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Earth Science, 13e (Tarbuck)

Chapter 17 Moisture, Clouds, and Precipitation


1) The cloud form that is best described as sheets or layers that cover much or all of the sky is
termed ________.
A) cumulus
B) stratus
C) cirrus
D) alto
Answer: B
Diff: 1
Topic: 17.6 Condensation and Cloud Formation
Bloom's: Remembering
2) The cloud form that consists of globular cloud masses that take on a billowy or
"cauliflowerlike" structure is called ________.
A) cumulus
B) stratus
C) cirrus
D) alto
Answer: A
Diff: 1
Topic: 17.6 Condensation and Cloud Formation
Bloom's: Remembering
3) This term is used to describe clouds found in the middle height range.
A) cumulus
B) stratus
C) cirrus
D) alto
Answer: D
Diff: 1
Topic: 17.6 Condensation and Cloud Formation
Bloom's: Remembering
4) High clouds that form delicate veil-like patches or extended wispy fibers are termed
________.
A) cumulus
B) stratus
C) cirrus
D) alto
Answer: C
Diff: 1
Topic: 17.6 Condensation and Cloud Formation
Bloom's: Remembering

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5) This term is used to describe clouds that produce precipitation.


A) cumulus
B) stratus
C) cirrus
D) nimbo
Answer: D
Diff: 1
Topic: 17.6 Condensation and Cloud Formation
Bloom's: Remembering
6) These clouds are often called "fair weather" clouds.
A) cumulus
B) stratus
C) cirrus
D) nimbo
Answer: A
Diff: 1
Topic: 17.6 Condensation and Cloud Formation
Bloom's: Remembering
7) This cloud sometimes produces "mare's tails."
A) cirrostratus
B) cumulonimbus
C) altostratus
D) cirrus
Answer: D
Diff: 1
Topic: 17.6 Condensation and Cloud Formation
Bloom's: Remembering
8) Thunder and lightning are associated with these clouds.
A) cirrostratus
B) cumulonimbus
C) altostratus
D) cirrus
Answer: B
Diff: 1
Topic: 17.6 Condensation and Cloud Formation
Bloom's: Remembering

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9) This cloud type is confined to the middle height range.


A) cirrostratus
B) cumulonimbus
C) altostratus
D) cirrus
Answer: C
Diff: 1
Topic: 17.6 Condensation and Cloud Formation
Bloom's: Remembering
10) A halo around the Sun or Moon indicates that this cloud type is present.
A) cirrostratus
B) cumulonimbus
C) altostratus
D) cirrus
Answer: A
Diff: 1
Topic: 17.6 Condensation and Cloud Formation
Bloom's: Remembering
11) A dark gray cloud that blankets the sky and often generates precipitation is called ________.
A) cirrostratus
B) nimbostratus
C) altostratus
D) cirrus
Answer: B
Diff: 1
Topic: 17.6 Condensation and Cloud Formation
Bloom's: Remembering
12) This cloud may develop an "anvil head."
A) cirrostratus
B) cumulonimbus
C) altostratus
D) cirrus
Answer: B
Diff: 1
Topic: 17.6 Condensation and Cloud Formation
Bloom's: Remembering

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13) Tornadoes can be associated with this cloud type.


A) cirrostratus
B) cumulonimbus
C) altostratus
D) cirrus
Answer: B
Diff: 1
Topic: 17.6 Condensation and Cloud Formation
Bloom's: Remembering
14) Hail is most commonly associated with ________.
A) cirrostratus
B) cumulonimbus
C) altostratus
D) cirrus
Answer: B
Diff: 1
Topic: 17.6 Condensation and Cloud Formation
Bloom's: Remembering
15) A wintertime form of precipitation that consists of small ice particles is called ________.
A) rime
B) glaze
C) hail
D) sleet
Answer: D
Diff: 1
Topic: 17.9 Forms of Precipitation
Bloom's: Remembering
16) This fog forms in valleys at night.
A) advection fog
B) radiation fog
C) steam fog
D) precipitation fog
Answer: B
Diff: 1
Topic: 17.7 Fog
Bloom's: Remembering

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17) When warm moist air moves over a cold surface, ________ fog may result.
A) advection
B) radiation
C) steam
D) upslope
Answer: A
Diff: 1
Topic: 17.7 Fog
Bloom's: Remembering
18) This fog results from adiabatic cooling.
A) advection
B) radiation
C) steam
D) upslope
Answer: D
Diff: 1
Topic: 17.7 Fog
Bloom's: Remembering
19) Which one of the fogs listed below may be categorized as an evaporation fog?
A) advection
B) radiation
C) steam
D) upslope
Answer: C
Diff: 1
Topic: 17.7 Fog
Bloom's: Remembering
20) When supercooled raindrops freeze on contact with solid objects, ________ forms.
A) rime
B) glaze
C) hail
D) sleet
Answer: B
Diff: 1
Topic: 17.9 Forms of Precipitation
Bloom's: Remembering

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21) The amount of water vapor in the air (by volume) usually does not exceed ________.
A) 50%
B) 28%
C) 14%
D) 4%
Answer: D
Diff: 1
Topic: 17.8 How Precipitation Forms
Bloom's: Remembering
22) We are likely to have our highest relative humidity ________.
A) during midafternoon
B) around midnight
C) about sunrise
D) at noon
Answer: C
Diff: 1
Topic: 17.8 How Precipitation Forms
Bloom's: Remembering
23) When using a psychrometer and the two temperatures read nearly the same, you can
conclude that ________.
A) your instrument reading is accurate
B) a change in temperature is likely
C) the dew point temperature is very low
D) the air has a high relative humidity
Answer: D
Diff: 1
Topic: 17.8 How Precipitation Forms
Bloom's: Remembering
24) Under what circumstances could the relative humidity exceed 100% without producing
condensation in the air?
A) when the dew point is higher than the air temperature
B) when the air is perfectly dry
C) when the water vapor is composed of "heavy" water
D) when there are no condensation nuclei
Answer: D
Diff: 1
Topic: 17.8 How Precipitation Forms
Bloom's: Remembering

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25) The dew point is the temperature at which ________.


A) water in the liquid state changes to vapor
B) hailstones are formed
C) water vapor condenses to a liquid
D) cumulus clouds change to cumulonimbus clouds
Answer: C
Diff: 1
Topic: 17.2 Humidity: Water Vapor in the Atmosphere
Bloom's: Remembering
26) The most important process of cloud formation in the atmosphere is ________.
A) cooling by compression of air
B) cooling by release of latent heat of vaporization
C) cooling by expansion of air
D) radiation cooling
Answer: C
Diff: 1
Topic: 17.6 Condensation and Cloud Formation
Bloom's: Remembering
27) If air at sea level with a temperature of 27C is forced up a mountain slope and the air's dew
point at the condensation level is 14C, at what elevation will condensation begin?
A) 2600 meters
B) 1400 meters
C) 2700 meters
D) 1300 meters
Answer: D
Diff: 1
Topic: 17.3 The Basis of Cloud Formation: Adiabatic Cooling
Bloom's: Remembering
28) Stability prevails when the environmental lapse rate is ________.
A) less than the wet adiabatic rate
B) greater than the wet adiabatic rate and less than the dry adiabatic rate
C) greater than the dry adiabatic rate
D) greater than both the wet and dry adiabatic rates
Answer: A
Diff: 1
Topic: 17.5 The Weathermaker: Atmospheric Stability
Bloom's: Remembering

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29) When air is unstable, the environmental lapse rate is ________.


A) less than the wet adiabatic rate
B) zero
C) greater than the dry adiabatic rate
D) greater than both the wet and dry adiabatic rates
Answer: C
Diff: 1
Topic: 17.5 The Weathermaker: Atmospheric Stability
Bloom's: Remembering
30) Which of the following will NOT cause air to become unstable?
A) intense solar heating which warms the air from below
B) forceful lifting of air
C) subsidence of an air column
D) upward movement caused by general convergence
Answer: C
Diff: 1
Topic: 17.5 The Weathermaker: Atmospheric Stability
Bloom's: Remembering
31) Which of the following would NOT be associated with stable atmospheric conditions?
A) widespread fog
B) temperature inversion
C) dreary overcast with light drizzle
D) afternoon thunder showers
Answer: D
Diff: 1
Topic: 17.5 The Weathermaker: Atmospheric Stability
Bloom's: Remembering
32) A parcel of air has a temperature of 0C as it crosses a mountain range at 3000 meters. If it
descends, what will its temperature be when it reaches sea level?
A) 15C
B) 30C
C) 0C
D) 40C
Answer: B
Diff: 1
Topic: 17.5 The Weathermaker: Atmospheric Stability
Bloom's: Remembering

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33) Deserts such as the Great Basin, Gobi, and Takla Makan are examples of ________.
A) chinook deserts
B) subtropical deserts
C) rainshadow deserts
D) monsoon deserts
Answer: C
Diff: 1
Topic: 17.4 Processes that Lift Air
Bloom's: Remembering
34) The change of state from a gas to a liquid is called ________.
A) evaporation
B) sublimation
C) condensation
D) melting
Answer: C
Diff: 1
Topic: 17.6 Condensation and Cloud Formation
Bloom's: Remembering
35) The term ________ is used to describe the conversion of a solid directly to a gas, without
passing through the liquid state.
A) evaporation
B) sublimation
C) condensation
D) melting
Answer: B
Diff: 1
Topic: 17.1 Water's Changes of State
Bloom's: Remembering
36) The process by which water vapor changes directly to a solid is called ________.
A) evaporation
B) deposition
C) condensation
D) melting
Answer: B
Diff: 1
Topic: 17.1 Water's Changes of State
Bloom's: Remembering

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37) This process results in the release of about 600 calories of latent heat per gram of water.
A) evaporation
B) deposition
C) condensation
D) melting
Answer: C
Diff: 1
Topic: 17.1 Water's Changes of State
Bloom's: Remembering
38) The process of converting a liquid to vapor is termed ________.
A) evaporation
B) sublimation
C) condensation
D) melting
Answer: A
Diff: 1
Topic: 17.1 Water's Changes of State
Bloom's: Remembering
Please answer the following questions using the data below:
H2O vapor content: 14 grams
H2O vapor capacity: 20 grams at 25 degrees Celsius
14 grams at 20C
10 grams at 15C
39) What is the relative humidity for the above conditions at 25C?
A) 30%
B) 100%
C) 15%
D) 70%
Answer: D
Diff: 1
Topic: 17.2 Humidity: Water Vapor in the Atmosphere
Bloom's: Applying
40) For the given conditions, what would happen to the relative humidity value if the
temperature increased from 25C?
A) It would increase.
B) It would decrease.
C) It would remain the same.
D) It depends on the dew point temperature.
Answer: B
Diff: 1
Topic: 17.2 Humidity: Water Vapor in the Atmosphere
Bloom's: Applying

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41) What is the dew point for the conditions listed above?
A) 25C
B) 20C
C) 15C
D) colder than 15C
Answer: B
Diff: 1
Topic: 17.2 Humidity: Water Vapor in the Atmosphere
Bloom's: Applying
42) What would happen if the temperature were cooled to 15C?
A) decrease in relative humidity and evaporation of 4 grams of water
B) increase in relative humidity and evaporation of 4 grams of water
C) decrease in relative humidity and condensation of 4 grams of water
D) increase in relative humidity and condensation of 4 grams of water
Answer: D
Diff: 1
Topic: 17.2 Humidity: Water Vapor in the Atmosphere
Bloom's: Applying
Word Analysis. Examine the words and/or phrases for each question below and determine the
relationship among the majority of words/phrases. Choose the option which does not fit the
pattern.
43) melting
condensation
Answer: condensation
Diff: 1
Topic: 17.1 Water's Changes of State
Bloom's: Applying

sublimation

evaporation

44) adiabatic cooling


orographic lifting
Answer: adiabatic cooling
Diff: 1
Topic: 17.4 Processes that Lift Air
Bloom's: Applying

frontal wedging

45) cirrus
cumulus
nimbostratus
Answer: nimbostratus
Diff: 1
Topic: 17.6 Condensation and Cloud Formation
Bloom's: Applying

altocumulus

46) advection fog


Answer: steam fog
Diff: 1
Topic: 17.7 Fog
Bloom's: Applying

steam fog

radiation fog

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upslope fog

convergence

47) sleet
snow
hail
freezing rain
Answer: hail
Diff: 1
Topic: 17.8 How Precipitation Forms
Bloom's: Applying
48) The highest relative humidity on a particular day usually occurs in the midafternoon.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 1
Topic: 17.8 How Precipitation Forms
Bloom's: Understanding
49) The highest relative humidity during a particular day usually occurs just before sunrise.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 1
Topic: 17.8 How Precipitation Forms
Bloom's: Understanding
50) Because the mixing ratio is expressed in units of mass, it is affected by changes in pressure
or
temperature.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 1
Topic: 17.2 Humidity: Water Vapor in the Atmosphere
Bloom's: Understanding
51) If the temperature rises and the amount of moisture in the air remains unchanged, the
relative humidity will increase.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 1
Topic: 17.2 Humidity: Water Vapor in the Atmosphere
Bloom's: Understanding
52) If the temperature drops and the amount of moisture in the air remains unchanged, the
relative humidity will increase.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 1
Topic: 17.2 Humidity: Water Vapor in the Atmosphere
Bloom's: Understanding
53) Generally the water vapor content of the air over a tropical desert exceeds that of the air over
the polar ice caps.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 1
Topic: 17.2 Humidity: Water Vapor in the Atmosphere
Bloom's: Understanding
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54) Relative humidity is usually expressed as a percent.


Answer: TRUE
Diff: 1
Topic: 17.2 Humidity: Water Vapor in the Atmosphere
Bloom's: Understanding
55) The capacity of air to "hold" water vapor is temperature dependent.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 1
Topic: 17.2 Humidity: Water Vapor in the Atmosphere
Bloom's: Understanding
56) When air sinks, it compresses and warms.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 1
Topic: 17.6 Condensation and Cloud Formation
Bloom's: Understanding
57) When air rises, it expands and cools adiabatically.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 1
Topic: 17.6 Condensation and Cloud Formation
Bloom's: Understanding
58) Clouds form because rising air cools as it comes in contact with colder air aloft.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 1
Topic: 17.6 Condensation and Cloud Formation
Bloom's: Understanding
59) When air is cooled to its dew point, the relative humidity is 100%.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 1
Topic: 17.2 Humidity: Water Vapor in the Atmosphere
Bloom's: Understanding
60) Dew point is the temperature at which the air is saturated.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 1
Topic: 17.2 Humidity: Water Vapor in the Atmosphere
Bloom's: Understanding
61) Air that resists vertical motion is described as being stable.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 1
Topic: 17.5 The Weathermaker: Atmospheric Stability
Bloom's: Understanding
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62) When stable air is forced to rise, any clouds that are produced are generally thin and flat
lying.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 1
Topic: 17.5 The Weathermaker: Atmospheric Stability
Bloom's: Understanding
63) When unstable air is forced to rise, towering clouds and stormy conditions are expected.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 1
Topic: 17.5 The Weathermaker: Atmospheric Stability
Bloom's: Understanding
64) Orographic lifting occurs where sloping terrains, such as mountains, act as barriers to the
flow of air.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 1
Topic: 17.4 Processes that Lift Air
Bloom's: Understanding
65) Deserts, which are cut off from moisture by mountain ranges, are termed isolated deserts.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 1
Topic: 17.4 Processes that Lift Air
Bloom's: Understanding
66) ________ clouds that form sheets or layers that cover much of the sky.
Answer: Stratus
Diff: 1
Topic: 17.6 Condensation and Cloud Formation
Bloom's: Understanding
67) The term used to describe clouds that consist of globular masses that take on a billowy form
is ________.
Answer: cumulus
Diff: 1
Topic: 17.6 Condensation and Cloud Formation
Bloom's: Understanding
68) The term used to indicate a cloud found in the middle height range is ________.
Answer: alto
Diff: 1
Topic: 17.6 Condensation and Cloud Formation
Bloom's: Understanding

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69) High clouds that form delicate veil-like patches or wispy fibers are called ________ clouds.
Answer: cirrus
Diff: 1
Topic: 17.6 Condensation and Cloud Formation
Bloom's: Understanding
70) The term ________ is incorporated into the name of clouds that generate precipitation.
Answer: nimbo (nimbus)
Diff: 1
Topic: 17.6 Condensation and Cloud Formation
Bloom's: Understanding
71) Thunder and lightning are normally associated with ________ clouds.
Answer: cumulonimbus
Diff: 1
Topic: 17.6 Condensation and Cloud Formation
Bloom's: Understanding
72) Small billowy clouds associated with fair weather are called ________ clouds.
Answer: cumulus
Diff: 1
Topic: 17.6 Condensation and Cloud Formation
Bloom's: Understanding
73) A dark gray cloud that blankets the sky and often generates precipitation is called ________.
Answer: nimbostratus
Diff: 1
Topic: 17.6 Condensation and Cloud Formation
Bloom's: Understanding
74) A wintertime form of precipitation that consists of small ice particles is called ________.
Answer: sleet
Diff: 1
Topic: 17.8 How Precipitation Forms
Bloom's: Understanding
75) What type of fog forms in valleys at night?
Answer: radiation
Diff: 1
Topic: 17.7 Fog
Bloom's: Understanding
76) When warm moist air moves over a cold surface, ________ fog may result.
Answer: advection
Diff: 1
Topic: 17.7 Fog
Bloom's: Understanding
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77) When supercooled raindrops freeze on contact with solid objects, ________ forms.
Answer: glaze
Diff: 1
Topic: 17.9 Forms of Precipitation
Bloom's: Understanding
78) The change of state from a gas to a liquid is called ________.
Answer: condensation
Diff: 1
Topic: 17.1 Water's Changes of State
Bloom's: Understanding
79) The process by which water vapor changes directly to a solid is called ________.
Answer: deposition
Diff: 1
Topic: 17.1 Water's Changes of State
Bloom's: Understanding
80) ________ temperature changes are those that do not involve the addition or subtraction of
heat.
Answer: Adiabatic
Diff: 1
Topic: 17.3 The Basis of Cloud Formation: Adiabatic Cooling
Bloom's: Understanding
81) ________ is the mass of water vapor in a unit of air compared to the remaining mass of dry
air.
Answer: Mixing ratio
Diff: 1
Topic: 17.2 Humidity: Water Vapor in the Atmosphere
Bloom's: Understanding
82) ________ wedging occurs when warm air is forced over cooler air.
Answer: Frontal
Diff: 1
Topic: 17.4 Processes that Lift Air
Bloom's: Understanding
83) The ________ is the temperature to which a parcel of air would need to be cooled in order to
reach saturation.
Answer: dew point
Diff: 1
Topic: 17.6 Condensation and Cloud Formation
Bloom's: Understanding

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Critical Thinking and Discussion. Use complete sentences, correct spelling, and the
information presented in Chapter 17 to answer the questions below.
84) Why is the vertical movement of air critical to the formation of clouds and precipitation?
What role do adiabatic temperature changes play in these processes?
Answer: Air tends to resist vertical movement. Therefore, air located near the surface tends to
stay near the surface, and air aloft tends to remain aloft. When you see clouds forming there is
some mechanical phenomenon at work that forces the air to rise (at least initially). A drop in
temperature occurs even though heat is neither added nor subtracted. Such variations are known
as adiabatic temperature changes and result when air is compressed or allowed to expand. In
summary, when air is allowed to expand, it cools, and when it is compressed, it warms.
Diff: 2
Topic: 17.3 The Basis of Cloud Formation: Adiabatic Cooling
Bloom's: Applying
85) Considering the factors involved in the formation of clouds, briefly discuss the relationship
of climate and clouds. Would you expect such things as cloud height and the types of clouds to
vary from one region to another due to differing climates? Why or why not? Also, how would
geography affect this process?
Answer: Climate variations are known as adiabatic temperature changes and result when air is
compressed or allowed to expand. In summary, when air is allowed to expand, it cools, and when
it is compressed, it warms affecting cloud formation. Cloud hight and types would vary
depending on geographic region or climate based on the temperature of the air and at what rate
rising air was heated or compressed, etc. For example, cirrus, cumulus and stratus clouds are
compiled based on their height relative to the surface and size, factors that are influenced by
geographic characteristics and temperature.
Diff: 3
Topic: 17.6 Condensation and Cloud Formation
Bloom's: Applying
86) On a given day in the winter in St. Louis, Missouri, it began snowing in the morning, the
snow changed to rain by noon, later in the afternoon sleet was falling which turned to snow, and
by evening rain was freezing on bridges and roadways as glaze. Briefly explain how such a
sequence of precipitation might occur.
Answer: Because atmospheric conditions vary greatly from place to place as well as seasonally,
several different forms of precipitation are possible. As wind and temperature difference deviate
throughout the day, weather patterns change accordingly.
Diff: 3
Topic: 17.9 Forms of Precipitation
Bloom's: Applying

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87) Fill in the missing terms on the diagram below.

Answer: See Figure 17.2 in Earth Science, 13e


Diff: 2
Topic: 17.1 Water's Changes of State
Bloom's: Applying

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88) Label the various clouds on the diagram below.

Answer: See Figure 17.20 in Earth Science, 13e.


Diff: 2
Topic: 17.6 Condensation and Cloud Formation
Bloom's: Applying

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