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PDP

REFRESHER SEM IV
LET US SUMMARIZE WHAT WE HAVE DONE

TILL NOW!
LET US IMPLIMENT THE KNOWLEDGE
GAINED!!
LET US MAKE OURSELVES BETTER!!!
SUGGESTIONs FOR ANY EXAMINATION
Write the option a, b, c, d against that answer in objectives DO NOT write,
for example in case of articles, an but rather option a, b, c or d.
Write at least 2 full pages with proper bullet points and subheadings in
descriptive (5/6 marks) questions.
Never fool around by writing multiple or confusing answers you will never
get good grades.

PREPOSITIONs
PLEASE GO THROUGH EXAMPLES OF TIME, PLACE OR POSITION, MOTION
OR MOVEMENT for each of the following:Aboard About above across after against along amid among anti around as at
before behind below beneath beside besides between beyond but by concerning
considering despite down during except
Excepting excluding following for from in inside into like minus near of off on onto
opposite outside
Over past per plus regarding round save since than through to toward towards
under underneath unlike
Until up upon versus via with within without
ADJECTIVEs
PLEASE NOTE THAT AT TIMES WE HAVE TO USE more/less, most/least or
iest with words to deem them as adjectives.
For example more sugary, less salty, friendliest.

Thecategoriesinthefollowingtablecanbedescribedasfollows:
I.
II.

Determinersarticlesandotherlimiters.SeeDeterminers
Observationpostdeterminersandlimiteradjectives(e.g.,arealhero,aperfect
idiot)andadjectivessubjecttosubjectivemeasure(e.g.,beautiful,interesting)

III.

SizeandShapeadjectivessubjecttoobjectivemeasure(e.g.,wealthy,large,
round)

IV.

Ageadjectivesdenotingage(e.g.,young,old,new,ancient)

V.
VI.
VII.
VIII.

Coloradjectivesdenotingcolor(e.g.,red,black,pale)
Origindenominaladjectivesdenotingsourceofnoun(e.g.,French,American,
Canadian)
Materialdenominaladjectivesdenotingwhatsomethingismadeof(e.g.,woolen,
metallic,wooden)
Qualifierfinallimiter,oftenregardedaspartofthenoun(e.g.,rockingchair,
huntingcabin,passengercar,bookcover)

THETABLEISONLYFORYOURINFORMATION!!!!

THE ROYAL ORDER OF ADJECTIVES


Determin Observati
er
on

Physical Description
Size

Shape

Age

beautiful

old

An

expensive

antiqu
e

Four

gorgeous

Her
Our

big

Materi Qualifie
al
r

Noun

Colo
r
Italian

longstemme
d

red

short

black
old

Origin

touring

car

silver

mirror

silk

roses
hair

English

sheepdo

g
Those
That

square
dilapidated little
enormo
us

Several
Some

wooden hat

delicious

hunting
young

America
n

boxes
cabin

basketba
players
ll

Thai

food

To Describe Taste
Bitter Lemon-flavored
Spicy BlandMinty Sweet Delicious
Fruity Salty Tasty
Gingery
Sour Yummy

Pickled

Tangy

To Describe Touch
Auricular Fluffy
Sharp Boiling
Freezing
Silky Breezy Fuzzy Slick Bumpy
Greasy
Slimy
Chilly Hard Slippery Cold
Hot
Smooth Cool
Icy
Soft Cuddly Loose
Solid Damaged Melted
Steady Damp
Painful
Sticky Dirty Plastic
Tender Dry Prickly
Tight Dusty Rough Uneven Filthy
Shaggy
Warm Flaky Shaky Wet
To Describe Sound
Blaring
Melodic
Screeching Deafening
Moaning
Shrill Faint
Muffled
Silent
Hoarse
Mute Soft High-pitched Noisy Squealing Hissing Purring
Squeaking Hushed Quiet Thundering Husky Raspy Voiceless Loud
Resonant
Whispering
To Describe Color
Azure Gray Pinkish BlackGreen Purple Blue Indigo Red Bright Lavender
Rosy
Brown Light Scarlet Crimson
Magenta
Silver Dark Multicolored Turquoise
Drab Mustard
Violet Dull Orange
White Gold Pink Yellow
To Describe Size
Abundant
Jumbo Puny Big-boned
Large Scrawny Chubby
Fat
Long Small Giant Majestic
Tall Gigantic Mammoth
Great Massive
Thin Huge Miniature
Tiny Immense
To Describe Shape

Little Short
Teeny
Petite Vast

Blobby
Distorted
Skinny Circular
Crooked
Hollow
Triangular
Deep Oval Wide

Rotund Broad
GlobularSquare
Steep Curved

Flat

Round Chubby

Fluffy

Low

Straight Cylindrical Narrow

To Describe Time
Annual
Futuristic
Rapid Brief Historical
Regular Daily
Irregular
Short
Early Late Slow Eternal Long Speed Fast Modern
Speedy First Old
Swift
Fleet Old-fashioned
Waiting Future
Quick Young
To Describe an Amount
All
Heavy One Ample Hundreds
Bountiful Light Profuse Considerable
Sizable Countless Many Some
Substantial Every Multiple
Full
Numerous Very

Paltry Astronomical
Large Plentiful
Limited
Several Copious
Little
Each Measly Sparse Enough
Mere
Teeming FewMyriad
Ten

To Describe an Emotion
Abrasive
Embarrassed
Grumpy Abrupt
Energetic
Kind Afraid
Enraged
Lazy
Agreeable Enthusiastic Lively Aggressive Envious
Lonely Amiable
Evil
Lucky
Amused
Excited
Mad Angry Exhausted Manic Annoyed
Exuberant
Mysterious
Ashamed
Fair Nervous Bad Faithful
Obedient Bitter
Fantastic
Obnoxious Bewildered Fierce
Outrageous Boring Fine Panicky Brave
Foolish
Perfect Callous
Frantic
Persuasive
Calm Friendly
Pleasant Calming Frightened Proud Charming
Funny Quirky
Cheerful
Furious
Relieved Combative
Gentle
Repulsive
Comfortable Glib Rundown
Defeated
Glorious
Sad Confused
Good Scary Cooperative Grateful
Selfish
Courageous Grieving
Silly Cowardly
Gusty Splendid Crabby
Gutless
Successful
Creepy
HappyTedious Cross
Healthy
Tense Cruel Heinous
Terrible Dangerous Helpful Thankful Defeated
Helpless
Thoughtful
Defiant
Hilarious
Thoughtless
Delightful
Homeless
Tired Depressed Hungry
Troubled Determined
Hurt Upset
Disgusted
Immoral
Weak Disturbed
Indignant
Weary Eager Irate
Wicked
Elated Itchy Worried Embarrassed
Jealous
Zany Enchanting Jolly
Zealous To Describe a
Person or Personality
(Pick at least 4 For Your Personality from here or elsewhere but, please go
through the meanings of the ones you pick )

Aggressive Famous
Restless Agoraphobic
Fearless
Rich Ambidextrous
Fertile Righteous Ambitious
Fragile
Ritzy Amoral
Frank
Romantic Angelic Functional Rustic
BrainyGabbyRuthless Breathless
Generous
Sassy Busy Gifted Secretive
Calm Helpful Sedate Capable Hesitant
Shy Careless Innocent
Sleepy
Cautious
Inquisitive Somber
Cheerful
Insane
Stingy Clever
Jaunty Stupid Common Juicy Super
Complete
Macho
Swanky
Concerned Manly Tame Crazy Modern
Tawdry Curious
MushyTerrific Dead
Naughty Testy Deep
Odd Uninterested Delightful Old
Vague Determined
Open Verdant Different Outstanding Vivacious Diligent Perky Wacky
Energetic
Poor Wandering Erratic
Powerful
Wild Evil
Puzzled
Womanly Exuberant
Real Wrong
To Describe Appearance
Ablaze
Distinct
Quirky Adorable
Drab Ruddy Alluring
Dull Shiny
Attractive
Elegant
Skinny
Average
Embarrassed
Sloppy Awkward
Fancy Smiling Balanced Fat
Sparkling
Beautiful
Filthy Spotless Blonde
Glamorous Strange Bloody
Gleaming
Tacky Blushing Glossy
Tall Bright
Graceful
Thin Clean Grotesque
Ugly Clear Handsome Unattractive Cloudy Homely
Unbecoming
Clumsy
Interior
Uncovered Colorful Lovely Unsightly Confident
Magnificent Unusual Cracked Murky Watery Crooked
Old-fashioned
Weird Crushed
Plain Wild Curly PoisedWiry Cute
Pretty Wooden
Debonair
Puffy Worried Dirty
Quaint
Zaftig
To Describe Situations
Accidental Doubtful
Main Achievable
Elementary Minor Advantageous
Finger-printed
Nasty Alcoholic
Groundless Nutritious Animated
Hard Obsolete Aquatic Harmful Optimal Aromatic High Organic Aspiring
Honest
Premium Bad
Horrible Quizzical
Bawdy
Illegal Rainy Biographical Illegible
Redundant Bizarre Imperfect
Remarkable
Broken
Impossible Simple Careful
Internal
Tangible Credible
Inventive
Tricky
Creepy
Jazzy Wholesale Cumbersome Juvenile
Worse Disastrous Legal
Wry
Dismissive Logical
X-rated
SIMPLE
Simple Present Tense.
Simple Past Tense.
Simple Future Tense.
CONTINUOUS
Present Continuous Tense.
Past Continuous Tense.
Future Continuous Tense.
PERFECT
Present Perfect Tense.

Past Perfect Tense


Future Prefect Tense.
PERFECT CONTINUE
Present Perfect Continuous Tense
Past Perfect Continuous Tense
Future Perfect Continuous Tense
1.
Simple

Present

Tense

a) Almost all sentences that make use of one of the following words or phrases take this tense: usually,
generally, regularly, often, daily, everyday, (morning, evening), now-a-day, seldom, rarely, always,
nearly,
frequently,
hardly
ever,
scarcely
ever,
once
a
week etc.
b) Do not use Future Tense after the following adverbs of time and some expressions, but Simple Present
Tense can be used to express the Future action: if, unless, until, till, as, as soon as, when, shile, after,
before,
as
long
as etc.

When
he
arrives,
the
band
will
play
the
National
Anthem.

What
shall
I
do
if
it
rains?

Until
you
learn
to
obey
you
will
not
know
how
to
command.

Unless
you
work
hard,
you
will
not
succeed.
c) It
is
used
to

The
Sun

Health

Salt
Absence makes the heart grow fonder.
2.

describe

Universal
rises

dissolves

Simple

I watch television
I wathed television
Watched is the past simple.

every
yesterday

Truth

and
the

in
is
in

Proverbs.
East.
wealth.
water.

Past
evening.
evening.

Noun / Subject
I / We / You / They / He / She / It / Antony

Tense
(Present
(Past

Simple)
Simple)

Past Tense Verb


watched

a) The following are the adverbs of time showing this tense: yesterday, last year, a few minutes ago,
in 1982, once etc.
Last week I bought a pen.
Yesterday my father came.
Kamal met his friend a few days ago.
Anna died in 1969.
b) Simple Past Tense is used in Conditional Sentences:
If I met your father, I would tell the news.
If he had money, he would help me.
If she worked hard, she would come off with flying colours.
c) Past Tense can be used after the following expressions: as if, as through, it is time, wish, would
rather, would sooner etc.
Kamal talks as if he knew all things.
John behaved as though he owned the house.
I wish I knew. (Im sorry that I do not know)
I would rather he went.
3. Simple Future Tense
a) The words showing the future tense are: tomorrow, next week (year, month), later, soon,
shortly, in a little time, in this years to come etc.

Subject

Auxiliary Verb

Present Verb

I / We

shall

go

You / He / She / It/ They

will

go

I shall arrive tomorrow.


Go on now and I shall follow you later.
She will probably send her application next week.
4. Present Continuous tense
This tense can be used to describe the actions that are incomplete, still going on at the moment of
speaking or writing.
Subject

Auxiliary Verb

Present Verb + ing

Person

am

going

First Person Singular

He / She / It

is

going

Third Person Singular

We / You / They

are

going

Plural

a) The following are the important adverbs of time showing Present Continuous Tense: now, always, at
present, at this moment, all the time, continuously, continually etc.
She is always talking in the class.
Im reading a novel at present.
They are going to church now.
5. Past Continuous tense

Now

it

is

Oclock

Kapil

is

at

He

home.

is watching television.

At

Oclock

He was at

he wasnt at

the

home.

sports

club.

He was

playing tennis.

He wasnt watching television.


3.00

3.30

He began playing

4.00

4.15

He was playing

4.30
He stopped playing

a) This tense is used to express an action that was going on when another action happened.
Adverbs of time while, when
Subject

Auxiliary Verb

Present Verb + ing

Person

was

going

First Person Singular

He / She / It

was

going

Third Person Singular

We / You / They

were

going

Plural

While she was writing, the phone rang.


While she was crossing the bridge, she met with an accident.
When he was sleeping, his friend came.
6. Future Continuous Tense
a) This tense is used to indicate a future activity that will begin before a point of time in future and
continue after it.
Subject

Auxiliary Verb

Present Verb + ing

Person

I / We

shall be

going

First Person

You / He / She / It / They

will be

going

Second / Third Person

She will be singing songs then.


They will be holding a meeting at 5 p.m. tomorrow.
When will you be putting on another performance?
b) This tense can be used when an action starts before the time mentioned and will probably continue
after it.
Hell be finishing his work tomorrow by this time.
Shell be travelling to England by the end of next week
7. Present Perfect Tense
This tense is used to describe a past event the effect of which is not in the past but in the present.
Subject

Auxiliary Verb

Past Participle Verb

I / We / You / They / any Plural

have

gone

He / She / It / any Singular

has

gone

His shoes are dirty

He is cleaning his shoes

He has cleaned his shoes

a) It is used to describe an action which was completed in the very recent past just a while ago.
George has just gone out.
I have finished my supper.
b) The following adverbs of time take the Present Perfect Tense: already, just now, ever, never, today,
recently, so far, up to now, upto the moment, yet, lately, during the last week, during the last
few days, this morning year, month, for a long time since monday, since 1947 etc.
I have never seen anyone like her.
He hasnt eaten anything since Monday.
I have posted a letter this morning.
Sheela has been ill since last Friday.
8. Past Perfect Tense
Sarah went to a party last week. Paul went to the party too but they didnt see each other. Paul went
home
When

at
Sarah

10:30
arrived

and
at

the

Sarah
party.

arrived
Paul

at

wasnt

11
there.

Oclock
He had

So:

gone home.

Had gone is the past perfect. (Simple)


a) This tense is used whenever we wish to say that some action had been completed before another was
commenced. That is, when there are two past actions, we use the Past Perfect to refer to the earlier
action.
Adverbs of time: when, after before, as soon as
Subject
I / We / You / They / any Plural / He / She / It / any
Singular

Auxiliary
Verb

had

Past Participle
Verb

gone

I had reached the station before the train left.


When I met him, John had lived in England for two years.
He went home after he had finished his work.
b) This tense can be used in the conditional sentences.
If I had met you, I would have told the news.
If Anand had had money, he would have helped me
9. Future Perfect Tense:
a) It is used to indicte that certain action will be completed into future time. The following are the
adverbs of time: by the end of nex week (year, month), tomorrow, by this time, by 1980, by noon,
by tomorrow evening (morning), by June etc.

Subject

Auxiliary Verb

Past Participle Verb

I / We

shall have

finished

You / He / She / It / They

will have

finished

I shall have finished this work by the end of next week.


He will have learnt to swim next month.
10. Present Perfect Continuous Tense
a) This tense is used to refer to an action which began indefinitely in the Past and is still continuing at the
present moment.
Subject

Auxiliary Verb

Present Participle Verb

I / We / You / They / any Plural

have been

finishing

He / She / It / any Singular

has been

finishing

It has been raining for two hours


The following adverbs of time taken this tense: since then, since 1947, all the years, since two
years, for two years, since early in the morning etc.
My uncle has been living in England since 1990.
We have been learning English for three years.
It has been raining since early in the morning.
Note:
for refers to a period of time.
Since refers to a definite point of time.
11. Past Perfect Continuous Tense:
This tense is used in the reported speech or indirect speech.
Auxiliary
Verb

Subject
I / We / You / They / any Plural / He / She / It / any
Singular

had been

Present Participle
Verb

working

He had been working hard since early in the morning.


He said that he had been studying his lessons for three hours.
12. Future Perfect Continuous Tense:
This tense indicates an action represented as being in progress over a period of time that will end in the
future.
Subject

Auxiliary Verb

Present Participle Verb

I / We

shall have been

going

First Person

You / He / She / It / They

will have been

going

Second / Third Person

By next December we shall have been living here for five years.
When she gets her degree, she will have been studying at London.

Articles
THE SHORT LIST OF RULES: Common Use of Articles
"a/an" usually indicates an item in general or a typical item.
Example:A man and a boy are on a bus.

Person

"the" usually indicates one or more items that are specific or unique.
Example:The sun and the planets remain a mystery.
"a/an" is used for the first mention of an item, followed by "the" for the second
mention of the item.
Example: They took a train to Reno. The train was very clean and comfortable.
"the" can be used with a first mention of an item only if the item is familiar to both
the speaker and the listener.
Example: "Honey, where did you park the car?" "In the driveway, dear."
"the" is used with nouns preceded by numbers or superlatives.
Example: The four friends sing folk songs. Really? What is the most popular song
that they sing?
"a" or "an" ?
Use "a" before words that begin with a consonant (or "u" when it is pronounced like
"you"); use "an" before words beginning with a vowel (or with a "silent h").
Examples: " An eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth." "A historian gave us a history
lesson." "It was an honorable thing to do." "She teaches at a university."
THE LONG LIST OF RULES
DEFINITE ARTICLE - THE
Articles in English dont change. They are the same for any gender or number of
people or things: the girl, the man, the children, the cats, the cars
When to use 'the'
1. Use the with something which has already been mentioned so that both the
speaker and listener know what is being talked about
There is an apple and a banana in the fruit bowl.
The apple is red and the banana is yellow,
2. Use the when both the speaker and listener know what is being talked about,
even if it has not been mentioned before.
Where's the bathroom?
It's just down the hall.
3. Use the in sentences or clauses where we identify a specific person or object:
The woman who painted this picture is famous.
Which shirt did you choose? The blue one.
My car is the one parked in front.
4. Use the to refer to things that are unique:
the sun, the moon, the world

5. Use the before superlatives and ordinal numbers:


the highest mountain, the smallest child
the first page, the third book, the last chapter.
6. Use the with adjectives, to refer to a whole group of people:
Examples: the Italians, the Irish, the working class, the poor
7. Use the with names of geographical areas and with oceans:
Examples: the Caribbean, the Middle East, the Pacific, the Atlantic
8. Use with decades, or groups of years:
Example: my teacher grew up in the sixties; jazz became popular in the 1920s
INDEFINITE ARTICLE A / AN
Use 'a' with nouns starting with a consonant (letters that are not vowels),
'an' with nouns starting with a vowel (a,e,i,o,u)
Examples:
A boy
An apple
A car
An orange
A house
An opera
Exceptions:
An before an h when it is not pronounced - an hour, an honour.
A before u and eu when they sound like 'you': a european, a university, a unit
The indefinite article is used:
When you mention something for the first time:
Two birds, an eagle and a hawk, were flying high in the sky.
Would you like a cup of coffee?
I've got a good class.
When you refer to a particular person or thing in a group or class
Examples:
with names of jobs:
John is a doctor.
Mary is training to be an engineer.
He wants to be a dancer.
with nationalities and religions:
John is an Englishman.
Kate is a Catholic.
with musical instruments:
Sherlock Holmes was playing a violin when the visitor arrived.
(BUT to describe the activity we say "He plays the violin.")

with names of days:


I was born on a Thursday
When you refer to a kind of, or example of something:
the mouse had a tiny nose
the elephant had a long trunk
it was a very strange car
With singular nouns, after the words 'what' and 'such':
What a shame!
She's such a beautiful girl.
When the meaning is 'one', referring to a single object or person:
I'd like an orange and two lemons please.
The burglar took a diamond necklace and a valuable painting.
Notice also that we usually say a hundred, a thousand, a million.
NOTE: that we use 'one' to add emphasis or to contrast with other numbers:
I don't know one person who likes eating elephant meat.
We've got six computers but only one printer.
EXCEPTIONS TO USING THE DEFINITE ARTICLE
There is NO article used:
With names of countries (if singular)
Germany is an important economic power.
He's just returned from Zimbabwe.
(But: I'm visiting the United States next week.)
With the names of languages
French is spoken in Tahiti.
English uses many words of Latin origin.
Indonesian is a relatively new language.
With the names of meals.
Lunch is at midday.
Dinner is in the evening.
Breakfast is the first meal of the day.
With people's names (if singular):
John's coming to the party.
George King is my uncle.
(But: we're having lunch with the Morgans tomorrow.)
With titles and names:
Prince Charles is Queen Elizabeth's son.
President Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas.
Dr. Watson was Sherlock Holmes' friend.
(But: the Queen of England, the Pope.)
After the 's possessive case:

His brother's car.


Peter's house.
With professions:
Engineering is a useful career.
He'll probably go into medicine.
With names of shops:
I'll get the card at Smith's.
Can you go to Boots for me?
With years:
1948 was a wonderful year.
Do you remember 1995?
With uncountable nouns:
Rice is the main food in Asia.
Milk is often added to tea in England.
War is destructive.
With the names of individual mountains, lakes and islands:
Mount McKinley is the highest mountain in Alaska.
She lives near Lake Windermere.
Have you visited Long Island?
With most names of towns, streets, stations and airports:
Victoria Station is in the centre of London.
Can you direct me to Bond Street?
She lives in Florence.
They're flying from Heathrow.
With some fixed expressions, for example:
by car
by train
by air
on foot
on holiday
on air (in broadcasting)
at school
at work
at University
in church
in prison
in bed
Adverbs

Adverbsarewordsthatmodify

averb(Hedroveslowly.Howdidhedrive?)

anadjective(Hedroveaveryfastcar.Howfastwashiscar?)

anotheradverb(Shemovedquiteslowlydowntheaisle.Howslowlydidshe
move?)

Emphasizers:
o Ireallydon'tbelievehim.
o Heliterallywreckedhismother'scar.
o Shesimplyignoredme.
o They'regoingtobelate,forsure.

Amplifiers:
o Theteachercompletelyrejectedherproposal.
o Iabsolutelyrefusetoattendanymorefacultymeetings.
o Theyheartilyendorsedthenewrestaurant.
o Isowantedtogowiththem.
o Weknowthiscitywell.

Downtoners:
o Ikindoflikethiscollege.
o Joesortoffeltbetrayedbyhissister.
o Hismothermildlydisapprovedhisactions.
o Wecanimproveonthistosomeextent.
o Thebossalmostquitafterthat.
o Theschoolwasallbutruinedbythestorm.

ADVERBS
Adverbs are traditionally defined as words that describe verbs.
Adverbs answer any of the following questions about verbs:
how? when? where?
why?
The following examples illustrate adverbs modifying verbs:
He easily lifted the barbell.
How did he lift the barbell?
Easily is an adverb.
We will use the lamp tomorrow.
When will we use it?
Tomorrow functions as an adverb.
She did hide the keys nearby.
Where did she hide the key?
Nearby is an adverb.
Adverbs are the most moveable of all parts of speech; therefore, it is sometimes
difficult to identify an adverb on the basis of its position in a sentence.
For example, the adverb slowly will fit into three places in the sentence
climbed the ladder:

He

Most adverbs end in -ly. In fact, most adverbs are formed by adding -ly to
adjectives:
Like adjectives of more than one syllable, adverbs usually become comparative and
superlative by using more and most.
Examples:
Flat adverbs
Adjectives that do not change form (add -ly) to become adverbs are called "flat
adverbs."
Typical flat adverbs are early, late, hard, fast, long, high, low, deep, near.
To determine whether these words are functioning as adjectives or adverbs, one
must determine
1) what the word is describing (noun or verb)
2) what question the word is answering

The following examples illustrate the distinction.


Early as adjective:

Early describes the noun train and answers the question "which one?"
Early as adverb:

Early describes the verb arrived and answers the question "when?"

Hard as adjective:

Hard describes the noun pass and answers the question "what kind?"
Hard as adverb:

Hard describes the verb threw and answers the question "how?"

THETABLEISONLYFORYOURINFORMATION!!!!

THE ROYAL ORDER OF ADVERBS


Verb

Manner

Place

Beth
swims

enthusiastically

in the
pool

Dad
walks

impatiently

Tashonda
naps

Frequency

Time

Purpose

before
dawn

to keep in shape.

into town every afternoon

before
supper

to get a
newspaper.

in her
room

before
lunch.

every morning

every morning

In actual practice, of course, it would be highly unusual to have a string of adverbial


modifiers beyond two or three (at the most). Because the placement of adverbs is so
flexible, one or two of the modifiers would probably move to the beginning of the sentence:
"Every afternoon before supper, Dad impatiently walks into town to get a newspaper."
When that happens, the introductory adverbial modifiers are usually set off with a comma.

COMMON ADVERBS FOR YOU


accidentally regularly sleepily slowly smoothly softly solemnly sometimes soon
speedily
stealthily violently vivaciously warmly weakly wearily well wildly yearly yesterday
afterwards
almost always angrily annually anxiously awkwardly badly blindly boastfully boldly
bravely
briefly brightly crossly cruelly daily defiantly deliberately doubtfully easily elegantly
enormously enthusiastically equally even eventually exactly faithfully gladly
gracefully
greedily happily hastily honestly hourly hungrily innocently inquisitively irritably
joyously justly kindly lazily nearly neatly nervously never noisily not obediently
obnoxiously often only painfully perfectly politely poorly powerfully reluctantly
repeatedly rightfully roughly rudely sadly safely seldom selfishly seriously
shakily sharply shrilly shyly silently sternly successfully suddenly suspiciously
swiftly tenderly tensely thoughtfully tightly tomorrow too truthfully unexpectedly
very victoriously busily calmly carefully carelessly cautiously cheerfully clearly
correctly courageously far fast fatally fiercely fondly foolishly fortunately frantically
gently less loosely loudly madly merrily monthly more mortally mysteriously
promptly punctually quickly quietly rapidly rarely really recklessly
CONJUNCTIONS
Coordinating Conjunctions
BOYFANS: But-Or-Yet- For-And-Nor-So
Common Subordinating Conjunctions
After although as as if as long as as though because before even if even though if if
only in order that
now that once rather than since so that than that though till unless until when
whenever where whereas wherever while
Correlative Conjunctions
both . . . and
not only . . . but also
not . . . but
either . . . or neither . . . nor
whether . . . or
as . . . as
Faulty Parallelism

Formerly, science was taught by the textbook method, while now the laboratory
method is employed.
Corrected Version
Formerly, science was taught by the textbook method; now it is taught by the
laboratory method.
The FAULTY version gives the impression that the writer is undecided or timid; he
seems unable or afraid to choose one form of expression and hold to it. The
CORRECTED version shows that the writer has at least made his choice and abided
by it.
By this principle, an article or a preposition applying to all the members of a series
must either be used only before the first term or else be repeated before each term.
Faulty Parallelism
Corrected Version
Faulty Parallelism
winter
Corrected Version

The French, the Italians, Spanish, and Portuguese


The French, the Italians, the Spanish, and the Portuguese
In spring, summer, or in winter, In spring, summer, or
In spring, in summer, or in winter

Correlative expressions (both, and; not, but; not only, but also; either, or; first,
second, third; and the like) should be followed by the same grammatical
construction. Many violations of this rule can be corrected by rearranging the
sentence.
Faulty Parallelism
It was both a long ceremony and very tedious.
A time not for words, but action.
Either you must grant his request or incur his ill will.
My objections are, first, the injustice of the measure; second, that it is
unconstitutional.
Corrected Version
The ceremony was both long and tedious.
A time not for words, but for action
You must either grant his request or incur his ill will.
My objections are, first, that the measure is unjust; second, that it is
unconstitutional.
When making comparisons, the things you compare should be couched in
parallel structures whenever that is possible and appropriate.
Faulty Parallelism
My income is smaller than my wife.
Corrected Version
My income is smaller than my wife's.
PLEASE FIND SOME USEFUL NOTES ON THE THEORY TOPICS
PRESENTATION SKILLS

Please do not write anything beyond the scope of question.


This may be regarded as a summary of the session on presentation :FOUR MAJOR FACTORS to be taken into account in a PRESENTATION
Audience (who is listening/hearing/rejecting?)
Topic (What do I ve to speak about?)
Mode of Delivery (language, slides, board, TV, Projector,
Screen, OR U)
Opportunity of Impact (relate, hate, love, selections)
TO THOSE WHO DO NOT TAKE THIS AS A WORTHLESS TOPIC HERE IS A
WONDERFUL LINK
http://www.kent.ac.uk/careers/presentationskills.htm
REMEMBER
The fear should be transformed into positive energy during the presentation. Be
calm and relaxed while giving a presentation. Before beginning, wait and develop an
eye contact with the audience. Focus on conveying your message well and use a
positive body language.
Presentation can be defined as a formal event characterized by teamwork and use
of audio-visual aids. The main purpose of presentation is to give information, to
persuade the audience to act and to create goodwill. A good presentation should
have a good subject matter, should match with the objective, should best fit the
audience, and should be well organized.
Characteristics of a Good/Effective Presentation
1.
The presentation ideas should be well adapted to your audience. Relate your
presentation message/idea to the interests of the audience. A detailed audience
analysis must be made before the presentation, i.e., an analysis of the needs, age,
educational background, language, and culture of the target audience. Their body
language instantly gives the speaker the required feedback.
2.
A good presentation should be concise and should be focused on the topic. It
should not move off-track.
3.
A good presentation should have the potential to convey the required
information.
4. To communicate the desired information, the speaker should use more of
visual aids such as transparencies, diagrams, pictures, charts, etc. Each
transparency/slide should contain limited and essential information only. No
slide should be kept on for a longer time. Try facing the audience, rather than
the screen. The speaker should not block the view. Turn on the room lights
else the audience might fall asleep and loose interest. Organize all the visuals
for making a logical and sound presentation.

5. A good presentation must be planned. The speaker must plan how to begin
the presentation, what to speak in the middle of presentation and how to end
the presentation without losing audience interests at any point of time.
6. Rehearse and practice the presentation. This will help the speaker to be more
confident and self-assured. The more the speaker rehearses the better the
presentation turns to be.
7. The speaker should encourage more questions from the audience. He should
be honest enough to answer those questions. If any biased question is put
forth by the audience, rearticulate it before answering.
8. Summarize the presentation at the end. Give final comments. Leave a
positive impact upon the audience.
9. The speaker must have a presentable appearance while giving a
presentation. The speaker should stand with feet far apart maintaining a
good balance. He must use confident gestures. He must use short and simple
words.
10.Try to gain and maintain audience interest by using positive quotes, humor,
or remarkable fact.
11.The speaker must be affirmative and optimistic before giving presentation.
He should ensure all tools and equipments to be used in presentation are
working well.
12.The speaker must state the objectives of the presentation at beginning of the
presentation.
ETIQUETTES
GENERAL
Say please and thank you to people, whether random people doing something nice
for you or a service person doing something you pay them to do. Be polite and you
will be received well by others and often get better service.
Say "Excuse me" when you need to get by or move past someone and say "Sorry" if
you bump into someone.
Hold the door open for people with baby strollers or the elderly.
Be kind to the environment; don't litter (throw trash on the ground). There are
public garbage cans on most main streets.
Don't spit in public unless you make sure there is no one around you, and do it on
grass if you must do it, not on the sidewalk.

Offer your seat on the bus to people who need it more than you. Simply gesture
with your arm to the seat or say, "Here, please sit down." If you are near your stop
tell them, "I'm getting off soon."
It's okay to eat in public. You can eat when you're walking or waiting for the bus.
You're not supposed to eat on the bus, but some drivers allow it if it's not something
really messy.
Don't be loud on the bus. It's okay to talk and be social, but keep your volume at a
reasonable level. Also be aware, it's okay to sleep on the bus, but most Canadians
don't do it so they may look at you when you do.
Tip. The general rule is 15% for servers or hair stylists. If your experience was
great you can tip more. If it was bad, tip only 10%, and ask to speak to the
manager if the experience/food was really bad. At the coffee shop or bar, you can
just toss some loose change into the jar they usually have for tips. In taxis, just give
a little extra if they provide quick and friendly service, but if they take you to an
airport or such place and help you with bags, be kind.
If you're a guest for a meal and you are full but they keep offering more, simply say,
"It was (really, very, absolutely) delicious, but I'm so stuffed I can't eat another bite.
Thank you though."
If someone drops something near you, pick it up and hand it back to them.
If someone near you sneezes ("a-choo") say, "Bless
CLASSROOM
Be respectful of other students and avoid distracting them and hindering their
opportunity to learn.
Refrain from making comments or remarks while the professor is teaching.
Show your group members the same courtesy that you would give to the professor.
Inform them of group meetings or activities that you will have to leave early or
miss.
In group discussions wait until the appropriate time to speak so as to avoid
interrupting others.
Participate in discussions and activities.
All students should be given the opportunity to participate in a discussion. Avoid
"hogging" the discussion.
When participating in a discussion address an issue from multiple viewpoints.
Avoid projectiles!
Do not use a laptop during class.
Turn off your cellular or digital phone.
PRESSURE HANDLING
From interview perspective this question is of extreme importance. Please do not
write anything beyond the scope of question. This
INTERVIEW

An interview is a meeting between an applicant for employment and a company


representative to determine if the candidate is qualified for a job, an internship or a
volunteer opportunity. Even if a position is an unpaid internship or a volunteer
position, the organization will still conduct interviews to select the best candidate(s)
for the opportunity.
Interviews can be held in-person, conducted over the phone, or conducted via video
or Skype.
The interview process depends on the company, the position they are hiring for, and
the pool of candidates who have applied for the job.
In some cases, selected candidates are offered the position after one interview. In
other cases, the process is longer and may involve more interviews with Human
Resources representatives, different levels of management and potential
colleagues.
Here is an insight into the process for your interview preparation.
http://www.humanresources.syr.edu/staff/managers/hiring/interview_process.html
http://www.timesjobs.com/candidate/careerresources/htmls/interviewpreparing.jsp
GROUP DISCUSSION
PLESE FOLLOW THEM IN YOUR GROUP DISCUSSIONS. HOWEVER, TO WRITE
AN ANSWER YOU WILL NEED TO GENERATE MORE INPUTS.
Dos of participating in a GD:
Listen to the subject carefully
Put down your thoughts on a paper
Initiate the discussion if you know the subject well
Listen to others if you dont know the subject
Support you point with some facts and figures
Make short contribution of 25-30 seconds 3-4 times
Give others a chance to speak
Speak politely and pleasantly. Respect contribution from other members.
Disagree politely and agree with what is right.
Summarize the discussion if the group has not reached a conclusion.
Donts of participating in a Group Discussion
Donts of participating in a GD:
Initiate the discussion if you do not have sufficient knowledge about the given topic.
Over speak, intervene and snatch others chance to speak.
Argue and shout during the GD
Look at the evaluators or a particular group member
Talk irrelevant things and distract the discussion
Pose negative body gestures like touching the nose, leaning back on the chair,
knocking the table with a pen etc.

Mention erratic statistics.


Display low self confidence with shaky voice and trembling hands.
Try to dominate the discussion
Put others in an embarrassing situation by asking them to speak if they dont want.
TOPICS FOR YOU TO REHEARSE
UN Success of failure
India should get a permanent membership in security council
Young vs Old
Who dares Wins
Who will rule Indian in 2050/India in 2050
About the 33 % reservation for women
Is it beneficial when our country gets rid of all its nuclear reactors like
Germany?
Positives and Negatives about Science
Opinion on India having Permanent member position in G8
About the Co education in schools and colleges in our nation
Police or Army Who saves our nation
The BPO jobs and work culture in our country
About the rate of success of alternate energy sources such as wind and solar
energy
Indias part and place in the Space research
About the allocation or the Quotas which are followed in our country
About the communication systems in our country
The predominance of Cricket over Hockey
Young generation in politics
About World Peace
Day scholars vs boarders
National disasters
Population control
Role of media
SAARC
About rise in the technology advancements increases the life span of the
human beings
Opinion about the Unemployment in India
The importance and necessity of Sex Education in our country
India the super power in the field of Agriculture and in Defense
Common Syllabus for all the schools in our nation
Is ragging the students in colleges good or bad
Indian Penal Code how relavent
Our National game Hockey
About the joining of rivers project
The increasing population of our country
Economy and inflation in our country
Naxallisim
Terrorism
About the nuclear power plants in our nation
Best Alternative source of energy as opposed to the nuclear reactors

About our nations nuclear agreement with United States of America


About our nations nuclear agreement with United States of Russia
Does the nuclear head in Pakistan pose a real threat to our nation?
About the role that the press and media play in our country
Compulsory training for the Army
Single entrance exam for the college admissions at all India level
Which one is best, love or arranged marriage
Does eradicating Alcoholism is a loss in terms of the economy
Alternate source of energy for the fuels such as Petrol and Diesel
Opinion on India having Permanent member position in the United Nations
Organization (UNO)
Five year plan
Globalization
Generation gap
Internet a global vision
Indian foreign policy
IF YOU ARE DONE WITH YOUR IV Semester Preps your elementary preps
for the placements are over.
V Semester is the time you enhance the skills and implement them well
during placements.
GOOD LUCK and GREAT WORK
Compiled and formatted by
Gurmeet Singh Walia
Purnendu Agrawal