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REBUILDING CASTER ROLLS

Hardfacing with Submerged Arc Welding

LINCOLN

ELECTRIC

CONTINUOUS
CASTER ROLL

TYPE OF
ROLL WEAR

ROLL REBUILDING
PROCESS

There are two economical ways to


produce steel ready for processing:
1. Basic Oxygen Furnace Process which refines pig iron to
high quality steel.
2. Electric Furnace - Process which
is utilized to remelt scrap steel.
Very high quality steel is produced.

In addition to preparing the surface of


the roll and applying the proper
preheat, rebuilding can consist of as
many as three distinct alloy layers:

Both of these processes produce


molten steel which can be delivered
directly to a continuous caster. The
continuous caster can be used to produce semi-finished steel products
such as billets and slabs. A caster,
basically, is made up of three parts:
1. A receptacle to receive the hot
molten metal from the furnace
called a tundish.
2. A mold located below the tundish
which will determine the size (and
type) of the semi-finished steel
product.
3. The hundreds of rolls that will
control and guide the progress of
the billet or slab of steel that is
produced by the caster.

Ladle

Tundish
Mold

Rolls

Top View

Corrosion
Abrasion
Plastic Deformation
Thermal Fatigue and Cracking

The welding wire compostions chosen


depend on the wear problems
encountered:
Chromium

Resists Corrosion

Nickel

Resists Corrosion &


Enhances Toughness

Carbon

Determines
As-Welded Hardness

Molybdenum

Resists Softening
During Stress Relief

Vanadium

Resists Softening
During Stress Relief

Mn

Ni

Cr

Inter.35- .40- 1.20- .90national .45 .70 1.60 1.30


.28- .40.33 .60

--

.801.10

.18- .70.23 .90

.40- .40.70 .60

Mo

Si

.10.20

--

.15- .20.25 .35


.15.25

Surfacing
Layer
(1/2 in. - 12.7 mm)
2

Good repair is essential:


Minimizes the need for costly
shutdowns.
Prevents expensive and potentially
dangerous catastrophic breakdowns.
NOTE: As shown in Table 1, typical
compositions are 4130 & 8620 type
steels as well as international rolls with
carbon contents as high as .45%.
This would require special treatment
during welding.

8620

.20.35

Table 1
Typical Caster Roll Body Composition

The butter pass, if needed, is normally


1/8 (3.2 mm) thick. The Buildup layer
can be as required to build the roll to
within tolerance for a 1/2 (12.7 mm)
layer of corrosion resistant hardfacing
deposit.

REPAIR OF
CASTER ROLLS

4130

Side View

1. Butter Pass
2. Buildup Layer
3. Hardfacing Layer

Buildup
Layer
(as required)

Butter Pass
(1/8 in. - 3.2 mm)

Hardfacing Deposits

ROLL
PREPARATION
All cracked or damaged metal should
be removed. Cracks should be
completely gouged out to the full
depth. Clean off any cutting oils or
other foreign materials before welding.
After a butter pass of mild steel, if
desired, buildup of the roll to within
1/2 (12.7 mm) of final radius can be
done using:
Wire
Lincore 8620
Lincore 4130
Lincore 20

Flux
801/802
801/802
801/802

Tyical
Hardness
18 Rc
19 Rc
25 Rc

Preheating the area to be repaired will


help prevent hard spots, especially in
the heat affected zone.
Preheat to at least 600F (316C),
allowing time for preheat to soak
through the roll.
Once welding begins, it should be
completed without interruption. If
welding must be interrupted, safest
practice is to hold a 600F (316C)
minimum temperature until welding is
resumed. This prevents martensite
transformation in the hardfacing layer
before welding is finished.
Varying from above recommendations may lead to cracking or other
problems.

DEPOSIT
ANALYSIS

Butter Pass
When base material carbon
exceeds 0.30%.
Deposit a 1/8 (3.2mm) low
carbon steel layer.
Mandatory to provide a base other
hardfacing layers can be built upon.
Good Butter pass recommendation is Lincolnweld L-61 and
801 flux.

Buildup Layer(s)
Material often selected to match
the base caster roll material.
Example: With an 8620 alloy,
Lincore 8620 or Lincore 20 would
be used.
Hardfacing Layer(s)
Most common for steel mill rolls
is a modified 420 stainless steel.
Average Carbon content is 0.15%
to 0.20%.
Average Chromium content is
11% to 13%.

THE LINCOLN
SOLUTION

For Hardfacing
Lincore 96S
Weld metal is a type 420 stainless
steel with high carbon content.
High as-welded hardness.

The Lincore product line for repairing


caster rolls consists of tubular metalcored wires designed for submerged
arc welding with Lincolnweld neutral
fluxes.
Using the recommended flux,
essentially 100% of the alloy, including
carbon, is recovered in the weld
deposit so that undiluted weld metal
composition does not vary with
welding conditions.
With the recommended Lincolnweld
fluxes:
Slag removal is clean and
complete even on hot material.
Ripple is minimal.
Tie-in is smooth on rolls and on
flat surfaces.

Lincore 410
Low carbon corrosion resistant
deposit.
Softer & more easily machined.
Lincore 410NiMo
Low carbon deposit which tends to
form softer metal than do most
other alloys used on rolls.
Also provides higher toughness.
Lincore 420
Matches most widely used alloy
for caster rolls.
Moderately hard, machinable.
Lincore 423L
Provides an initially softer deposit
than Lincore 420.
Resists further softening during
tempering above 900F (482C).

Lincore wires designed primarily


for use on steel mill rolls:

For Buildup
Lincore 20
High cracking resistance.
High compressive strength.
Metallurgically compatible with
all other wires listed.

Lincore 423Cr
Higher chromium for better corrosion resistance than 423L.
Resists softening during tempering.

Lincore 8620
Slightly softer buildup than Lincore
20 for easier machinability.

Lincore 424A
Higher Nickel version of Lincore
410NiMo.
Lincore 102W
Tool steel deposit.
Retains hardness at high
temperatures.
For guide rolls & work rolls, not
usually used on caster rolls.

Lincore 4130
Similar in hardness to 8620.
Chrome-moly grade for
chrome-moly rolls.

Lincore 102HC
Tool steel deposit with more
carbon than Lincore 102W.
Retains hardness at high
temperatures.
For guide rolls & work rolls, not
usually used on caster rolls.

TYPICAL HARDNESS
Lincore

20

8620

4130

102W 102HC

Rockwell C

23-28

16-20

17-21

48-54

54-60

96S

410

48-54 27-32

410NiMo

420

423L

423Cr

424A

32-40

46-50

41-47

41-47

36-42

Table 2

LINCOLN

ELECTRIC

SUBMERGED ARC
FLUXES

Primary Flux
Recommendation
801 Flux

The various agglomerated fluxes listed


in Table 3 may be identified as follows:
880 The original neutral flux. Can be
used with low alloy hardfacing
wires.
801 Designed to be used with high
chromium hardfacing wires.
802 Specifically designed for
excellent slag removal when the
electrode contains molybdenum,
vanadium, columbium, niobium
or tungsten.
The recommended flux, in Table 3,
will provide the optimum bead shape,
slag removal and welding characteristics. In most cases, an alternate neutral flux has been recommended. This
alternate flux will provide satisfactory
welding characteristics on many
applications.

DEPOSIT
COMPOSITION
Normally, the equipment manufacturers or the steel mills specify the alloy
compositions to be used on their

Lincore
%C
% Mn
% Si
% Cr
% Ni
% Mo
%V
%W
Table 4

20
0.05
0.6
0.4
1.4
2.4
0.4
---

Secondary Flux
Recommendation

802 Flux

801 Flux

802 Flux

880 Flux

Lincore 20

Lincore 8620

Lincore 4130

Lincore 102W

Lincore 102HC

Lincore 96S

Lincore 410

Lincore 410NiMo

Lincore 420

Lincore 423L

Lincore 423Cr

Lincore 424A

Table 3

equipment based upon prior experience, warranty requirements, etc. The


roll rebuilder has little say in the alloy
chosen, so that a number of similar
alloys need to be available to cover
the desires of this market. Table 4
shows the typical deposit composition

of the caster roll Lincore product line.


For deposit compositions other than
those listed below, consult your Lincoln
representative. Lincoln Electric can provide special products for special needs.

8620 4130 102W 102HC

96S

410

410NiMo

420

423L

423Cr

424A

0.09
0.8
0.3
0.45
0.55
0.15
---

0.23
1.2
0.4
13.0
0.2
----

0.08
0.8
0.4
12.5
-----

0.05
0.8
0.5
13.0
2.0
1.0
---

0.20
1.2
0.5
12.0
-----

0.15
1.2
0.4
11.5
2.0
1.0
0.15
--

0.15
1.2
0.4
13.5
2.0
1.0
0.15
--

0.09
0.8
0.4
13.0
4.5
1.0
---

0.12
1.1
0.3
0.8
-0.2
---

0.28
1.5
0.4
6.5
-1.0
0.15
1.0

0.4
2.1
1.6
6.7
-1.6
0.2
1.3

DIAMETERS
The caster roll Lincore line of products
are available in the following sizes:
3/32 - (2.4mm)
1/8 - (3.2mm)
(1)
5/32 - (4.0mm)
All 3 sizes of each electrode type
are designed for single arc welding
with DC+.
(1)

Typical Semiautomatic
Equipment

Lincore 4130 and Lincore 102 HC are


not standard in the 5/32 diameter size.

HARDFACING
EQUIPMENT
The recommended power sources for
repairing caster rolls with the Lincore
wires are constant voltage machines.
However, many applications use constant current power sources and
achieve satisfactory results. The following power sources and compatible
equipment are some typical recommendations for caster roll rebuilding:
Semiautomatic(2)
Power Sources: DC-600, DC-655 Wire
Feeders: LN-7, LN-8, LN-9

LN-9

DC-600

Typical Automatic
Equipment

Automatic
Power Sources: DC-600(3), DC-655,
DC-1000, DC-1500 Wire Feeder
Controls: NA-3, NA-5
(2)

For semiautomatic applications


with 802 flux, contact your Lincoln
representative or local distributor for
information on ordering the special
sizing required.

(3)

DC 600 power sources can be


paralleled for 1200 amps output.

STANDARD
PACKAGING

NA-5

DC-1000

50 Lb. Coils
600 Lb. Drums
Lincore 8620 in 700# Drums

LINCOLN

ELECTRIC

WELDING
PARAMETERS
Lincore 20/8620
3/32 (2.4mm)

Lincore 410
3/32 (2.4mm)

Lincore 420
3/32 (2.4mm)

Lincore 4130
3/32 (2.4mm)

Lincore 423L
3/32 (2.4mm)

Wire Feed Speed


in/min (m/min)

65
(1.7)

120
(3.0)

175
(4.4)

65
120
(1.7) (3.0)

175
(4.4)

65
120
(1.7) (3.0)

175
(4.4)

65
120
(1.7) (3.0)

175
(4.4)

65
(1.7)

120
(3.0)

175
(4.4)

Approximate
Current (Amps)

270

400

500

250

375

450

250

375

450

300

410

520

250

360

460

Deposition Rate
lbs/hr (kg/hr)

6.7
(3.0)

12.4
(5.6)

18.1
(8.2)

6.5 12.0
(2.9) (5.4)

17.5
(7.9)

6.5 12.0
(2.9) (5.4)

17.5
(7.9)

6.5 12.0
(2.9) (5.4)

17.5
(7.9)

6.0
(2.7)

11.1
(5.0)

16.2
(7.3)

1/8 (3.2mm)

1/8 (3.2mm)

1/8 (3.2mm)

1/8 (3.2mm)

1/8 (3.2mm)

Wire Feed Speed


in/min (m/min)

60
(1.5)

100
(2.5)

140
(3.6)

60
100
(1.5) (2.5)

140
(3.6)

60
100
(1.5) (2.5)

140
(3.6)

60
100
(1.5) (2.5)

140
(3.6)

60
(1.5)

100
(2.5)

140
(3.6)

Approximate
Current (Amps)

400

550

680

350

625

350

625

350

590

350

500

610

Deposition Rate
lbs/hr (kg/hr)

10.4
(4.7)

17.3 24.2
(7.8) (11.0)

9.3
(4.2)

15.5
(7.0)

21.7
(9.8)

5/32 (4.0mm)

500

9.5 15.8 22.1


(4.3) (7.2) (10.0)
5/32 (4.0mm)

500

465

9.5 15.8 22.1


8.5 16.0 23.5
(4.3) (7.2) (10.0) (3.9) (7.2) (10.6)
5/32 (4.0mm)

5/32 (4.0mm)

Wire Feed Speed


in/min (m/min)

55
(1.4)

85
(2.2)

115
(2.9)

55
85
(1.4) (2.2)

115
(2.9)

55
85
(1.4) (2.2)

115
(2.9)

--

55
(1.4)

85
(2.2)

115
(2.9)

Approximate
Current (Amps)

520

725

880

475

800

475

800

--

475

650

775

Deposition Rate
lbs/hr (kg/hr)

14.6 22.5 30.4


(6.6) (10.2) (13.8)

13.1 20.2 27.3


(5.9) (9.2) (12.4)

--

13.5
(6.1)

Lincore 423Cr
3/32 (2.4mm)

Lincore 424A
3/32 (2.4mm)

650

650

13.1 20.2 27.3


(5.9) (9.2) (12.4)

20.8 28.1
(9.4) (12.7)

Lincore 96S
Lincore 102W&102HC Lincore 410NiMo
3/32 (2.4mm)
3/32 (2.4mm)
3/32 (2.4mm)

Wire Feed Speed


in/min (m/min)

65
(1.7)

120
(3.0)

175
(4.4)

65
120
(1.7) (3.0)

175
(4.4)

65
120
(1.7) (3.0)

175
(4.4)

65
120
(1.7) (3.0)

175
(4.4)

65
(1.7)

120
(3.0)

175
(4.4)

Approximate
Current (Amps)

250

350

450

225

325

450

250

350

450

240

400

500

250

325

425

Deposition Rate
lbs/hr (kg/hr)

6.0
(2.7)

11.0
(5.0)

16.0
(7.3)

5.8 10.7
(2.6) (4.9)

15.6
(7.1)

5.7 10.6
(2.6) (4.8)

15.5
(7.0)

6.2 11.5
(2.8) (5.2)

16.8
(7.6)

5.8
(2.6)

10.7
(4.9)

15.6
(7.1)

1/8 (3.2mm)

1/8 (3.2mm)

1/8 (3.2mm)

1/8 (3.2mm)

1/8 (3.2mm)

Wire Feed Speed


in/min (m/min)

60
(1.5)

100
(2.5)

140
(3.6)

60
100
(1.5) (2.5)

140
(3.6)

60
100
(1.5) (2.5)

140
(3.6)

60
100
(1.5) (2.5)

140
(3.6)

60
(1.5)

100
(2.5)

140
(3.6)

Approximate
Current (Amps)

375

540

640

350

610

360

635

390

680

325

475

575

Deposition Rate
lbs/hr (kg/hr)

9.9
(4.5)

16.5 23.1
(7.5) (10.5)

9.4
(4.3)

15.6
(7.1)

21.8
(9.9)

5/32 (4.0mm)

500

9.5 15.8 22.1


(4.3) (7.2) (10.0)
5/32 (4.0mm)

525

540

9.4 15.7 22.0


9.8 16.4 23.0
(4.3) (7.1) (10.0) (4.4) (7.4) (10.4)
5/32 (4.0mm)

5/32 (4.0mm)

5/32 (4.0mm)

Wire Feed Speed


in/min (m/min)

55
(1.4)

85
(2.2)

115
(2.9)

55
85
(1.4) (2.2)

115
(2.9)

55
85
(1.4) (2.2)

115
(2.9)

55
85
(1.4) (2.2)

115
(2.9)

55
(1.4)

85
(2.2)

115
(2.9)

Approximate
Current (Amps)

525

675

800

425

725

450

775

500

850

440

575

700

Deposition Rate
lbs/hr (kg/hr)

13.7
(6.2)

21.1 28.5
(9.6) (12.9)

12.8
(5.8)

19.8 26.8
(9.0) (12.2)

600

12.8 19.8 26.8


(5.8) (9.0) (12.2)

650

12.9 20.0 27.1 14.2 21.9 29.6


(5.9) (9.1) (12.3) (6.4) (9.9) (13.4)

NOTE: 3/32 (2.4mm) wire - DC+, 1-1/2 (38.1mm) electrical stickout.


1/8 and 5/32 (3.2 and 4.0mm) wires - DC+, 1-5/8 (41.3mm) electrical stickout.

685

POST WELD HEAT


TREATMENT
To keep the optimum microstructure
for resistance to firecracking, it is
very important that the roll be
allowed to cool very slowly to about
200F (93C), in no less than six
hours. After reaching 200F (93C),
the roll can be allowed to air cool to
room temperature. Only after cooling
to room temperature is full hardness
developed.
Tempering temperatures as low as
800F (427C) and as high as 1200F
(649C) can be useful, depending on
desired hardness. High tempering
temperatures produce softer, tougher
weld metal.
Effect of tempering varies depending
upon the presence or absence of alloy
elements (molybdenum, vanadium
and tungsten) that promote a
Scattering of fine carbides during
tempering. These elements cause the
alloy to retain hardness to higher tempering (and service) temperatures; as
can be seen in Table 5. For example,
Lincore 423L deposit starts out softer
than the Lincore 420 deposit. But
after tempering above 900F (482C),
the Lincore 423L deposit is harder
than the Lincore 420 deposit.
Table 5 indicates the softening that
occurs in the various deposits as a
function of tempering temperatures.

Hardness of Six-Layer Deposits (Rockwell C)


Lincore

410 410NiMo 420

96S

423L 423Cr 424A 102W 102HC

Primary
Recommended
Flux

801

801

801

801

802

802

801

802

802

As-Welded

26

36

50

52

43

46

43

51

56

800 (426)

25

39

47

48

42

45

41

50

55

900 (482)

25

38

47

48

46

46

39

50

57

1000 (538)

21

29

33

36

38

38

35

51

50

1100 (593)

13

25

28

30

33

34

31

40

46

1200 (649)

10

19

24

27

32

32

28

35

31

2-Hour Tempering
@ OF (OC)

Table 5

THE LINCOLN CASTER ROLL


REBUILDING SYSTEM
The Lincoln Electric Company is the
only company that manufactures a
complete system for the rebuilding of
caster rolls. The use of Lincolns
wires, fluxes, power sources and
compatible equipment, produces
excellent rebuilt caster rolls with
proven performance.

Your Lincoln Electric District Offices,


listed on the back of this publication,
are available and are experts in the
rebuilding of continuous caster rolls.
Our Weld Technology Center, at our
World Headquarters in Cleveland,
Ohio, is also available for technical
assistance.

The serviceability of a product or structure utilizing this type of information is and must be the sole responsibility of the builder/user.
Many variables beyond the control of The Lincoln Electric Company affect the results obtained in applying this type of information. These
variables include, but are not limited to, welding procedure, plate chemistry and temperature, weldment design, fabrication methods and
service requirements.

IMPORTANT: SPECIAL VENTILATION


AND/OR EXHAUST REQUIRED
Fumes from the normal use of these products contain significant quantities of Chromium and
Manganese compounds which may be harmful.
BEFORE USE, READ AND UNDERSTAND THE
MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET (MSDS) FOR
THIS PRODUCT AND SPECIFIC INFORMATION
PRINTED ON THE PRODUCT CONTAINER.

LINCOLN

ELECTRIC

LINCOLN NORTH AMERICA


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(601) 372-7679
MISSOURI
KANSAS CITY (KS) 66214-1625

(913) 894-0888
ST. LOUIS 63146-3572
(314) 993-5465
MONTANA
Contact SEATTLE
District Office
(206) 575-2456
NEBRASKA
OMAHA 68046-2826
(402) 339-1809
NEW JERSEY
EDISON 08837-3939
(732) 225-2000
LEBANON 08833-0700
(888) 427-2269
NEW MEXICO
ALBUQUERQUE 87111-2158
(505) 237-2433
NEW YORK
ALBANY 12205-5427
(518) 482-3389
BUFFALO 14225-5515
(716) 681-5554
NEW YORK CITY
(888) 269-6755
EAST SYRACUSE 13057-1040
(315) 432-0281
NORTH CAROLINA
CHARLOTTE 28273-6200
(704) 588-3251
RALEIGH 27604-8456
(919) 231-5855
OHIO
CINCINNATI 45215-1187
(513) 772-1440
CLEVELAND 44143-1433
(216) 289-4160
COLUMBUS 43221-4073
(614) 488-7913
DAYTON 45439-1254
(937) 299-9506
TOLEDO 43528-9483
(419) 867-7284

OKLAHOMA
OKLAHOMA CITY 73119-2416

(405) 686-1170
TULSA 74146-1622
(918) 622-9353
OREGON
PORTLAND 97230-1030
(503) 252-8835

VIRGINIA
HERNDON 20170-5227
Washington, D.C.
(703) 904-7735
ROANOKE 24153-1447
(540) 389-4032
WILLIAMSBURG 23602-7048
(757) 881-9762

PENNSYLVANIA
BETHLEHEM 18020-2062
(610) 866-8788
ERIE 16506-2979
(814) 835-3531
JOHNSTOWN 15905-2506
(814) 535-5895
PHILADELPHIA 19008-4310
(610) 543-9462
PITTSBURGH 15275-1002
(412) 787-7733
YORK 17404-1144
(717) 764-6565

WASHINGTON
SEATTLE 98188-7615
(206) 575-2456
SPOKANE 99005-9637
(509) 468-2770

SOUTH CAROLINA
FLORENCE 29505-3615
(803) 673-0830
GREENVILLE 29612-0126
(864) 967-4157

CANADA

SOUTH DAKOTA
SIOUX FALLS 57108-2609
(605) 339-6522
TENNESSEE
KNOXVILLE 37923-4506
(423) 693-5513
MEMPHIS 38115-5946
(901) 363-1075
NASHVILLE 37210-3816
(615) 316-9777
TRI-CITIES 37604-3338
(423) 928-6047
TEXAS
CONROE 77304-1524
(409) 588-1116
DALLAS 76051-7602
(817) 329-9353
HOUSTON 77060-3143
(281) 847-9444
SAN ANTONIO 78133-3502
(830) 964-2421

WEST VIRGINIA
CHARLESTON 25526-9796
(304) 757-9862
WISCONSIN
GREEN BAY 54302-1829
(920) 435-1012
MILWAUKEE 53186-0403
(414) 650-9364

ALBERTA
CALGARY T2H 2M3
(403) 253-9600
EDMONTON T6H 2K1
(403) 436-7385
WINNIPEG R3N 0C7
(204) 488-6398
BRITISH COLUMBIA
VANCOUVER V3H 3W8
(604) 306-0339
MARITIMES
NOVA SCOTIA
(902) 434-2725

B2X 3N2

MANITOBA
WINNIPEG R3N 0C7
(204) 488-6398
ONTARIO
TORONTO M4G 2B9
(416) 421-2600

QUEBEC
MONTREAL J5Y 2G3
(514) 654-3121

UTAH
MIDVALE 84047-3759
(801) 233-9353

LINCOLN INTERNATIONAL HEADQUARTERS


22801 St. Clair Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio 44117-1199 USA
Phone: (216) 481-8100 Fax: (216) 486-1363
Contact International Headquarters in Cleveland, Ohio
for Specific Locations of over 120
International Distributors Worldwide

LINCOLN

ELECTRIC
THE
LINCOLN ELECTRIC
COMPANY
Local Sales and Service through Global
Subsidiaries and Distributors
Cleveland, Ohio 44117-1199 U.S.A
TEL: 216.481.8100
FAX: 216.486.1751
WEB SITE: www.lincolnelectric.com

Hardfacing
C7.720 5/98

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