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RS Power Total power per channel(dbm) 10lg(total

subcarrier)+10lg(P

+ 1)

Each cell in an LTE radio network sends a cell-specific reference


signal (RS) from its transmit antennas. The transmit power of a
resource element (RE) carrying such reference signal can be set to be
the same as, greater than, or less than the transmit power of an RE
carrying Physical Downlink Shared Channel (PDSCH). Lets take a
quick look at the reference signal power boosting, where the RS RE
uses more power than the PDSCH RE. The RS power boosting may
or may not be desirable from the perspective of the RF performance.
The relative transmit power levels of the RS and the PDSCH have
implications on the downlink channel estimation, the amount of
downlink interference, and the interpretation and the use of the
Channel Quality Indicator (CQI) by the eNodeB. For example, if the
RS power is increased, the UE could potentially make the RS
measurements (e.g., RSRP and RSRQ) more easily and potentially
quantify the downlink channel conditions more reliably. However, the
overall interference on the RS RE for a given cell would increase due
to multiple neighboring cells transmitting more power on their own
RS REs. If the signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR)
estimated for the PDSCH degrades by a significant amount, the CQI
being reported by the UE would be lower. If the reported CQIs are
relatively lower, the eNodeB would aim for a lower target throughput
by taking actions such as the increased amount of Turbo coding in the
PDSCH transmissions. The user-experienced throughput could thus
be somewhat lower when RS power is boosted. However, if the
enhanced channel estimation and increased reliability of the PDSCH
reception lead to fewer HARQ retransmissions, throughput could

actually increase in case of the RS power boosting. In summary, the


theoretical impact of the RS power boosting on the RF performance is
not definitive. Field testing with varying levels of RS power boosting
and varying levels of traffic loading is recommended to determine the
suitability of the RS power boosting.
The eNodeB broadcasts the transmit power levels of the RS and the
PDSCH in SIB 2 using the parameters referenceSignalPower, PA, and
PB. The transmit power of an RE carrying the RS (in dBm) is
specified as referenceSignalPower. PA influences a parameter called
A, which is the ratio of the transmit power of the PDSCH RE and the
transmit power of the RS RE. A is applicable to the OFDM symbols
that do not carry RS. PB establishes the relationship between A and
B, where B is the ratio of the transmit power of the PDSCH RE and
the transmit power of the RS RE in the OFDM symbols that carry RS.
PA ranges from 0 to 7 and corresponds to the range from -6 dB to +3
dB for A. PB ranges from 0 to 3 and corresponds to the range from
5/4 to 1/2 for (B /A)[1].The number of antennas and the chosen
antenna techniques influence the exact power levels of RS and
PDSCH. In the examples here, we are assuming that eNodeB has two
transmit antennas and the UE has two receive antennas and that the
eNodeB will use 2-antenna transmit diversity or (2x2) single-user
multiple input multiple output (SU-MIMO) techniques. See 36.213
for more details.
Lets take two numerical examples. Assume that a 30 W power
amplifier is used for a transmit antenna of an eNodeB and that 10
MHz downlink bandwidth is deployed in a cell. The nominal transmit
power per subcarrier is (30 W/600)= 50 mW. During an OFDM

symbol where no RS is present, each subcarrier of the PDSCH is


allocated 50 mW.
Example 1: PA =2 and PB =1 (with 3 dB power boosting for RS)
PA =2 implies A = 0.5 or -3 dB. Hence, (Power on PDSCH
RE/power on RS RE)= 0.5. Since the transmit power allocated to
PDSCH RE is the nominal power level of 50 mW, the transmit power
allocated to RS RE is (Power on PDSCH RE/0.5)= (50 mW/0.5)= 100
mW. During an OFDM symbol carrying the RS, the number of REs
carrying the RS from one transmit antenna is (50 Physical Resource
Blocks * 2 REs/Physical Resource Block)= 100 REs. Furthermore, a
given antenna does not transmit any power on a set of 100 REs,
because such set is used by a different transmit antenna. Hence, out of
600 REs in an OFDM symbol carrying the RS, 100 REs are subject to
RS power boosting, 100 REs have no transmit power, and remaining
400 REs have nominal power levels. The total transmit power during
the RS-carrying OFDM symbol would be (100 subcarriers * 100 mW
per subcarrier for power-boosted RS REs) + (100 subcarriers* 0 mW
for null REs) + (400 subcarriers * 50 mW per subcarrier for non-RS
REs)= 30 W. Hence, when PA =2 and PB =1, each RS RE is allocated
100 mW, while a non-RS RE (in any OFDM symbol) is allocated 0
mW or 50 mW. referenceSignalPower is set to 10*log10(100 mW)=
20 dBm.
Example 2: PA =4 and PB =1 (with NO power boosting for RS)
PA =4 implies A = 1 or 0 dB. Hence, (Power on PDSCH RE/power
on RS RE)= 1. Since the transmit power allocated to PDSCH RE is
the nominal power level of 50 mW, the transmit power allocated to

RS RE is (Power on PDSCH RE/1)= (50 mW/1)= 50 mW. Hence, out


of 600 REs in an OFDM symbol carrying the RS, 100 REs are subject
to RS power level, 100 REs have no transmit power, and remaining
400 REs have nominal power levels. The total transmit power during
the RS-carrying OFDM symbol would be (100 subcarriers * 50 mW
per subcarrier for non-power-boosted RS REs) + (100 subcarriers* 0
mW for null REs) + (400 subcarriers * 50 mW per subcarrier for nonRS REs)= 25 W. Hence, when PA =4 and PB =1, each RS RE is
allocated 50 mW, while a non-RS RE (in any OFDM symbol) is
allocated 0 mW or 50 mW. referenceSignalPower will be set to
10*log10(50 mW)= 17 dBm.

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Looking at the capacity of LTEs Physical Downlink Control Channel (PDCCH)


provides an illustrative example as to how soft capacity can significantly
influence overall system capacity.
In LTEs downlink, the PDCCH appears in the first 1, 2 or 3 OFDM symbols (or
4 symbols in a 1.4MHz LTE system but who would ever use such a thing?!)
at the beginning of every subframe (1ms, also referred to as a TTI). The
actual number of symbols used by the PDCCH in a given subframe is
communicated over the Physical Control Format Indicator Channel (PCFICH)
and can change in response to demand.
The PDCCH is responsible for handing out scheduling grants, i.e. allocating
resources on the downlink (PDSCH) or uplink (PUSCH). Its also responsible for
dealing with a bunch of signalling (RACH responses, uplink power control, SIB
broadcasts, etc.)
Essentially the PDCCH acts as a gatekeeper, controlling access to important
LTE resources and communicating this information to the UEs who are
patiently waiting for a chance to do something.
To be slightly more specific, when a UE (e.g. mobile phone) is connected to a
cell, it will monitor the PDCCH. Periodically messages (called downlink control
information DCI) will appear that only a specific UE can decode (by using its
RNTI). These messages let the targeted UE know whether there is data
waiting for it on the PDSCH, or if it has been allocated specific resources on
the PUSCH (or it might contain some other signalling message). On receipt of
such a message, the UE will go off and transmit or receive data as
appropriate.
Each of these scheduling grants consumes a non-zero amount of available
PDCCH capacity (PDCCH capacity is measured in units called Control Channel
Elements CCEs) which means that there is a finite number of DCI
messages/scheduling grants that a given cell can send out in any given TTI.
The number of CCEs a scheduling grant requires varies based on radio
conditions and contents of the grant.
Cell performance is typically measured by how quickly a volume of user-plane
bits can be transmitted; this means that the performance and utilisation of
channels that carry user-plane data (i.e. PDSCH and PUSCH) is paramount.
To make optimal use of all available user-plane resources you want to be able
to do one of two things:
1.

Satisfy all available users by providing them with resources


commensurate to their requirements. In this case it doesnt matter if there
are unused resources at the end of allocations because everybody is happy
(or should be, sometimes there is no pleasing everyone!)Or, if there arent
enough resources available to make everybody happy right away:

2.

Fully allocate a subset of users all available user-plane resources (i.e.


fully allocate PDSCH or PUSCH). You wont make everybody happy, but at
least you tried!
So, now there are multiple resources that need to be balanced (well focus
just on the downlink for the sake of simplicity):

The resources required to inform users that theyve been scheduled


(PDCCH)

The resources required to transmit user-plane data (PDSCH).


The resources available on PDCCH control the number of users that can be
scheduled on PDSCH. If each user is only able to consume a fraction of
available PDSCH resource, then multiple users need to be scheduled if all
available PDSCH is to be allocated.
Have a look at the following scenarios:
Scenario 1:
There are only two users and were able to fully schedule both of them, so
everybody is happy.

Scenario 2:
There are four users. We can schedule three of them, but there isnt enough
space on PDSCH to schedule the forth user. Were not making everybody
happy, but at least were making full use of all of our available resources.

Now, and heres where soft capacity limits can turn around and bite us. The
amount of PDCCH resource required to provide a scheduling grant to a user
can vary depending on the radio conditions the user finds itself in. A user in
poor radio conditions needs to use much more PDCCH than a user in good
radio conditions, this can lead to the following scenario:
Scenario 3:
There are four users. Poor radio conditions increase the amount of PDCCH
each user requires to be scheduled. This means that only two scheduling
grants can be given out and therefore, despite there being free space on the
PDSCH and users available to fill that space, it goes to waste due to a lack of
PDCCH capacity.

Therefore you can see how degraded radio conditions can cause a reduction
in PDCCH capacity which in turn can lead to reduced PDSCH utilisation,
lowering overall system capacity. This is certainly not the only way in which
external factors can cause the inherent capacity of an LTE system to vary, but
it is an interesting one.