
step) inverters. In this sense, the phrases "Pure sine wave" or "sine wave
inverter" are misleading to the consumer.[citation needed] However, this is not
critical for most electronics as they deal with the output quite well.
Where power inverter devices substitute for standard line power, a sine wave
output is desirable because many electrical products are engineered to work best
with a sine wave AC power source. The standard electric utility power attempts to
provide a power source that is a good approximation of a sine wave.
Sine wave inverters with more than three steps in the wave output are more

complex and have significantly higher cost than a modified sine wave, with only
three steps, or square wave (one step) types of the same power
handling. Switch-mode power supply (SMPS) devices, such as personal
computers or DVD players, function on quality modified sine wave power. AC
motors directly operated on non-sinusoidal power may produce extra heat, may
have different speed-torque characteristics, or may produce more audible noise
than when running on sinusoidal power.
Modified sine wave
A modified sine wave inverter has a non-square waveform that is a useful
approximation of a sine wave for power translation purposes.
Most inexpensive consumer power inverters produce a modified sine wave rather
than a pure sine wave.
The waveform in commercially available modified-sine-wave inverters is a square
wave with a pause before the polarity reversal, which only needs to cycle back
and forth through a three-position switch that outputs forward, off, and reverse
output at the pre-determined frequency.[3] Switching states are developed for
positive, negative and zero voltages as per the patterns given in the switching
Table 2. The peak voltage to RMS voltage ratio does not maintain the same
relationship as for a sine wave. The DC bus voltage may be actively regulated, or
the "on" and "off" times can be modified to maintain the same RMS value output
up to the DC bus voltage to compensate for DC bus voltage variations.
The ratio of on to off time can be adjusted to vary the RMS voltage while
maintaining a constant frequency with a technique called pulse width

modulation (PWM). The generated gate pulses are given to each switch in
accordance with the developed pattern to obtain the desired output. Harmonic
spectrum in the output depends on the width of the pulses and the modulation
frequency. When operating induction motors, voltage harmonics are usually not
of concern; however, harmonic distortion in the current waveform introduces
additional heating and can produce pulsating torques.[4]
Numerous items of electric equipment will operate quite well on modified sine
wave power inverter devices, especially loads that are resistive in nature such as
traditional incandescent light bulbs.
However, the load may operate less efficiently owing to the harmonics
associated with a modified sine wave and produce a humming noise during
operation. This also affects the efficiency of the system as a whole, since the
manufacturer's nominal conversion efficiency does not account for harmonics.
Therefore, pure sine wave inverters may provide significantly higher efficiency
than modified sine wave inverters.
Most AC motors will run on MSW inverters with an efficiency reduction of about
20% owing to the harmonic content. However, they may be quite noisy. A series
LC filter tuned to the fundamental frequency may help.[5]
A common modified sine wave inverter topology found in consumer power
inverters is as follows:
An onboard microcontroller rapidly switches on and off power MOSFETs at high
frequency like ~50 kHz. The MOSFETs directly pull from a low voltage DC source
(such as a battery). This signal then goes through step-up transformers

(generally many smaller transformers are placed in parallel to reduce the overall
size of the inverter) to produce a higher voltage signal. The output of the step-up
transformers then gets filtered by capacitors to produce a high voltage DC
supply. Finally, this DC supply is pulsed with additional power MOSFETs by the
microcontroller to produce the final modified sine wave signal.