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Crashcourse Chemistry: 1: Nucleus Einstein proved atoms existed

i.e.. Einstein mathematically proved Brownian motion. Atomic No no of protons in nucleus Mass no - no of p + n (of the standard
stable isotope?) Relative atomic mass - weighted average of masses
of different isotopes(same no of p, different no of n - different
stability) Strong force holds p and n together - nucleons. Electrons
are 1800 times lighter than p and n, so considered massless
normally. 2.Unit Conversion - 7 base units: MLTAK cd(candela luminous intensity) and mole(amount of substance) Work = F.d,
Power = W/time Time is the only base unit measured on something
that already exists(time it takes for earth to rotate once - a small
fraction of it is second). But earths rotation is slowing down. But
seconds cant slow down else all calculations and science will get
messed up. So seconds and hence time is getting less realistic :P.
Solution - leap seconds. Significant figures and scientific notation: In
add/sub: 30.123 + 40.4 = 70.5 only: least significant figure to be
retained, other numbers are lies! 3.Fundamental Laws Lavoisiers
Law - Law of Conservation of Mass. - stuff remains stuff Lavoisier the father of chemistry, could do his experiments only because of
his enormous wealth which could not have been gathered had it not
been to the deep social inequality that persisted before the french
revolution! And he was beheaded by a tyrannical government.
Prousts Law - Law of Definite proportion Dalton - Law of multiple
proportions Avogadros Law - No. of gaseous molecules same if P-V-T
constant. 4.Periodic Table Mendeleev Periodicity of elements and
periodic table - periodicity was not fitting so realised there were
elements yet to be discovered. He created the full table and even
predicted properties of future elements with such confidence that
when a Frenchman later claimed to have discovered another
element and told its properties, Mendeleev published a paper to
show it was wrong and mentioned the correct properties, even when
he had never seen the element himself. HE turned out to be right!
5.Electrons Bohrs model or orbits Electrons are better described as
wave-particle dualities as compared to p and n which are particles.
Electrons are standing waves i.e. they can take discrete values as
its produced at certain energy levels, anything in between is not
allowed. - spdf orbitals Stronger proved this using a mathematical
model. Ionisation energy - req to remove an electron from an atom,
from outermost orbits first as they are most unstable n with highest
energy. Isoelectric - atoms with same no of electrons Electron
affinity - discrete energy associated with adding of an
electron.Orbitals are the shapes of the regions where theres a
probability of finding an electron with certain energy configurations
for a particular wave function. 6.Stoichiometry 1 amu - atomic
mass unit = 1/12 of mass of C-12 atom. Mole - number of atoms in
12 gms of c-12 = 6.023 X 10^23 in no. = Avogadros Number(he
dint come up with it though) = AN. A mole of anything contains AN
no of atoms of that thing. Obviously Molar mass of all elements will
be different. Molar mass of compound is sum of molar masses of

elements in it each multiplied by their no in the compounds

formula. To convert molecules to mass u have to go through
moles/molar mass. 7.Water and Solutions Waters polarity makes it
a good solvent for polar compounds; electrolytes - ions in water loosened electricity - electrolytes needed for good health n brain gatorade. Thus a solutions electrical conductivity depends on the
concentration of ions in it. Michael Faraday - anion/cation. Strong
electrolytes - dissolve and dissociate into ions and conduct
electricity well in water. e.g. Salts, strong acids, strong bases. Weak
electrolytes dont do the above easily, e.g. Hydrogen Peroxide (H20
+ O-): Bleach while some things like alcohol and sugar dissociate
but not into ions. Molarity - no of moles of a solute per litre of water
in a solution.: 1 M = 1 mole of solute /litre of soln. - by volume;
Molality - no of moles of solute/per kg of solution: by weight; Moles
per unit mass. 30% w/v means 30 grams of solute per litre of
solution. Moles of solute before dilution = moles of solute after
dilution. But molarity falls on dilution. thus - M1v1=M2v2. Mass in
grams/molar mass = no. of moles. 8.Acids-Bases in Solutions Acids
- sour, bases - bitter, slippery e.g..soap They usually react in
aqueous(water) solutions. Acid + Base = Conjugate acid +
conjugate base = Salt; Strong acids have weak conjugate bases and
vice versa. Water is the most common acid and the most common
base! - since anything that accepts / donates a proton is an acid and
anything that accepts/donates?? a proton is a base. So Water can
be H30+ or OH- H+ means H3O+ - Hydronium ion. Hydroxide ion
OH- is mostly but not always present in all bases: e.g..AmmoniaNH3+HCl = Nh4Cl - yet proton donation happens. Acid Rain - Coal
burns -> Sulphur in it reacts with oxygen to form SO2 wch reacts
with water and oxygen in air to form sulphuric acis> SO2 + o2 +
H2o> H2SO4>this falls and reacts with bases and damages
Limestone, metals and acidifies water supplies harming aquatic life.
Limestone - CaCO3(Base) + H2SO4(acid) ->Carbonic Acid(H2CO3) +
Precipitate of Calcium and Sulphate ions known as Gypsum(CaSO4)
>H2CO3 breaks down into CO2 and H2O.; Thus Sulphur can wash
away a to of Limestone. No statues would last except ones like
Statue of Liberty - made of oxidised Copper! Lot of harm to forests
too etc. So solution? - pass the gases through Limestone! Other
Desulphurisation processes have come now. Also, H2SO4 can be
recycled into other uses. 9.Precipitation Reactions -when liquid
chemicals react to form solids or when gases react to form liquids;
can create geological deposits in earth, can purify water too, can
produce chemicals of highest purity. Some ionic compounds can
overcome dissolving power of water and form solid precipitates thru
reactions in solutions. When water with ionic compounds runs
through rocks and limestone - Silver ions in water react with ionic
comppund e.g. Salt - NaCl and Limestone to form insoluble
precipitates. : AgNO3 + NaCl -> AgCl: separating Ag from this
requires a Redox reaction.(No3- and Na+ are "spectator ions" who
dont directly participate in the ionic equation Ag+ + Cl- -> AgCl.

And when these dissolved salts get to the ocean they stay there
forever, making oceans saline. Water evaporates leaving the salts
behind forever. Oceans together contain a to of dissolved Gold. At
todays market value - $ 100 million trillion worth of Gold! Difficult to
extract :P Ag - medicinal properties - a lot of metals are toxic to
fungi n microbes etc. And unlike Pb- Lead, Ag is not toxic to humans.
Silver Sulphadiazine - was used to disinfect wounds in WW-I before
antibiotics were discovered. ; still used to address burns. 1 Troy
Ounce = 31.1g. 10.Redox Reactions: Unlike Acid base reactions
which are about transfer of protons Redox reactions are - reductionoxidatio reactions which are about transfer of electrons.
Portmanteau - word form by joining two words. Reduction - when a
substance gains electrons; Oxidation - loss of electrons(O.I.L.R.I.G Oxidation is Loss, Reduction is Gain - of electrons!) Redox Examples
- Sugar into Energy; Photosynthesis, Battery powering laptop, Fire.
Covalent bond - sharing of electrons >Oxidation number:
charge(electrons) with each participant. Neutral is 0. Oxygen usu
has -2 except in h2o2 - -1. Oxidation states of most elements
though change depending upon what theyre bonded with. Haber
Process - removes the ultra stable Nitrogen from Air and combines it
with hydrogen to make ammonia.> used in bombs and fertilisers,
thus increasing the nitrogen carrying capacity of the earth. Thus
Nitrogen reduced and Hydrogen oxidised. Silver Diamine +
Aldehyde(R-CHO) -> Carboxylic Acid - RCOOH, ammonia and water.
11.Useless 12 and 13.Ideal Gas Law Boyles Law - PV=constant
Ideal Gas Law: PV = nRT - assumes particles have no size and that
they dont attract each other. - i.e. ideal gases. ; But these
assumptions dont work when High Pressure, Low Temperature or
High Density - as then attraction is there and sizes are significant. 1
ATM = 100 kiloPascal. Absolute Zero - temperature at wch all
movements of all particles stops. STP - standard temperature and
pressure = 0 degrees C and 100kPa. 14.Real Gases Van Der Waals
Equation - create a correction for volume by subtracting that of gas
-> V-nb correction for pressure - (P + n2a/v2) - decrease in pressure
that happens coz of inter-molecular attraction i.e. van der waals
forces decrease because on RHS the new term becomes
negative) 15.Partial Pressures and Vapour Pressure: As long as the
gases dont react chemically, the total pressure of the all the gases
is equal to the sum of individual pressures each gas would exert if it
were alone. This is because Pressure is directly proportional to
number of moles as per PV=nRT, with other factors remaining
constant. Ratio of No of moles(n) of an individual gas to the total
number of moles of all gases in a mixture is called Mole Fraction. So,
n1/n-total = p1/p-total. In "Collecting a pure gas over water"
experiment - Total pressure of gases minus vapour pressure of
water(which is determined by temperature) is required as even
through inverted test-tube, some water vapour gets mixed as some
molecules of water always have the kinetic energy to escape the
liquid leading to the vapour pressure of water as the molecules push

the sides and upwards too. Scuba Tanks - contain Oxygen fine but
also Helium as it helps prevent decompression sickness(after
returning to surface) as Helium is released from the blood(it was
inhaled as part of oxygen-helium mixture) more readily(being inert
and light) than Nitrogen and air. That allows divers to return to the
surface more quickly with less risk of gas bubbles forming in their
blood. 16.Effusion, Diffusion and Velocity of Gas Rotting eggs
produce H2S. Net velocity of a gas will always be lower than the
average velocity of its molecules because of brownian motion and
collisions among the individual particles. Temperature is a property
of matter that is proportional to the mean kinetic energy of particles
in a system. Reason a stove burns you is because the fast moving
particles of the burner make the particles in your hand move so fast
that they tear apart the tissues and cause you pain - all by a
transfer of kinetic energy. Mass is inversely proportional to velocity.
Effusion - the process by which gas passes through an
orifice/opening in a barrier. Rate of effusion is volume/time but
Velocity is distance/time, that a gas passes. Grahams Law of
Effusion - Rate of Effusion is inversely proportional to the Sq root of
mass. Gases travel from places of high to low concentration(say
density) so as to move freely. This difference is called Concentration
Gradient. Diffusion - The process of a substance spreading out into
less concentrated regions until its evenly distributed in the
available space. Since diffusion is even more random, difficult to
calculate diffusion rates. So Grahams Law of Effusion can be
applied to diffusion but only as a broad estimate. 17 and 18.Energy
and Chemistry; Enthalpy 1st Law of Thermodynamics - Law of
Conservation of Energy. Work is energy transferred to the motion of
objects. Heat is energy transferred to the motion of
atoms/molecules. Delta E = Delta H + Delta W. Total energy change
will remain the same but amount of heat and work will wary
depending upon path. So heat and work are pathway dependent
however change in energy is path independent and depend only on
the state difference. Change in Enthalpy of a system is the heat
gained or lost by the system.(Yet Enthalpy is not heat. It boils down
to it under some equations considering practical scenarios such as
constant pressure etc). Enthalpy is the internal energy of system
plus the energy needed to make room for its own P and V.
Nomenclature - Volume increase > work done by system >Loss
in internal energy > -ve amount. Hesss Law - The enthalpy
change of a reaction is the sum of standard enthalpies of formation
of products minus that of reactants. Its state dependent and not
path dependent like Heat, though it looks very much like heat.
Example - a hand warmer is a soft sachet containing iron, to be
rubbed onto hands to keep them warm. How? - Iron and oxygen
combine in a certain ratio to yield Ferric Oxide(Rust: Fe2O3) in an
exothermic reaction high enough to warm but not to burn.

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