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Planting Systems

Square System
The planting system describes the
arrangement of trees in the orchard or plantation.
The proper arrangement of the trees will help
facilitate the different operations such as weeding,
fertilization, spraying, etc., which are necessary for
the trees to successfully grow.
The selection of the planting system will depend on:
1.
Varieties/species of fruit or plantation crops
used
2.
Whether or not to use filler
3.
As well as kind of filler trees (papaya or
banana)
4.
Cropping system (monocropping or multiple
cropping)
5.
Topography of the land
6.
The degree of the farm mechanism
7.
The preference if the grower

Square System

Quincunx or Diagonal
Quincunx or Diagonal System
1.
Makes use of a square with an additional
(fifth) tree in the center
2.
Maximum utilization of the areas during the
early growing and fruiting years
3.
Large tree population can be planted
4.
Carrying out of diagonal system is difficult
especially if the land is

System
Hexagonal or Triangular System
All trees are equidistant with one another
from every direction. This arrangement results in
greater number of trees per unit area in the square
system.

Hexagonal or Triangular

System
Contour-Terrace System
Slope or hilly land in which the threat of
erosion is more likely, plants are laid out on contour
lines established against the slope.
Guidelines in A-Frame
1.
Study the area. Start laying out from the top
of the hill establishing a baseline from the
steepest slope. Each point in the reference line
shoud be a break- chained so that one get the
accurate slope distance with the changing slope
downhill. Always start the determination of each
contour line from the baseline
2.
Drive the stake at the desired point. Place
one leg from the A-frame beside the first stake.
Then adjust the other leg on the ground such
that the weighted string passes the midpoint
mark on the crossbar. Drive another stake at
this point.
3.
Move the A-frame to the next spot such as
that one leg touches the second stake at the
side of its base.
4.
Repeat the above steps until the whole area
has been laid out.

Contour-Terrace

System

Planting Distance
Planting distances of fruit trees is determined by the area occupied by its
canopy or the crown of the tree or imaginary circular area created by the extent
of the tip of the leaves.

Planting the fruit trees will depend on the following conditions:

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

fertility and depth of the soil;


planting materials: seed or asexually propagated;
variety;
available moisture; and
whether the filler trees are to be used.

High Density Planting refers to the very close distance of the trees from
each other
When rainfall is evenly distributed through-out the year and capital is not a
limiting factor, it is possible to decrease the distance of planting two to ten times.
When limited rainfall, the growth of plants is wider than at close spacing.

Staking based on planting plan

Tree Planting Plan


The plan and design should
describe:

Number of trees to planted by


species.
The location where new trees will
be planted on the school grounds.
Size of cuttings, seedlings or trees
to be planted.
Location of existing and proposed
irrigation system(s) components such
as water source, pipelines, bubblers
and/or emitters per tree and flow rate
(GPH or GPM).
Include windbreak specifications
Include a copy of the soil
descriptions

Lay-outing the Area


After the necessary planting
system and distance have been selected,
the next step is to prepare the lay-out of
the area or site, This will serve as guide in
the planting activity.

Staking
Staking is the practice of placing
sticks or any similar material in designated
points following the chosen planting
system and the layout. It determines
where to dig the holes for the seedling
during the planting activity.

Size of the hole


The minimum-sized planting hole should be 2 times the diameter of the
tree root ball and no deeper than the height of the root ball.
Research shows that most of a trees roots are in the upper 12 to 18
inches of soil and extend out two to three times the width of the canopy.
Dig the edges of the hole at a 45-degree angle. After digging the planting
hole, it is a good idea to make grooves in the sides and bottom of the hole. When
planting trees dug by a mechanical tree spade, it is better to dig the planting hole
with a backhoe and dig the desired wide shallow hole rather than plugging in
the tree to the same-size planting hole.

Digging holes
Procedures in digging hole are as follows:
1.

Holes should be large enough to accommodate the roots without


overcrowding.
2.
Holes should be 3-4 times bigger than the diameter of the plastic bag at a
depth of about 5-7.5cm longer than the height of the ball of the soil in the
plastic bag.
3.
If no land preparation has been done, a larger hole is dug to loosen the
soil.
4.
The topsoil should be kept separated from the subsoil so that it will be
used to cover the roots of the new plants.

5.

After digging the hole, add 50g of 16-2-0 fertilizer (ammosphos), and
cover this with 2.5 cm fine soil.
6.
The digging of the hole for the tree requires the removal of the stakes.

Watering
The root ball will need to be watered directly because roots have not yet
spread into the surrounding soil. The raised soil water ring will help concentrate
the water in the root ball area. Water the plant slowly and well after mulching.
Maintain constant moisture (not saturation) in the root ball for the first few
months after transplanting. Good watering practices result in plants that establish
more rapidly and thus become more quickly resistant to drought, pests and
disease.
Water Needs and Tolerance

Water needs and tolerances are primary considerations. Drought


tolerance for any tree changes with the life cycle of the tree. Trees listed as
drought tolerant may not be suitable to extremely dry sites or prolonged water
stress.

Importance of Water
What is meant by the water balance?
Trees contain large quantities of water, but If they lose more than they
gain, there may soon be problems.
How much water is there in a tree?
A considerable proportion of it consists of water. For example: a thin leaf
might be about 90% water by weight; and an expanding root cell could contain as
much as 95% of water.
Is it important that there should be so much?
Yes, because:

many of the activities of living cells are carried out in very dilute watery
solutions;
water is needed for the new cells in young stems, leaves and roots to
elongate;
plenty of water is required to maintain considerable pressure inside living
cells giving support to expanded leaves, young stems and flowers;
trees that are in leaf generally lose large amounts in a single day, and
need some water in reserve.

What happens if a tree runs short of water?


It is under water stress. Moderate, temporary water stress is normal, but a
lack of substantial amounts of water for longer periods can lead to premature
leaf-shedding, shoot die-back or death of the whole tree, unless it:

is of a species and genetic origin that comes from a drought-prone area;


has had time to form a well-established root system; and
has been hardened before being exposed to full light and drying winds

Is there any way of saving young trees that are wilting severely?
Reduce water loss immediately by shading plants growing in beds, and
moving containers to a humid, shady and protected place.
Water the plants if the soil is dry.

NOTE: do not water if the soil is moist, because it will not help, and it could cause
harm by water logging the soil and encouraging root diseases.

Are there some other practical guidelines about water balance?

Damage needs to be kept to a minimum when they are potted up or


moved to different conditions
Unrooted and newly rooted cuttings and germinating seedlings require
special care because they are particularly liable to water stress.
Careful watering is needed by all young trees, especially in containers
Growing a good root system is more important than having a big shoot on
a nursery tree. Similarly, large leaves are undesirable on planting stock
Young trees need hardening before going to the planting site, so that the
newly planted tree can grow from a position of strength
The chief function of a tree nursery is to produce planting stock that can
maintain its water balance when planted out.

Water supply in the field


Can I do anything to reduce waste of water?
Yes, several things can be done, including:

storing water when plenty is available for times when it is scarce and
demand is greatest;
channelling rainwater to help keep the deeper levels of soil moist, or using
polythene sheeting to direct excess water into a collection pond;
using sunken transplant beds (provided that they will not become
waterlogged):

Which kinds of water are suitable?

A stream or river;
A freshwater lake;
A pond or small reservoir created by building a dam;
Rainwater, collected from the roofs of buildings or with polythene sheeting,
and stored in large barrels or tanks;
A well or borehole; or
Mains water, though this can be very expensive

What are the key points about the water supply?


1.

1. Sufficient quantity: enough water is needed to be able to:


water every potted plant twice a day;

water all the seed trays, seed beds and transplant beds once a day;
store some water as a reserve;
allow for the washing of people and vehicles; and
build in a safety margin (for example of 50% extra).
avoiding over-watering the young trees
choosing less wasteful ways of watering; and
training people to avoid pouring water on paths, and to look out for
and mend leaks promptly
2.
Reliability: great problems involving emergency supplies will result if the
water runs low or stops completely during very dry weather, and the young trees
might still be damaged or even die.
3.
Reasonable cleanness: the water needs to be free of:

a lot of silt, clay, dust or other fine particles suspended in it;

dissolved pollutants, salt, oil or other chemicals that are toxic to


most plants.
Should the water supply be inside the nursery?

For all nurseries, it is a big advantage if the site is chosen so that


the water supply is within or close to the nursery, provided that it will not
cause flooding.

For small nurseries, you could have some buckets handy to catch
waste water.

For large nurseries, if the water supply is below the nursery, think
about pumping water to a high point, where it could flow by gravity to supply
a series of taps throughout the nursery.

On some dry or steep sites, it might be necessary to carry or pipe in


the water from a distance.

Hydraulic rams do not require an external energy source, since


they use water pressure to pump a little water to a higher level.

How to install irrigation system

Growing Media Components and Mixes


Growing Media
Components and
Mixes

Photo

Advantages

Disadvantages

Peat Moss

Holds nutrients and water.

May be strongly acidic. May conta


weeds.

Manure Compost

Good source if organic matter.


Usually available free

Fresh manure is high in ammonia


can burn. Variable in composition.
contain excess salt.

Sand

Relatively inexpensive. Improves


drainages. (Medium to coarse
grades are best)

Low nutrients and water-holding


capacity

Vermiculite

Holds nutrients and water. Supplies


potassium. Provides aeration. Light- Compacts when too wet
weight.

Field Soil

Heavy, often contains pathogen. C


Relatively inexpensive. Holds water
soils usually drain poorly and are
and nutrients
variable in fertility. Will crust.

Perlite

Provides aeration. Light-weight,


sterile, and neutral in pH. Does not
decay.

Low nutrients and water holding


capacity. Floats to surface of conta

Soilless Growing Mixes


Advantages:

Soilless mixes can be standardized so there is little variability


between batches.
Can create mixes with better physical properties since there is a
wide selection of components possible.
Soilless mixes generally are not pasteurized.
Often soilless mixes are inexpensive to prepare
Generally soilless mixes are light in weight
Generally soilless mixes have a very low initial nutrient charge

Disadvantages:

Most components for soilless media have a low level of available


and reserve nutrients
Balanced fertilizer ratios must be added without excessive salts.
Starvation symptoms develop more rapidly in soilless mixes.
Micronutrients must be added

Organic Media Components


Peat

Peat is usually included in a mix to increase the water-holding capacity or


to decrease the weight. Peats are classifies into three types:
1.

Moss peat more often called peat moss, is the most common form used
in the industry and is derived mostly from sphagnum moss. Peat moss is the
least decomposed form of the peat types, is typically light tan to brown in color,
lightweight (6.5 lbs/yd3), high in moisture-holding capacity and very acid (pH
3.8 to 4.3).

Light in weight

High water holding capacity

Cation exchange capacity is high on a mass basis, but not on a


volume basis

Physical and chemical properties of peat moss can vary


significantly for different sources

Strongly acidic
2.
Reed-sedge peat is derived from the moderately decomposed remains
if rushes, coarse grasses, sedges, reed and similar plants.
3.
Peat Humus is usually derived from reed-sedge or hypnum moss peat
and represents an advances stage of decomposition. This type of peat is
usually dark brown to black and has a low moisture-retention capacity
Organic Coir
Organic coir is a relatively new organic amendment primarily used in the
greenhouse industry.
It is a potential substitute for pear moss
The raw material is derived from the husk of a coconut fruit.

norganic Media components


Perlite
Perlite is produced by heating igneous rock under high temperatures
(1,100 to 1,600F). Perlite is a light-weight, sterile, expanded volcanic rock.
Unlike vermiculite, it provides no nutrients for plant growth, but it does provide
aeration.

A very dense aluminum silicate formed when volcanic magma cools


rapidly
Processed at high temperature to expand and to form white, lightweight
particles.
Chemically inert (pH 7.0-8.5)
Low cation exchange capacity
Low water holding capacity

inorganic Media components


Perlite
Perlite is produced by heating igneous rock under high temperatures
(1,100 to 1,600F). Perlite is a light-weight, sterile, expanded volcanic rock.
Unlike vermiculite, it provides no nutrients for plant growth, but it does provide
aeration.

A very dense aluminum silicate formed when volcanic magma cools


rapidly

Processed at high temperature to expand and to form white, lightweight


particles.

Chemically inert (pH 7.0-8.5)

Low cation exchange capacity

Low water holding capacity


Sand
Sand is a common amendment used in propagation applications and is
occasionally used in a greenhouse or nursery mix. Sand is typically selected as a
media component to improve the drainage or to act as a ballast to decrease
container blow-over in outdoor container nurseries.

Inert, incompressible medium


Little cation exchange capacity
Low water holding capacity

oil
Soil is still occasionally used in a container mix primarily because it is
locally available or to add weight to a predominantly organic-based mix. Some
outdoor nurseries strip the topsoil in preparation for installing container beds,
stockpile the soil and then use it over time as a minor component (e.g., 10
percent) in the mix.
Major considerations when using would be the amount of weed seed and
presence of residual chemicals. In general, soil should be minor (<10 percent)
component or not used at all in modern container mixes.
Rock Wool

Like pertile and vermiculite, it originates from a natural mineral (alumino


silicates with some calcium and magnesium) that is heated to 2,700 F to form
fibers that are used to make blocks or cubes as a finished product. Blocks or
slabs of rock wool are used extensively by hydroponic growers of greenhouse
vegetables. Rock wool typically has an alkaline pH, is sterile and chemically inert.

Fiberised, molten rock


Little (or no) cation exchange capacity
High water holding capacity
Very consistent in performance

General Mixing and Handling Recommendations

Test the media pH, total soluble salts (electrical conductivity) and
wettability before use.
Do NOT make changes to your current growing media without
experimenting first to see if changes may affect your cultural practices.
Thoroughly mix components, but dont overmix, especially if a medium
contains vermiculite or plastic-coated slow-release fertilizer.
Do NOT store media that contains fertilizer for long periods of time,
especially if the media is moist.
Avoid contamination of components or finished media by keeping
amendments in closed bags or by covering outdoor piles.
Do not allow mixes containing a significant amount of peat moss to dry
out.

Mixing Growing Media


Steps in mixing growing media
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

The most popular is a combination of sand, soil, ricehull and compost in


equal proportion. (1:1:1 ration)
Prepare the tools and materials needed.
Wear Personal Protective Equipment.
Measure growing media component in equal proportion.
Mix one part of sand, one part of soil, one part of ricehull and one part of
compost in equal proportion.

Where to grow the seedlings


In growing seedling, you can choose from the following:

Preparation of seeds for Germination


Dehusking
1.
Collect freshly extracted mango seeds.
2.
Dehusk the seeds immediately by removing the tough seed cover (called
husk)
3.
To dehusk, cut the tip of the seed with any sharp knife and split it off to
take out the inner parts (endosperm with embryo) of the seed.
4.
Select only sound healthy seeds. This means that the seeds are not
broken and discolored. Discard broken and discolored ones.

Structure of seeds
REMEMBER! To ensure high quality germination rate and healthy
seedlings,
1.
Use only large and fully developed seeds from ripe fruits, possibly from old
trees in high rainfall areas.
2.
Choose seeds that are free from mechanical and pest damage.
3.
Wash the seeds well to remove the pulp.
4.
Treat the seed with dithane or any recommended fungicides.
5.
Sow the seed immediately after washing or treating with fungicide.

Sowing the Seed


Steps in sowing the seeds
1.

Make shallow 1 to 2 cm depth furrows, about 5cm apart across the length
of the seedbed.
2.
Sow immediately dehusked seeds by lining them along the furrows,
almost end to end, with the concave side facing downward.
3.
Cover the seeds with about 1cm of the soil.

Bagging the Seedlings


Steps in bagging seedlings
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Prepare the medium of mango seedlings


Mix equal proportion of sand or coir dust, garden soil and compost. Pure
sandy loam soil alone or in combination with compost, may also be used.
A mango seedling is ready for bagging as soon as its first pair of leaves
becomes mature
Lift the seedlings from the seedbeds by holding the seedling at its base
with one hand, lifting it slowly while being dug with another hand using a blunt
stick or trowel.
Collect the lifted seedling in a bucket containing about full of water.
Fill up the plastic bag (3 x 3 x 11) nearly half the medium. Tap the bag
to the ground once or twice to compact the medium.
Set one seedlings on top of the soil at the middle of the bag.
Tap the plastic bag twice or thrice, the compact soil and to keep the
seedling in upright position.
Repeat the procedures for the remaining seedlings.

teps in caring the seedlings


4.
1.

Irrigate 2.

Fertilize
3.
the
the
seedlings seedlings Fertilize the
Irrigate the
seedlings
seedlings
after bagging. with a pinch
of urea every
The amount
month. Apply
of water
should be just the fertilizer
around the
enough to
base of the
saturate the
seedlings.
medium.
Cover the
Irrigate daily
thereafter until base of the
the seedlings fertilizer with
small amount
are ready for
field planting. of soil.

Remove
the weeds Gently
remove the
weeds
growing
inside and in
between the
bags.

Spray
the
seedlings 5.
Spray the
seedlings
with
insecticides
during
flushing to
avoid
damage due
to suckingchewing
insects like
grasshoppers
and beetles.

Control
anthracnose
- Control
anthracnose
with
fungicides.

Grafting Seedlings
Steps in cleft grafting
1.

Collect scions only from selected bearing Mango trees. The scion should
be 6 to 9 months old (from flushing), about 1 cm in diameter, 10 cm long, and
with a prominent terminal bud (growing point).
2.
Defoliate the scion immediately after collection, wrap them with moist
newspaper and place them inside polyethylene (ice) plastic bag.
3.
Get a scion which was previously wrapped with strip of ice plastic bag. Cut
its base into a smooth wedge of about 2 cm long.
4.
Cut back the mango seedlings (hereinafter called rootstocks) at the point
at the greenish brown bark. Retain two or more leaves below the cut.
5.
Make a vertical slit at the middle of the cut deep enough (about 2 cm) to
accommodate the wedge cut portion of the scion.
6.
Insert the base of the scion into the slit of the rootstock and tie them
together with polyethylene strip.
7.
Cover the entire scion with clear ice candy plastic bag.
8.
Remove the plastic bag cover from the scion as soon as it interferes with
the new flush of growth on the scion.
9.
Remove the plastic strip binding the scion on the rootstock as soon as
complete union of scion and root stock has taken place. Delaying the removal
of the strip would result to girdling of the rootstock.
10.
Regularly inspect the grafts and remove any sprout coming from the
rootstock.

Applying Basal Fertilizer


1. Pick the right
2. Apply the correct
fertilizer.
amount.
Complete fertilizers
To fertilize evergreens, use
contain the three nutrient 1 to 3 pounds per 1000
elements needed by the square feet. For plants that
plants for optimum growth. lose their leaves, use no
These nutrients are
more than 2 pounds per
nitrogen (N), phosphorus 1000 square feet. For
(P), and potassium (K).
example, if the branches of
a tree appear to spread
A fertilizer labeled 14-14- about 15 feet from the

3. Apply fertilizer correctly.


The easiest and most effective
method of supplying nutrients to
the entire root system of the plant
is broadcasting spreading
granular fertilizer evenly over the
entire root zone. Be sure to keep
fertilizer away from driveways
and other paved surfaces, as it
can wash into storm drains and
lower the water quality of our

trunk, then the roots spread


at least 30 feet. To find the streams and bays. Digging or
total square feet covered by drilling holes throughout the root
14 contains: 14%
the roots, use the formula zone and partially filling them with
nitrogen, 14% phosphorus 3.12 X (root radius) X (root fertilizer is not effective, as most
and 14% potassium.
radius). In the example
of the feeder roots of a tree or
given, this would be: 3.14 x shrub are in the upper layer soil,
30 x 30 = 2,826 square
and drilling puts the fertilizer
feet.
below the level of the feeder
roots.

Steps in transplanting the fruit tree seedlings


Tips:
a. Keep the soil from crumbling
b. Do it in a short span of time to prevent the plant from drying up
c. The root system is covered with the topsoil and then packed closely by
tamping.
d. The amount to be pruned depends on the amount of water available and
climatic conditions in the area.
STEPS:
1.
Remove the bag from the seedling without breaking the ball of soil.
2.
Place the seedling in the hole. For best results, the fruit tree seedlings
should be set two inches deeper than it stood in the container.
3.
Cover the seedling with the remaining top soil.
4.
Align the plant with the other plants in all direction before filling the hole.
5.
Press the soil firmly around the base of the plant by tamping the soil.
6.
Water the newly transplanted fruit tree seedlings.
7.
Support the newly transplanted fruit tree seedlings with sticks to keep
them in an upright position.
8.
Prune the top portion to prevent a big amount of water loss from the plant.

Cover the root system by topsoil


STEPS:

Cover the root system with the remaining top soil. This will contribute to
healthy development of the plant.
Press the soil firmly around the base of the plant by tamping the soil. This
will eliminate air packets and to have a good contact or anchorage of the roots
into the soil.
In addition to the top soil, you may also use mulching materials to cover
the root system.

Ideal Mulching Materials


There are two basic types of mulch: organic and inorganic:
Organic Mulches

Derived from decomposed plant materials to enrich and improve the soil.
Manure, sphagnum peat moss and pine needles are all examples of organic
mulch.
Inorganic or fabricated mulches

Are utilized mainly for color and texture changes. Pebbles, stones,
plastics are examples of inorganic mulches. A new inorganic product is
geotextiles or landscape fabrics used as an effective weed barrier to be used
under more decorative products such as stones or bark.

Organic Mulches

Inorganic or fabricated mulches

Tips in putting mulch in your newly planted


seedlings

Mulch, but dont over mulch newly planted trees and shrubs. Two to three
inches of mulch is best less if a fine material, more if coarse. Use either
organic mulches (shredded or chunk pine bark, pine straw, composts) or
inorganic mulches (volcanic and river rocks).

Keep mulch from touching tree trunks and shrub stems. This prevents
disease and rodent problems if using organic mulches, and bark abrasion if
using inorganic mulches
Dont use black plastic beneath mulch around trees and shrubs because it
blocks air and water exchange. For added weed control, use landscape
fabrics that resist weed root penetration. Apply only one to two inches of mulch
fabrics to prevent weeds from growing in the mulch.

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