Sie sind auf Seite 1von 14

SPE 67273

Total Well Management II


A.L. Podio, University of Texas at Austin; J. N. McCoy, Dieter Becker, Lynn Rowlan and Bill Drake, Echometer Company
Copyright 2001, Society of Petroleum Engineers Inc.
This paper was prepared for presentation at the SPE Production and Operations Symposium
held in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, 2427 March 2001.
This paper was selected for presentation by an SPE Program Committee following review of
information contained in an abstract submitted by the author(s). Contents of the paper, as
presented, have not been reviewed by the Society of Petroleum Engineers and are subject to
correction by the author(s). The material, as presented, does not necessarily reflect any
position of the Society of Petroleum Engineers, its officers, or members. Papers presented at
SPE meetings are subject to publication review by Editorial Committees of the Society of
Petroleum Engineers. Electronic reproduction, distribution, or storage of any part of this paper
for commercial purposes without the written consent of the Society of Petroleum Engineers is
prohibited. Permission to reproduce in print is restricted to an abstract of not more than 300
words; illustrations may not be copied. The abstract must contain conspicuous
acknowledgment of where and by whom the paper was presented. Write Librarian, SPE, P.O.
Box 833836, Richardson, TX 75083-3836, U.S.A., fax 01-972-952-9435.

Abstract
The need of oilfield operators to verify that wells are being
produced at their optimum capacity and in a cost effective
manner is always present. To reduce operating costs, increase
oil production and increase net income requires an integrated
analysis of the pumping system including the performance and
interaction of all the elements: the prime mover, surface
equipment, well bore equipment, down hole pump, down hole
gas separator and the reservoir. This analysis is to be made
based on data obtained at the surface without entering the well
bore and must yield an accurate representation of the
conditions that exist on the surface, within the well bore and
within the reservoir. Examples of rod pumped wells, ESP
pumped wells, PC pumped wells and other well analyses are
presented.
Introduction
The need to increase oil production and reduce operating costs
from wells requires an integrated analysis of the pumping
system including the performance and interaction of all the
elements: the surface equipment, the down hole equipment,
the well bore and the reservoir. The analysis is to be based on
data obtained at the surface without entering the well bore and
must yield an accurate representation of conditions that exist
at the surface, within the well bore, at the sand face and within
the reservoir.
Such system analysis can now be undertaken efficiently
using portable notebook computer data acquisition systems in
conjunction with appropriate sensors and a suite of analysis
software. The analysis can be undertaken on beam pumped,
electrical submersible pumped, progressive cavity pumped,
plunger lift, gas lift, flowing and other types of wells to

determine the wells performance so the production rate can


be maximized and the operating expenses minimized.
Field experience undertaking such analysis in numerous
wells has resulted in the development of a procedure: Total
Well Management (or TWM) that insures that good results are
obtained with the minimum of effort. Operation of artificial
lift wells using the concept of TWM results in a more
complete understanding of the performance of a given well.
Implementation of this concept can result in significant
reductions in operating costs and increased oil production as
shown by results of numerous operators in a variety of
operating conditions. While this production optimization
procedure is broad, the analysis and optimization concept is
divided into different sections that include beam pumped
wells, electrical submersible pumped wells, progressive cavity
pumped wells, plunger lift wells, gas lift wells and other types
of artificial lift. The different types of analyses are discussed
separately.
Such procedure is greatly facilitated by the use of a fully
integrated portable instrument that includes all the necessary
sensors, precision analog to digital electronics, computer
hardware and software components. This allows immediate
analysis of the well performance at the well site. The
alternative is to use separate conventional fluid level,
dynamometer and power instruments for data acquisition and
then combine the results of each test using various application
programs. One of the cost-effective advantages of an
integrated analysis system is that the well data is entered only
once into a data file that all of the programs use to determine
well performance.
Well Productivity and Inflow Performance
Most operators desire that wells be produced at or near their
maximum production rate. The maximum production rate
(potential) of a well is obtained when the producing bottom
hole pressure (PBHP) is low compared to the static bottom
hole pressure (SBHP). A well may be producing at 20%, 50%
or 80% of the maximum flow rate depending on the ratio
between the PBHP and the SBHP. If sufficient size equipment
exists on the well, the PBHP should be less than 10% of the
SBHP to insure maximum production. Most producing and
static bottom hole pressures and analyses are obtained from
surface measurements by acoustically measuring the distance

A. L. PODIO, J. N. MCCOY, DIETER BECKER, LYNN ROWLAN, BILL DRAKE

to the liquid level in the well, measuring the casing pressure


and calculating the bottom hole pressure1, 2, 3.
Accurate knowledge of well productivity is lacking in
most oil fields. Very few operators have determined inflow
performance of their wells because static BHP surveys are
seldom undertaken since few operating companies are willing
to shut-in wells for extended periods of time. Also, liquid level
measurements taken with strip chart acoustic instruments are
seldom converted to a calculated producing BHP. Every effort
should be made to obtain representative values of producing
and static bottom hole pressures that can be used in
determining Productivity Index or Inflow Performance
Relations (IPR). One way to obtain SBHP data is to institute a
policy to routinely make static fluid level measurements any
time that any well in a field is shut-in for any reason (work
over, repair, equipment failure) and to interpret these static
fluid level measurements in terms of static bottom hole
pressures. What is required is at least an estimate within 1015% of the actual stabilized SBHP. Operators should attempt
to periodically determine the static bottom hole pressures
when the wells are down for any reason, and then maintain the
producing bottom hole pressure at less than 10% of the SBHP
when maximum inflow is desired.
It thus should be clear that in order to be able to make a
judgment about how efficiently we are producing a well we
must know BOTH the Static and the Producing bottom hole
pressures and have an accurate and up to date well production
test. If any one parameter is missing or is inaccurate (or
guessed) we may reach the wrong conclusion regarding the
potential of the well. Figure 1 illustrates that the example well
is producing 83% of the maximum potential based on the
1500-psi SBHP and the computed 516-psi PBHP. The PBHP
is obtained from an acoustic fluid level and casing pressure
measurement and then computed taking into account the effect
of annular gaseous liquid column if present. This test
indicates that there is the probability of increasing production
if the wells inefficiencies are cured.
A well with a fluid level 1000 feet over the pump will
indicate the importance of determining both the producing and
static bottom hole pressures. Many operators may attempt to
correct the problem of an assumed 1000 feet of liquid column
over the pump, which would exert backpressure and restrict
production, by installing a larger pump. What if the 1000 feet
of liquid column over the pump is actually a mixture of
liquid aerated by gas flowing up the casing annulus and
discharging at the surface? The actual producing bottom hole
pressure may be only 150 PSI due to the liquid column being
aerated with gas bubbles flowing upward in the liquid column.
If the static bottom hole pressure is 2000 PSI, the PBHP of
150 PSI is less than 10% of the SBHP and the maximum
production rate is being obtained. Installing a larger pump
would be a waste of time and money. In other cases, a well
may be produced with considerable liquid over the formation
or a high casing pressure that does restricts fluid flow from the
reservoir.

SPE 67273

Beam Pumped Wells


The TWM procedure for beam pumped wells involves the
following steps:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Analyze the wells inflow performance to determine


if additional production is available.
Determine the overall efficiency to identify wells
that are candidates for improvement.
Analyze the performance of the pump.
Analyze the performance of the down hole gas
separator.
Analyze mechanical loading of rods and beam
pumping unit.
Analyze performance of prime mover.
Design modifications to existing system.
Implement changes and verify improvement.

Well Screening by Inflow Performance. All wells should be


tested to insure that the producing bottom hole pressure is low
compared to the static bottom hole pressure. This is the first
and most important step in optimizing a wells performance.
See Figure 1 for an example of a well that has the potential to
produce more oil.
Well Screening by Energy Efficiency. Many different
parameters can be used to identify those wells that are the
most likely candidates for improvement. Experience has
shown that one method of identifying wells that need
improvement is to determine the overall efficiency of the
wells pumping system. This requires only the measurement of
input power to the prime mover, determination of the
producing bottom hole pressure (PBHP) and accurate
production test data.
Figure 2 shows the results of a power survey on the well
illustrated in Figure 1 obtained with power probes. Both
instantaneous motor power and motor current are plotted for
one complete pump stroke. Note that the motor generates
power during the upper portion of the upstroke and at the top
of the stroke. The unit is counterweight heavy. The software,
using the well data (partially shown in Figure 3) and acquired
field data, performs a complete motor power and current
analysis. In this example, the overall efficiency is a low
30.4%. Since the overall efficiency4 of a beam pump system
should approximate 50% this is a good indication that the
wells performance could be improved.
The operating cost is calculated on the basis of a barrel of
fluid pumped and a stock tank barrel of oil produced. These
values are calculated from the production rates that were
entered in the well data file and based on the most recent well
test.

SPE 67273

TOTAL WELL MANAGEMENT II

Pump Performance. Using an integrated data acquisition


system, motor power and dynamometer data can be obtained
simultaneously. The dynamometer measurement can be made
with a polished rod transducer (PRT) that is installed by a
single technician in a matter of minutes. Analysis of the down
hole pump operation is undertaken by calculation of the pump
dynamometer card from surface acquired load and position
data. Surface dynamometer and pump cards are immediately
available in the field so that a diagnosis can be made to
determine whether a pulling job needs to be scheduled. Figure
4 shows that incomplete pump fillage is the main cause of this
wells inefficiency and the shape of the pump dynamometer
card gives a strong indication that gas interference due to an
inefficient down hole gas separator is the primary reason for
the problem. A down hole dynamometer card indicating
incomplete pump fillage coupled with an acoustic liquid level
test (in Figure 1) that shows the presence of a gaseous liquid
column above the pump is conclusive evidence that an
inefficient down hole gas separator is being used. Reference 5
gives detailed information on efficient down hole gas
separators. The example wells oil production can be
increased by 5 BPD by installing a good down hole separator.
Correct operation of the pump valves is mandatory to
achieve high efficiency. Although standing and traveling valve
tests are routinely made, proper interpretation depends on the
requirement that the tests are performed correctly. For this
reason, a series of valve measurements should be performed in
order to insure their reproducibility and validity. Figure 5
shows a series of three traveling valve tests followed by two
standing valve tests. These tests show that they are
reproducible (thus valid and well executed) and that the
measured values agree with the theoretical values (thus the rod
and pump data is correct and there is little rod-tubing friction)
and therefore we can conclude that the valves are operating
properly.
Mechanical Loading of Rods, Gear Reducer and Beam
Pump. It is important to maintain the loading of the rods
within the recommended guidelines for the well's service
factors and the corresponding rod's characteristics. Figure 6a
shows an overlay of several dynamometer cards, which
indicates that the well is pumping under steady state
conditions and the measured loads are within the allowable
loads for the surface unit. Figure 6b displays the rod string
loading in relation to the allowable loads determined from the
modified Goodman diagram and the stresses at each rod
diameter change. Proper loading of the beam pump and the
gear reducer is equally important. An under-loaded unit
operates at low mechanical efficiency. An overloaded unit
requires excessive maintenance. Gearbox torque loading is
established more efficiently from an instantaneous motor
power survey rather than from dynamometer measurements
and does not require knowledge of the pumping units
geometry, counterbalance effect or counterbalance moment.

Performance of the prime mover. The primary objective of


acquiring power data is to determine the efficiency with which
the pumping unit is being operated from both standpoints of
energy utilization and of mechanical loading. In particular the
following can be studied:
How does the measured power usage compare to the
power billed?
Is the pumping unit operating at an acceptable electrical
efficiency (50% or more)?
Does changing the direction of rotation reduce power
cost or improve pumping unit balance?
Does excessive pumping off (pump pounding fluid)
cause inefficiency?
Is the motor the correct size for the unit? Or, is the
motor over or undersized?
What techniques are available for minimizing the
overall power consumption of a lease?
Experience has shown that the general tendency is to oversize
electrical motors installed on beam pumping systems. The
reasoning varies but in general it can be said that most
operators are more concerned with providing abundant starting
torque than with the efficiency of the prime mover. In general,
if a motor is twice or more oversized for a given pumping
system it should be replaced with an appropriate size motor.
This will reduce the operating cost by reducing the
consumption, the electrical demand charge and the line losses.
See Reference 4 for additional information on power analysis.
Gearbox Balancing. An additional objective of power
measurement is the determination of the torque at the gearbox6
from direct conversion of the motor power to torque as shown
in Figure 7. This figure indicates that the unit is overbalanced
since the downstroke torque peak exceeds the upstroke peak.
This is partly due to the fact that the pump is not full. If the
unit operates continuously and this is the normal steady state
mode of operation, the unit should be balanced by moving the
5000-pound counterweights inwards for a distance of 16
inches as shown in the figure. This would result in a
significant reduction of peak torque. One advantage of this
method of balancing based on power measurement is that it
does not require knowledge of the geometry of the pumping
unit nor the measurement of the counterbalance effect at the
polished rod nor calculation of the counterweight moment.
Design Modifications to Existing System. The objective of
the TWM study is either to modify the pumping system to
reduce overloading of some production equipment (such as
torque or rod stress) or to modify the system to better match
its pumping capacity to the productivity of the well. In most
cases, the final criterion for selecting among various operating
modes will be the overall system efficiency.
Predictive programs for design of beam pumped systems
based on wave equation modeling vary in complexity and
flexibility. The best software should interface seamlessly with
the data acquisition software and should provide the necessary
design and analysis capability. Regardless of the model that is

A. L. PODIO, J. N. MCCOY, DIETER BECKER, LYNN ROWLAN, BILL DRAKE

used, the first step is to replicate with the predictive program,


the surface dynamometer that was measured on the well. A
reasonable match will indicate that the predictive model is
sufficiently complex and accurate to include the majority of
the parameters that influence the mechanical performance of
the system. The criteria for a match should include the
polished rod loads, power, plunger travel, and pump
displacement. Since the predictive software generates a
surface dynamometer card and the software is capable of
importing the measured dynamometer data, then the shape of
the predicted card should be matched to the measured card as
close as possible, in addition to matching the load levels.
Figure 8 shows a good match of the measured and computed
dynamometer cards. The matching procedure is generally by
trial and error. A good match gives confidence that the
predictive software can be used to investigate changes in the
operation and equipment that will result in improved
performance.
Generally the type of problem indicated by the measured
performance will give an indication of which parameters
should be varied. The starting point should always be those
parameters that can be changed with a minimum of
expenditure. For example if rod loads are excessive, then
direction of rotation, pumping speed and stroke length should
be varied in this order. If this does not produce the desired
reduction, then the rod string configuration and pump plunger
should be varied, and so on.
The cost effectiveness of the changes that would be
required in order to improve the efficiency of the system needs
to be evaluated. In this analysis, both increase in income and
reduction in expenses must be included. It has been observed
that reduction in power consumption on a lease-wide basis is
often accompanied by reduced overall power demand. This
may be translated into lower demand costs as well as possible
basis for rate negotiation with the Utility Company.
Implementation and Verification of Optimized Design.
This is perhaps the most important step in the process but
often is neglected. It is necessary to insure and verify that the
optimized design is implemented without arbitrary
modification. This is principally a problem that is solved by
adequate internal communications. Similarly feedback on the
result of the changes must be obtained, recorded in the
appropriate database, and analyzed by the operating and
design personnel.
Pressure Transient Measurements in Pumping Wells.
Frequently the well's productivity is impaired by formation
damage in the vicinity of the well bore. A pressure transient
test gives the skin (or well bore damage) and the static
reservoir pressure along with other formation parameters.
The presence of the rods in a pumping well precludes using
wire line-conveyed pressure recorders and thus pressure
transient tests are seldom undertaken.
This deficiency has been eliminated with the development
of systems for automatic measurement of casing head pressure

SPE 67273

and annular fluid level that yield the data necessary to analyze
pressure buildup or draw down tests in pumping wells7. This is
done with a minimum of expenditure since it does not require
pulling the rods or tubing to install a down hole pressure
sensor or run a wire line pressure recorder.
The automatic pressure buildup system is programmed to
generate an acoustic pulse at periodic intervals (such as 30
shots per log cycle), record the casing pressure, determine the
fluid level and calculate the bottom hole pressure for as long
as it is necessary to obtain a representative pressure response.
Figure 9 shows a plot of the Horner plot obtained in this
manner. The ability to analyze the data during the test gives
the user confidence that the test has run a sufficient length of
time to yield the desired data and thus limit the shut-in period
to a minimum. The data can be exported for analysis in other
programs if desired.
Technician Time Requirement. A production technician can
undertake the complete TWM survey including acquisition
and field processing of the acoustic, dynamometer and motor
power data in about 45 minutes per well. The same
measurements are then used to define the wells productivity,
the down hole pump performance, the down hole gas separator
performance, the rod and beam unit loading and the motor
performance. The wells production rate can be maximized
and the operating costs minimized with this 45-minute well
analysis.
While at the well as the collected data is analyzed, the goal
for the production technician should be to answer the WELL
PERFORMANCE QUESTIONS listed in Table 1.
Recommendations to fix any problems discovered in the
analysis of the collected data should be typed as notes in the
comments text box. These notes recording the work necessary
to fix a problem are called the production technicians work
plan and the notes are called recommendations. When the
recommended changes to the well are completed, new data
should be collected in a few weeks once the well is operating
under stabilized conditions. The production technician should
re-read the recommendations from the previous analysis of the
wells data and notice if the well performance has changes as
planned. The analysis step to evaluate the recommended
changes is called the follow-up step of the analysis.
Following-up on recommendations is how production
technicians learn from their successes and failures; and their
role changes from a data collector to a knowledgeable well
analyst and problem solver.
Application to Other Artificial Lift Methods
The TWM procedure is not limited to wells lifted by sucker
rod pumps, although these correspond to the great majority of
artificial lift well in the USA. Most other artificial lift methods
can benefit from similar analysis as discussed in the following
sections.
Electrical Submersible Pumped Wells. Oftentimes, an ESP
pumped well has a high gaseous liquid level over the pump.

SPE 67273

TOTAL WELL MANAGEMENT II

The well produces a considerable amount of gas up the casing


annulus, and the gas flowing up the casing annulus aerates the
liquid column causing a gaseous liquid column to exist for a
considerable height above the pump. The light column of
gaseous liquid over the pump and a low casing pressure may
result in a low PBHP so that the maximum amount of
production is being produced from the well even though a
considerable height of gaseous liquid column exists over the
pump. If the PBHP is low compared to the SBHP, the
maximum production is being obtained from the well even
though a high gaseous liquid column exists over the well
during normal operations. See Figure 10 for an example of
acoustic data that indicates that the maximum practical
production rate is being obtained from the well even with
more than a thousand feet of gasified fluid column over the
pump. A larger pump would not increase production.
Progressive Cavity Pumped Wells. Progressive cavity (PC)
pumps can be easily damaged by incomplete liquid fillage
during operation. The pump stator assembly is lubricated and
cooled by the liquid passing through the pump. If only gas is
being produced by the pump, even for only a short period of
time, the pump will immediately heat and cause failure in the
polymer. When a PC pump is located at a depth of 4000 feet
and the well is pumped down, the pressure increase across the
pump is 1300 PSI or more. The gas temperature will increase
500 F or more during this compression8. If only gas is
produced for a minute or two without liquid to cool the pump,
the polymer will be destroyed.
In general, a PC pump should be set below the perforations
for better down hole gas/liquid separation and hence better
lubrication and cooling of the pump. If the pump is set in or
above the formation, a good down hole gas separator should
be used so that the maximum liquid inflow into the pump is
obtained. An acoustic liquid level survey will accurately
measure the distance to the liquid level and also calculate the
percentage of liquid present in the fluids surrounding the
pump. This analysis aids in the efficient operation of PC
pumped wells.
Plunger Lift Wells. Plunger lift is a low cost method for
lifting liquids (water, condensate and/or oil) from gas and oil
wells. The plunger lift system reduces the cost of operating a
well compared to other methods because the formation gas
supplies the energy used to lift the liquids. During plunger lift
operations, a cycle of surface gas flow and surface gas shut-in
occurs. During shut-in, the surface flow valve is closed which
allows the plunger to fall down the tubing. After sufficient
time for the plunger to fall below the top of the liquid level,
the surface flow valve is opened which releases pressure from
above the liquid level. Then, the gas pressure below the
plunger lifts the plunger and most of the liquid above the
plunger to the surface. Removal of liquids and gas from the
tubing reduces the bottom hole pressure. Then, additional gas
flows from the formation into the well bore, up the tubing and
is produced at the surface of the well. Generally, some liquid
flows with the gas into the well bore, and most of the liquid

collects at the bottom of the well. The cycle is repeated to


remove this liquid and produce additional gas.
An operator can produce the well more efficiently if the
plunger fall rate, plunger location, and plunger operation can
be monitored. The acoustic liquid level instrument can be
used to measure the distance from the surface to the top of the
plunger during the shut-in cycle. The operator would like to
insure that the plunger is traveling down the tubing, through
the gas and liquid and rests on the bottom of the tubing string
before the surface flow valve is opened which causes the
plunger and liquid to flow to the surface. The distance to the
plunger and the rate of fall can be measured when the plunger
is above the liquid. When the plunger enters the liquid, the
acoustic pulse reflects from the top of the liquid so that the
distance to the liquid level is measured. These measurements
of the plunger movement and the liquid level depth are
beneficial in optimizing plunger lift performance as shown in
Figure 11.
High-speed measurement of the casing and tubing
pressures permits calculation of the amount of liquid and gas
present in the casing annulus and the tubing, and of plunger
location and travel rate. The gas and liquid flow rates from
the formation, into and out of the casing annulus, and into and
from of the tubing are calculated and plotted as a function of
time. The gas and liquid volumes and flow rates are
determined from surface casing and tubing pressure
measurements in conjunction with well bore data. Bottom hole
pressures, producing rate efficiency and the maximum
production rate of the well are calculated. See Figure 11 for
an example of tracking plunger fall where the position and
velocity of the plunger are tabulated and plotted vs. time.
Figure 12 shows the complete record of three plunger cycles,
starting with the well at stabilized shut-in conditions. The
casing pressure, tubing pressure and acoustic data, recorded at
high rate, are analyzed to yield an exact representation of the
wells performance. This analysis aids the operator in
understanding and optimizing plunger lift operations.
Static reservoir pressures can be calculated by shutting-in
the well until surface pressures stabilize then, measure the
depth to liquid in the tubing or the casing annulus and record
the surface pressure and the static bottom hole pressure can be
calculated1, 2, 3.
Gas Lift Wells. Most operators desire to determine which is
the operating valve during gas lift operations. The distance to
liquid in the casing annulus can be measured by acoustic
means. Generally, the gas in the annulus is released from the
casing into a closed gas gun volume chamber to generate an
acoustic pulse. The reflected acoustic pulses are processed to
determine liquid level depth from reference to tubing collars
or from reference to gas lift mandrels. Both are indicated in
the reflected acoustic pulse. Static and producing bottom hole
pressures are commonly measured and used to optimize gas
lift operations.
Offshore Wells. Static bottom hole pressures tests are
performed in offshore flowing wells using acoustic techniques

A. L. PODIO, J. N. MCCOY, DIETER BECKER, LYNN ROWLAN, BILL DRAKE

that are much more cost effective and safer than wire line
bottom hole measurements.
Acoustic measurements of
bottom hole pressures must include an accurate measurement
of the surface pressure and the measurement of the distance to
the liquid level using acoustic techniques by counting tubing
collars (if available), or by correlation of the liquid level
reflection to a known reflector depth, or by calculation of the
acoustic velocity from gas properties.
Very accurate
gas/liquid interface pressures are almost always obtained. The
main inaccuracy in the calculation of the static BHP occurs in
the estimation of the gradient of the liquid column. If the
volumes and properties of water and hydrocarbons are known,
the pressure of the liquid column can be calculated with
accuracy sufficient for most applications.
Software is
commonly used for these calculations that include gas, water
and hydrocarbon properties. If desired, the calculated gradient
of the liquid column can be substantiated by wire line surveys,
and the gradient can be adjusted accordingly if necessary.
Static bottom hole pressures obtained by acoustic means are
sufficiently accurate for most purposes if the tests are properly
performed.
Summary and Conclusions
Table 1 lists a series of WELL PERFORMANCE
QUESTIONS that an operator must be able to answer to
efficiently produce a well. Oftentimes, an operator does not
know the answers to some of these questions, and hence, must
guess at the answer. An operator should know that the PBHP
is low compared to the SBHP so that the maximum production
is being obtained. An operator should know that the pump
traveling and standing valves are OK. An operator should
know whether the down hole gas separator is efficient or not,
and how to correct an inefficient gas separator problem. An
operator should know whether a pumping unit is out of
balance or not. An operator should know whether the rods are
overloaded or not. Analyzing a wells performance so that the
WELL PERFORMANCE QUESTIONS are answered allows
an operator to maximize oil production and minimize
operating costs.
Successful application of the TWM concept generally includes
some training of the operating personnel. Training is
especially necessary if effective application of modern data
acquisition hardware and software is to be introduced in an
operation that has been relying on limited computer resources.
References
1.
2.

3.

McCoy, J.N., Podio, A.L. and Huddleston, K.L.: Analyzing


Well Performance XV, presented at the 1987 Artificial Lift
Workshop, Houston, TX, Apr. 22-24.
McCoy, J.N., Podio, A.L. and Huddleston, K.L.: Acoustic
Determination of Producing Bottomhole Pressure, paper SPE
14254 presented at the 1985 SPE Annual Technical Conference
and Exhibition, Las Vegas, NV, Sept. 22-25.
McCoy, J.N., Podio, A.L., Huddleston, K.L. and Drake, B.:
Acoustic Static Bottomhole Pressure, paper SPE 13810
presented at the SPE 1985 Production Operations Symposium,
Oklahoma City, OK, Mar. 10-12.

4.

5.
6.

7.

8.

SPE 67273

McCoy, J.N., Podio, A.L., Ott, R. and Woods, M.: Electrical


Motor Power Measurement as the Key for Optimized Rod
Pumping, paper SPE 36080 presented at the Fourth Latin
American and Caribbean Petroleum Engineering Conference,
Port-of-Spain, Trinidad & Tobago, Apr. 23-26, 1996.
McCoy, J.N. and Podio, A.L.: Improved Downhole Gas
Separators, presented at the Southwestern Petroleum Short
Course, Lubbock, TX, Apr. 7-8, 1998.
McCoy, J.N., Ott, R.E., Podio, A.L., Collier, F. and Becker, D.:
Beam Pump Balancing Based on Motor Power Utilization,
paper SPE 29533 presented at the SPE 1995 Production
Operations Symposium, Oklahoma City, OK, Apr. 2-4.
McCoy, J.N., Podio, A.L. and Becker, D.: Pressure Transient
Digital Data Acquisition and Analysis From Acoustic
Echometer Surveys in Pumping Wells, paper SPE 23980
presented at the 1992 SPE Permian Basin Oil and Gas Recovery
Conference, Midland, TX, Mar. 18-20.
McCoy, J.N.: Analysis and Optimization of Progressing
Cavity Pumping Systems by Total Well Management,
presented at the 2nd SPE Progressing Cavity Pump Workshop,
Tulsa, OK, Nov., 1996.

SPE 67273

TOTAL WELL MANAGEMENT II

Table 1 - WELL PERFORMANCE QUESTIONS


From Acoustic Surveys:
Does liquid exist above the pump? At what depth is the top of the liquid column?
Does the liquid in the casing annulus restrict production from the well?
What is the maximum production rate available from the well?
What is the casing-head pressure? Does it restrict production?
What is the percentage of liquid in the annular fluid column?
Is gas flowing up the annulus? At what rate? What is the gas gravity?
Are there any restrictions or anomalies in the annulus above the liquid level?
From Dynamometer Surveys:
Is the well pumped off? What is the pump intake pressure? What is the pump fillage?
Is the traveling valve or standing valve leaking? What is the pump displacement?
What is the effective pump plunger travel? What is the current pumping speed?
Are the maximum and minimum rod loads within allowable limits?
What is the polished rod horsepower?
Is the gearbox overloaded?
Is the unit properly balanced? What movement of the counterweights is required to balance the unit?
Is the downhole gas separator operating effectively?
From Motor Power Surveys
What is the overall electrical efficiency of the pumping system?
Is the overall electrical efficiency above 50%?
What is the power consumption, $/month, $/BBL, and power demand, KW?
What is the motor current? Does the motor overheat?
Does the motor generate electricity sometimes during the stroke? Is credit allowed for generation?
Is the gearbox overloaded?
Is the unit balanced? What movement of the counterweights is required to balance the unit?
From Transient Pressure Surveys:
What is the reservoir pressure? What is the producing bottom hole pressure?
What is the liquid/gas annular afterflow when the well is shut in?
Is there any wellbore damage?

Does the formation need treatment? Is the well fractured?

From Predictive Dynamometer Design Programs:


Is the predicted dynamometer in agreement with accurately measured horseshoe dynamometer data?
Can the performance be improved by a change in pump size, polished rod stroke length, SPM, rod string
configuration or other factors?

A. L. PODIO, J. N. MCCOY, DIETER BECKER, LYNN ROWLAN, BILL DRAKE

Figure 1 - Analysis Showing Well Inflow Performance

Figure 2 - Instantaneous Electrical Power and Motor Current During a Pumping Stroke

SPE 67273

SPE 67273

TOTAL WELL MANAGEMENT II

Figure 3- Well Data Files for Inflow Performance, Dynamometer and other Calculations

Figure 4 - Example of Dynamometer Analysis Showing Surface and Pump Cards

10

A. L. PODIO, J. N. MCCOY, DIETER BECKER, LYNN ROWLAN, BILL DRAKE

Figure 5 - Dynamometer Analysis Showing Measured Traveling and Standing Valve Loads

Figure 6a Multiple Surface Dynamometer Cards

SPE 67273

SPE 67273

TOTAL WELL MANAGEMENT II

Figure 6b Rod Loading Analysis

Figure 7 - Torque Analysis Obtained from Motor Power Measurements

11

12

A. L. PODIO, J. N. MCCOY, DIETER BECKER, LYNN ROWLAN, BILL DRAKE

Figure 8- Predicted Dynamometer Card (Solid Line) vs. Measured Dynamometer Card (Dashed Line)

Figure 9- Horner Analysis

SPE 67273

SPE 67273

Figure 10- ESP Producing Well At Maximum Rate

TOTAL WELL MANAGEMENT II

13

14

A. L. PODIO, J. N. MCCOY, DIETER BECKER, LYNN ROWLAN, BILL DRAKE

Figure 11- Plunger Lift Analysis

Figure 12 Detailed Record of Plunger Cycles

SPE 67273