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SLIP ADDITIVES

BASICS
Additives, which enhance and reduce handling problems, are used extensively in
the manufacture of polyolefin films. In their natural state, most polyolefins exhibit
a degree of tackiness, and therefore cannot be readily processed into packaging
films without the presence of additives to ease their ability to separate and
slide.
Slip additives are used to reduce a films resistance to sliding over itself or parts
of converting equipment. Commercially important slips can be found in the
chemical family known as amides, and are typically referred to as fast bloom
(oleamide) and slow bloom (erucamide) additives. Other amides are used
specifically for special processes (e.g. higher heat extrusion coating applications
or customized mixtures where balancing slip and antiblock properties are critical).
The effectiveness of slip additives are normally determined by the coefficient of
friction (COF) it allows, which is measured using ASTM D-1894, Standard
Method of Test for Coefficient of Friction of Plastic Film. COF is a ratio of the
force required to slide one layer of film across another relative to the gravimetric
force exerted on it. Loosely defined, films can be defined as low, medium, or
high slip as follows:
Definition
Low Slip
Medium Slip
High Slip

Coefficient of Friction
0.50 - 0.80
0.20 - 0.40
0.05 - 0.20

PPM Slip Content*


200 - 400
500 - 600
700 - 1000

*For tackier resins (e.g. EVA, other copolymers, lower density polyolefins such as metallocenes,
ULDPE & VLDPE), higher levels may be needed.

The most common slip agents used for polyolefins are long-chain fatty acid
amides, with amides from oleyl (single unsaturated C-18) through erucyl (C-22
single unsaturated) being utilized. Slip agents are effective because of their
natural tendency to bloom to the surface of the film after extrusion. Different
slip agents have different rates of surface bloom and COF reduction. Hence, a

single slip agent might not necessarily perform in all of a customers desired
applications.
In general, the shorter chain length amides tend to bloom to the surface more
rapidly but are less thermally stable. Higher chain length amides have a slower
rate of bloom with higher thermal stability. While it might initially seem that a
faster bloom rate always offers advantages, many film processors would prefer a
slower rate of exudation. This is particularly true for roll stock, where a low COF
film could cause winding difficulties and telescoping of rolls. Slower rate of
exudation of the slip agent can also result in easier film treatment (i.e. corona
treating immediately after extruding the film). Excessively high amounts of any
slip agent make corona treatment very difficult.
PROPERTIES OF SLIP AGENTS
1. The exudation of the slip agent takes time and the ultimate COF may not
be obtained until 7-10 days after extrusion (depending on amide used).
Typically, the vast majority of COF reduction takes place within 24-48
hours.
2. Slip additives must be tailored to the process and desired end properties
by the processor. In some cases, an oleamide with a quick surface bloom
is needed, while in other cases a slower blooming amide is indicated.
3. High levels of slip can cause problems with the surface treatment of the
film as well as interfere with printability and sealability.
4. The amount of slip agent must be reduced as the thickness of film is
increased to maintain the same COF.
5. Small amounts of slip additives not only enhance the hand of film, but
also aid in processability.
6. Slip additives can be effective in enhancing mold release properties in
molding processes.

PRODUCT LINE
Ampacet makes a broad variety of slip concentrates designed to fit various needs
in terms of bloom rate as well as base resin requirements. Slip concentrates are
available in a variety of polyolefins, making them more compatible with
polypropylene and other resins used for films.
AMPACET SLIP PRODUCTS
z100497 ............................................... 1% erucamide in LDPE
z100492 ............................................... 2% erucamide in LDPE
z10061 ................................................. 6% erucamide blend in LDPE
z10090 ................................................. 5 5.5% erucamide in LDPE
z100329 ............................................... 5% erucamide in mLLD
z100041 ............................................... 5% erucamide in LLD
z40604 ................................................. 5% erucamide in PP
z7011014 ............................................. 5% oleamide in LDPE
z100948 ............................................... 5% oleamide, non-animal based, LDPE
z10358(-F) ........................................... 5% oleamide in PE
z10025 ................................................. 5% oleamide in LLD w/ filler
z100266 ............................................... 10% oleamide in LLD w/ filler
z100907 ............................................... 5% erucamide for Water-Based Ink Applns
z101501 ............................................... Non-blooming slip
For more information, please contact Ampacets technical support team
at 888-822-7546 or 812-466-9828
Disclaimer: The information and recommendations contained in this document are based upon data collected by Ampacet
and believed to be correct. However, no warranty of fitness for use or any other guarantees or warranty of any kind, expressed
or implied, is made to the information contained herein, and Ampacet assumes no responsibility for the result of the use of the
products and processes described herein. This is an uncontrolled document and information may be out of date.