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Module 6

5 Lectures

Equations Governing Hydrologic and


Hydraulic Routing
Prof. Subhankar Karmakar
IIT Bombay

Objectives of this module is to understand the physical


phenomena behind the Reynolds transport theorem and
Saint Venant equations.

Module 6

Topics to be covered
Reynolds Transport Theorem
Control Volume Concept
Open Channel Flow
Saint Venant Equations
Continuity Equation
Momentum Equation
Energy Equation

Module 6

Module 6

Lecture 1: Reynolds transport theorem and


open channel flow

Fluids Problems-Approaches
1. Experimental Analysis
2. Differential Analysis

3. Control Volume Analysis


Looks at specific regions, rather than specific masses

Module 6

Reynolds Transport Theorem


Osborne Reynolds

Reynolds' transport theorem (Leibniz-Reynolds' transport theorem) is a 3-D


generalization of the Leibniz integral rule. The theorem is named after Osborne
Reynolds (18421912).
Control volume: A definite volume specified in space. Matter in a control volume
can change with time as matter enters and leaves its control surface.
Extensive properties (B) : Properties depend on the mass contained in a fluid,
Intensive properties () : Properties do not depend on the mass.

dB
=
or dB dm
dm

d ( m)
= 1 momentum ( mv )
mass (m) =
dm
P.E. (mgh) = gh
K.E. (1/2 mv2)

d ( mv )
=
=v
dm

= 12 v 2

Module 6

Reynolds Transport Theorem

Contd

Reynolds Transport Theorem:


The total rate of change of any extensive property B (=dm = d) of a system
occupying a control volume C.V. at time t is equal to the sum of:
a) the temporal rate of change of B within the C.V.
b) the net flux of B through the control surface C.S. that surrounds the C.V.

dB
= d + Vrel .dA
dt t c .v .
c.s.

This theorem applies to any transportable property,


including mass, momentum and energy.
Module 6

Reynolds Transport Theorem

Contd

Reynolds Transport Theorem can be applied to a control volume of finite size


No flow details within the control volume is required
Flow details at the control surfaces is required

Here, control volume is the sum


of I & II
fluid particles at time t
o fluid particles at time t+t

We will use Reynolds Transport Theorem to solve


many practical fluids problems
Module 6

Let us consider the following system,

II

III

Fixed frame in space


(upper and lower boundaries are impervious)
- Control volume position occupied by fluid at time t
- Position occupied by fluid at time t+t

I
II

- Position occupied by fluid at time t, but not at t+t


- Position occupied by fluid at both the time t and t+t

III - Position occupied by fluid at time t+t, but not at t


Finally, control volume at time t I&II and at time t+t II&III
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1
dB
[(BII + BIII )t +t (BI + BII )t ]
= Lt
dt sys t 0 t

...(6.1)

Here, dB = dm = (d)
dm
where =
d
d = elemental volume
dm = mass of the fluid contained in d
From eq.(6.1)
1
dB
{[(BII )t +t (BII )t ] [(BIII )t +t (BI )t ]}
= Lt
dt sys t 0 t
1st term

2nd term

1st term is equivalent to the change in extensive property stored in control


volume (as t 0)
Module 6

Extensive property in the control volume,


Here, area vector is always normally outward to the surface

dA

control surface

d A = Area vector of magnitude dA


v = velocity vector
Volume of

fluid pas sin g through " dA" in time " t"

= dA( l cos )
= l cos .dA
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Total volume of

fluid pas sin g through the control surface

= dA(l cos )
c.s.

Note :

(B ) Change in extensive properties only


t
d
(B ) Change in extensive properties + Shape change
dt

dB
= Total rate of change of extensive property of
dt sys

fluid

= ( Rate of change of extensive properties in the control volume) +


( Net outflow of extensive property through control surface)

Module 6

Consider B to be mass. Now, as per law of conservation of mass,


dBsys

d (mass )
=0
dt

dt
d
d + V .dA = 0
......(6.2)
dt c .v .
c.s.
This is the equation of var iable density unsteady flow.
d
For steady state flow,
d = 0

dt c .v .

(i ) is cons tan t

Assumptions :

d
d + V .dA = 0

dt c .v .
c.s.
d = S and
c .v .

V .dA = Q(t ) I (t ), where

c.s.

S = storage, Q(t ) = outflow(+ ve) and I (t ) = inf low(ve)


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dS
+ Q(t ) I (t ) = 0
dt
dS
or
= I (t ) Q(t ) = 0, hence proved .
dt

i.e

Reynolds transport
equation becomes,
Steady State

(ii ) is cons tan t and steady flow


dS
= 0, then I (t ) = Q(t )
dt
dS = I (t )dt Q(t )dt

dBsys

Sj

jt

jt

S j 1

( j 1) t

( j 1) t

dS =

I (t )dt Q(t )dt

( S j S j 1 ) = I j Q j
where S j = storage at time j ,

dt


= V A
CS

Unsteady State


d
= d + V A
CS
dt
dt CV

dBsys

S j 1 = storage at time j 1,
I j = Inflow int o the system between the time t j 1 and t j ,
Q j = Outflow from the system between the time t j 1 and t j .
Module 6

If

j = 1,

( S1 S 0 ) = I1 Q1

......(6.3)

j = 2,
( S 2 S1 ) = I 2 Q2

......(6.4)

From Eq.(3), S1 = S 0 Q1 + I 1

......(6.5)

Substituting value of

S1 in (6.4),

S1 S 0 + Q1 I 1 = I 2 Q2
or S 2 = S 0 + ( I 1 Q1 ) + ( I 2 Q2 )
Thus,
j

S j = S 0 + ( I t Qt )
t =1

Module 6

Open channel flow


An open channel is a waterway, canal or conduit in which a liquid flows
with a free surface.

In most applications, the liquid is water and the air above the flow is
usually at rest and at standard atmospheric pressure.

udel.edu/~inamdar/EGTE215/Open_channel.pdf

Module 6

Pipe flow vs. Open channel flow


Flow driven by

Pipe flow

Open channel flow

Pressure work

Gravity(i.e. Potential Energy)

Flow cross-section Known (Fixed by

Varies based on the depth of flow

geometry)

Characteristic flow Velocity deduced from

Flow depth and velocity deduced by

parameters

solving simultaneously the

continuity equation

continuity and momentum


equations

Specific boundary

Atmospheric pressure at the water

conditions

surface
(Source:www.uq.edu.au/~e2hchans/reprints/b32_chap01.pdf)

Different flow conditions in an open channel

Section 1 rapidly varying flow


Section 2 gradually varying flow
Section 3 hydraulic jump

Section 4 weir and waterfall


Section 5 gradually varying
Section 6 hydraulic drop due to
change in channel slope
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Open Channel Flow

Unsteady

Steady

Varied

Uniform

Varied

Gradually

Gradually

Rapidly

Rapidly

(NPTEL, Computational Hydraulics)

Module 6

Different Types of flow in an open channel


1.

Steady Uniform flow

2.

Steady Gradually-varied flow

3.

Steady Rapidly-varied flow

4.

Unsteady flow

Module 6

Case (1) Steady uniform flow:


Steady flow is where there is no change with time, /t = 0.
Distant from control structures, gravity and friction are in balance, and if the
cross-section is constant, the flow is uniform, /x = 0
Case (2) Steady gradually-varied flow:
Gravity and friction are in balance here too, but when a control is introduced
which imposes a water level at a certain point, the height of the surface varies
along the channel for some distance.
i.e. /t = 0, /x 0.
Case (3) Steady rapidly-varied flow:
Here depth change is rapid.
Case (4) Unsteady flow:
Here conditions vary with time and position as a wave traverses the waterway.

Module 6

Types of Open Channel Flows

Module 6

Hydraulic Routing
Momentum
Equation
Physics of water
movement

Hydraulic
routing

Hydraulic routing is intended to describe the dynamics of the water or flood wave
movement more accurately

Hydrological routing
Continuity equation + f (storage, outflow, and possibly inflow) relationships
assumed, empirical, or analytical in nature. Eg: stage-discharge relationship.
Module 6

Dynamic Routing- Advantages

Higher degree of accuracy when modeling flood situations because it


includes parameters that other methods neglect.
Relies less on previous flood data and more on the physical properties of
the storm. This is extremely important when record rainfalls occur or other
extreme events.
Provides more hydraulic information about the event, which can be used to
determine the transportation of sediment along the waterway.

Module 6