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Law of Similarity- The law of similarity holds that a

person can normally recognize stimuli that has
physical resemblance at some degree as part of
the same object. This is in an assumption that all
other aspects related to the stimuli are equal. On
the other hand, stimuli with different physical
properties are part of a different object. One
application of the law of similarity is putting flowers
of varying colors by row in a large flower bed. The
brain utilizes this principle to determine which
flowers may be planted adjacent to each other or
be placed in the same row based on their colors.
Below is another example with which the law of
similarity may be applied.
Law of Proximity- Suppose that all aspects related
to the stimuli are equal. The law of proximity states
that humans perceive stimuli that are close to each
other by grouping them and recognizing them as
part of the same object. Meanwhile, stimuli that
stand far from one another are parts of two or more
different objects. The distance that defines how
close or far the stimuli are from each other is
subjective to every individual. The principle of
proximity enables us to group elements together
into larger sets. In addition, this principle relieves us
from processing so many small stimuli. Thus, the
law of proximity helps us to gain understanding of
information much faster. For instance, instead of
identifying every single of a large number of dots in
a paper, the brain perceives them as clusters of
dots. Below is another example that shows the
principle of proximity.
Law of Closure- When seeing a complex
arrangement of elements, we tend to look for a
single, recognizable pattern. As with Prgnanz,
closure seeks simplicity. Closure is the opposite of
what we saw in the Prgnanz image above where
three objects were simpler than one. With closure,
we instead combine parts to form a simpler whole.
Our eye fills in the missing information to form the
complete figure. Closure can be thought of as the
glue holding elements together. Its about the
human tendency to seek and find patterns. The key
to closure is providing enough information so the
eye can fill in the rest. If too much is missing, the

elements will be seen as separate parts instead of

a whole. If too much information is provided, theres
no need for closure to occur.
Good Continuation- The principle of good
continuation holds that humans tend to perceive
each of two or more objects as different, singular,
and uninterrupted object even when they intersect.
In other words, individuals tend to group together
as well as organize curves, lines and other forms
that are found in similar directions. However, those
that establish changes in direction may be
perceived as different objects. The alignment of the
objects or forms plays a major role for this principle
to take effect. This principle is well used by
educators in teaching young kids on how to write
the letters of the alphabet as well as draw images.
Below is an example showing the Gestalt law of
good continuity.
LAW OF PRGNANZ- People will perceive and
interpret ambiguous or complex images as the
simplest form(s) possible. This is the fundamental
principle of gestalt. We prefer things that are
simple, clear and ordered. Instinctually these things
are safer. They take less time for us to process and
present less dangerous surprises. When confronted
with complex shapes, we tend to reorganize them
into simpler components or into a simpler whole.
Youre more likely to see the left image above
composed of the simple circle, square and triangle
like you see on the right than as the complex and
ambiguous shape the whole forms. In this case,
seeing three distinct objects is simpler than seeing
one complex object.
FIGURE/GROUND Elements are perceived as
either figure (the element in focus) or ground (the
background on which the figure rests).
Figure/ground refers to the relationship between
positive elements and negative space. The idea is
that the eye will separate whole figures from their
background in order to understand whats being
seen. Its one of the first things people will do when
looking at any composition.
The more stable the relationship, the better we can
lead our audience to focus on what we want them
to see. Two related principles can help us:

Area- The smaller of two overlapping objects is

seen as figure. The larger is seen as ground. You
can see this in the right image above. The smaller
shape is the figure regardless of color.
Convexity- Convex rather than concave patterns
tend to be perceived as figures.




1. Make your lesson holistic. The word Gestalt itself

is almost synonymous to the word "whole". And for
this, Gestalt psychology proposes education to be
an integration of affective and cognitive domains of
learning. As teachers, we can actually do this by
setting the objectives that does not only focus on
the cognitive (and psychomotor) domains of
teaching and learning but also on the affective
domain as well.
2. In relation to above application, the fulfillment of
the cognitive-affective integration is not only limited
to instruction rather also related to the experiences
of the students inside the classroom. This can be
done when teachers maintain an emotionally
harmonious and non threatening atmosphere
during the teaching and learning process which
consequently caters exchange of ideas and
learning. Teacher behavior is a critical factor, and if
necessary, should be changed in order to maintain
good relationship between the teacher and his/her
students, and relationship among and between
students. This can be realized through teacher
development programs, trainings or seminars.
3. Gestalt psychology is a proponent of discovery
or insight learning. This takes place when learners
forms relationships of the elements around them
then integrates and organizes these elements to
form insight (Remember Sultan?). Hence, teachers
must make use of discovery approach in learning.
Teachers can use experiments, laboratory and
inquiry-based strategies.



Prodecural Knowledge


The second kind of knowledge is procedural

knowledge, or knowledge how to do something.
People who claim to know how to juggle, or how to
drive, are not simply claiming that they understand
the theory involved in those activities. Rather, they
are claiming that actually possess the skills
involved, that they are able to do these things.

Propositional Knowledge
The third kind of knowledge, the kind that
philosophers care about most, ispropositional
knowledge, or knowledge of facts. When we say
things like I know that the internal angles of a
triangle add up to 180 degress or I know that it
was you that ate my sandwich, we are claiming to
have propositional knowledge.
Declarative knowledge (or substantive knowledge)
focuses on beliefs about relationships among

e.g., all other things being equal, greater

price charged for aproduct would cause
some reduction in its number of sales
Can be stated in the form of logical
formulas relating concepts represented as
Often characterized in KM circles as knowwhat.

General knowledge is possessed by a large

number of individuals and can be transferred easily
across individuals

e.g., headache is one symptom of brain


Specific knowledge, or idiosyncratic knowledge,

is possessed by a very limited number of
individuals, and is expensive to transfer

e.g., how to operate on a patient suffering a


Episodic memory represents our memory of

experiences and specific events in time in a serial

form, from which we can reconstruct the actual

events that took place at any given point in our
lives. It is the memory of autobiographical events
(times, places, associated emotions and other
contextual knowledge) that can be explicitly stated.
Individuals tend to see themselves as actors in
these events, and the emotional charge and the
entire context surrounding an event is usually part
of the memory, not just the bare facts of the event
Conditional knowledge: refers to knowing when and
why to use declarative and procedural knowledge.
It allows students to allocate their resources when
using strategies. This in turn allows the strategies
to become more effective.



For example, when Joanie is reading, she is

receiving sensory information from the book in front
of her: her eyes are taking in the size and shape of
each letter, the letters grouped together to make
words, and how it all looks on the page. That's all in
sensory storage.
As she moves her eye across the page, she
remembers what she just read a second or two
ago. That means that the information is in working
memory, or storage of memories that occurred
only a few seconds in the past.
If things go right, though, Joanie will remember the
information in the book longer than just a few
seconds. If everything works well, it will move
to long-term memory, which is really just
memories that are stored for a person to access


Short-term memory, also known as primary
or active memory, is the information we are
currently aware of or thinking about. The
information found in short term memory
comes from paying attention to sensory
memories. Short-term memory is very
brief. When short-term memories are not
rehearsed or actively maintained, they last
mere seconds. Short-term memory is

limited. It is commonly suggested that

short-term memory can hold seven plus or
minus two items. For example, imagine that
you are trying to remember a phone
number. The other person rattles off the
phone number, and you make a quick
mental note. Moments later you realize that
you have already forgotten the number.
Without rehearsing or continuing to repeat
the number until it is committed to memory,
the information is quickly lost from shortterm memory
Long-term memory refers to the storage of
information over an extended period. If you can
remember something that happened more than just
a few moment ago whether it occurred just hours
ago or decades earlier, then it is a long-term
memory. You can usually remember important
events such as your wedding day or the birth of
your first child with much greater clarity and detail
than you can less memorable days. While some
memories spring to mind quickly, other are weaker
and might require prompts or reminders to bring
them into focus.



In psychology, "problem solving" refers to a way of

reaching a goal from a present condition, where the
present condition is either not directly moving
toward the goal, is far from it, or needs more
complex logic in order to find steps toward the goal.
It is considered the most complex of all intellectual
functions, since it is a higher-order cognitive
process that requires the modulation and control of
basic skills. There are considered to be two major
domains in problem solving: mathematical problem
solving, which involves problems capable of being
represented by symbols, and personal problem
solving, where some difficulty or barrier is
Discrimination learning. This involves developing
the ability to make appropriate (different) responses
to a series of similar stimuli that differ in a
systematic way. The process is made more
complex (and hence more difficult) by the

phenomenon of interference, whereby one piece of

learning inhibits another. Interference is thought to
be one of the main causes of forgetting.

6. Concept learning. This involves developing the

ability to make a consistent response to different
stimuli that form a common class or category of
some sort. It forms the basis of the ability to
generalise, classify etc.

7. Rule learning. This is a very-high-level cognitive

process that involves being able to learn

relationships between concepts and apply these

relationships in different situations, including
situations not previously encountered. It forms the
basis of the learning of general rules, procedures,

8. Problem solving. This is the highest level of

cognitive process according to Gagn. It involves
developing the ability to invent a complex rule,
algorithm or procedure for the purpose of solving
one particular problem, and then using the method
to solve other problems of a similar nature.