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Earth Science, 13e (Tarbuck)

Chapter 10 Mountain Building


1) A ________ fault has little or no vertical movements of the two blocks.
A) stick slip
B) oblique slip
C) strike slip
D) dip slip
Answer: C
Diff: 1
Topic: 10.3 Structures Formed by Brittle Deformation
Bloom's: Remembering
2) In a ________ fault, the hanging wall block moves up with respect to the footwall block.
A) normal
B) inverse
C) reverse
D) abnormal
Answer: C
Diff: 1
Topic: 10.3 Structures Formed by Brittle Deformation
Bloom's: Remembering
3) In thrust faulting, ________.
A) grabens develop on the footwall block
B) the crust is shortened and thickened
C) horizontal, tensional stresses drive the deformation
D) the hanging wall block slips downward along the thrust fault
Answer: B
Diff: 1
Topic: 10.3 Structures Formed by Brittle Deformation
Bloom's: Remembering
4) Which one of the following stress situations results in folding of flat-lying, sedimentary strata?
A) horizontally directed; compressive stresses
B) vertically directed; extensional or stretching stresses
C) horizontally directed; extensional stresses
D) vertically directed; compressional stresses
Answer: A
Diff: 1
Topic: 10.1 Crustal Deformation
Bloom's: Remembering

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5) A graben is characterized by ________.


A) a hanging wall block that has moved up between two reverse faults
B) a footwall block that has moved up between two normal faults
C) a hanging wall block that has moved down between two normal faults
D) a footwall block that has moved down between two reverse faults
Answer: C
Diff: 1
Topic: 10.3 Structures Formed by Brittle Deformation
Bloom's: Remembering
6) The mountains and valleys of the Basin and Range Province of the western United States
formed in response to ________.
A) strike-slip faulting and hanging wall block uplifts
B) reverse faults and large displacement, thrust faulting
C) tensional stresses and normal-fault movements
D) normal faulting and horizontal compression
Answer: C
Diff: 1
Topic: 10.3 Structures Formed by Brittle Deformation
Bloom's: Remembering
7) In a normal fault ________.
A) the hanging wall block below an inclined fault plane moves downward relative to the other
block
B) the footwall block below an inclined fault plane moves downward relative to the other block
C) the hanging wall block above an inclined fault plane moves downward relative to the other
block
D) the footwall block above an inclined fault plane moves upward relative to the other block
Answer: C
Diff: 1
Topic: 10.3 Structures Formed by Brittle Deformation
Bloom's: Remembering
8) A transform fault is ________.
A) a strike-slip fault that forms the boundary between tectonic plates
B) a dip-slip fault connecting an anticline with a syncline
C) a reverse fault that steepens into a thrust fault
D) the rift bounding faults on a mid-ocean ridge
Answer: A
Diff: 1
Topic: 10.3 Structures Formed by Brittle Deformation
Bloom's: Remembering

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9) Brittle deformation would be favored over plastic deformation in which of the following
conditions?
A) high confining pressures
B) warmer temperatures
C) cooler temperatures
D) deeper depths
Answer: C
Diff: 2
Topic: 10.3 Structures Formed by Brittle Deformation
Bloom's: Remembering
10) A thrust fault is best described as ________.
A) a steeply inclined, oblique-slip fault
B) a low-angle, reverse fault
C) a vertical, normal fault
D) a near vertical, strike-slip fault
Answer: B
Diff: 2
Topic: 10.3 Structures Formed by Brittle Deformation
Bloom's: Remembering
11) A horst is ________.
A) an uplifted block bounded by two normal faults
B) a downdropped block bounded by two reverse faults
C) an uplifted block bounded by two reverse faults
D) a downdropped block bounded by two normal faults
Answer: A
Diff: 1
Topic: 10.3 Structures Formed by Brittle Deformation
Bloom's: Remembering
12) A syncline is ________.
A) a fold in which the strata dip away from the axis
B) a fold with only one limb
C) a fold in which the strata dip toward the axis
D) a fold characterized by recumbent limbs
Answer: C
Diff: 1
Topic: 10.2 Structures Formed by Ductile Deformation
Bloom's: Remembering

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13) The Black Hills of South Dakota are a good example of a(n) ________.
A) anticline
B) syncline
C) basin
D) dome
Answer: D
Diff: 1
Topic: 10.2 Structures Formed by Ductile Deformation
Bloom's: Remembering
14) Large circular downwarped structures are called ________.
A) anticlines
B) synclines
C) basins
D) domes
Answer: C
Diff: 1
Topic: 10.2 Structures Formed by Ductile Deformation
Bloom's: Remembering
15) Which of the following combinations should favor folding rather than faulting?
A) high temperature and low confining pressure
B) low confining pressure and low temperature
C) high confining pressure and low temperature
D) high temperature and high confining pressure
Answer: D
Diff: 1
Topic: 10.2 Structures Formed by Ductile Deformation
Bloom's: Remembering
16) Tensional forces normally cause which one of the following?
A) strike-slip faults
B) reverse faults
C) normal faults
D) thrust faults
Answer: C
Diff: 1
Topic: 10.3 Structures Formed by Brittle Deformation
Bloom's: Remembering

Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.

17) The ________ in California is the boundary between the North American and Pacific plates.
A) Sierra Nevada frontal fault
B) San Andreas strike-slip fault
C) San Luis Obispo thrust fault
D) San Francisco normal fault
Answer: B
Diff: 1
Topic: 10.3 Structures Formed by Brittle Deformation
Bloom's: Remembering
18) A(n) ________ is a thick accumulation of sediments and small, tectonic blocks formed of
material scraped off a descending, lithospheric plate.
A) mass movement complex
B) continental shelf, terrain complex
C) accretionary-wedge complex
D) subterranean-accumulation complex
Answer: C
Diff: 1
Topic: 10.5 Mountain Building at Subduction Zones
Bloom's: Remembering
19) The Sierra Nevada, California, and Teton, Wyoming, ranges are examples of ________.
A) fault blocks uplifted by late Tertiary to Quaternary normal faulting
B) folding, compression, and thickening of Paleozoic strata in Jurassic time
C) isostatic uplift of crust overthickened in early Paleozoic time
D) uplifted blocks bounded by Quaternary reverse faults
Answer: A
Diff: 2
Topic: 10.5 Mountain Building at Subduction Zones
Bloom's: Remembering
20) A good example of a present-day, passive continental margin is the ________.
A) north flank of the East Pacific Rise
B) west coast of South America
C) east coast of the Japanese Islands
D) east coast of North America
Answer: D
Diff: 1
Topic: 10.5 Mountain Building at Subduction Zones
Bloom's: Remembering

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21) The ________ area geologically old mountain range folded and deformed during the
Paleozoic.
A) Cascades in the northwestern United States
B) Rockies in the western United States
C) Appalachians in the eastern United States
D) Alps in Europe
Answer: B
Diff: 1
Topic: 10.6 Collisional Mountain Belts
Bloom's: Remembering
22) The term ________ refers specifically to geologic mountain building.
A) orogneisses
B) orogenesis
C) orthogeny
D) orthogonal
Answer: B
Diff: 1
Topic: 10.6 Collisional Mountain Belts
Bloom's: Remembering
23) The ________ is (are) characterized by terrane accretion that has been active throughout
most of Mesozoic and Cenozoic time.
A) western margin of Africa
B) southern margins of India and Australia
C) western margin of North America
D) western margin of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge
Answer: C
Diff: 1
Topic: 10.6 Collisional Mountain Belts
Bloom's: Remembering
24) Folded limestones that occur high in the Himalayas were originally deposited as sediments in
a ________.
A) marine basin between India and Eurasia
B) Cenozoic fault basin between Africa and Arabia
C) deep ocean trench along the southern margin of India
D) late Paleozoic syncline north of the Tibetan Plateau
Answer: A
Diff: 1
Topic: 10.6 Collisional Mountain Belts
Bloom's: Remembering

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25) The concept that rocks of the crust and upper mantle are floating in gravitational balance is
known as ________.
A) isotropy
B) isostasy
C) isobration
D) isomonism
Answer: B
Diff: 1
Topic: 10.8 Vertical Movements of the Crust
Bloom's: Remembering
26) A(n) ________ is a thick accumulation of sediments and small, tectonic blocks formed of
material scraped off a descending, lithospheric plate.
A) mass movement complex
B) continental shelf, terrain complex
C) accretionary-wedge complex
D) subterranean-accumulation complex
Answer: C
Diff: 1
Topic: 10.5 Mountain Building at Subduction Zones
Bloom's: Remembering
27) Which one of the following is an example of an isostatic movement?
A) stream downcutting following a drop in sea level
B) arching of strata at the center of a dome
C) numerous aftershocks associated with deep-focus earthquakes
D) uplift of areas recently covered by thick, continental ice sheets
Answer: D
Diff: 1
Topic: 10.8 Vertical Movements of the Crust
Bloom's: Remembering
Word Analysis. Examine the words and/or phrases for each question below and determine the
relationship among the majority of words/phrases. Choose the option which does not fit the
pattern.
28) elastic
ductile
folding
compression
Answer: elastic
Diff: 1
Topic: 10.3 Structures Formed by Brittle Deformation
Bloom's: Understanding
29) dome
anticline
monocline
basin
Answer: monocline
Diff: 2
Topic: 10.2 Structures Formed by Ductile Deformation
Bloom's: Understanding
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30) normal fault


reverse fault
thrust fault
Answer: strike-slip fault
Diff: 1
Topic: 10.3 Structures Formed by Brittle Deformation
Bloom's: Understanding
31) Himalayas
Andes
Appalachians
Answer: Andes
Diff: 2
Topic: 10.5 Mountain Building at Subduction Zones
Bloom's: Understanding

strike-slip fault

Alps

32) High rock temperatures enhance plastic deformation and flow in the asthenosphere and
inhibit brittle fracturing.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 1
Topic: 10.5 Mountain Building at Subduction Zones
Bloom's: Understanding
33) In a reverse fault, the hanging wall block moves up relative to the footwall block.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 1
Topic: 10.3 Structures Formed by Brittle Deformation
Bloom's: Understanding
34) Normal faults form in response to horizontal, tensional stresses that stretch or elongate the
rocks.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 1
Topic: 10.3 Structures Formed by Brittle Deformation
Bloom's: Understanding
35) Basin and range topography, like that in the western and southwestern United States,
indicates that compressive folding is active today or was active very recently, geologically
speaking.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 1
Topic: 10.7 What Causes Earth's Varied Topography?
Bloom's: Understanding
36) Plastic deformation occurs more readily in warm rock than in cool rock.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 1
Topic: 10.1 Crustal Deformation
Bloom's: Understanding
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37) A graben is an upraised block bounded by two reverse faults.


Answer: FALSE
Diff: 1
Topic: 10.3 Structures Formed by Brittle Deformation
Bloom's: Understanding
38) Horizontal, compressive deformation involves shortening and thickening of the crust.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 1
Topic: 10.1 Crustal Deformation
Bloom's: Understanding
39) The Himalayan Mountains and Tibetan Plateau are still rising today as Eurasia slides beneath
the Indian subcontinent.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 1
Topic: 10.6 Collisional Mountain Belts
Bloom's: Understanding
40) Terrane accretion generally occurs along a divergent boundary between a continental plate
and an oceanic plate.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 1
Topic: 10.6 Collisional Mountain Belts
Bloom's: Understanding
41) Accretionary wedges develop along subduction zones where sediments and other rocks are
scraped off a descending plate and piled against the leading edge of the overriding plate.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 1
Topic: 10.5 Mountain Building at Subduction Zones
Bloom's: Understanding
42) Fold-and-thrust belts are commonly associated with fault-block mountains.
Answer: False
Diff: 1
Topic: 10.7 What Causes Earth's Varied Topography?
Bloom's: Understanding
43) Fractures in rock that have not involved any fault slippage are called joints.
Answer: True
Diff: 1
Topic: 10.4 Mountain Building
Bloom's: Understanding

Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.

44) Are horsts and grabens bounded by normal or reverse faults?


Answer: normal faults
Diff: 1
Topic: 10.3 Structures Formed by Brittle Deformation
Bloom's: Applying
45) A(n) ________ has strata on both limbs dipping inward toward the axis.
Answer: syncline
Diff: 1
Topic: 10.3 Structures Formed by Brittle Deformation
Bloom's: Applying
46) A circular to elliptical structure developed by upward arching of the central strata is a
________.
Answer: dome
Diff: 1
Topic: 10.3 Structures Formed by Brittle Deformation
Bloom's: Applying
47) In a thrust fault, the hanging wall moves ________ relative to the footwall, and the fault
plane is oriented at a ________ angle.
Answer: up; low
Diff: 1
Topic: 10.3 Structures Formed by Brittle Deformation
Bloom's: Applying
48) A(n) ________ fault develops in response to horizontal, tensional stresses in crustal rocks.
Answer: normal
Diff: 1
Topic: 10.3 Structures Formed by Brittle Deformation
Bloom's: Applying
49) A circular to elliptical structure developed by downwarping of the central strata is a
________.
Answer: basin
Diff: 1
Topic: 10.3 Structures Formed by Brittle Deformation
Bloom's: Applying
50) The east coast of North America is a good example of a ________ tectonic margin.
Answer: passive
Diff: 1
Topic: 10.5 Mountain Building at Subduction Zones
Bloom's: Applying

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51) The ________ mountains in North America were formed by a continent-continent collision
in the Paleozoic.
Answer: Appalachian
Diff: 1
Topic: 10.5 Mountain Building at Subduction Zones
Bloom's: Applying
52) Fault-block mountains occur in regions dominated by ________ faulting.
Answer: normal
Diff: 1
Topic: 10.7 What Causes Earth's Varied Topography?
Bloom's: Applying
53) Any accreted crustal fragment that has a geologic history distinct from that of the adjoining
fragments is termed a ________.
Answer: terrane
Diff: 1
Topic: 10.6 Collisional Mountain Belts
Bloom's: Applying
54) ________ are fractures showing little or no movement of the rocks on either side.
Answer: Joints
Diff: 1
Topic: 10.4 Mountain Building
Bloom's: Applying
Critical Thinking and Discussion. Use complete sentences, correct spelling, and the
information presented in Chapter 10 to answer the questions below.
55) A fault is observed in a road cut, but there are no obvious rocks units to correlate on either
side of the fault to determine relative movement. How else might you determine or even infer
whether the hanging wall has moved up or down relative to the footwall? (Hint: Think of fossils,
tectonic setting, etc.)
Answer: Determining the type of fault based on the angles of tectonic plates relative to one
another, the visibility of fossils and the spacing of the ditch, or graben will help to explain
whether the hanging wall shifted upward or downward relative to the footwall.
Diff: 2
Topic: 10.3 Structures Formed by Brittle Deformation
Bloom's: Evaluating

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56) A region is characterized by numerous anticlines and synclines. There are also several faults
present that appear to have formed at the same time as the folding. Without looking at any
details, what type of faults would you assume them to be? Why?
Answer: This would be a type of dip-slip fault because faults in which the movement is
primarily vertical are called dip-slip faults. Dip-slip faults include both normal and reverse faults.
Diff: 2
Topic: 10.3 Structures Formed by Brittle Deformation
Bloom's: Evaluating
57) Describe the characteristics of regions dominated by fault-block mountains such as the Basin
& Range. What is their relationship to plate tectonics and why don't they create large-scale areas
of orogenesis like Andean-Type margins or continental collisions?
Answer: However, other tectonic processes, such as continental rifting, can also produce uplift
and the formation of topographic mountains. The mountains that form in these setting are faultblock mountains and are bounded by high-angle normal faults that gradually flatten with depth.
Most fault-block mountains form in response to broad uplifting that causes elongation and
faulting. Large scale areas of orogenesis do not occur because the brittle upper crust features of
the mountains break into fault blocks and tilt giving rise to nearly parallel mountain ranges.
Diff: 3
Topic: 10.7 What Causes Earth's Varied Topography?
Bloom's: Evaluating

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58) Carefully study each illustration below to determine the type(s) of geologic structure(s) it
contains. Match each one to the correct answers listed.
reverse fault

monocline

normal fault

(a) ________

(b) ________

(c) ________
Answer: (a) normal fault
(b) reverse fault
(c) monocline
Diff: 1
Topic: 10.3 Structures Formed by Brittle Deformation
Bloom's: Evaluating

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59) On the blanks provided below, fill in the name of the specific type of geologic features that
have been labeled.

Answer: (a) graben


(b) horst
(c) normal faults
Diff: 1
Topic: 10.3 Structures Formed by Brittle Deformation
Bloom's: Evaluating

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