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UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS


International General Certificate of Secondary Education

0610/01

BIOLOGY
Paper 1 Multiple Choice

May/June 2007
45 minutes

Additional Materials:

*3725898241*

Multiple Choice Answer Sheet


Soft clean eraser
Soft pencil (type B or HB recommended)

READ THESE INSTRUCTIONS FIRST


Write in soft pencil.
Do not use staples, paper clips, highlighters, glue or correction fluid.
Write your name, Centre number and candidate number on the Answer Sheet in the spaces provided
unless this has been done for you.
There are forty questions on this paper. Answer all questions. For each question there are four possible
answers A, B, C and D.
Choose the one you consider correct and record your choice in soft pencil on the separate Answer Sheet.
Read the instructions on the Answer Sheet very carefully.
Each correct answer will score one mark. A mark will not be deducted for a wrong answer.
Any rough working should be done in this booklet.

This document consists of 16 printed pages.


IB07 06_0610_01/3RP
UCLES 2007

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1

Which process involves the release of energy from food substances in all living cells?
A

breathing

nutrition

respiration

transpiration

Which of the four vertebrates in the table is a mammal?


scaly skin

hair

four limbs

tail

key

= present

= not present

The picture shows an animal.

What is the name of this animal according to the binomial system?


A

Catus

Felis leo

Male African lion

Top African jungle carnivore

UCLES 2007

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4

The diagram shows a fish.

dorsal fin

caudal fin

pectoral fin
anal fin
pelvic fin
Use the key to identify the fish.
1

black stripe across the eye ..

go to 2

no black stripe across the eye

.....

black stripe on caudal fin .

go to 3

no black stripe on caudal fin

black spot below dorsal fin ...

no black spot below dorsal fin

Which structures are found in a human sperm cell?


cell membrane

cell wall

haploid nucleus

key

 = present

 = not present

What is cytoplasm?
A

a fluid-filled space

a jelly-like substance

a surrounding wall

a tiny green disc

UCLES 2007

0610/01/M/J/07

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4
7

The diagram shows some of the structures found in the human abdomen.

What type of structures are X and Y?

organ

organ

organ

organ system

organ system

tissue

tissue

organ system

Cilia are present on the surface of the cells of the trachea. The cilia of a smoker work less
effectively than those of a non-smoker.
How does this affect the smoker?

Less carbon dioxide is released.

Less oxygen is released.

More bacteria enter the lungs.

More mucus is removed from the lungs.

What is an example of osmosis?


A

Carbon dioxide goes out through the stomata of a leaf.

Digested food is absorbed from the small intestine.

Oxygen goes into the blood from an alveolus.

Water enters a plant root from the soil.

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10 The diagram shows an experiment on diffusion.
sugar solution X
20 % sugar solution
permeable bag

More sugar diffuses out of the bag than diffuses in.


What is the concentration of sugar in solution X?
A

10 %

20 %

30 %

40 %

11 The temperature of an enzyme-controlled reaction is increased by 10 C.


How does this affect the rate of reaction?
A

It always increases the rate.

It always decreases the rate.

It may increase or decrease the rate.

It has no effect on the rate.

12 An enzyme from the stomach that digests protein, and cooked egg white that contains protein,
are placed in four test-tubes.
When the egg white is digested the mixture becomes clear.
Which tube becomes clear first?
A

egg white
and enzyme
acid
temperature 20 C

egg white
and enzyme
acid
temperature 37 C

egg white
and enzyme
alkali
temperature 20 C

egg white
and enzyme
alkali
temperature 37 C

UCLES 2007

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13 The diagrams show the arrangement of cells in a section of a green leaf.
Which arrow represents the diffusion of the most oxygen during bright sunlight?

14 Which elements do carbohydrates contain?


A

carbon, hydrogen and oxygen

carbon, hydrogen and sulphur

carbon, nitrogen and oxygen

carbon, nitrogen and sulphur

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15 The diagram shows the human alimentary canal, with a string marked in metres beside it.

oesophagus

1
2
3
string marked
in metres

anus

How long is the small intestine?


A

2m

6m

8m

9m

16 What is a function of the human blood system?


A

carrying eggs from the ovary to the uterus

carrying glucose from the gut to the liver

carrying partly digested food from the mouth to the stomach

carrying urine from the kidney to the bladder

UCLES 2007

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17 The diagram shows the stem of a plant. A strip of the outer tissue including the phloem has been
removed.

xylem
phloem

How is transport in the plant affected?


A

Amino acids and sucrose cannot pass to the roots.

Dissolved salts cannot pass to the leaves.

Water cannot pass to the leaves.

Water cannot pass to the roots.

18 The diagram shows how the appearance of a potted plant changes over a period of four days.

Which environmental conditions are most likely to cause this change?


humidity

light intensity

high

high

high

low

low

high

low

low

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9
19 Why is yeast used in breadmaking?
A

to provide alcohol

to provide carbon dioxide

to provide oxygen

to provide lactic acid

20 Which features are present in gaseous exchange surfaces?


large surface area

moist

thick walls

key

 = present

 = not present

21 Which component of cigarette smoke is most likely to cause lung cancer?


A

carbon dioxide

carbon monoxide

nicotine

tar

22 What is an example of homeostasis?


A

breathing in oxygen

regulating blood glucose

removing undigested food through the anus

urinating to empty the bladder

UCLES 2007

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23 The table shows an analysis of urine and of blood after filtration in the kidney.
percentage of substance in

substance

blood

urine

glucose

0.10

0.00

salts

0.30

0.60

urea

0.03

2.00

water

90.00

97.00

Which substance is completely reabsorbed by the kidney?


A

glucose

salts

urea

water

24 The diagram shows a neurone.

Which structures could be found at X and Y?


X

brain

intestine

brain

leg

eye

hand

skin

spinal cord

25 The diagram shows shoots of maize seedlings.


Which shoot shows negative geotropism?
A

B
light

light

gravity

UCLES 2007

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gravity

11
26 Where are the male gametes produced in a flowering plant?
A

petal

sepal

stamen

stigma

27 The diagram shows the changes that occur to the uterus lining during the menstrual cycle.

21 22 23 2
4

25

26

27

day
28 1 2

7
8

20
19

11
12

13

14 15 16

17

18

lining of
uterus

10

lining of uterus
gets thicker

When do the following stages occur in this cycle?


bleeding

lining starts to
break down

uterus lining
thickens

days 13 14

days 6 25

days 1 4

days 1 4

days 26 27

days 6 25

days 6 25

days 1 4

days 26 27

days 1 4

days 13 14

days 6 25

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28 The diagrams show a plant cell P changing to become cell Q.
P

What do the changes between P and Q show?


A

development and germination

germination and mitosis

growth and development

mitosis and growth

29 Which graph shows the change in dry mass from the time a seed starts to germinate (X) until
green leaves have appeared above the soil (Y)?
A

dry
mass

dry
mass
X

time

dry
mass
X

time

dry
mass
X

time

30 Which feature of a human is controlled by genes only?


A

age at death

blood group

dietary deficiency disease

lung cancer

31 A dominant allele
A

causes only harmful characteristics.

is responsible for male characteristics.

never undergoes mutation.

produces the same phenotype in heterozygotes and homozygotes.

UCLES 2007

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time

13
32 In one type of plant, the allele for red flowers (R) is dominant to the allele for white flowers (r).
A plant with red flowers is crossed with a plant with white flowers. Half of the offspring have red
flowers and half have white flowers.
What are the genotypes of the parent plants?
A

R and r

RR and rr

Rr and Rr

Rr and rr

33 In an ecosystem, plants absorb sunlight.


Which other organisms in the ecosystem depend on this process for their energy?
animals

decomposers

key

= depend

= do not depend

34 The diagram shows a pyramid of biomass for all organisms in an ecosystem.


Which organisms are herbivores?
A
B
C
D

UCLES 2007

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14
35 A single tree is food for a large population of caterpillars. Several small birds eat the caterpillars.
The small birds are eaten by a bird of prey.
Which is the pyramid of numbers for this food chain?

36 The diagram shows part of the water cycle.


water vapour in the air

compounds in living plants

compounds in living animals

Which process in living plants is responsible for returning water vapour to the air at P?
A

combustion

condensation

photosynthesis

respiration

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15
37 How will soil erosion and rainfall be affected by deforestation?
soil erosion

rainfall

decrease

decrease

decrease

increase

increase

increase

increase

decrease

38 Which graph shows the growth of a population where there are no limiting factors?

population
size

population
size

0
time

population
size

time

population
size

0
time

time

39 Which human activity helps to prevent the extinction of animal species?


A

creating more farmland

creating nature reserves

destroying natural habitats

extracting natural resources

UCLES 2007

0610/01/M/J/07

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16
40 The diagram shows an area being developed for industry and agriculture.
smoke containing
sulphur dioxide

fertilisers, herbicides and


pesticides applied to the land

factory

trees being cut down to


provide agricultural land
lake

Which would be the most likely to cause an initial increase in plant life in the lake?
A

fertilisers

herbicides

pesticides

smoke

Permission to reproduce items where third-party owned material protected by copyright is included has been sought and cleared where possible. Every
reasonable effort has been made by the publisher (UCLES) to trace copyright holders, but if any items requiring clearance have unwittingly been included, the
publisher will be pleased to make amends at the earliest possible opportunity.
University of Cambridge International Examinations is part of the Cambridge Assessment Group. Cambridge Assessment is the brand name of University of
Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate (UCLES), which is itself a department of the University of Cambridge.

UCLES 2007

0610/01/M/J/07

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UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS


International General Certificate of Secondary Education

*7021514936*

0610/02

BIOLOGY

May/June 2007

Paper 2 Core

1 hour 15 minutes
Candidates answer on the Question Paper.
No Additional Materials are required.
READ THESE INSTRUCTIONS FIRST
Write your Centre number, candidate number and name on all the work you hand in.
Write in dark blue or black pen.
You may use a pencil for any diagrams or graphs.
Do not use staples, paper clips, highlighters, glue or correction fluid.
For Examiner's Use
DO NOT WRITE IN ANY BARCODES.
1

Answer all questions.

2
At the end of the examination, fasten all your work securely together.
The number of marks is given in brackets [ ] at the end of each question or part
question.

3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Total

This document consists of 19 printed pages and 5 blank pages.


IB07 06_0610_02/5RP
UCLES 2007

[Turn over

2
1

(a) Figs. 1.1 1.4 show organisms or parts of organisms (not drawn to scale).

For
Examiner's
Use

B
Fig. 1.1

(i) State which of the drawings shows a monocotyledon leaf. State one reason for
your choice.

[1]

50 mm
C

D
Fig. 1.2

(ii) State which of the drawings shows an annelid. State one reason for your choice.

[1]

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3
For
Examiner's
Use

F
Fig. 1.3

(iii) State which of the drawings shows an arachnid. State one reason for your choice.

[1]

H
Fig. 1.4

(iv) State which of the drawings shows a crustacean. State one reason for your
choice.

[1]

UCLES 2007

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[Turn over

4
(b) The length of the drawing of worm C, in Fig. 1.2, is shown. The actual length of the
worm is 5 mm. Calculate the magnification of this drawing. Show your working.

magnification

[2]
[Total: 6]

UCLES 2007

0610/02/M/J/07

For
Examiner's
Use

5
BLANK PAGE

0610/02/M/J/07

[Turn over

6
2

Fig. 2.1 shows a flower of a dicotyledon.

For
Examiner's
Use

B
C
A

nectary
Fig. 2.1

(a) Name parts A and B, shown on Fig. 2.1.


A
B

[2]

(b) State the function of part C.

[1]

(c) The flower shown in Fig. 2.1 is insect pollinated. Describe how two features, visible in
Fig. 2.1, would be different in a wind pollinated flower.
1

2
[2]

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7
(d) Complete Table 2.1 by placing a tick () in the boxes to show which processes happen
during the reproduction of flowering plants and which happen during the reproduction
of humans.

For
Examiner's
Use

Table 2.1
process

flowering plants

humans

fertilisation
germination
implantation
pollination
sexual intercourse

[2]

(e) (i) While visiting a new region of forest a student found an unknown plant.
Hanging from it were some structures with bright red outer coverings.
These contained some soft fleshy tissue. In this tissue were many seeds with hard
outer coats.
Suggest, with reasons, how these seeds might be dispersed.
method of dispersal
reasons

[3]
(ii) Suggest which conditions in the forest would allow these seeds to germinate and
grow into young plants.

[3]
[Total: 13]

UCLES 2007

0610/02/M/J/07

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8
3

(a) Fig. 3.1 shows the variation in the height of human adults in an African population.

For
Examiner's
Use

percentage
of
population

height / cm
Fig. 3.1

State the type of variation shown by this data.


[1]

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9
(b) In Britain 42% of the population have blood group A. The frequency of the other blood
groups is: B (9%), AB (3%) and O (46%).
(i) Plot the data, as a bar chart, on Fig. 3.2.

For
Examiner's
Use

[2]

50

40

30
frequency
%
20

10

blood group
Fig. 3.2
(ii) Complete the following sentence.
Height is controlled by environment and by genes but human blood groups
are controlled only by

[1]

(c) Sometimes human characteristics are altered by mutations.


(i) Define the term mutation.

[1]
(ii) Suggest two factors that could increase the rate at which mutations occur.
1
2

[2]
[Total: 7]

UCLES 2007

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10
4

The table shows the area of tropical forests in some parts of the world and the rate of their
destruction during the period 1990 2000.
region of the world

area of forest
in 2000 / km2

area destroyed each


year 1990 2000 / km2

annual percentage
rate of destruction

697 000

13 000

1.8

1 389 000

18 000

1.3

2 154 000

15 000

0.7

117 000

2 000

1.7

434 000

12 000

2.8

8 399 000

84 000

1.0

(a) (i) State which region had the greatest area of forest destroyed each year.
[1]
(ii) State which region had the highest annual percentage rate of destruction.
[1]
(iii) Use the data to suggest what the area of tropical forest in Region F will be in 2100.
[1]
(iv) Predict which region will have the smallest area of forest in the year 2010.
[1]

(b) Tropical forests produce a large mass of dead vegetation each year which is
decomposed.
(i) Name one type of microorganism that decomposes this dead plant matter.
[1]
(ii) Name two substances that are released during decomposition that benefit the
plants in the forest.
1
2

UCLES 2007

[2]

0610/02/M/J/07

For
Examiner's
Use

11
(c) Tropical forest is often cleared to provide ground for crop growth. However, after about
three years, this land has to be abandoned and a new area is cleared. Suggest why a
new area is needed after about three years of crop growing.

For
Examiner's
Use

[3]
[Total: 10]

UCLES 2007

0610/02/M/J/07

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12
5

Fig. 5.1 shows the carbon cycle. The arrows represent the various processes that happen
in the cycle.

E
carbon dioxide
in air
B

carbon compounds
in fossil fuels

death
+
carbon compounds excretion
in dead animals
and plants

box
X

A
carbon compounds
in plants

Fig. 5.1

(a) (i) Complete the diagram by filling in box X.

[1]

(ii) State the letters of two arrows that represent respiration.


and

[2]

(iii) State the letter of the arrow that can only represent combustion in this cycle.
[1]
(iv) State the letter of the arrow that represents the process in the cycle that takes
millions of years to happen.
[1]

(b) (i) Photosynthesis is not shown on the diagram. Draw an arrow on Fig. 5.1 to
represent photosynthesis and label it P.
[1]
(ii) Write a word equation for photosynthesis.
[2]
[Total: 8]

UCLES 2007

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For
Examiner's
Use

13
BLANK PAGE

0610/02/M/J/07

[Turn over

14
6

Fig. 6.1 shows a plant cell from a leaf.

For
Examiner's
Use

C
D

Fig. 6.1

(a) State the letters for the three parts of this cell that only occur in plant cells.
letters

and

[3]

(b) State two differences in structure between this leaf cell and a root hair cell.
Explain the reason for each difference.
difference

reason

difference

reason
[4]

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15
(c) (i) Describe one difference that exists between a red blood cell and a typical animal
cell.

For
Examiner's
Use

[1]
(ii) State an advantage of this feature in a red blood cell.

[1]
[Total: 9]

UCLES 2007

0610/02/M/J/07

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16
7

A student investigated the effect of changing pH on the rate of reaction of a digestive


enzyme.
(a) Define the term enzyme.

[2]

Table 7.1 shows the results of this investigation.


Table 7.1
pH

rate of reaction /
arbitrary units

10

15

(b) Plot the results as a line graph on Fig. 7.1.

rate of reaction
/ arbitrary units

pH
Fig. 7.1

UCLES 2007

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[3]

For
Examiner's
Use

17
(c) Suggest where in the human digestive system this enzyme would have been most
active.

For
Examiner's
Use

[1]

(d) The investigation at pH 3 was repeated but the enzyme was boiled before its use.
Suggest how and why the results would have been different.

[2]
[Total: 8]

UCLES 2007

0610/02/M/J/07

[Turn over

18
8

(a) Describe and explain the importance of iron and vitamin D in the diet.

For
Examiner's
Use

[3]

(b) If you do not have a balanced diet you may suffer from malnutrition.
State two effects of malnutrition, not including minerals and vitamins.
For each effect explain how it is caused.

[4]
[Total: 7]

UCLES 2007

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19
9

Homeostasis is the maintenance of a constant internal environment, including a constant


body temperature.

For
Examiner's
Use

(a) Suggest why it is important that the body temperature of humans is kept constant.

[2]

(b) Describe and explain the effect of sweating in maintaining human body temperature.

[4]
[Total: 6]

UCLES 2007

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20
10 (a) Water is lost from leaves by transpiration.

For
Examiner's
Use

(i) Name the structures through which most water vapour is lost from a leaf.
[1]
(ii) Name the tissue that water flows through in the stem to reach a leaf.
[1]

(b) Fig. 10.1 is a graph showing the rate of water loss by a number of similar leafy shoots
under different conditions.

rate of
water loss

C
8 am

time
Fig. 10.1

Graph line X shows the rate of water loss by a shoot in slow moving air as the
temperature increases from 8 am onwards.
(i) Suggest which line would show the rate of water loss of a shoot in fast moving air
as the temperature increases from 8am onwards.
line
Explain your choice.
explanation
[2]

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21
(ii) Suggest which line would show the rate of water loss of a shoot that was placed in
an airtight plastic bag at 8 am.

For
Examiner's
Use

line
Explain your choice.
explanation
[2]
[Total: 6]

UCLES 2007

0610/02/M/J/07

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22
BLANK PAGE

0610/02/M/J/07

23
BLANK PAGE

0610/02/M/J/07

[Turn over

24
BLANK PAGE

Permission to reproduce items where third-party owned material protected by copyright is included has been sought and cleared where possible. Every
reasonable effort has been made by the publisher (UCLES) to trace copyright holders, but if any items requiring clearance have unwittingly been included, the
publisher will be pleased to make amends at the earliest possible opportunity.
University of Cambridge International Examinations is part of the Cambridge Assessment Group. Cambridge Assessment is the brand name of University of
Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate (UCLES), which is itself a department of the University of Cambridge.

0610/02/M/J/07

w
ap
eP

e
tr
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w
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.c

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er

UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS


International General Certificate of Secondary Education

0610/01

BIOLOGY
Paper 1 Multiple Choice

May/June 2008
45 minutes

Additional Materials:

*6372357041*

Multiple Choice Answer Sheet


Soft clean eraser
Soft pencil (type B or HB is recommended)

READ THESE INSTRUCTIONS FIRST


Write in soft pencil.
Do not use staples, paper clips, highlighters, glue or correction fluid.
Write your name, Centre number and candidate number on the Answer Sheet in the spaces provided
unless this has been done for you.
There are forty questions on this paper. Answer all questions. For each question there are four possible
answers A, B, C and D.
Choose the one you consider correct and record your choice in soft pencil on the separate Answer Sheet.
Read the instructions on the Answer Sheet very carefully.
Each correct answer will score one mark. A mark will not be deducted for a wrong answer.
Any rough working should be done in this booklet.

This document consists of 18 printed pages and 2 blank pages.


IB08 06_0610_01/3RP
UCLES 2008

[Turn over

2
1

The diagram shows some organisms living in water.

plant

animals

decomposers
Which process is carried out by all the living organisms shown?

photosynthesis

pollination

respiration

transpiration

The table lists some of the features of three groups of invertebrates arthropods, annelids and
molluscs.
Which shows the correct features of each group?

arthropods

annelids

molluscs

segmented body,
exoskeleton and jointed
limbs

segmented soft body, rarely


have legs

unsegmented soft body,


have internal or external
shell

segmented body,
exoskeleton and jointed
limbs

segmented body,
exoskeleton and jointed
limbs

segmented soft body, rarely


have legs

unsegmented soft body,


have internal or external
shell

segmented soft body, rarely


have legs

unsegmented soft body,


have internal or external
shell

segmented soft body, rarely


have legs

unsegmented soft body,


have internal or external
shell

segmented body,
exoskeleton and jointed
limbs

What is the correct order of arthropod groups, from those with most legs to those with fewest
legs?
A

arachnids crustaceans insects myriapods

crustaceans myriapods insects arachnids

insects arachnids myriapods crustaceans

myriapods crustaceans arachnids insects

UCLES 2008

0610/01/M/J/08

3
4

The diagram shows an animal.

Use the key to identify this animal.


1

rounded ears ................................ A


pointed ears .................................. go to 2

spots on the body ......................... B


no spots on the body .................... go to 3

straight tail .................................... C


curly tail ........................................ D

The diagram shows a type of plant cell.


cytoplasm

vacuole

nucleus

chloroplast

In which tissue is this cell found?

leaf epidermis

palisade mesophyll

root epidermis

xylem

Which structure is found only in plant cells?


A

cell membrane

chloroplast

cytoplasm

nucleus

UCLES 2008

0610/01/M/J/08

[Turn over

4
7

The table shows features that may be found in cells.


Which is true for a liver cell?

large
central vacuole

chloroplasts

cellulose
cell wall

key

= found

= not found

What do all living things release during respiration?


energy

oxygen

carbon dioxide

key

= released

= not released

The diagram shows a section through an eye.

What are structures X and Y?


A

organs in an organ system

organs in a tissue

organ systems in an organ

tissues in an organ

UCLES 2008

0610/01/M/J/08

5
10 A student investigated osmosis in potatoes. He set up the apparatus shown.

potato cylinder
P

potato cylinder
Q

scales
distilled
water

very concentrated
sugar solution

At the beginning the potato cylinders were exactly balanced. He immersed the cylinders into the
liquids for 4 hours, after which the cylinders were lifted out of the liquids. Cylinder P was now
heavier than cylinder Q.
Which statement explains what happened?
A

Water moved into both cylinders.

Water moved out of both cylinders.

Water moved into the cylinder in the distilled water and out of the cylinder in the sugar
solution.

Water moved out of the cylinder in the distilled water and into the cylinder in the sugar
solution.

11 An experiment is set up as shown.


membrane permeable
to iodine molecules
mixture of
starch and water
iodine solution

What is the colour of the starch and water mixture after 30 minutes?
A

blue-black

orange

white

yellow-brown

UCLES 2008

0610/01/M/J/08

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6
12 Which are characteristics of enzymes?
A

They are carbohydrates and biological catalysts.

They are carbohydrates and chemical messengers.

They are proteins and biological catalysts.

They are proteins and chemical messengers.

13 The diagram shows part of the digestive system.

1
2

What is a function of the liquid produced by part 1 and released into part 2?
A

to digest proteins to amino acids

to increase the surface area of fat droplets

to acidify the contents of part 2

to prevent further digestion of starch

UCLES 2008

0610/01/M/J/08

7
14 The graphs show the quantities of selected vitamins and minerals in four foods.
vitamin D
g / 100 g

Fe
mg / 100 g

Ca
mg / 100 g
150

20

10

100

10

50

egg
beans
fish
fruit

egg
beans
fish
fruit

15

egg
beans
fish
fruit

30

egg
beans
fish
fruit

vitamin C
mg / 100 g

Which food is the richest source of the vitamin or mineral essential for the transport of oxygen by
the blood?
A

beans

eggs

fish

fruit

15 The table shows whether starch was still present after four different experiments.
experiment

result

starch + water at 20 C

key

starch + amylase at 20 C

= starch present

starch + amylase at 30 C

= starch absent

starch + boiled amylase at 30 C

What broke down the starch?


A

amylase

boiled amylase

heat

water

UCLES 2008

0610/01/M/J/08

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8
16 The diagram shows blood as seen under a microscope.

S
R

Which identifies parts P, Q, R and S of the blood?


plasma

platelet

white blood cell

red blood cell

17 In which state does water enter and leave a plant?


enters

leaves

liquid

liquid

liquid

vapour

vapour

liquid

vapour

vapour

UCLES 2008

0610/01/M/J/08

9
18 The plan shows the blood system of a mammal.

head and
fore-limbs
key
oxygenated blood
deoxygenated blood

lower body
and hind limbs
What does the part labelled X represent?
A

heart

kidneys

liver

lungs

19 Which route is taken by air passing into the lungs of a human?


A

alveolus trachea bronchus

bronchus trachea alveolus

trachea alveolus bronchus

trachea bronchus alveolus

20 Which products of anaerobic respiration are important for making beer and bread?
beer

bread

carbon dioxide

simple sugar

ethanol

carbon dioxide

lactic acid

ethanol

simple sugar

lactic acid

UCLES 2008

0610/01/M/J/08

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10
21 A person has been smoking heavily for many years.
A lot of dust and micro-organisms enter their lungs.
Which statement explains why this occurs?
A

Their arteries are blocked with tar.

The cilia in the trachea have been destroyed.

The person is addicted to nicotine.

The surface area of the lungs is reduced.

22 Capillaries near the surface of the skin become wider after drinking large amounts of alcohol.
Why does this cause the body temperature to drop?
A

It allows heat to be lost rapidly from the skin.

It causes vasoconstriction.

It prevents vasodilation.

It stops the person from sweating.

23 The diagram represents some human organs and their blood vessels.

liver
P
Q
gut

kidney
R
Immediately after taking an alcoholic drink, how would the levels of alcohol compare in blood
vessels P, Q and R?
P

very high

some

very high

some

very high

very low

very low

very low

some

very high

very low

very low

UCLES 2008

0610/01/M/J/08

11
24 The diagram shows muscles and bones in a human arm.

muscle P
muscle Q

When muscle Q contracts, what happens to muscle P and to the arm?


muscle P

the arm

contracts

bends

contracts

straightens

relaxes

bends

relaxes

straightens

UCLES 2008

0610/01/M/J/08

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12
25 Thirty woodlice were placed in the centre of a dish with four compartments, each with different
conditions. The diagram shows the number of woodlice that had moved into the different
compartments after twenty minutes.

dark and damp

dark and dry

17

light and damp

light and dry

What do these results show?


A

Woodlice prefer light and damp conditions.

Woodlice prefer light and dry conditions.

Woodlice prefer to be in the dark.

Woodlice prefer to be in the light.

26 Which shows where eggs and sperms are made?


eggs

sperms

fallopian tube (oviduct)

sperm duct

ovary

testis

ovary

urethra

uterus

testis

UCLES 2008

0610/01/M/J/08

13
27 The following four processes occur during reproduction in a plant.
1

The male nucleus fuses with the female nucleus.

The male nucleus is released from the pollen tube.

The male nucleus travels down the pollen tube.

The pollen grain grows a pollen tube.

In which order do these processes occur after pollination?


first

last

28 Which set of conditions will best enable seeds to germinate quickly?


water

oxygen

temperature (C)

absent

present

20

present

absent

20

present

present

20

present

present

UCLES 2008

0610/01/M/J/08

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14
29 In arthropods, growth occurs only after the exoskeleton is shed and before the new one hardens.
Which graph shows a typical growth curve for an arthropod?

length of
arthropod

length of
arthropod
time

time

length of
arthropod

length of
arthropod

time

time

30 In the life cycle of a mammal, what describes the eggs or sperms and the cells of the embryo?
eggs or sperms

cells of the embryo

diploid

diploid

diploid

haploid

haploid

diploid

haploid

haploid

31 Which cross shows how a boy inherits sex chromosomes from his parents?
A
mother
XY

B
father
XX

son
XX

UCLES 2008

mother
XY

C
father
XY

mother
XX

son
XY

father
XY

son
XX

0610/01/M/J/08

D
mother
XX

father
XY

son
XY

15
32 The diagram shows a food chain.

lettuce plants

slugs

toads

grass snakes

fungi
Which organisms are the producers?
A

grass snakes

lettuce plants

slugs

toads

33 The diagram shows energy flow through a food chain.

energy
in plant
tissue

10 % of energy
passed on

30 KJ

energy in
tissue of
primary
consumer
3 KJ

90 % of
energy lost

10 % of energy
passed on

energy in
tissue of
secondary
consumer
0.3 KJ

90 % of
energy lost

By which processes is energy lost between X and Y?


A

digestion and excretion

digestion and photosynthesis

excretion and respiration

photosynthesis and respiration

UCLES 2008

0610/01/M/J/08

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16
34 The diagram shows a simple water cycle.

cloud

tree
rain

soil

What is responsible for water loss from the tree?


A

decomposition

photosynthesis

translocation

transpiration

35 Which shows from where most plants and most animals obtain carbon?
most plants obtain
carbon from

most animals
obtain carbon from

the air

plants

the soil

the air

the air

the soil

the soil

plants

36 What does a plant make with the nitrates it absorbs?


A

carbohydrates

fats

mineral salts

proteins

UCLES 2008

0610/01/M/J/08

17
37 The table shows the changes in the world population over a period of two hundred years.
year

estimated population
(millions)

1790

850

1890

1500

1990

5000

What has made the largest contribution to this population change?


A

decreased food supply

decreased use of chemical contraception

increased food supply

increased use of chemical contraception

38 Why might pesticides sprayed onto the fields reduce a bean crop?
A

Pesticides damage plant leaves.

Pesticides damage plant roots.

Pesticides kill insects that feed on bean plants.

Pesticides kill insects that pollinate bean plants.

39 What may cause the rapid growth of plants in a lake?


A

excess fertilisers

excess herbicides

low water pH

low water temperature

UCLES 2008

0610/01/M/J/08

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18
40 The table shows some information about two closely related species of sea bird.
bird species X

bird species Y

mixed diet, but no small fish

eats mostly small fish

catches fish out at sea

catches fish near river mouths

nests high on cliffs or broad ledges

nests low on cliffs or on shallow ledges

Sewage pollution at the mouth of a river destroys its fish stocks.


What is likely to happen to local populations of these birds?
A

There will be no change to either species.

Species X numbers will decrease, species Y will remain constant.

Species Y numbers will decrease, species X will remain constant.

Both species numbers will increase.

UCLES 2008

0610/01/M/J/08

19
BLANK PAGE

0610/01/M/J/08

20
BLANK PAGE

Permission to reproduce items where third-party owned material protected by copyright is included has been sought and cleared where possible. Every
reasonable effort has been made by the publisher (UCLES) to trace copyright holders, but if any items requiring clearance have unwittingly been included, the
publisher will be pleased to make amends at the earliest possible opportunity.
University of Cambridge International Examinations is part of the Cambridge Assessment Group. Cambridge Assessment is the brand name of University of
Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate (UCLES), which is itself a department of the University of Cambridge.

0610/01/M/J/08

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UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS


International General Certificate of Secondary Education

*0226152035*

0610/02

BIOLOGY

May/June 2008

Paper 2 Core

1 hour 15 minutes
Candidates answer on the Question Paper.
No Additional Materials are required.
READ THESE INSTRUCTIONS FIRST
Write your Centre number, candidate number and name on all the work you hand in.
Write in dark blue or black pen.
You may use a pencil for any diagrams or graphs.
Do not use staples, paper clips, highlighters, glue or correction fluid.
Answer all questions.
At the end of the examination, fasten all your work securely together.
The number of marks is given in brackets [ ] at the end of each question or part
question.

For Examiner's Use


1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
Total

This document consists of 15 printed pages and 1 blank page.


IB08 06_0610_02/6RP
UCLES 2008

[Turn over

2
1

Respiration is one of the characteristics of living things.

For
Examiner's
Use

(a) List four other characteristics of living things not including respiration.
1
2
3
4

[4]

(b) Describe the difference between respiration and breathing.

[2]
[Total: 6]
2

Choose words from the list to complete each of the spaces in the paragraph.
Each word may be used once only and some words are not used at all.
bright

dry

sepals

dull
small

heavy
stamens

large
sticky

light
style

Flowers of plants that rely on the wind to bring about pollination tend to
have

petals that have a

Their pollen is normally


In these flowers, the

colour.
and

and the

.
both tend to be long.

[6]

[Total: 6]

UCLES 2008

0610/02/M/J/08

(a) Table 3.1 lists some of the food materials that need to be digested, the enzymes that
carry out the digestion and the end products.
Complete Table 3.1.

For
Examiner's
Use

[5]
Table 3.1

food material

digestive enzyme

starch

end products of digestion

simple sugars

amino acids

fat

lipase

(b) Amino acids and glucose are carried in the blood from the intestine to the liver.
Describe the processes that occur in the liver when there is an excess of these
materials arriving in the blood.
amino acids

glucose

[4]
[Total: 9]

UCLES 2008

0610/02/M/J/08

[Turn over

4
4

(a) (i) Name the two raw materials needed by plants for photosynthesis.

For
Examiner's
Use

1
2

[2]

(ii) Name the gas produced by photosynthesis.


[1]

(b) Fig. 4.1 shows a leaf, with white and green regions, that is attached to a plant. The
plant had been kept in the dark for 48 hours and then a lightproof, black paper cover
was placed over part of the leaf.

white region
B

green region

position of lightproof
black paper cover
on both sides of leaf
attachment
to plant

Fig. 4.1

UCLES 2008

0610/02/M/J/08

5
The plant is left under a light for 24 hours. After this time the leaf is removed from the
plant and is tested for the presence of starch.

For
Examiner's
Use

(i) Which chemical reagent is used to show the presence of starch?


[1]
(ii) Record the colour you would see, if you had carried out this test, in each of the
areas A, B, C, and D.
area

colour

A
B
C
D
[4]
(iii) Explain the results for each of the following areas.

area B

area D
[2]
[Total: 10]

UCLES 2008

0610/02/M/J/08

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6
5

Fig. 5.1 shows a section through the heart.

For
Examiner's
Use

.................................. K
L ..................................

.................................. J

M ..................................

Fig. 5.1

(a) On Fig. 5.1,


(i) label parts J, K, L and M,

[4]

(ii) shade in the blood vessels that carry deoxygenated blood,

[1]

(iii) draw a series of arrows to show the direction of blood flow through the heart from
the lungs to the rest of the body.
[1]

(b) Describe the role of valve X.

[2]
[Total: 8]

UCLES 2008

0610/02/M/J/08

7
6

Fig. 6.1 shows the female reproductive system.

For
Examiner's
Use

R ..................................

S ..................................

Fig. 6.1

(a) On Fig. 6.1, label structures R and S.

[2]

(b) On Fig. 6.1,


(i) label, with a line and a letter F, where fertilisation occurs,

[1]

(ii) label, with a line and a letter I, where implantation occurs.

[1]

(c) During puberty, the secondary sexual characteristics develop.


(i) Name the hormone that controls these developments in a female and state which
organ produces it.
hormone
organ producing it

[2]

(ii) State two secondary sexual characteristics that develop in females, in parts of the
body other than in the reproductive organs shown in Fig. 6.1.
1

2
[2]
[Total: 8]

UCLES 2008

0610/02/M/J/08

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8
7

Fig. 7.1 shows a family tree for a condition known as nail-patella syndrome (NPS).

For
Examiner's
Use

key
1

female without NPS

female with NPS


male without NPS
3

male with NPS

Fig. 7.1

(a) (i) State whether NPS is controlled by a dominant or a recessive allele.

(ii) Explain which evidence from the family tree confirms your answer to (i).

[3]

UCLES 2008

0610/02/M/J/08

9
(b) Explain what the chances are for a third child of parents 6 and 7 having NPS.

For
Examiner's
Use

You may use a genetic diagram to help your explanation.

[3]
[Total: 6]

UCLES 2008

0610/02/M/J/08

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10
8

Fig. 8.1 shows changes in the population of bacteria that take place in a river when
untreated sewage is added to it.

population
of bacteria
(arbitrary units)

raw sewage
discharged
into river

distance downstream
(arbitrary units)

Fig. 8.1

(a) Describe the changes in the population of bacteria that take place in this river.

[2]

(b) Suggest an explanation for these changes in the population of bacteria.

[4]
[Total: 6]

UCLES 2008

0610/02/M/J/08

For
Examiner's
Use

11
9

Fig. 9.1 shows part of a food web for the South Atlantic Ocean.

For
Examiner's
Use

Killer
whale
Leopard
seal
Ross
seal
Adelie
penguin

squid

fish

Crabeater
seal
krill

algae
Fig. 9.1

(a) (i) Name the top carnivore in this food web.


[1]
(ii) Name a member of this food web that is both a secondary and a tertiary consumer.
[1]

(b) Use the information from the food web to complete the food chain of five organisms.
algae

[2]

(c) In the future the extraction of mineral resources in the Antarctic might occur on a large
scale. This could destroy the breeding grounds of the Ross seal.
(i) State and explain what effects this might have on the population of Leopard seal.

[2]

UCLES 2008

0610/02/M/J/08

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12
(ii) State and explain what effects this might have on the population of fish.

For
Examiner's
Use

[4]
[Total: 10]

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13
10 (a) Define the term homeostasis.

For
Examiner's
Use

[2]

(b) It has been suggested by some scientists that the iris reflex is an example of
homeostasis.
Describe this reflex and explain why it might be considered to be a homeostatic
mechanism.

[3]
[Total: 5]

UCLES 2008

0610/02/M/J/08

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14
11 (a) Fig. 11.1 shows the urinary system and its blood supply.

For
Examiner's
Use

.................................. X
direction of
blood flow

.................................. Y

.................................. Z

Fig. 11.1

On Fig. 11.1 label structures X, Y and Z.

[3]

(b) Table 11.1 shows the relative quantities of several substances in the blood in the renal
artery and renal vein.
Table 11.1

substance

relative quantities in blood in


renal artery
(arbitrary units)

relative quantities in blood in


renal vein
(arbitrary units)

glucose

10.0

9.7

oxygen

100.0

35.0

sodium salts

32.0

29.0

urea

3.0

1.5

water

180.0

178.0

UCLES 2008

0610/02/M/J/08

15
Explain what is happening in the kidney to bring about three of the differences between
the blood in the renal artery and renal vein, shown in the table.

[3]
[Total: 6]

UCLES 2008

0610/02/M/J/08

For
Examiner's
Use

16
BLANK PAGE

Permission to reproduce items where third-party owned material protected by copyright is included has been sought and cleared where possible. Every
reasonable effort has been made by the publisher (UCLES) to trace copyright holders, but if any items requiring clearance have unwittingly been included, the
publisher will be pleased to make amends at the earliest possible opportunity.
University of Cambridge International Examinations is part of the Cambridge Assessment Group. Cambridge Assessment is the brand name of University of
Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate (UCLES), which is itself a department of the University of Cambridge.

0610/02/M/J/08

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UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS


International General Certificate of Secondary Education

0610/01

BIOLOGY
Paper 1 Multiple Choice

May/June 2009
45 minutes

Additional Materials:

*7545029611*

Multiple Choice Answer Sheet


Soft clean eraser
Soft pencil (type B or HB is recommended)

READ THESE INSTRUCTIONS FIRST


Write in soft pencil.
Do not use staples, paper clips, highlighters, glue or correction fluid.
Write your name, Centre number and candidate number on the Answer Sheet in the spaces provided
unless this has been done for you.
There are forty questions on this paper. Answer all questions. For each question there are four possible
answers A, B, C and D.
Choose the one you consider correct and record your choice in soft pencil on the separate Answer Sheet.
Read the instructions on the Answer Sheet very carefully.
Each correct answer will score one mark. A mark will not be deducted for a wrong answer.
Any rough working should be done in this booklet.

This document consists of 17 printed pages and 3 blank pages.


IB09 06_0610_01/3RP
UCLES 2009

[Turn over

2
1

Which process removes the waste products of metabolism from the body?
A

excretion

nutrition

reproduction

respiration

According to the binomial system, how should a human be named?


A

Homo Sapiens

Homo sapiens

homo Sapiens

homo sapiens

Which leaf comes from a monocotyledonous plant?


A

The diagram shows a palisade cell from a leaf.


Which labelled structure produces oxygen?

A
B
D

UCLES 2009

0610/01/M/J/09

3
5

Which structure contains genes?


A

the cell membrane of an animal cell

the cytoplasm of an animal cell

the nucleus of a plant cell

the vacuole of a plant cell

The diagram shows a cross section through two guard cells of a leaf.
W

Which labelled structures would also be found in an animal cell?


A
7

W and X

X and Y

Y and Z

Z and W

The diagram shows some cells from the lining of the trachea (windpipe) in the respiratory tract.
X

What is the function of the structures labelled X?


A

absorbing oxygen

killing micro-organisms

moving mucus

trapping bacteria

UCLES 2009

0610/01/M/J/09

[Turn over

4
8

Which structures contain a cell nucleus?


red blood cell

root hair cell

xylem vessel

key

 = contains nucleus

 = no nucleus

Which diagram shows the appearance of a plant cell several minutes after it has been placed in a
concentrated solution of sugar?

10 The dots represent molecules of a gas in four tubes at the beginning of an experiment.
In which tube will more molecules move from X to Y than in the opposite direction?

UCLES 2009

0610/01/M/J/09

5
11 What is the optimum pH for stomach protease?
A

pH 2

pH 7

pH 9

pH 12

12 The diagram shows part of a starch molecule.

Which diagram shows this molecule after it has been completely digested?

13 Which cell type contains the most chloroplasts?


A

palisade mesophyll

phloem

spongy mesophyll

xylem

UCLES 2009

0610/01/M/J/09

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6
14 Four foods were tested for
fat (using ethanol),
protein (using the biuret test),
reducing sugar (using Benedicts solution),
starch (using iodine solution).
Which food contains protein and starch?
colour of result of food test
blue / black

purple / lilac

brick-red / orange

milky-white

key

 = nutrient present

 = nutrient absent

15 Cobalt chloride paper is blue when dry but turns pink when wet. Some blue cobalt chloride paper
was fastened to the upper and lower surfaces of a leaf on a plant X and a leaf on plant Y.
The diagram shows the results of the experiment.
12
10
8
time taken for
cobalt chloride
paper to turn
pink / minutes

6
4
2
0
upper lower
surface surface

upper lower
surface surface

plant X

plant Y

Through which leaf surface was water lost most quickly?


A

plant X, upper surface

plant X, lower surface

plant Y, upper surface

plant Y, lower surface

UCLES 2009

0610/01/M/J/09

7
16 The diagrams show stages in the passage of water through a plant.
The circles are the starting points for arrows to show the direction in which the water moves.
Which circle must have an arrow pointing downwards only?

17 Translocation occurs in phloem tubes. Aphids feed on the contents of phloem tubes.
What type of food would be lacking in their diet?
A

amino acid

fat

sucrose

water

UCLES 2009

0610/01/M/J/09

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8
18 The diagram shows the human heart.

Which two chambers contract at the same time?


A

W and X

W and Z

X and Z

X and Y

19 Which substances are formed during anaerobic respiration in animals and yeast?
animals

yeast

alcohol

alcohol and lactic acid

alcohol and carbon dioxide

alcohol

lactic acid

alcohol and carbon dioxide

lactic acid and water

lactic acid

UCLES 2009

0610/01/M/J/09

9
20 In an experiment, three glass bell jars were set up as shown in the diagram.

air
from
lungs

bell jar

green
plant

P
left in sunlight
for 8 hours

Q
left open to the
air for 8 hours

R
air breathed out by a
student for 5 minutes

At the end of the experiment, which bell jar has the most oxygen and which has the least?
most oxygen

least oxygen

21 The diagram represents the exchange of gases during breathing and during respiration in the
body.
oxygen
in blood

oxygen
X
carbon
dioxide

Y
carbon dioxide
in blood

What is represented by X and by Y?


X

lungs

air

lungs

body cells

body cells

air

body cells

lungs

UCLES 2009

0610/01/M/J/09

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22 The diagram shows a kidney and its blood vessels.

artery
vein

ureter

In a healthy person, which structures transport glucose?


A

artery only

artery and ureter

artery and vein

ureter and vein

23 What is true for a runner, at the end of a marathon race, in a hot climate?
A

sweating and vasoconstriction

sweating and vasodilation

vasoconstriction only

vasodilation only

24 When a person is frightened, adrenalin is released by the adrenal glands.


What are the effects of the adrenalin?
breathing rate

heart beat rate

decreased

decreased

decreased

increased

increased

decreased

increased

increased

UCLES 2009

0610/01/M/J/09

11
25 What crosses the placenta from fetal blood to maternal blood in larger quantities than from
maternal blood to fetal blood?
A

amino acids

carbon dioxide

glucose

oxygen

26 Fruits can be dispersed by animals or by wind. The table contains descriptions of four fruits.
Which fruit will be dispersed by wind?
fruit

description

fleshy and scented

light weight and has a wing

sticky and has hooks

sweet tasting and brightly coloured

27 The graph shows the relationship between age and weight for boys and girls.
70

boys

60
50
mass / kg

girls

40
30
20
10
0
0

10

15

20

age / years

At what age does the graph show that girls are heavier than boys?
A

UCLES 2009

12

0610/01/M/J/09

15

[Turn over

12
28 The experiment shown in the diagram was set up to see what conditions are needed for seeds to
germinate. Except for tube number 5, all tubes are kept at room temperature.

3
cotton wool soaked
in a chemical that
absorbs oxygen

seeds

seeds

seeds

dry
cotton
wool

wet
cotton
wool

wet
cotton
wool

black box

black box

seeds

seeds

wet
cotton
wool

wet
cotton
wool
cold

In which tubes are the seeds most likely to germinate?


A

1 and 3

1 and 5

2 and 4

3 and 4

29 The diagram shows a maize (corn) cob with purple and yellow fruits. Purple (P) is dominant to
yellow (p).
yellow fruit
purple fruit

What are the genotypes of the parent maize plants?


A

PP Pp

UCLES 2009

PP pp

Pp Pp

0610/01/M/J/09

pp Pp

13
30 What is true of the chromosomes present in the daughter nuclei after meiosis and after mitosis?
meiosis

mitosis

identical

identical

identical

non-identical

non-identical

identical

non-identical

non-identical

31 What is a mutation?
A

a change in a gene or chromosome

a condition caused by a recessive allele

a process used in genetic engineering

a type of discontinuous variation

32 The diagram shows a food chain.


producer

consumer
1

consumer
2

consumer
3

A disease reduced the number of consumer 2.


What effect would this be likely to have on the numbers of consumer 1 and consumer 3?
consumer 1

consumer 3

key

+ = increase in numbers

= decrease in numbers

33 The diagram shows a food web.


Which arrow does not show the direction of energy flow?
A

plants

herbivores

carnivores

D
decomposers

UCLES 2009

0610/01/M/J/09

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14
34 The diagram shows a tree and organisms associated with it.
Which labelled organism is a producer?

A
B

35 The diagram shows a simplified carbon cycle.


carbon dioxide
in atmosphere
respiration

animals

feeding

What is process X?
A

combustion

decay

excretion

photosynthesis

UCLES 2009

0610/01/M/J/09

plants

15
36 The diagram shows the release of a substance into the atmosphere from different sources.
Sun

soil

urine

sheep

tree

What is this substance?


A

carbon dioxide

oxygen

urea

water vapour

37 The graph shows the change in the numbers of a species of small mammal living on an island.
Which letter represents the phase where the population growth is slowing down?

D
C
numbers of a species
of small mammal
on the island

A
time

UCLES 2009

0610/01/M/J/09

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16
38 What could be a consequence of deforestation?
A

More habitats are produced for animals and plants.

More transpiration may increase rainfall.

Rainwater runs off the land causing flooding.

Soil erosion is less likely.

39 The diagram shows the positions of four farms and the concentrations of nitrate at different points
in a river.
Which farm is likely to have been using too much fertilizer on its land?

farm C
direction
of flow
farm A
farm D
farm B

direction
of flow

60

40
nitrate
concentration
/ ppm
20

UCLES 2009

0610/01/M/J/09

17
40 Untreated sewage can cause pollution of streams and rivers. Some changes in streams and
rivers after sewage is added are shown.
1

fish die

the dissolved oxygen in the water decreases

the number of anaerobic organisms increases

the number of bacteria increases

What gives the order in which these events occur?


A

1243

1432

2143

4 2 1 3

UCLES 2009

0610/01/M/J/09

18
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0610/01/M/J/09

19
BLANK PAGE

0610/01/M/J/09

20
BLANK PAGE

Permission to reproduce items where third-party owned material protected by copyright is included has been sought and cleared where possible. Every
reasonable effort has been made by the publisher (UCLES) to trace copyright holders, but if any items requiring clearance have unwittingly been included, the
publisher will be pleased to make amends at the earliest possible opportunity.
University of Cambridge International Examinations is part of the Cambridge Assessment Group. Cambridge Assessment is the brand name of University of
Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate (UCLES), which is itself a department of the University of Cambridge.

0610/01/M/J/09

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UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS


International General Certificate of Secondary Education

*3266860499*

0610/02

BIOLOGY

May/June 2009

Paper 2 Core

1 hour 15 minutes
Candidates answer on the Question Paper.
No Additional Materials are required.
READ THESE INSTRUCTIONS FIRST
Write your Centre number, candidate number and name on all the work you hand in.
Write in dark blue or black pen.
You may use a pencil for any diagrams or graphs.
Do not use staples, paper clips, highlighters, glue or correction fluid.
For Examiner's Use
DO NOT WRITE IN ANY BARCODES.
Answer all questions.
At the end of the examination, fasten all your work securely together.
The number of marks is given in brackets [ ] at the end of each question or part
question.

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Total

This document consists of 17 printed pages and 3 blank pages.


IB09 06_0610_02/9RP
UCLES 2009

[Turn over

2
1

Fig.1.1 shows six arthropods, each of which could carry disease organisms.

Fig. 1.1
Use the key to identify each of the arthropods. Write the name of each arthropod in the
correct box of Table 1.1. As you work through the key, tick () the boxes in Table 1.1 to
show how you identified each arthropod.
Arthropod A has been completed for you as an example.
Key
arthropod
1 (a) Wings present .....
(b) Wings absent ...

go to 2
go to 4

2 (a) Wings shorter than abdomen


(b) Wings longer than abdomen .

go to 3
Musca

3 (a) Abdomen long and narrow


(b) Abdomen short and broad .

Anopheles
Periplaneta

4 (a) Has three pairs of legs ..


(b) Has four pairs of legs .

go to 5
Ornithodorus

5 (a) One pair of legs shorter than the other pairs .


(b) All pairs of legs of similar length ...

Pulex
Pediculus

UCLES 2009

0610/02/M/J/09

For
Examiner's
Use

3
Table 1.1
1 (a)
A

1 (b)

2 (a)

2 (b)

3 (a)

3 (b)

4 (a)

4 (b)

5 (a)

5 (b)

name of
arthropod

Pediculus

For
Examiner's
Use

B
C
D
E
F

[5]
[Total: 5]

UCLES 2009

0610/02/M/J/09

[Turn over

4
2

(a) Why do most waste products of metabolism have to be removed from the body?
[1]

(b) Fig.2.1 shows the human excretory system.

Fig. 2.1

Name the parts that fit each of the following descriptions.


(i) The tube that carries urine from the kidneys.
[1]
(ii) The organ that stores urine.
[1]
(iii) The blood vessel that carries blood away from the kidney.
[1]

(c) Outline how the kidneys remove only waste materials from the blood.

[3]

UCLES 2009

0610/02/M/J/09

For
Examiner's
Use

5
(d) Excess amino acids cannot be stored in the body and have to be broken down.

For
Examiner's
Use

(i) Where are excess amino acids broken down?


[1]

(ii) Which waste chemical is formed from the breakdown of excess amino acids?
[1]
[Total: 9]

UCLES 2009

0610/02/M/J/09

[Turn over

6
3

(a) Sexual reproduction in flowering plants involves both pollination and fertilisation.

For
Examiner's
Use

(i) Explain the difference between pollination and fertilisation.

[3]
(ii) Name the part of a flower where pollination happens.
[1]
(iii) Name the part of a flower where fertilisation happens.
[1]

(b) Sexual reproduction in flowers results in the production of seeds and fruits. From which
part of a flower is each of these formed?
seed
fruit

[2]

(c) Describe the role of the wind in the life cycle of some flowering plants.

[2]

[Total: 9]

UCLES 2009

0610/02/M/J/09

7
4

Fig. 4.1 shows the water cycle.

For
Examiner's
Use

land
Q

R
forest

area

P
river
sea

Fig. 4.1

(a) (i) The arrows labelled P represent evaporation. Which type of energy is needed for
this process?
[1]
(ii) State what causes the formation of clouds at Q.

[1]

(b) (i) What process is represented by the arrows labelled R?


[1]
(ii) Name three factors that could alter the rate at which process R happens.
1.
2.
3.

UCLES 2009

[3]

0610/02/M/J/09

[Turn over

8
(c) A logging company wants to cut down the forest area.
(i) Suggest what effects this deforestation might have on the climate further inland.
Explain your answer.

[2]
(ii) State two other effects deforestation could have on the environment.
1.

2.
[2]

[Total: 10]

UCLES 2009

0610/02/M/J/09

For
Examiner's
Use

9
5

Five types of animal and plant cells and five possible functions of such cells are shown
below.

For
Examiner's
Use

Draw one straight line from each type of cell to a function of that cell.
type of cell

function of cell

red blood cell

absorption of mineral
ions

root hair cell

transport of oxygen

white blood cell

movement of mucus

xylem

protection against
pathogens

ciliated cell

structural support
[5]
[Total: 5]

UCLES 2009

0610/02/M/J/09

[Turn over

10
6

Fig. 6.1 shows four test-tubes that were set up and left for six hours at a constant warm
temperature.
lightproof box

sunlight

water
shrimp

sunlight

pond water
with indicator

pond
weed

Fig. 6.1

Hydrogencarbonate indicator (bicarbonate indicator) changes colour depending on the pH


of gases dissolved in it, as shown in Fig. 6.2.
concentration of carbon dioxide dissolved
high

1
indicator
yellow

low

pH

7
indicator
pinky red

pH

14
indicator
purple

Fig. 6.2

After six hours the colour of the indicator in all four tubes had changed.
(a) (i) Complete Table 6.1 to predict the colour of the indicator after six hours.
Table 6.1
tube

colour of indicator
at start

pinky red

pinky red

pinky red

pinky red

colour of indicator
after six hours

[4]
UCLES 2009

0610/02/M/J/09

For
Examiner's
Use

11
(ii) Suggest the reason for the change in colour of the indicator in each of tubes A
and D.

For
Examiner's
Use

tube A

tube D

[4]

(b) Fig. 6.3 shows a fifth tube, E, set up at the same time and in the same conditions as
tubes C and D.

sunlight

E
Fig. 6.3

Suggest and explain the possible colour of the indicator in tube E after six hours.
colour of indicator
explanation

[3]

[Total: 11]

UCLES 2009

0610/02/M/J/09

[Turn over

12
7

(a) Complete the following paragraph using appropriate words.


Sense organs are composed of groups of
respond to specific
chemicals are the

For
Examiner's
Use

cells that
. The sense organs that respond to
and the

[4]

(b) The eye is a sense organ that focuses light rays by changing the shape of its
lens. It does this by contracting its ciliary muscles.
(i) What links the ciliary muscles to the lens?
[1]
(ii) Describe the change in shape of the lens when a person looks from a near
object to a distant object.

[1]

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0610/02/M/J/09

13
(c) Fig. 7.1 shows changes in the contraction of the ciliary muscles as a person watches a
humming bird move from flower to flower while feeding on nectar.
fully
contracted

ciliary
muscle
contraction

For
Examiner's
Use

1
2

fully
relaxed

3
time

Fig. 7.1

In which period of time, 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5, was the bird


(i) feeding from a flower very near to the person,
[1]
(ii) flying away from the person,
[1]
(iii) flying towards the person.
[1]

[Total: 9]

UCLES 2009

0610/02/M/J/09

[Turn over

14
8

Fig. 8.1 shows the male reproductive system.

For
Examiner's
Use

Fig. 8.1
(a) Using a label line and the letters given, label on Fig. 8.1,
(i) G where gametes are formed,

[1]

(ii) S the sperm duct,

[1]

(iii) T where testosterone is formed,

[1]

(iv) U the urethra.

[1]

(b) Describe two secondary sexual characteristics regulated by testosterone.


1.

2.
[2]

UCLES 2009

0610/02/M/J/09

15
(c) Choose words from the list to complete each of the spaces in the paragraph. Each word
may be used once only and some words may not be used at all.
four

diploid

haploid

meiosis

double

For
Examiner's
Use

half

mitosis

two

Gametes are formed by the division of a nucleus, a process called


. This process produces a total of
cells from the original cell. Each of these cells has a nucleus described as being
and each nucleus contains
the number of chromosomes present in the original nucleus.

[4]

[Total: 10]

UCLES 2009

0610/02/M/J/09

[Turn over

16
9

Modern technology can be used to increase the yield of crops.


(a) The use of chemicals, such as fertilisers, herbicides and pesticides, is one of the
developments used.
(i) Name two mineral ions commonly included in fertilisers.
1.
2.

[1]

(ii) Explain the dangers to the local environment of the overuse of fertilisers on
farmland.

[4]
(iii) Suggest how the use of herbicides can be of benefit to crop plants.

[3]
(iv) Suggest two dangers of using pesticides on farmland.
1.

2.
[2]

UCLES 2009

0610/02/M/J/09

For
Examiner's
Use

17
(b) Artificial selection and genetic engineering can also be used to increase crop yields.

For
Examiner's
Use

Explain the difference between these two techniques.

[2]
[Total: 12]

UCLES 2009

0610/02/M/J/09

18
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0610/02/M/J/09

19
BLANK PAGE

0610/02/M/J/09

20
BLANK PAGE

Permission to reproduce items where third-party owned material protected by copyright is included has been sought and cleared where possible. Every
reasonable effort has been made by the publisher (UCLES) to trace copyright holders, but if any items requiring clearance have unwittingly been included, the
publisher will be pleased to make amends at the earliest possible opportunity.
University of Cambridge International Examinations is part of the Cambridge Assessment Group. Cambridge Assessment is the brand name of University of
Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate (UCLES), which is itself a department of the University of Cambridge.

0610/02/M/J/09

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UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS


International General Certificate of Secondary Education

0610/11

BIOLOGY
Paper 1 Multiple Choice

May/June 2010
45 minutes

Additional Materials:

*0718906743*

Multiple Choice Answer Sheet


Soft clean eraser
Soft pencil (type B or HB is recommended)

READ THESE INSTRUCTIONS FIRST


Write in soft pencil.
Do not use staples, paper clips, highlighters, glue or correction fluid.
Write your name, Centre number and candidate number on the Answer Sheet in the spaces provided
unless this has been done for you.
There are forty questions on this paper. Answer all questions. For each question there are four possible
answers A, B, C and D.
Choose the one you consider correct and record your choice in soft pencil on the separate Answer Sheet.
Read the instructions on the Answer Sheet very carefully.
Each correct answer will score one mark. A mark will not be deducted for a wrong answer.
Any rough working should be done in this booklet.

This document consists of 17 printed pages and 3 blank pages.


IB10 06_0610_11/3RP
UCLES 2010

[Turn over

2
1

What is defined as the chemical reactions that break down food molecules in cells to release
energy?
A

excretion

movement

nutrition

respiration

The diagram shows an arthropod animal.

Which features are characteristic of all arthropods?


A

jointed legs and segmented body

jointed legs and thorax

segmented body and wings

thorax and wings

UCLES 2010

0610/11/M/J/10

3
3

The diagram shows a section through a flower.

petal

Using the key, identify this flower.


1

sepals present .............................................. go to 2


sepals absent ............................................... go to 3
stamens attached to petals .......................... A

stamens not attached to petals .................... B


stigma above anthers ................................... C

stigma below anthers ................................... D


4

Which row shows the most likely number of chloroplasts in three types of cell in a leaf?
epidermis

palisade mesophyll

guard cells

17

17

17

17

UCLES 2010

0610/11/M/J/10

[Turn over

4
5

The diagram shows some liver cells as they appear under the microscope.

How many cell walls can be seen?


A
6

Which row shows the structures present in plant and animal cells?
cell wall

cytoplasm

nucleus

cell membrane

plant cell
animal cell













plant cell
animal cell













key

plant cell
animal cell













 = present
 = absent

plant cell
animal cell













Which structure is at a different level of organisation from the other three?


A

kidney

liver

neurone

testis

Which diagram shows one organ only?


A

UCLES 2010

0610/11/M/J/10

5
9

On a dry, sunny day, how does water vapour move through the stomata of a leaf?
A

into the leaf by diffusion

into the leaf by osmosis

out of the leaf by diffusion

out of the leaf by osmosis

10 The diagram shows an experiment using a potato.


concentrated
sugar solution
fresh potato
water

Which shows the result of the experiment after 24 hours?


A

11 The graph shows how the rate of an enzyme-controlled reaction changes with temperature.

rate of
reaction

temperature

What is happening within the temperature range marked X?


A

The enzyme is becoming denatured.

The enzyme is being used up.

The reaction is occurring at body temperature.

The reaction is occurring at the optimum temperature.

UCLES 2010

0610/11/M/J/10

[Turn over

6
12 Which condition can sometimes be prevented by eating plenty of fresh fruit and vegetables?
A

bleeding gums

brittle bones

diabetes

soft bones

13 Which solutions are used for testing for protein, reducing sugar and starch?
test for protein

test for reducing


sugar

test for starch

Benedicts

iodine

biuret

biuret

Benedicts

iodine

biuret

iodine

Benedicts

iodine

biuret

Benedicts

14 A protease is added to a suspension of egg protein in a test-tube and kept at 37 C.


After 8 minutes, the protein changes from cloudy to transparent.
Which product, or products, will now be present in the test-tube?
A

amino acids

a simple sugar

fatty acids and glycerol

water

UCLES 2010

0610/11/M/J/10

7
15 The photograph shows human blood cells as seen under a microscope at high power.

Q
P

S
R

Which are red cells?


A

P and Q

Q and R

R and S

S and P

16 What is a description of transpiration?


A

exchange of gases between the leaf and the atmosphere

loss of water vapour from the leaves and stems of a plant

movement of water from the roots to the leaves

movement of water through the cells of the leaf

17 The diagram shows the stem of a plant. A strip of the outer tissue including the phloem has been
removed.

xylem
phloem

How is transport in the plant affected?


A

Amino acids and sucrose cannot pass to the roots.

Dissolved salts cannot pass to the leaves.

Water cannot pass to the leaves.

Water cannot pass to the roots.

UCLES 2010

0610/11/M/J/10

[Turn over

8
18 The diagram shows someone blowing up a balloon.

What percentage of the gas in the balloon is carbon dioxide?


A

0.04 %

0.4 %

4.0 %

40 %

19 The table shows some of the features of respiration.


Which row is correct for anaerobic respiration?
energy remaining
in products

amount of
energy
released

chemical pathway

releases carbon
dioxide

high

high

always the same

sometimes

high

low

different in different organisms

sometimes

low

high

different in different organisms

always

low

low

always the same

always

20 Four words are shown below.


alcohol

anaerobic

sugar

yeast

These words can be used in the spaces P, Q, R and S to complete the sentence below.
In brewing and bread making, respiration takes place. The micro-organism called P
uses Q... as a source of food. The product of this R respiration is S .
Which combination of words correctly completes the sentences?
alcohol

anaerobic

sugar

yeast

UCLES 2010

0610/11/M/J/10

9
21 Which organ produces urea?
A

bladder

kidney

liver

pancreas

22 What happens when the body temperature rises above normal?


blood vessels in the
surface of skin

sweat production

constrict

decreases

constrict

increases

dilate

decreases

dilate

increases

23 The diagram shows some of the muscles and bones of the human arm.

muscle Y
muscle X

elbow joint

When muscle X contracts, what happens to the arm and what happens to muscle Y?
arm

muscle Y

bends

contracts

bends

relaxes

straightens

contracts

straightens

relaxes

UCLES 2010

0610/11/M/J/10

[Turn over

10
24 The diagram shows a section through part of the human eye.

suspensory
ligaments
lens

When a person looks at an object which is close to their eye, which of the following takes place?
suspensory
ligaments

lens

slacken

becomes fatter

slacken

becomes thinner

tighten

becomes fatter

tighten

becomes thinner

25 The diagram shows the female reproductive system.

What is the function of the part labelled X?


A

gamete production and hormone secretion

gamete production only

hormone secretion only

zygote production and hormone secretion

UCLES 2010

0610/11/M/J/10

11
26 The diagram shows the changes which take place during a womans menstrual cycle.

progesterone

oestrogen

2
time / weeks

menstruation
uterus
wall
0

2
time / weeks

What is occurring at the time of ovulation?


A

a fall in the levels of oestrogen and progesterone

a fall in the level of progesterone only

a rise in the levels of oestrogen and progesterone

a rise in the level of oestrogen only

27 The graph shows how dry mass of a plant changes with time.
Where on the graph is growth occurring?

dry
mass
A

D
B

time

UCLES 2010

0610/11/M/J/10

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12
28 The diagram shows some of the stages in the germination of a seed. The figures show the total
mass at each stage.

stage
mass / g

1
0.6

2
4.7

3
5.9

Which process causes the increase in mass between stage 1 and stage 2?
A

absorption of water

enzyme action on starch

photosynthesis

respiration

29 What term is used for the transference of a gene from one organism to another?
A

artificial selection

genetic engineering

mutation

natural selection

UCLES 2010

0610/11/M/J/10

13
30 The family tree shows the inheritance of the ability to taste a certain substance. The allele for the
ability to taste this substance is dominant to the allele for the inability to taste it.
1st generation

David

Mary

2nd generation
Peter

Hannah

3rd generation

key
represents a male taster

represents a male non-taster

represents a female taster

represents a female non-taster

What is the chance of the second child of Peter and Hannah being a non-taster?
A

1 in 1

1 in 2

1 in 3

1 in 4

31 The size of the arrows shows the approximate, relative amounts of energy passing from one
stage to the next in a food chain.
Which chain represents the energy losses between trophic levels?
A

sun

grass

rabbit

fox

sun

grass

rabbit

fox

sun

grass

rabbit

fox

sun

grass

rabbit

fox

UCLES 2010

0610/11/M/J/10

[Turn over

14
32 The diagram shows a food web.

producer
Which organisms occupy the same trophic level?
A

3 and 2

4 and 1

5 and 2

33 The diagram shows the flow of energy in a food chain.


Which organism is the producer in the food chain?

organism A

organism B

organism C

organism D

UCLES 2010

0610/11/M/J/10

5 and 3

15
34 The diagram shows part of a section through a leaf.

The arrow represents part of the


A

carbon cycle only.

flow of energy.

water and carbon cycles.

water cycle only.

35 The diagram shows part of the carbon cycle.


carbon dioxide
in the air

carbohydrates
in living plants

dead
matter

carbohydrates
in living animals

Which process occurs at Y?


A

combustion

decay

photosynthesis

respiration

UCLES 2010

0610/11/M/J/10

[Turn over

16
36 The diagram shows part of the water cycle.
Where is osmosis occurring?
clouds

B
water
vapour

soil
C

D
plants

lake

37 The diagrams show the current population sizes for people below 50 years of age in four different
countries.
Which country will be likely to have the largest population of people 60 70 years of age in 20
years time?

A
40 49
30 39
age 20 29
10 19
09

B
40 49
30 39
age 20 29
10 19
09

percentage of the population

percentage of the population

40 49
30 39
age 20 29
10 19
09

40 49
30 39
age 20 29
10 19
0 9
percentage of the population

percentage of the population

38 What makes nuclear fall-out dangerous to living organisms?


A

It causes flooding.

It causes global warming.

It damages DNA.

It damages soils.

UCLES 2010

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17
39 A very large area of land has been cleared of rainforest and planted with soybean.
What result of deforestation will encourage the growth of the soybean plants?
A

decrease in atmospheric oxygen

decrease in rainfall

increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide

increase in soil erosion

40 The map shows a river flowing into the sea. The river is polluted by untreated sewage.
At which labelled point will the oxygen content of the water be lowest?

sea

untreated sewage

UCLES 2010

river

0610/11/M/J/10

18
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UCLES 2010

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20
BLANK PAGE

Permission to reproduce items where third-party owned material protected by copyright is included has been sought and cleared where possible. Every
reasonable effort has been made by the publisher (UCLES) to trace copyright holders, but if any items requiring clearance have unwittingly been included, the
publisher will be pleased to make amends at the earliest possible opportunity.
University of Cambridge International Examinations is part of the Cambridge Assessment Group. Cambridge Assessment is the brand name of University of
Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate (UCLES), which is itself a department of the University of Cambridge.

UCLES 2010

0610/11/M/J/10

w
ap
eP

e
tr
.X

w
om
.c

s
er

UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS


International General Certificate of Secondary Education

0610/12

BIOLOGY
Paper 1 Multiple Choice

May/June 2010
45 minutes

Additional Materials:

*9777740616*

Multiple Choice Answer Sheet


Soft clean eraser
Soft pencil (type B or HB is recommended)

READ THESE INSTRUCTIONS FIRST


Write in soft pencil.
Do not use staples, paper clips, highlighters, glue or correction fluid.
Write your name, Centre number and candidate number on the Answer Sheet in the spaces provided
unless this has been done for you.
There are forty questions on this paper. Answer all questions. For each question there are four possible
answers A, B, C and D.
Choose the one you consider correct and record your choice in soft pencil on the separate Answer Sheet.
Read the instructions on the Answer Sheet very carefully.
Each correct answer will score one mark. A mark will not be deducted for a wrong answer.
Any rough working should be done in this booklet.

This document consists of 17 printed pages and 3 blank pages.


IB10 06_0610_12/RP
UCLES 2010

[Turn over

2
1

The diagram shows some liver cells as they appear under the microscope.

How many cell walls can be seen?


A
2

Which row shows the most likely number of chloroplasts in three types of cell in a leaf?
epidermis

palisade mesophyll

guard cells

17

17

17

17

Which row shows the structures present in plant and animal cells?
cell wall

cytoplasm

nucleus

cell membrane

plant cell
animal cell













plant cell
animal cell













key

plant cell
animal cell













 = present
 = absent

plant cell
animal cell













Which structure is at a different level of organisation from the other three?


A

kidney

liver

neurone

testis

UCLES 2010

0610/12/M/J/10

3
5

What is defined as the chemical reactions that break down food molecules in cells to release
energy?
A

excretion

movement

nutrition

respiration

The diagram shows a section through a flower.

petal

Using the key, identify this flower.


1

sepals present .............................................. go to 2


sepals absent ............................................... go to 3

stamens attached to petals .......................... A


stamens not attached to petals .................... B

stigma above anthers ................................... C


stigma below anthers ................................... D

Which diagram shows one organ only?


A

UCLES 2010

0610/12/M/J/10

[Turn over

4
8

The diagram shows an arthropod animal.

Which features are characteristic of all arthropods?

jointed legs and segmented body

jointed legs and thorax

segmented body and wings

thorax and wings

Which solutions are used for testing for protein, reducing sugar and starch?
test for protein

test for reducing


sugar

test for starch

Benedicts

iodine

biuret

biuret

Benedicts

iodine

biuret

iodine

Benedicts

iodine

biuret

Benedicts

10 On a dry, sunny day, how does water vapour move through the stomata of a leaf?
A

into the leaf by diffusion

into the leaf by osmosis

out of the leaf by diffusion

out of the leaf by osmosis

UCLES 2010

0610/12/M/J/10

5
11 The diagram shows an experiment using a potato.

concentrated
sugar solution
fresh potato
water
Which shows the result of the experiment after 24 hours?
A

12 A protease is added to a suspension of egg protein in a test-tube and kept at 37 C.


After 8 minutes, the protein changes from cloudy to transparent.
Which product, or products, will now be present in the test-tube?
A

amino acids

a simple sugar

fatty acids and glycerol

water

13 Which condition can sometimes be prevented by eating plenty of fresh fruit and vegetables?
A

bleeding gums

brittle bones

diabetes

soft bones

UCLES 2010

0610/12/M/J/10

[Turn over

6
14 The graph shows how the rate of an enzyme-controlled reaction changes with temperature.

rate of
reaction

temperature

What is happening within the temperature range marked X?


A

The enzyme is becoming denatured.

The enzyme is being used up.

The reaction is occurring at body temperature.

The reaction is occurring at the optimum temperature.

15 The diagram shows the stem of a plant. A strip of the outer tissue including the phloem has been
removed.

xylem
phloem

How is transport in the plant affected?


A

Amino acids and sucrose cannot pass to the roots.

Dissolved salts cannot pass to the leaves.

Water cannot pass to the leaves.

Water cannot pass to the roots.

UCLES 2010

0610/12/M/J/10

7
16 The table shows some of the features of respiration.
Which row is correct for anaerobic respiration?
energy remaining
in products

amount of
energy
released

chemical pathway

releases carbon
dioxide

high

high

always the same

sometimes

high

low

different in different organisms

sometimes

low

high

different in different organisms

always

low

low

always the same

always

17 Four words are shown below.


alcohol

anaerobic

sugar

yeast

These words can be used in the spaces P, Q, R and S to complete the sentence below.
In brewing and bread making, respiration takes place. The micro-organism called P
uses Q... as a source of food. The product of this R respiration is S .
Which combination of words correctly completes the sentences?
alcohol

anaerobic

sugar

yeast

UCLES 2010

0610/12/M/J/10

[Turn over

8
18 The photograph shows human blood cells as seen under a microscope at high power.

Q
P

S
R

Which are red cells?


A

P and Q

Q and R

R and S

S and P

40 %

19 The diagram shows someone blowing up a balloon.

What percentage of the gas in the balloon is carbon dioxide?


A

0.04 %

0.4 %

4.0 %

20 What is a description of transpiration?


A

exchange of gases between the leaf and the atmosphere

loss of water vapour from the leaves and stems of a plant

movement of water from the roots to the leaves

movement of water through the cells of the leaf

UCLES 2010

0610/12/M/J/10

9
21 What happens when the body temperature rises above normal?
blood vessels in the
surface of skin

sweat production

constrict

decreases

constrict

increases

dilate

decreases

dilate

increases

22 The diagram shows some of the muscles and bones of the human arm.

muscle Y
muscle X

elbow joint

When muscle X contracts, what happens to the arm and what happens to muscle Y?
arm

muscle Y

bends

contracts

bends

relaxes

straightens

contracts

straightens

relaxes

UCLES 2010

0610/12/M/J/10

[Turn over

10
23 The diagram shows a section through part of the human eye.

suspensory
ligaments
lens

When a person looks at an object which is close to their eye, which of the following takes place?
suspensory
ligaments

lens

slacken

becomes fatter

slacken

becomes thinner

tighten

becomes fatter

tighten

becomes thinner

24 Which organ produces urea?


A

bladder

kidney

liver

pancreas

25 What term is used for the transference of a gene from one organism to another?
A

artificial selection

genetic engineering

mutation

natural selection

UCLES 2010

0610/12/M/J/10

11
26 The diagram shows the female reproductive system.

What is the function of the part labelled X?


A

gamete production and hormone secretion

gamete production only

hormone secretion only

zygote production and hormone secretion

27 The diagram shows some of the stages in the germination of a seed. The figures show the total
mass at each stage.

stage
mass / g

1
0.6

2
4.7

3
5.9

Which process causes the increase in mass between stage 1 and stage 2?
A

absorption of water

enzyme action on starch

photosynthesis

respiration

UCLES 2010

0610/12/M/J/10

[Turn over

12
28 The diagram shows the changes which take place during a womans menstrual cycle.

progesterone

oestrogen

2
time / weeks

menstruation
uterus
wall
0

2
time / weeks

What is occurring at the time of ovulation?


A

a fall in the levels of oestrogen and progesterone

a fall in the level of progesterone only

a rise in the levels of oestrogen and progesterone

a rise in the level of oestrogen only

29 The graph shows how dry mass of a plant changes with time.
Where on the graph is growth occurring?

dry
mass
A

D
B

time

UCLES 2010

0610/12/M/J/10

13
30 The diagram shows part of the carbon cycle.
carbon dioxide
in the air

carbohydrates
in living plants

dead
matter

carbohydrates
in living animals

Which process occurs at Y?


A

combustion

decay

photosynthesis

respiration

31 What makes nuclear fall-out dangerous to living organisms?


A

It causes flooding.

It causes global warming.

It damages DNA.

It damages soils.

32 The diagram shows part of the water cycle.


Where is osmosis occurring?
clouds

B
water
vapour

soil
C

D
plants

lake

UCLES 2010

0610/12/M/J/10

[Turn over

14
33 The family tree shows the inheritance of the ability to taste a certain substance. The allele for the
ability to taste this substance is dominant to the allele for the inability to taste it.
1st generation

David

Mary

2nd generation
Peter

Hannah

3rd generation

key
represents a male taster

represents a male non-taster

represents a female taster

represents a female non-taster

What is the chance of the second child of Peter and Hannah being a non-taster?
A

1 in 1

1 in 2

1 in 3

34 The diagram shows the flow of energy in a food chain.


Which organism is the producer in the food chain?

organism A

organism B

organism C

organism D

UCLES 2010

0610/12/M/J/10

1 in 4

15
35 A very large area of land has been cleared of rainforest and planted with soybean.
What result of deforestation will encourage the growth of the soybean plants?
A

decrease in atmospheric oxygen

decrease in rainfall

increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide

increase in soil erosion

36 The diagram shows part of a section through a leaf.

The arrow represents part of the


A

carbon cycle only.

flow of energy.

water and carbon cycles.

water cycle only.

UCLES 2010

0610/12/M/J/10

[Turn over

16
37 The diagram shows a food web.

producer
Which organisms occupy the same trophic level?
A

3 and 2

4 and 1

5 and 2

5 and 3

38 The map shows a river flowing into the sea. The river is polluted by untreated sewage.
At which labelled point will the oxygen content of the water be lowest?

sea

untreated sewage

UCLES 2010

river

0610/12/M/J/10

17
39 The size of the arrows shows the approximate, relative amounts of energy passing from one
stage to the next in a food chain.
Which chain represents the energy losses between trophic levels?
A

sun

grass

rabbit

fox

sun

grass

rabbit

fox

sun

grass

rabbit

fox

sun

grass

rabbit

fox

40 The diagrams show the current population sizes for people below 50 years of age in four different
countries.
Which country will be likely to have the largest population of people 60 70 years of age in 20
years time?

A
40 49
30 39
age 20 29
10 19
09

B
40 49
30 39
age 20 29
10 19
09

percentage of the population

percentage of the population

40 49
30 39
age 20 29
10 19
09

40 49
30 39
age 20 29
10 19
0 9
percentage of the population

UCLES 2010

percentage of the population

0610/12/M/J/10

18
BLANK PAGE

UCLES 2010

0610/12/M/J/10

19
BLANK PAGE

UCLES 2010

0610/12/M/J/10

20
BLANK PAGE

Permission to reproduce items where third-party owned material protected by copyright is included has been sought and cleared where possible. Every
reasonable effort has been made by the publisher (UCLES) to trace copyright holders, but if any items requiring clearance have unwittingly been included, the
publisher will be pleased to make amends at the earliest possible opportunity.
University of Cambridge International Examinations is part of the Cambridge Assessment Group. Cambridge Assessment is the brand name of University of
Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate (UCLES), which is itself a department of the University of Cambridge.

UCLES 2010

0610/12/M/J/10

w
ap
eP

e
tr
.X

w
om
.c

s
er

UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS


International General Certificate of Secondary Education

0610/13

BIOLOGY
Paper 1 Multiple Choice

May/June 2010
45 minutes

Additional Materials:

*5548201757*

Multiple Choice Answer Sheet


Soft clean eraser
Soft pencil (type B or HB is recommended)

READ THESE INSTRUCTIONS FIRST


Write in soft pencil.
Do not use staples, paper clips, highlighters, glue or correction fluid.
Write your name, Centre number and candidate number on the Answer Sheet in the spaces provided
unless this has been done for you.
There are forty questions on this paper. Answer all questions. For each question there are four possible
answers A, B, C and D.
Choose the one you consider correct and record your choice in soft pencil on the separate Answer Sheet.
Read the instructions on the Answer Sheet very carefully.
Each correct answer will score one mark. A mark will not be deducted for a wrong answer.
Any rough working should be done in this booklet.

This document consists of 17 printed pages and 3 blank pages.


IB10 06_0610_13/RP
UCLES 2010

[Turn over

2
1

The diagram shows some liver cells as they appear under the microscope.

How many cell walls can be seen?


A
2

Which row shows the most likely number of chloroplasts in three types of cell in a leaf?
epidermis

palisade mesophyll

guard cells

17

17

17

17

Which row shows the structures present in plant and animal cells?
cell wall

cytoplasm

nucleus

cell membrane

plant cell
animal cell













plant cell
animal cell













key

plant cell
animal cell













 = present
 = absent

plant cell
animal cell













Which structure is at a different level of organisation from the other three?


A

kidney

liver

neurone

testis

UCLES 2010

0610/13/M/J/10

3
5

What is defined as the chemical reactions that break down food molecules in cells to release
energy?
A

excretion

movement

nutrition

respiration

The diagram shows a section through a flower.

petal

Using the key, identify this flower.


1

sepals present .............................................. go to 2


sepals absent ............................................... go to 3

stamens attached to petals .......................... A


stamens not attached to petals .................... B

stigma above anthers ................................... C


stigma below anthers ................................... D

Which diagram shows one organ only?


A

UCLES 2010

0610/13/M/J/10

[Turn over

4
8

The diagram shows an arthropod animal.

Which features are characteristic of all arthropods?

jointed legs and segmented body

jointed legs and thorax

segmented body and wings

thorax and wings

Which solutions are used for testing for protein, reducing sugar and starch?
test for protein

test for reducing


sugar

test for starch

Benedicts

iodine

biuret

biuret

Benedicts

iodine

biuret

iodine

Benedicts

iodine

biuret

Benedicts

10 On a dry, sunny day, how does water vapour move through the stomata of a leaf?
A

into the leaf by diffusion

into the leaf by osmosis

out of the leaf by diffusion

out of the leaf by osmosis

UCLES 2010

0610/13/M/J/10

5
11 The diagram shows an experiment using a potato.

concentrated
sugar solution
fresh potato
water
Which shows the result of the experiment after 24 hours?
A

12 A protease is added to a suspension of egg protein in a test-tube and kept at 37 C.


After 8 minutes, the protein changes from cloudy to transparent.
Which product, or products, will now be present in the test-tube?
A

amino acids

a simple sugar

fatty acids and glycerol

water

13 Which condition can sometimes be prevented by eating plenty of fresh fruit and vegetables?
A

bleeding gums

brittle bones

diabetes

soft bones

UCLES 2010

0610/13/M/J/10

[Turn over

6
14 The graph shows how the rate of an enzyme-controlled reaction changes with temperature.

rate of
reaction

temperature

What is happening within the temperature range marked X?


A

The enzyme is becoming denatured.

The enzyme is being used up.

The reaction is occurring at body temperature.

The reaction is occurring at the optimum temperature.

15 The diagram shows the stem of a plant. A strip of the outer tissue including the phloem has been
removed.

xylem
phloem

How is transport in the plant affected?


A

Amino acids and sucrose cannot pass to the roots.

Dissolved salts cannot pass to the leaves.

Water cannot pass to the leaves.

Water cannot pass to the roots.

UCLES 2010

0610/13/M/J/10

7
16 The table shows some of the features of respiration.
Which row is correct for anaerobic respiration?
energy remaining
in products

amount of
energy
released

chemical pathway

releases carbon
dioxide

high

high

always the same

sometimes

high

low

different in different organisms

sometimes

low

high

different in different organisms

always

low

low

always the same

always

17 Four words are shown below.


alcohol

anaerobic

sugar

yeast

These words can be used in the spaces P, Q, R and S to complete the sentence below.
In brewing and bread making, respiration takes place. The micro-organism called P
uses Q... as a source of food. The product of this R respiration is S .
Which combination of words correctly completes the sentences?
alcohol

anaerobic

sugar

yeast

UCLES 2010

0610/13/M/J/10

[Turn over

8
18 The photograph shows human blood cells as seen under a microscope at high power.

Q
P

S
R

Which are red cells?


A

P and Q

Q and R

R and S

S and P

40 %

19 The diagram shows someone blowing up a balloon.

What percentage of the gas in the balloon is carbon dioxide?


A

0.04 %

0.4 %

4.0 %

20 What is a description of transpiration?


A

exchange of gases between the leaf and the atmosphere

loss of water vapour from the leaves and stems of a plant

movement of water from the roots to the leaves

movement of water through the cells of the leaf

UCLES 2010

0610/13/M/J/10

9
21 What happens when the body temperature rises above normal?
blood vessels in the
surface of skin

sweat production

constrict

decreases

constrict

increases

dilate

decreases

dilate

increases

22 The diagram shows some of the muscles and bones of the human arm.

muscle Y
muscle X

elbow joint

When muscle X contracts, what happens to the arm and what happens to muscle Y?
arm

muscle Y

bends

contracts

bends

relaxes

straightens

contracts

straightens

relaxes

UCLES 2010

0610/13/M/J/10

[Turn over

10
23 The diagram shows a section through part of the human eye.

suspensory
ligaments
lens

When a person looks at an object which is close to their eye, which of the following takes place?
suspensory
ligaments

lens

slacken

becomes fatter

slacken

becomes thinner

tighten

becomes fatter

tighten

becomes thinner

24 Which organ produces urea?


A

bladder

kidney

liver

pancreas

25 What term is used for the transference of a gene from one organism to another?
A

artificial selection

genetic engineering

mutation

natural selection

UCLES 2010

0610/13/M/J/10

11
26 The diagram shows the female reproductive system.

What is the function of the part labelled X?


A

gamete production and hormone secretion

gamete production only

hormone secretion only

zygote production and hormone secretion

27 The diagram shows some of the stages in the germination of a seed. The figures show the total
mass at each stage.

stage
mass / g

1
0.6

2
4.7

3
5.9

Which process causes the increase in mass between stage 1 and stage 2?
A

absorption of water

enzyme action on starch

photosynthesis

respiration

UCLES 2010

0610/13/M/J/10

[Turn over

12
28 The diagram shows the changes which take place during a womans menstrual cycle.

progesterone

oestrogen

2
time / weeks

menstruation
uterus
wall
0

2
time / weeks

What is occurring at the time of ovulation?


A

a fall in the levels of oestrogen and progesterone

a fall in the level of progesterone only

a rise in the levels of oestrogen and progesterone

a rise in the level of oestrogen only

29 The graph shows how dry mass of a plant changes with time.
Where on the graph is growth occurring?

dry
mass
A

D
B

time

UCLES 2010

0610/13/M/J/10

13
30 The diagram shows part of the carbon cycle.
carbon dioxide
in the air

carbohydrates
in living plants

dead
matter

carbohydrates
in living animals

Which process occurs at Y?


A

combustion

decay

photosynthesis

respiration

31 What makes nuclear fall-out dangerous to living organisms?


A

It causes flooding.

It causes global warming.

It damages DNA.

It damages soils.

32 The diagram shows part of the water cycle.


Where is osmosis occurring?
clouds

B
water
vapour

soil
C

D
plants

lake

UCLES 2010

0610/13/M/J/10

[Turn over

14
33 The family tree shows the inheritance of the ability to taste a certain substance. The allele for the
ability to taste this substance is dominant to the allele for the inability to taste it.
1st generation

David

Mary

2nd generation
Peter

Hannah

3rd generation

key
represents a male taster

represents a male non-taster

represents a female taster

represents a female non-taster

What is the chance of the second child of Peter and Hannah being a non-taster?
A

1 in 1

1 in 2

1 in 3

34 The diagram shows the flow of energy in a food chain.


Which organism is the producer in the food chain?

organism A

organism B

organism C

organism D

UCLES 2010

0610/13/M/J/10

1 in 4

15
35 A very large area of land has been cleared of rainforest and planted with soybean.
What result of deforestation will encourage the growth of the soybean plants?
A

decrease in atmospheric oxygen

decrease in rainfall

increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide

increase in soil erosion

36 The diagram shows part of a section through a leaf.

The arrow represents part of the


A

carbon cycle only.

flow of energy.

water and carbon cycles.

water cycle only.

UCLES 2010

0610/13/M/J/10

[Turn over

16
37 The diagram shows a food web.

producer
Which organisms occupy the same trophic level?
A

3 and 2

4 and 1

5 and 2

5 and 3

38 The map shows a river flowing into the sea. The river is polluted by untreated sewage.
At which labelled point will the oxygen content of the water be lowest?

sea

untreated sewage

UCLES 2010

river

0610/13/M/J/10

17
39 The size of the arrows shows the approximate, relative amounts of energy passing from one
stage to the next in a food chain.
Which chain represents the energy losses between trophic levels?
A

sun

grass

rabbit

fox

sun

grass

rabbit

fox

sun

grass

rabbit

fox

sun

grass

rabbit

fox

40 The diagrams show the current population sizes for people below 50 years of age in four different
countries.
Which country will be likely to have the largest population of people 60 70 years of age in 20
years time?

A
40 49
30 39
age 20 29
10 19
09

B
40 49
30 39
age 20 29
10 19
09

percentage of the population

percentage of the population

40 49
30 39
age 20 29
10 19
09

40 49
30 39
age 20 29
10 19
0 9
percentage of the population

UCLES 2010

percentage of the population

0610/13/M/J/10

18
BLANK PAGE

UCLES 2010

0610/13/M/J/10

19
BLANK PAGE

UCLES 2010

0610/13/M/J/10

20
BLANK PAGE

Permission to reproduce items where third-party owned material protected by copyright is included has been sought and cleared where possible. Every
reasonable effort has been made by the publisher (UCLES) to trace copyright holders, but if any items requiring clearance have unwittingly been included, the
publisher will be pleased to make amends at the earliest possible opportunity.
University of Cambridge International Examinations is part of the Cambridge Assessment Group. Cambridge Assessment is the brand name of University of
Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate (UCLES), which is itself a department of the University of Cambridge.

UCLES 2010

0610/13/M/J/10

w
ap
eP

e
tr
.X

w
om
.c

s
er

UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS


International General Certificate of Secondary Education

*2439575101*

0610/21

BIOLOGY

May/June 2010

Paper 2 Core

1 hour 15 minutes
Candidates answer on the Question Paper.
No Additional Materials are required.
READ THESE INSTRUCTIONS FIRST
Write your Centre number, candidate number and name on all the work you hand in.
Write in dark blue or black pen.
You may use a pencil for any diagrams or graphs.
Do not use staples, paper clips, highlighters, glue or correction fluid.
For Examiner's Use
DO NOT WRITE IN ANY BARCODES.
Answer all questions.
At the end of the examination, fasten all your work securely together.
The number of marks is given in brackets [ ] at the end of each question or part
question.

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Total

This document consists of 15 printed pages and 1 blank page.


IB10 06_0610_21/6RP
UCLES 2010

[Turn over

2
1

Fig. 1.1 shows two cells.

For
Examiner's
Use

cell A

cell B

Fig. 1.1
(a) (i) State where, in a human, a cell of type A would normally be found.
[1]
(ii) State where, in a plant, a cell of type B would be found.
[1]
(b) Use only words from the list to complete the statements about cell B.
air

cellulose

chloroplasts

membrane

mitochondria

nucleus

starch

vacuole

wall

cell sap

Cell B has a thick outer layer called the cell


made of

. This is

. The cytoplasm of cell B contains many


that are used in the process of photosynthesis. The

large permanent

is full of

and

this helps to maintain the shape of the cell.


[5]

UCLES 2010

0610/21/M/J/10

3
(c) Fig. 1.2 shows structures that produce urine and excrete it from the body of a mammal.

For
Examiner's
Use

Fig. 1.2
(i) On Fig. 1.2, label and name one organ.

[1]

(ii) Use examples from Fig. 1.2 to explain the difference between the terms organ and
organ system.

[3]

[Total 11]

UCLES 2010

0610/21/M/J/10

[Turn over

4
2

Table 2.1 shows some of the external features of the five classes of vertebrates.

For
Examiner's
Use

Complete the table by placing a tick () to indicate if each class has the feature.
Table 2.1
class of
vertebrate

external
ear flap

feathers or fur

two pairs of
limbs

scaly skin

amphibians
birds
fish
mammals
reptiles
[5]
[Total: 5]

Rain forests are the natural vegetation in areas with high rainfall.
Tropical rain forest is being cut down in many parts of the world to clear land for agriculture.
The soil of the rain forest allows water to drain through it very rapidly.
Table 3.1 shows the yield of cotton crops, grown under three different conditions, on land
cleared of rain forest.
Table 3.1
yield of cotton / kg per hectare
years since the
forest was cleared

no fertiliser added to
the soil

fertiliser added to
soil during year 1

chopped grass
added to the soil
during year 1

200

398

220

180

790

1460

120

700

980

(a) (i) What happened to the yield of cotton over the three years if no fertiliser was added
to the soil?

[1]

UCLES 2010

0610/21/M/J/10

5
(ii) Suggest possible reasons for this change in the yield of cotton.

For
Examiner's
Use

[2]

(b) (i) What happened to the yield of cotton when fertiliser was added to the soil in
year 1?

[1]
(ii) Suggest why excessive quantities of fertiliser should not be added to the soil.

[2]

(c) Chopped grass added to the soil has little effect on the crop yield in year 1.
Suggest why it has much greater effect on the yield in years 2 and 3.

[2]
[Total: 8]

UCLES 2010

0610/21/M/J/10

[Turn over

6
4

Fig. 4.1 shows a pyramid of biomass.

For
Examiner's
Use

trophic level
4
3 .......................................
2
1 .......................................

Fig. 4.1
(a) On Fig. 4.1, name trophic levels 1 and 3.

[2]

(b) Fig. 4.2 shows a food web of a freshwater pond and Fig. 4.3 shows the same pyramid
of biomass as was shown in Fig. 4.1.

water
boatmen (A)
sticklebacks (C)

dragonfly
larvae (B)

mosquito
larvae (E)

hydras (D)

water
fleas (G)

leeches (F)

pond
snails (I)

protozoas (H)

microscopic
green
algae (J)

larger
plants (K)
Fig. 4.2
trophic level
4

...........

3
2

...........

Fig. 4.3
(i) In the boxes for trophic levels 2 and 4 in Fig. 4.3, write the letters (A to K) of all the
organisms that are members of these trophic levels.
[2]

UCLES 2010

0610/21/M/J/10

7
(ii) An outbreak of a bacterial disease that affects only mosquito larvae occurred in the
pond. Predict and explain two of the effects this might have on the hydra
population.

For
Examiner's
Use

[4]

[Total: 8]

UCLES 2010

0610/21/M/J/10

[Turn over

8
5

Fig. 5.1 shows an experiment to investigate the conditions needed for germination.

For
Examiner's
Use

Tubes A, B, C and D are at room temperature and tube E is in a freezer.


A

black
card
oil
seeds
dry
cotton
wool

boiled
water

moist
cotton
wool
room temperature

moist
cotton
wool

in freezer

Fig. 5.1
(a) State three of the environmental conditions this experiment is investigating.
1.
2.
3.

[3]

(b) Predict in which two tubes the seeds will germinate.


[2]

(c) Nuclear and cell division happen during germination.


(i) Name the type of nuclear division that takes place during the growth of a seedling.
[1]
(ii) State how the number of chromosomes in each of the new cells compares with the
number of chromosomes in the original cells.
[1]

UCLES 2010

0610/21/M/J/10

9
(d) Fig. 5.2 shows the changes in the dry mass of a broad been seed in the first five days
after planting.

For
Examiner's
Use

dry
mass
/g

0
1

time after planting / days

Fig. 5.2
Describe and suggest an explanation for the changes that happen to the dry mass of
the seed in the first five days after planting.

[3]

[Total: 10]

UCLES 2010

0610/21/M/J/10

[Turn over

10
6

Fig. 6.1 shows a fetus developing inside the uterus.

For
Examiner's
Use

M
N
O

Fig. 6.1
(a) The fetus developed from a fertilised egg cell. Place an X on the diagram where an egg
cell is normally fertilised.
[1]
(b) (i) Name the structures M and N.
M
N

[2]

(ii) Describe the role of structure M in gaseous exchange.

[3]

(c) Describe how the structures labelled O and P are involved in the birth of the baby.
structure O

structure P
[2]

UCLES 2010

0610/21/M/J/10

11
(d) (i) If a woman infected with HIV becomes pregnant, her baby may also be infected
with HIV, by the time it is born.

For
Examiner's
Use

Suggest two ways this may happen.

[2]
(ii) Apart from avoiding infections, describe two other ways that a pregnant mother
can help her baby develop healthily.
1.

2.
[2]

[Total: 12]

UCLES 2010

0610/21/M/J/10

[Turn over

12
BLANK PAGE

0610/21/M/J/10

13
7

Fig. 7.1 shows three different types of teeth from a human.

For
Examiner's
Use

Fig. 7.1
(a) (i) Name the types of teeth labelled A and B.
A
B

[2]

(ii) State where in the jaw tooth type C is found.


[1]

(b) Explain how regular brushing helps to prevent tooth decay.

[3]

(c) Explain the roles of chewing and of enzymes in the process of digestion.

[4]

[Total: 10]

UCLES 2010

0610/21/M/J/10

[Turn over

14
8

Fig. 8.1 shows the route taken by blood around the body.

lungs
E
heart chamber A

heart chamber B

F
body organs
Fig. 8.1
(a) (i) Name the heart chambers A and B.
A
B

[2]

(ii) Use information shown in Fig. 8.1 to identify the type of blood vessel C as either an
artery or a vein.
type of vessel
reason
[2]

0610/21/M/J/10

15
(b) (i) State and explain two differences between the contents of the blood flowing in
vessels C and E.

For
Examiner's
Use

1.

2.
[2]

(ii) Suggest and explain which of the four blood vessels contains blood at the highest
pressure.

[2]
[Total: 8]

UCLES 2010

0610/21/M/J/10

[Turn over

16
9

(a) Name two human sense organs and an environmental stimulus that each detects.

For
Examiner's
Use

sense organ 1
stimulus it detects
sense organ 2
stimulus it detects

[2]

(b) (i) Tropisms occur in plants. State the meaning of the term tropism.

[2]

(ii) Complete Table 9.1 about tropisms in plants.


Table 9.1
stimulus

name of tropism

effect on plant shoot

gravity
light
[4]
[Total: 8]

Copyright Acknowledgements:

Permission to reproduce items where third-party owned material protected by copyright is included has been sought and cleared where possible. Every
reasonable effort has been made by the publisher (UCLES) to trace copyright holders, but if any items requiring clearance have unwittingly been included, the
publisher will be pleased to make amends at the earliest possible opportunity.
University of Cambridge International Examinations is part of the Cambridge Assessment Group. Cambridge Assessment is the brand name of University of
Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate (UCLES), which is itself a department of the University of Cambridge.

UCLES 2010

0610/21/M/J/10

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UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS


International General Certificate of Secondary Education

*8576531277*

0610/22

BIOLOGY

May/June 2010

Paper 2 Core

1 hour 15 minutes
Candidates answer on the Question Paper.
No Additional Materials are required.
READ THESE INSTRUCTIONS FIRST
Write your Centre number, candidate number and name on all the work you hand in.
Write in dark blue or black pen.
You may use a pencil for any diagrams or graphs.
Do not use staples, paper clips, highlighters, glue or correction fluid.
For Examiner's Use
DO NOT WRITE IN ANY BARCODES.
Answer all questions.
At the end of the examination, fasten all your work securely together.
The number of marks is given in brackets [ ] at the end of each question or part
question.

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Total

This document consists of 15 printed pages and 1 blank page.


IB10 06_0610_22/6RP
UCLES 2010

[Turn over

2
1

Fig.1.1 shows the shells of five molluscs.

For
Examiner's
Use

Fig.1.1
Use the key to identify each of the molluscs which normally live inside the shells.
Write the name of each mollusc in the correct box of Table 1.1.
As you work through the key, tick () the boxes in Table 1.1 to show how you identified
each mollusc.
Key
name of mollusc
go to 2
go to 3

1 (a) Shell made of two parts


(b) Shell made of one part only

Cardium
Venerupis

2 (a) Both shell halves have ridges running down the shell
(b) Both shell halves are smooth

go to 4
Patella

3 (a) Shell tightly coiled


(b) Shell conical with no coil
4 (a) Bottom coil less than a quarter of the length of the shell
(b) Bottom coil more than half of the length of the shell

Turritella
Buccinum

Table 1.1
1 (a)

1 (b)

2 (a)

2 (b)

3 (a)

3 (b)

4 (a)

4 (b)

name of mollusc

A
B
C
D
E
[4]
[Total: 4]

UCLES 2010

0610/22/M/J/10

3
2

(a) Humans need a supply of mineral salts, such as calcium and iron, in their diet.

For
Examiner's
Use

(i) State a role of calcium ions in the human body.


[1]
(ii) State a role of iron ions in the human body.
[1]

(b) Fertilisers are used by farmers to increase the growth of crop plants.
The fertilisers contain a mixture of mineral salts.
(i) State a use of magnesium ions in a plant.
[1]
(ii) State a use of nitrate ions in a plant.
[1]

(c) A factory that produces fertilisers is located next to a small river. At the end of each
week its machinery is washed out and the contaminated water is released into the
river.
Suggest what effects this action could have on the plants and animals living in the river.

[4]
[Total: 8]

UCLES 2010

0610/22/M/J/10

[Turn over

4
3

A species of plant has white-flowered plants and blue-flowered plants.


If a homozygous white-flowered plant was crossed with a blue-flowered plant, all the seeds
produced plants with only blue flowers.
(a) State which flower colour is controlled by the dominant allele and explain your reason
for this answer.

[1]

(b) Use the symbols, B and b, to represent the two alleles for flower colours.
(i) State the genotype of each parent plant.
blue-flowered plant
white-flowered plant

[2]

(ii) State the genotype of the offspring.


[1]
(iii) Draw a genetic diagram to predict the likely results of a cross between one of the
blue-flowered offspring and a white-flowered plant.

[4]

UCLES 2010

0610/22/M/J/10

For
Examiner's
Use

Question 3 continues on Page 6

0610/22/M/J/10

[Turn over

6
(c) Fig. 3.1 shows a cob of a maize plant.

For
Examiner's
Use

grains containing
seeds

Fig. 3.1
Fig. 3.2 shows the length of the cobs formed by a number of different maize plants.
All the plants were grown from seeds from one original cob.

70

60

50

40
number
of cobs
30

20

10

10

11

12

13

14

length of cob / cm
Fig. 3.2

UCLES 2010

0610/22/M/J/10

15

16

17

18

19

7
(i) Explain the evidence visible in Fig. 3.2, that shows that this is continuous variation.

For
Examiner's
Use

[1]
(ii) Suggest three environmental factors that might affect the length of the maize cobs.
1.
2.
3.

[3]

(iii) Explain how the type of variation shown by the maize cobs differs from that shown
by the blue and white flowers.

[1]
[Total 13]

0610/22/M/J/10

[Turn over

8
4

In the Arctic, snowy owls are predators of lemmings. The lemmings eat arctic plants.

For
Examiner's
Use

(a) Draw the food chain for this arctic ecosystem.


[1]

(b) Fig. 4.1 shows changes in the populations of snowy owls and lemmings over a three
year period.
10

lemmings

9
8

snowy owls

7
hundreds
of lemmings
per km2

5
4

number
of owls
per km2

3
2

1
0
year 1

year 2

year 3

Fig. 4.1
(i) During the first 10 months of year 1 the lemming population increases slowly at
first and then more rapidly. Suggest why the rate of increase becomes greater.

[1]
(ii) Using information in Fig. 4.1, suggest why the lemming population falls during
year 2.

[2]

UCLES 2010

0610/22/M/J/10

9
(iii) Using information in Fig. 4.1, describe and explain how changes in the lemming
population affect the snowy owl population.

For
Examiner's
Use

[3]
(iv) If all the snowy owls were removed from the arctic ecosystem, suggest and explain
what effect this would have on the lemming population in the following years.

[3]

(c) Lemmings and snowy owls get their energy from the food they eat.
(i) What is the original source of all the energy in this ecosystem?
[1]
(ii) Name the process that first traps this energy.
[1]
[Total 12]

0610/22/M/J/10

[Turn over

10
5

(a) Fig. 5.1 shows the concentration of alcohol in the blood of a person over a number of
hours. During this time the person had several alcoholic drinks while eating a meal.
X

200

160

120
blood alcohol
concentration
/ mg per cm3
80

maximum
legal level
for driving
in Britain

40

0
8
pm

12
midnight

4
am

8
am

12
midday

4
pm

8
pm

time / hours

Fig. 5.1
In Britain it is illegal for a person to drive a vehicle with more than 80 mg of alcohol per
cm3 of blood.
(i) What is the highest concentration of alcohol in the persons blood?
mg of alcohol per cm3 of blood.

[1]

(ii) The alcohol in the blood is steadily broken down.


Name the organ of the body that breaks down alcohol.
[1]
(iii) The alcohol continues to be broken down at the same rate as between X and Y.
Complete the graph, by extending the line, until there is no alcohol in the persons
blood.
[1]
(iv) Use the graph to predict when the person would be able to legally drive a vehicle
again.
[1]

UCLES 2010

0610/22/M/J/10

For
Examiner's
Use

11
(b) (i) Alcohol is a depressant drug.
Explain how this could affect the ability of a person to drive a vehicle.

For
Examiner's
Use

[2]
(ii) State a longterm effect alcohol can have on two named organs.
organ 1
effect
organ 2
effect

[2]

(iii) Describe two social problems that can happen if a person becomes addicted to
alcohol.
1.

2.
[2]
[Total: 10]

0610/22/M/J/10

[Turn over

12
6

(a) Define asexual reproduction.

For
Examiner's
Use

[2]

(b) Fig. 6.1 shows a strawberry plant that can reproduce both asexually and sexually.
strawberry
flower

strawberry

pip containing
a seed

Fig. 6.1
(i) Name the type of cell division that happens only during sexual reproduction.
[1]
(ii) A farmer decided to increase the number of strawberry plants by asexual rather
than sexual reproduction.
Suggest a biological reason why the farmer may have decided this.

[1]

UCLES 2010

0610/22/M/J/10

13
(c) The strawberry flower has five large, white petals. Explain the importance of these
petals in the process of reproduction.

For
Examiner's
Use

[3]

(d) Seeds are often found inside brightly coloured, fleshy fruits.
Describe the advantage of fruits being coloured and fleshy.

[2]
[Total: 9]

0610/22/M/J/10

[Turn over

14
7

(a) (i)

Name the term that is used to describe the maintenance of a constant internal
environment.

For
Examiner's
Use

[1]

(ii) State two advantages to a mammal of maintaining a constant body temperature.


1.

2.
[2]

(b) Fig. 7.1 shows changes in a persons body temperature before, during and after a
period of exercise.

40
39
38
body
temperature
/ C

37
36
35
34
33
time
exercise
begins
ends
Fig. 7.1

(i) Using information from Fig. 7.1, state the normal body temperature of this person.
C.

[1]

(ii) Explain what is meant by the term vasodilation.

[1]
(iii) On Fig. 7.1, label with an X a point when vasodilation is having an effect on the
persons body temperature.
[1]

UCLES 2010

0610/22/M/J/10

15
(iv) Explain how vasodilation affects body temperature.

For
Examiner's
Use

[4]
[Total: 10]

(a) (i) Name the organ that makes bile.


[1]
(ii) State where bile is stored until it is released into the small intestine.
[1]
(iii) Name the organ that produces lipase and is joined to the small intestine.
[1]

(b) Describe the roles of bile and of lipase in the digestion of fats.

[3]
[Total: 6]

Question 9 is on the next page.

0610/22/M/J/10

[Turn over

16
9

(a) The air which is inhaled is different from that which is exhaled.

For
Examiner's
Use

Complete the following sentences about these differences.


(i) Inhaled air has more

than exhaled air.

(ii) Exhaled air has more

and

[1]

than inhaled air.

[2]

(iii) Inhaled air usually has a

temperature than exhaled air

[1]

(b) One of the gases present in inhaled and exhaled air is carbon dioxide.
Describe how you could test exhaled air for carbon dioxide and describe the result if
carbon dioxide is present.
test

result

[2]

(c) Gases enter and leave the blood by diffusion. Define diffusion.

[2]
[Total: 8]

Permission to reproduce items where third-party owned material protected by copyright is included has been sought and cleared where possible. Every
reasonable effort has been made by the publisher (UCLES) to trace copyright holders, but if any items requiring clearance have unwittingly been included, the
publisher will be pleased to make amends at the earliest possible opportunity.
University of Cambridge International Examinations is part of the Cambridge Assessment Group. Cambridge Assessment is the brand name of University of
Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate (UCLES), which is itself a department of the University of Cambridge.

UCLES 2010

0610/22/M/J/10

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ap
eP

e
tr
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w
om
.c

s
er

UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS


International General Certificate of Secondary Education

*4504127085*

0610/23

BIOLOGY

May/June 2010

Paper 2 Core

1 hour 15 minutes
Candidates answer on the Question Paper.
No Additional Materials are required.
READ THESE INSTRUCTIONS FIRST
Write your Centre number, candidate number and name on all the work you hand in.
Write in dark blue or black pen.
You may use a pencil for any diagrams or graphs.
Do not use staples, paper clips, highlighters, glue or correction fluid.
For Examiner's Use
DO NOT WRITE IN ANY BARCODES.
Answer all questions.
At the end of the examination, fasten all your work securely together.
The number of marks is given in brackets [ ] at the end of each question or part
question.

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Total

This document consists of 15 printed pages and 1 blank page.


IB10 06_0610_23/FP
UCLES 2010

[Turn over

2
1

Fig.1.1 shows the shells of five molluscs.

For
Examiner's
Use

Fig.1.1
Use the key to identify each of the molluscs which normally live inside the shells.
Write the name of each mollusc in the correct box of Table 1.1.
As you work through the key, tick () the boxes in Table 1.1 to show how you identified
each mollusc.
Key
name of mollusc
1 (a) Shell made of two parts
(b) Shell made of one part only

go to 2
go to 3

2 (a) Both shell halves have ridges running down the shell
(b) Both shell halves are smooth

Cardium
Venerupis

3 (a) Shell tightly coiled


(b) Shell conical with no coil

go to 4
Patella

4 (a) Bottom coil less than a quarter of the length of the shell
(b) Bottom coil more than half of the length of the shell

Turritella
Buccinum

Table 1.1
1 (a)

1 (b)

2 (a)

2 (b)

3 (a)

3 (b)

4 (a)

4 (b)

name of mollusc

A
B
C
D
E
[4]
[Total: 4]

UCLES 2010

0610/23/M/J/10

[Turn over

3
2

(a) Humans need a supply of mineral salts, such as calcium and iron, in their diet.

For
Examiner's
Use

(i) State a role of calcium ions in the human body.


[1]
(ii) State a role of iron ions in the human body.
[1]

(b) Fertilisers are used by farmers to increase the growth of crop plants.
The fertilisers contain a mixture of mineral salts.
(i) State a use of magnesium ions in a plant.
[1]
(ii) State a use of nitrate ions in a plant.
[1]

(c) A factory that produces fertilisers is located next to a small river. At the end of each
week its machinery is washed out and the contaminated water is released into the
river.
Suggest what effects this action could have on the plants and animals living in the river.

[4]
[Total: 8]

UCLES 2010

0610/23/M/J/10

[Turn over

4
3

A species of plant has white-flowered plants and blue-flowered plants.


If a homozygous white-flowered plant was crossed with a blue-flowered plant, all the seeds
produced plants with only blue flowers.

For
Examiner's
Use

(a) State which flower colour is controlled by the dominant allele and explain your reason
for this answer.

[1]

(b) Use the symbols, B and b, to represent the two alleles for flower colours.
(i) State the genotype of each parent plant.
blue-flowered plant
white-flowered plant

[2]

(ii) State the genotype of the offspring.


[1]
(iii) Draw a genetic diagram to predict the likely results of a cross between one of the
blue-flowered offspring and a white-flowered plant.

[4]

UCLES 2010

0610/23/M/J/10

[Turn over

Question 3 continues on Page 6

0610/23/M/J/10

[Turn over

6
(c) Fig. 3.1 shows a cob of a maize plant.
grains containing
seeds

Fig. 3.1
Fig. 3.2 shows the length of the cobs formed by a number of different maize plants.
All the plants were grown from seeds from one original cob.

70

60

50

40
number
of cobs
30

20

10

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

length of cob / cm
Fig. 3.2

0610/23/M/J/10

[Turn over

7
(i) Explain the evidence visible in Fig. 3.2, that shows that this is continuous variation.

For
Examiner's
Use

[1]
(ii) Suggest three environmental factors that might affect the length of the maize cobs.
1.
2.
3.

[3]

(iii) Explain how the type of variation shown by the maize cobs differs from that shown
by the blue and white flowers.

[1]
[Total 13]

0610/23/M/J/10

[Turn over

8
4

In the Arctic, snowy owls are predators of lemmings. The lemmings eat arctic plants.

For
Examiner's
Use

(a) Draw the food chain for this arctic ecosystem.


[1]

(b) Fig. 4.1 shows changes in the populations of snowy owls and lemmings over a three
year period.
10

lemmings

9
8

snowy owls

7
hundreds
of lemmings
per km2

5
4

number
of owls
per km2

3
2

1
0
year 1

year 2

year 3

Fig. 4.1
(i) During the first 10 months of year 1 the lemming population increases slowly at
first and then more rapidly. Suggest why the rate of increase becomes greater.

[1]
(ii) Using information in Fig. 4.1, suggest why the lemming population falls during
year 2.

[2]

0610/23/M/J/10

[Turn over

9
(iii) Using information in Fig. 4.1, describe and explain how changes in the lemming
population affect the snowy owl population.

For
Examiner's
Use

[3]
(iv) If all the snowy owls were removed from the arctic ecosystem, suggest and explain
what effect this would have on the lemming population in the following years.

[3]

(c) Lemmings and snowy owls get their energy from the food they eat.
(i) What is the original source of all the energy in this ecosystem?
[1]
(ii) Name the process that first traps this energy.
[1]
[Total 12]

0610/23/M/J/10

[Turn over

10
5

(a) Fig. 5.1 shows the concentration of alcohol in the blood of a person over a number of
hours. During this time the person had several alcoholic drinks while eating a meal.
X

For
Examiner's
Use

200

160

120
blood alcohol
concentration
/ mg per cm3
80

maximum
legal level
for driving
in Britain

40

0
8
pm

12
midnight

4
am

8
am

12
midday

4
pm

8
pm

time / hours

Fig. 5.1
In Britain it is illegal for a person to drive a vehicle with more than 80 mg of alcohol per
cm3 of blood.
(i) What is the highest concentration of alcohol in the persons blood?
mg of alcohol per cm3 of blood.

[1]

(ii) The alcohol in the blood is steadily broken down.


Name the organ of the body that breaks down alcohol.
[1]
(iii) The alcohol continues to be broken down at the same rate as between X and Y.
Complete the graph, by extending the line, until there is no alcohol in the persons
blood.
[1]
(iv) Use the graph to predict when the person would be able to legally drive a vehicle
again.
[1]

0610/23/M/J/10

[Turn over

11
(b) (i) Alcohol is a depressant drug.
Explain how this could affect the ability of a person to drive a vehicle.

For
Examiner's
Use

[2]
(ii) State a longterm effect alcohol can have on two named organs.
organ 1
effect
organ 2
effect

[2]

(iii) Describe two social problems that can happen if a person becomes addicted to
alcohol.
1.

2.
[2]
[Total: 10]

0610/23/M/J/10

[Turn over

12
6

(a) Define asexual reproduction.

For
Examiner's
Use

[2]

(b) Fig. 6.1 shows a strawberry plant that can reproduce both asexually and sexually.
strawberry
flower

strawberry

pip containing
a seed

Fig. 6.1
(i) Name the type of cell division that happens only during sexual reproduction.
[1]
(ii) A farmer decided to increase the number of strawberry plants by asexual rather
than sexual reproduction.
Suggest a biological reason why the farmer may have decided this.

[1]

0610/23/M/J/10

[Turn over

13
(c) The strawberry flower has five large, white petals. Explain the importance of these
petals in the process of reproduction.

For
Examiner's
Use

[3]

(d) Seeds are often found inside brightly coloured, fleshy fruits.
Describe the advantage of fruits being coloured and fleshy.

[2]
[Total: 9]

0610/23/M/J/10

[Turn over

14
7

(a) (i)

Name the term that is used to describe the maintenance of a constant internal
environment.

For
Examiner's
Use

[1]

(ii) State two advantages to a mammal of maintaining a constant body temperature.


1.

2.
[2]

(b) Fig. 7.1 shows changes in a persons body temperature before, during and after a
period of exercise.

40
39
38
body
temperature
/ C

37
36
35
34
33
time
exercise
begins
ends
Fig. 7.1

(i) Using information from Fig. 7.1, state the normal body temperature of this person.
C.

[1]

(ii) Explain what is meant by the term vasodilation.

[1]
(iii) On Fig. 7.1, label with an X a point when vasodilation is having an effect on the
persons body temperature.
[1]

0610/23/M/J/10

[Turn over

15
(iv) Explain how vasodilation affects body temperature.

For
Examiner's
Use

[4]
[Total: 10]

(a) (i) Name the organ that makes bile.


[1]
(ii) State where bile is stored until it is released into the small intestine.
[1]
(iii) Name the organ that produces lipase and is joined to the small intestine.
[1]

(b) Describe the roles of bile and of lipase in the digestion of fats.

[3]
[Total: 6]

Question 9 is on the next page.

0610/23/M/J/10

[Turn over

16
9

(a) The air which is inhaled is different from that which is exhaled.

For
Examiner's
Use

Complete the following sentences about these differences.


(i) Inhaled air has more

than exhaled air.

(ii) Exhaled air has more

and

[1]

than inhaled air.

[2]

(iii) Inhaled air usually has a

temperature than exhaled air

[1]

(b) One of the gases present in inhaled and exhaled air is carbon dioxide.
Describe how you could test exhaled air for carbon dioxide and describe the result if
carbon dioxide is present.
test

result

[2]

(c) Gases enter and leave the blood by diffusion. Define diffusion.

[2]
[Total: 8]

Permission to reproduce items where third-party owned material protected by copyright is included has been sought and cleared where possible. Every
reasonable effort has been made by the publisher (UCLES) to trace copyright holders, but if any items requiring clearance have unwittingly been included, the
publisher will be pleased to make amends at the earliest possible opportunity.
University of Cambridge International Examinations is part of the Cambridge Assessment Group. Cambridge Assessment is the brand name of University of
Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate (UCLES), which is itself a department of the University of Cambridge.

UCLES 2010

0610/23/M/J/10

w
ap
eP

e
tr
.X

w
om
.c

s
er

UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS


International General Certificate of Secondary Education

0610/11

BIOLOGY
Paper 1 Multiple Choice

May/June 2011
45 minutes

Additional Materials:

*4543376409*

Multiple Choice Answer Sheet


Soft clean eraser
Soft pencil (type B or HB is recommended)

SUITABLE FOR HEARING IMPAIRED CANDIDATES


READ THESE INSTRUCTIONS FIRST
Write in soft pencil.
Do not use staples, paper clips, highlighters, glue or correction fluid.
Write your name, Centre number and candidate number on the Answer Sheet in the spaces provided
unless this has been done for you.
There are forty questions on this paper. Answer all questions. For each question there are four possible
answers A, B, C and D.
Choose the one you consider correct and record your choice in soft pencil on the separate Answer Sheet.
Read the instructions on the Answer Sheet very carefully.
Each correct answer will score one mark. A mark will not be deducted for a wrong answer.
Any rough working should be done in this booklet.

This document consists of 16 printed pages.


IB11 06_0610_11_HI/FP
UCLES 2011

[Turn over

2
1

Which characteristic is shown when a person smells a gas in the air?


A

excretion

movement

respiration

sensitivity

The diagram shows four arthropods.

Pediculus 20

Anopheles 10

Dermacentor 7

Carcinus 0.5

How many of these arthropods are insects?


A
3

An organism has dry scales covering its body.


To which vertebrate group does it belong?
A

amphibian

fish

mammal

reptile

UCLES 2011

0610/11/M/J/11

3
4

The diagram shows an animal.

Use the key to identify the animal.


1

has legs .............................................. go to 2


has no legs ......................................... go to 3

has a shell .......................................... animal A


has no shell ........................................ animal B

has one muscular foot ........................ animal C


has more than one foot ...................... animal D

The diagram shows four specialised cells.

liver cell

white blood cell

muscle cell

sperm cell

Which feature is not common to all of these cells?

cell membrane

cytoplasm

diploid number of chromosomes

nucleus

The diagram shows a plant cell.


P
Q
R

S
T

Which labelled structures are found in plant cells but not in animal cells?
A

P and Q

UCLES 2011

Q and R

R and S

0610/11/M/J/11

S and T

[Turn over

4
7

The diagram shows another plant cell.

Which feature shows that it is a palisade cell?

a large nucleus

a large vacuole

a thick cell wall

many chloroplasts

Which structures are adapted for supporting a plant?


A

phloem tissues

root hair cells

stomata

xylem vessels

Which describes the structure and function of a red blood cell?


structure

function

cell contents are dead

transport of water

has a nucleus

produces antibodies

has cilia

moves particles in the respiratory tract

has no nucleus

transport of substances

UCLES 2011

0610/11/M/J/11

5
10 Boiling potatoes destroys their cell membranes. A peeled, boiled potato strip is placed in a
concentrated solution of salts.
concentrated solution
of salts

boiled potato strip

What takes place?


osmosis

solute
diffusion

key:

= takes place

= does not take place

11 A red blood cell is placed in a concentrated sugar solution.


What happens and why?
A

The cell bursts as sugar molecules diffuse into it.

The cell bursts because the concentrated sugar solution enters it.

The cell shrinks because sugar molecules leave it.

The cell shrinks because water leaves it.

12 What are enzymes made of?


A

carbohydrates

DNA

fats

proteins

13 At which temperature do most enzymes from the human body become completely denatured?
A

0 C

UCLES 2011

27 C

40 C

0610/11/M/J/11

65 C

[Turn over

6
14 The graph shows pH changes in the mouth after eating.

pH

8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0

10

15

20

25

30

35

time after eating / minutes

Why is it a good idea to brush teeth after eating?


A

Acidic conditions help bacteria to grow.

Acids dissolve tooth enamel.

Alkaline conditions help bacteria to grow.

Alkalis dissolve tooth enamel.

15 What does photosynthesis form in a leaf first?


A

cellulose

protein

starch

sugar

16 Nutrients are made up of smaller basic units. Nutrients can be identified by food tests.
Which nutrient is a protein?
nutrient

smaller basic units

food test

amino acids

Benedicts test

amino acids

biuret test

sugars

Benedicts test

sugars

biuret test

UCLES 2011

0610/11/M/J/11

7
17 In which order does water pass through these structures in a plant?
A

mesophyll root hair xylem

mesophyll xylem root hair

root hair mesophyll xylem

root hair xylem mesophyll

18 Which two substances are transported in the phloem?


A

amino acids and protein

amino acids and sucrose

protein and starch

starch and sucrose

19 The diagram shows some parts from the blood of a mammal.


Which part would contain the breakdown products of bacterial cells?
A

UCLES 2011

0610/11/M/J/11

[Turn over

8
20 The graph shows the rate and depth of a persons breathing before exercise.
2.5
volume of air in 2.0
lungs during
breathing / dm3 1.5
1.0
0

4
time / s

Which graph shows the rate and depth of breathing of the same person immediately after a
period of exercise?

2.5

2.5

volume of air in 2.0


lungs during
breathing / dm3 1.5

volume of air in 2.0


lungs during
breathing / dm3 1.5

1.0

1.0
0

4
time / s

2.5

2.5

volume of air in 2.0


lungs during
breathing / dm3 1.5

volume of air in 2.0


lungs during
breathing / dm3 1.5
1.0

1.0
0

UCLES 2011

4
time / s

4
time / s

0610/11/M/J/11

4
time / s

9
21 The diagram shows changes in air pressure inside the lungs during a complete cycle of
breathing. Atmospheric pressure is 101 kPa.
Which position on the graph marks the point at which the ribs are beginning to be raised?
B
102
C
pressure
in lungs 101
/ kPa
A
D

100
time

22 Which statement about respiration is not correct?


A

All living cells respire.

Heat is always produced.

Plants respire in the light and in the dark.

Plants take in carbon dioxide and give out oxygen.

23 In which part of the body do drugs break down?


A

brain

heart

kidneys

liver

UCLES 2011

0610/11/M/J/11

[Turn over

10
24 The diagram shows a cell.

What type of cell is shown?


A

ciliated cell

motor neurone

relay neurone

sensory neurone

25 When a bright light is shone into the eye, the diameter of the pupil decreases.
What is this an example of?
A

accommodation

a simple reflex

photosynthesis

voluntary response

26 The diagram shows a pod from a pea plant.


Which line correctly shows the path that was taken by a pollen tube to an ovule?
A

key
path taken
by pollen tube

UCLES 2011

0610/11/M/J/11

11
27 The diagram shows a developing human fetus within the uterus.

uterus wall

fetus

What is a main function of X?


A

passing faeces to the mother

passing oxygen to the fetus

passing the mothers blood to the fetus

protecting the fetus from knocks

28 Which process does not involve an increase in dry mass?


A

a bacterium getting larger before it divides

a fetus developing inside the uterus

a green shoot growing towards light

a seed germinating under the ground

UCLES 2011

0610/11/M/J/11

[Turn over

12
29 The diagram shows four flasks which were set up to investigate the conditions needed for
germination.
In which experiment will the seeds germinate most quickly?
A

seeds

seeds

cotton
wool

dry
cotton
wool

damp
cotton
wool

boiled
water
stored at 18 C

stored at 18 C

stored at 18 C

stored at 2 C

30 What is always found in female gametes and may be found in male gametes?
A

one X chromosome

one Y chromosome

two X chromosomes

one X chromosome and one Y chromosome

31 In rabbits, the allele for dark fur, R, is dominant to the allele for white fur, r.
The diagram shows a cross between a rabbit with dark fur and a rabbit with white fur.

What are the genotypes of the offspring?


A

Rr and rr

UCLES 2011

RR and rr

RR and Rr

0610/11/M/J/11

R and r

13
32 The diagram shows a food web.
eagle

rabbit fleas

voles

fruit and seeds

mice

rabbits

tree seedlings

grass

Which of the following is a food chain in this web?


A

grass rabbits eagle

grass voles eagle

rabbit fleas rabbits grass

seeds voles mice

33 In one habitat, hyaenas eat antelopes and antelopes eat grass.


What is the source of energy for the grass?
A

antelopes

carbon dioxide

hyaenas

the Sun

UCLES 2011

0610/11/M/J/11

[Turn over

14
34 A single tree is food for a large population of caterpillars. Several small birds eat the caterpillars.
A bird of prey eats the small birds.
Which diagram shows the pyramid of numbers for this food chain?

35 The diagram shows part of the carbon cycle.

carbon dioxide
in the air

Which process is taking place at X?


A

combustion

decomposition

photosynthesis

respiration

UCLES 2011

0610/11/M/J/11

15
36 The diagram shows part of the water cycle.
Which arrow represents condensation?
clouds
A

water vapour

plants

soil

C
river

37 Some bacteria were grown in a nutrient solution over a period of two weeks. The graph shows
how the population of bacteria changed during this time.
Which is the lag phase in the growth of this population?
C

population
size

A
0

time / weeks

38 Weeds are growing in a crop.


What should be used to kill the weeds?
A

artificial fertiliser

herbicide

magnesium salts

organic manure

UCLES 2011

0610/11/M/J/11

[Turn over

16
39 A large area is heavily overgrazed for many years.
How does this affect soil nutrients and soil erosion?
soil nutrients

soil erosion

decrease

decrease

decrease

increase

increase

decrease

increase

increase

40 The diagram shows some of the effects of human activity on a river.

bacteria use up
dissolved oxygen
water weeds
grow quickly

fish die from


lack of oxygen

What could have caused these effects?


A

air pollution

deforestation

over-use of fertilisers

presence of weed killers

Permission to reproduce items where third-party owned material protected by copyright is included has been sought and cleared where possible. Every
reasonable effort has been made by the publisher (UCLES) to trace copyright holders, but if any items requiring clearance have unwittingly been included, the
publisher will be pleased to make amends at the earliest possible opportunity.
University of Cambridge International Examinations is part of the Cambridge Assessment Group. Cambridge Assessment is the brand name of University of
Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate (UCLES), which is itself a department of the University of Cambridge.

UCLES 2011

0610/11/M/J/11

w
ap
eP

e
tr
.X

w
om
.c

s
er

UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS


International General Certificate of Secondary Education

0610/12

BIOLOGY
Paper 1 Multiple Choice

May/June 2011
45 minutes

Additional Materials:

*4625240491*

Multiple Choice Answer Sheet


Soft clean eraser
Soft pencil (type B or HB is recommended)

READ THESE INSTRUCTIONS FIRST


Write in soft pencil.
Do not use staples, paper clips, highlighters, glue or correction fluid.
Write your name, Centre number and candidate number on the Answer Sheet in the spaces provided
unless this has been done for you.
There are forty questions on this paper. Answer all questions. For each question there are four possible
answers A, B, C and D.
Choose the one you consider correct and record your choice in soft pencil on the separate Answer Sheet.
Read the instructions on the Answer Sheet very carefully.
Each correct answer will score one mark. A mark will not be deducted for a wrong answer.
Any rough working should be done in this booklet.

This document consists of 17 printed pages and 3 blank pages.


IB11 06_0610_12/FP
UCLES 2011

[Turn over

2
1

The diagram shows a food web.


eagle

rabbit fleas

voles

fruit and seeds

mice

tree seedlings

rabbits

grass

Which of the following is a food chain in this web?

grass rabbits eagle

grass voles eagle

rabbit fleas rabbits grass

seeds voles mice

In a particular habitat, hyaenas eat antelopes and grass is eaten by antelopes.


What is the source of energy for the grass?
A

antelopes

carbon dioxide

hyaenas

the Sun

UCLES 2011

0610/12/M/J/11

3
3

A single tree is food for a large population of caterpillars. Several small birds eat the caterpillars.
The small birds are eaten by a bird of prey.
Which diagram shows the pyramid of numbers for this food chain?

The diagram shows some of the effects of human activity on a river.

bacteria use up
dissolved oxygen
water weeds
grow quickly

fish die from


lack of oxygen

What could have caused these effects?


A

air pollution

deforestation

over-use of fertilisers

presence of weed killers

UCLES 2011

0610/12/M/J/11

[Turn over

4
5

A large area is heavily overgrazed for many years.


What is the effect on soil nutrients and soil erosion?

soil nutrients

soil erosion

decrease

decrease

decrease

increase

increase

decrease

increase

increase

An organism has dry scales covering its body.


To which vertebrate group does it belong?

amphibian

fish

mammal

reptile

The diagram shows an animal.

Use the key to identify the animal.


1

has legs .............................................. go to 2


has no legs ......................................... go to 3

has a shell .......................................... animal A


has no shell ........................................ animal B

has one muscular foot ........................ animal C


has more than one foot ...................... animal D

What are enzymes made of?


A

carbohydrates

DNA

fats

proteins

UCLES 2011

0610/12/M/J/11

5
9

At which temperature do most enzymes from the human body become completely denatured?
A

0 C

27 C

40 C

65 C

10 The diagram shows a developing human fetus within the uterus.

uterus wall

fetus

What is a main function of X?


A

passing faeces to the mother

passing oxygen to the fetus

passing the mothers blood to the fetus

protecting the fetus from knocks

11 The diagram shows a pod from a pea plant.


Which line correctly shows the path that was taken by a pollen tube to an ovule?
A

key
path taken
by pollen tube

UCLES 2011

0610/12/M/J/11

[Turn over

6
12 In rabbits, the allele for dark fur, R, is dominant to the allele for white fur, r.
The diagram shows a cross between a rabbit with dark fur and a rabbit with white fur.

What are the genotypes of the offspring?


A

Rr and rr

RR and rr

RR and Rr

R and r

13 What is always found in female gametes and may be found in male gametes?
A

one X chromosome

one Y chromosome

two X chromosomes

one X chromosome and one Y chromosome

14 In which order does water pass through these structures in a plant?


A

mesophyll root hair xylem

mesophyll xylem root hair

root hair mesophyll xylem

root hair xylem mesophyll

15 Which pair of substances is transported in the phloem?


A

amino acids and protein

amino acids and sucrose

protein and starch

starch and sucrose

UCLES 2011

0610/12/M/J/11

7
16 What is formed first in a leaf as a result of photosynthesis?
A

cellulose

protein

starch

sugar

17 The diagram illustrates changes in air pressure taking place inside the lungs during a complete
cycle of breathing. Atmospheric pressure is 101 kPa.
Which position on the graph corresponds to the point at which the ribs are beginning to be
raised?
B
102
C
pressure
in lungs 101
/ kPa
A
D

100
time

UCLES 2011

0610/12/M/J/11

[Turn over

8
18 The graph shows the rate and depth of a persons breathing before exercise.
2.5
volume of air in 2.0
lungs during
breathing / dm3 1.5
1.0
0

4
time / s

Which graph shows the rate and depth of breathing of the same person immediately after a
period of exercise?

2.5

2.5

volume of air in 2.0


lungs during
breathing / dm3 1.5

volume of air in 2.0


lungs during
breathing / dm3 1.5

1.0

1.0
0

4
time / s

2.5

2.5

volume of air in 2.0


lungs during
breathing / dm3 1.5

volume of air in 2.0


lungs during
breathing / dm3 1.5
1.0

1.0
0

UCLES 2011

4
time / s

4
time / s

0610/12/M/J/11

4
time / s

9
19 The diagram shows four arthropods.

Pediculus 20

Anopheles 10

Dermacentor 7

Carcinus 0.5

How many of these arthropods are insects?


A

UCLES 2011

0610/12/M/J/11

[Turn over

10
20 The diagram shows part of the carbon cycle.

carbon dioxide
in the air

Which process is taking place at X?


A

combustion

decomposition

photosynthesis

respiration

21 The diagram shows part of the water cycle.


Which arrow represents condensation?
clouds
A

water vapour

plants

C
river

UCLES 2011

0610/12/M/J/11

soil

11
22 Which characteristic is shown when a person detects a gas in the air by its smell?
A

excretion

movement

respiration

sensitivity

23 Which statement about respiration is not correct?


A

All living cells respire.

Heat is always produced.

Plants respire in the light and in the dark.

Plants take in carbon dioxide and give out oxygen.

24 Which process does not involve an increase in dry mass?


A

a bacterium getting larger before it divides

a fetus developing inside the uterus

a green shoot growing towards light

a seed germinating under the ground

25 The diagram shows four flasks which were set up to investigate the conditions needed for
germination.
In which experiment will the seeds germinate most quickly?
A

seeds

seeds

cotton
wool

dry
cotton
wool

damp
cotton
wool

boiled
water
stored at 18 C

UCLES 2011

stored at 18 C

0610/12/M/J/11

stored at 18 C

stored at 2 C

[Turn over

12
26 Some bacteria were grown in a nutrient solution over a period of two weeks. The graph shows
how the population of bacteria changed during this time.
Which is the lag phase in the growth of this population?
C

population
size

A
0

time / weeks

27 The diagram shows a plant cell.


P
Q
R

S
T

Which labelled structures are found in plant cells but not in animal cells?
A

P and Q

UCLES 2011

Q and R

R and S

0610/12/M/J/11

S and T

13
28 The diagram shows another plant cell.

Which feature indicates that it is a palisade cell?


A

a large nucleus

a large vacuole

a thick cell wall

many chloroplasts

29 Which structures are adapted for supporting a plant?


A

phloem tissues

root hair cells

stomata

xylem vessels

30 The diagram shows some parts from the blood of a mammal.


Which part would contain the breakdown products of bacterial cells?
A

UCLES 2011

0610/12/M/J/11

[Turn over

14
31 Which describes the structure and function of a red blood cell?
structure

function

cell contents are dead

transport of water

has a nucleus

produces antibodies

has cilia

moves particles in the respiratory tract

has no nucleus

transport of substances

32 Boiling potatoes destroys their cell membranes. A peeled, boiled potato strip is placed in a
concentrated solution of salts.
concentrated solution
of salts

boiled potato strip

What takes place?


osmosis

solute
diffusion

key:

= takes place

= does not take place

33 A red blood cell is placed in a concentrated sugar solution.


What happens and why?
A

The cell bursts as sugar molecules diffuse into it.

The cell bursts because the concentrated sugar solution enters it.

The cell shrinks because sugar molecules leave it.

The cell shrinks because water leaves it.

UCLES 2011

0610/12/M/J/11

15
34 Nutrients are made up of smaller basic units. Nutrients can be identified by food tests.
Which nutrient is a protein?
nutrient

smaller basic units

food test

amino acids

Benedicts test

amino acids

biuret test

sugars

Benedicts test

sugars

biuret test

35 In which part of the body does the breakdown of drugs occur?


A

brain

heart

kidneys

liver

36 The graph shows pH changes in the mouth after eating.

pH

8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0

10

15

20

25

30

35

time after eating / minutes

Why is it a good idea to brush teeth after eating?


A

Acidic conditions help bacteria to grow.

Acids dissolve tooth enamel.

Alkaline conditions help bacteria to grow.

Alkalis dissolve tooth enamel.

UCLES 2011

0610/12/M/J/11

[Turn over

16
37 The diagram shows a cell.

What type of cell is shown?


A

ciliated cell

motor neurone

relay neurone

sensory neurone

38 The diagram shows four specialised cells.

liver cell

white blood cell

muscle cell

Which feature is not common to all of these cells?


A

cell membrane

cytoplasm

diploid number of chromosomes

nucleus

39 Weeds are growing in a crop.


What should be used to kill the weeds?
A

artificial fertiliser

herbicide

magnesium salts

organic manure

UCLES 2011

0610/12/M/J/11

sperm cell

17
40 When a bright light is shone into the eye, the diameter of the pupil decreases.
What is this an example of?
A

accommodation

a simple reflex

photosynthesis

voluntary response

UCLES 2011

0610/12/M/J/11

18
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UCLES 2011

0610/12/M/J/11

19
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UCLES 2011

0610/12/M/J/11

20
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Permission to reproduce items where third-party owned material protected by copyright is included has been sought and cleared where possible. Every
reasonable effort has been made by the publisher (UCLES) to trace copyright holders, but if any items requiring clearance have unwittingly been included, the
publisher will be pleased to make amends at the earliest possible opportunity.
University of Cambridge International Examinations is part of the Cambridge Assessment Group. Cambridge Assessment is the brand name of University of
Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate (UCLES), which is itself a department of the University of Cambridge.

UCLES 2011

0610/12/M/J/11

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0610/01

BIOLOGY
Paper 1 Multiple Choice

May/June 2003
45 minutes
Additional Materials:

Multiple Choice Answer Sheet


Soft clean eraser
Soft pencil (type B or HB is recommended)

READ THESE INSTRUCTIONS FIRST


Write in soft pencil.
Do not use staples, paper clips, highlighters, glue or correction fluid.
Write your name, Centre number and candidate number on the answer sheet in the spaces provided
unless this has been done for you.
There are forty questions on this paper. Answer all questions. For each question, there are four possible
answers, A, B, C and D.
Choose the one you consider correct and record your choice in soft pencil on the separate answer sheet.
Read the instructions on the Answer Sheet very carefully.
Each correct answer will score one mark. A mark will not be deducted for a wrong answer.
Any rough working should be done in this booklet.

This document consists of 18 printed pages and 2 blank pages.


SP (SC/KN) S42065/4
CIE 2003

[Turn over

om
.c

s
er

CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS


International General Certificate of Secondary Education

Which of the following lists contains only arthropods?

annelids, insects, myriapods

arachnids, crustaceans, myriapods

crustaceans, insects, molluscs

insects, myriapods, nematodes

The diagram shows a half-flower.

petal
stamen
ovary

Use the following key to identify the type of flower.


1

petals attached above the ovary ..


petals attached below the ovary ..

go to 2
go to 3

stamens less than ten


stamens more than ten .

type A
type B

sepals absent ..
sepals present .

type C
type D

0610/01/M/J/03

3
3

The diagram shows some external features of a rat.

Which features, seen in the diagram, show that a rat is a mammal?

diaphragm and lungs

fur and whiskers

legs and tail

milk and sweat production

The table shows features that may be found in living cells.


Which features are found in a liver cell?

large
central vacuole

chloroplasts

cellulose
cell wall

The diagram shows a section through a mesophyll cell of a leaf.


Which part is partially permeable?
A
B
C
D

0610/01/M/J/03

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4
6

The diagram shows four cells.


1

Which cells transport water?

1 and 2

1 and 3

2 and 4

3 and 4

In the pancreas, there are groups of cells that make insulin.


What describes these cells?

an organ in an organism

an organ system in an organism

cells within a cell wall

tissue in an organ

In an osmosis experiment, four potato strips, each 5 cm in length, were left in salt solutions of
different concentrations.
The table shows the lengths of the strips after 30 minutes.
Which salt solution was the most concentrated?

salt solution

length of strips after


30 minutes

4.5 cm

4.8 cm

5.0 cm

5.3 cm

0610/01/M/J/03

5
9

The diagram shows a section through a leaf.

X
By which process does carbon dioxide pass from X to Y?
A

diffusion

osmosis

translocation

transpiration

0610/01/M/J/03

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6
10 The graph shows how the rate of an enzyme-controlled reaction changes with pH.

rate of
enzyme-controlled
reaction

4
pH

Which statement is correct?


A

This enzyme is destroyed by acidic conditions.

This enzyme works best in acidic conditions.

This enzyme works best in alkaline conditions.

This enzyme works best in neutral conditions.

11 Which kind of molecule could be an enzyme?


A

fat

glucose

protein

starch

0610/01/M/J/03

7
12 The table shows the mass of some nutrients found in 100 g of four different foods.
carbohydrate
/g

fat
/g

protein
/g

vit C
/ mg

vit D
/ mg

beans

10.0

0.4

5.0

3.0

0.0

bread

48.0

1.5

9.0

0.0

0.0

cheese

0.0

34.0

25.0

0.0

0.4

eggs

0.0

11.0

13.0

0.0

1.5

food

Which foods would best prevent rickets and scurvy?


rickets

scurvy

beans

bread

bread

cheese

cheese

eggs

eggs

beans

13 The diagram shows some food moving along the alimentary canal.

direction of
movement of
food

circular muscle
contracting

food moved
along

What is the name of the process that pushes the food along?
A

absorption

digestion

peristalsis

swallowing

0610/01/M/J/03

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8
Use this diagram, which shows a cross-section through a leaf, to answer questions 14 and 15.

B
C

14 Which cell type absorbs the most carbon dioxide during the day?

15 A leafy shoot is placed in a solution of red dye.


After 30 minutes, which part of a leaf from this shoot will contain the red dye?

16 The diagram shows cross-sections of three types of blood vessel (not drawn to the same scale).

What is the identity of the three vessels?


artery

capillary

vein

0610/01/M/J/03

9
17 What is happening in a bolus of food as it passes along the oesophagus?
A

Fats are being digested.

Fats are being emulsified.

Protein is being digested.

Starch is being digested.

18 The photograph shows some blood as seen under the microscope.

What is the function of the cell labelled X?


A

blood clotting

carrying oxygen

defending against disease

transporting hormones

0610/01/M/J/03

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10
19 The roots of green plants take up nitrates from the soil.
What are the nitrates used to make?
A

fat

glucose

protein

starch

20 Which substance in cigarette smoke causes lung cancer?


A

carbon dioxide

carbon monoxide

nicotine

tar

21 Why does anaerobic respiration by yeast release less energy than aerobic respiration?
A

Energy is lost in carbon dioxide.

Energy is lost in oxygen.

Energy remains trapped in ethanol.

Energy remains trapped in lactic acid.

22 In which organ are excess amino acids broken down?


A

bladder

brain

kidneys

liver

0610/01/M/J/03

11
23 The diagram shows a section through part of the human eye.
Which part contains muscles?

A
B
C
D

24 The diagram shows a germinated bean seed with a horizontal radicle. This is placed on a slowly
rotating disc and is left for three days.
electric motor

slowly rotating disc

radicle

bean seed

Which diagram shows the appearance of the radicle after three days?
A

0610/01/M/J/03

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12
25 The diagram shows the male reproductive system.
Where is testosterone produced?

26 The diagram shows stages in the life of a human from zygote to fetus.

Which processes occur during these stages?


fertilisation

growth

development

0610/01/M/J/03

13
27 The diagram shows stages of a menstrual cycle.
During which stage is a woman most fertile?

kdown of
breaus lining
uter

m
en
str
u

at
ion
n
ke

ing

of

ute

ru s l i

n in g

sl
ru

th
ic

ovulatio
n

uterine repa
ir

g
inin

thicke
n
e
d
ut
e

28

The diagram shows a germinating bean seed with the seed coat removed.

X
Y
Z

What are the structures X, Y and Z?


structure
X

cotyledon

radicle

plumule

plumule

cotyledon

radicle

plumule

radicle

cotyledon

radicle

plumule

cotyledon

0610/01/M/J/03

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14
29 Which are needed for seed germination?
A

carbon dioxide and oxygen

chlorophyll and light

soil particles and mineral salts

water and a suitable temperature

30 The nucleus in each cell in the stem of a plant contains 32 chromosomes.


How many chromosomes are there in the nuclei of its pollen grains?
A

16

32

64

31 A heterozygous, brown-eyed woman and a blue-eyed man have a child.


If the allele for brown eyes is dominant to the allele for blue eyes, what are the chances that the
child is blue-eyed?
A

1 in 2

1 in 3

1 in 4

none

32 A female fruit fly with short wings mates with a male with long wings. All the offspring are longwinged.
Two of these offspring mate with each other.
What percentage of their offspring will have long wings?
A

25 %

50 %

75 %

0610/01/M/J/03

100 %

15
33 The diagram shows a simple food chain.
1

green plants

chickens

3
wild dogs

Which process releases the energy which is then lost at 1, 2 and 3?


A

evaporation

photosynthesis

respiration

translocation

34 The diagram shows another simple food chain.


Which is the primary (first) consumer?
A

solar energy

grass

caterpillar

bird

35 The diagram shows part of the water cycle.


Which arrow represents condensation?
clouds
C

water vapour

plants

soil

A
river

0610/01/M/J/03

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16
36 The diagram shows the release of a gas into the atmosphere from different sources.

Sun

soil

urine sheep

tree

What is this gas?


A

carbon dioxide

nitrogen

oxygen

water vapour

37 The diagram shows part of a food web.


snakes

badgers

frogs

hedgehogs

worms

slugs
plants

What is most likely to increase the size of the frog population?


A

fewer hedgehogs

fewer worms

more badgers

more snakes
0610/01/M/J/03

17
38 The diagram shows how some land near a lake is used.
rain
forest
land for
grazing
cattle

land for
growing
crops
lake

silt

Which of the following is most likely to cause the lake to flood?


A

cutting down the forest

removing the cattle

taking the silt out of the lake

using pesticides on the crops

39 The diagram shows part of a food chain in a lake.


single-celled
photosynthetic
organism

small
crustacean

carnivorous
bird

frog

The chart shows the concentration of a pesticide in the bodies of each organism in the chain.
Which organism on the chart is the frog?

concentration
of pesticide

organism

0610/01/M/J/03

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18
40 The diagram shows an area being developed for industry and agriculture.

fertilisers, herbicides and


pesticides applied to the land

smoke
containing
sulphur dioxide
factory

trees being cut down to


provide agricultural land

lake
Which would be the most likely to cause an initial increase in plant life in the lake?
A

fertilisers

herbicides

pesticides

smoke

0610/01/M/J/03

19
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0610/01/M/J/03

20
BLANK PAGE

0610/01/M/J/03

Name

ap
eP

e
tr
.X

Candidate Number

Centre Number

0610/02

BIOLOGY
Paper 2

May/June 2003
1 hour
Candidates answer on the Question Paper.
No additional materials are required.

READ THESE INSTRUCTIONS FIRST


Write your name, Centre number and candidate number in the spaces at the top of this page.
Write in dark blue or black pen in the spaces provided on the Question Paper.
You may use a soft pencil for any diagrams, graphs or rough working.
Do not use staples, paper clips, highlighters, glue or correction fluid.
Answer all questions.
The number of marks is given in brackets [ ] at the end of each question or part question.

For Examiners Use

1
2
3
4
5
If you have been given a label, look at the
details. If any details are incorrect or
missing, please fill in your correct details
in the space given at the top of this page.
Stick your personal label here, if
provided.

6
7
8
9
Total

This document consists of 14 printed pages and 2 blank pages.


SP (AT/KN) S42063/3
CIE 2003

[Turn over

om
.c

s
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CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS


International General Certificate of Secondary Education

For
Examiners
Use

2
1

Respiration is a characteristic of living organisms.


(a) State three other characteristics of living organisms.
1. ......................................................................................................................................
2. ......................................................................................................................................
3. ..................................................................................................................................[3]
(b) A remote control deep-sea probe collected mud from the seabed at a depth of 8000 m.
The mud was thought to contain living microorganisms.
Suggest an investigation you might carry out which would indicate whether respiring
microorganisms are present in a sample of the mud.
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................[4]
[Total : 7]

0610/2/M/J/03

For
Examiners
Use

3
2

(a) Fig. 2.1 shows a sugar cane flower that is wind pollinated.
X

Fig. 2.1
(i)

Name structures X and Y.


X ...............................................................................................................................
Y ...........................................................................................................................[2]

(ii) Explain how a feature, visible in Fig. 2.1, suggests that this flower is wind
pollinated.
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................[2]
(iii)

Suggest two other features in which the sugar cane flower might be different from
an insect-pollinated flower.
1. ...............................................................................................................................
2. ...........................................................................................................................[2]

0610/2/M/J/03

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4
(b) Fig. 2.2 shows the dispersal of winged fruits around a tree in open grassland. Samples
were taken along straight lines at 5 metre intervals.

N
62

NW

NE
70
80
89
99

15

19

26

31

104
25

92

79

72

61

5m
10 m

19
10

15 m
20 m
25 m

SW

SE
2

Key
position of tree
numbers show
how many fruits
were collected
in 1 m2

Fig. 2.2
(i)

From which direction does the wind usually blow?


...............................................................................................................................[1]

(ii)

Explain how you arrived at your answer.


...................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................[1]

(iii)

Suggest a reason, other than the wind, that might affect the distribution of these
fruits.
...................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................[1]
[Total : 9]
0610/2/M/J/03

For
Examiners
Use

For
Examiners
Use

5
3

Fig. 3.1 shows the carbon cycle.

carbon dioxide
in the air

carbohydrates and proteins


in dead organic matter

death
carbohydrates and
proteins in animals

carbon compounds in fossil


fuels e.g. oil and coal

death

carbohydrates and proteins


in green plants

Fig. 3.1
(a) Label one arrow in each case to show where each of the following processes occur in
the carbon cycle.
(i)

Combustion using the letter C

[1]

(ii)

Decomposition using the letter D

[1]

(iii)

Photosynthesis using the letter P

[1]

(iv)

Respiration using the letter R

[1]

0610/2/M/J/03

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6
(b) Many environmentalists are concerned by the extent of deforestation that is happening
throughout the world.
Suggest how deforestation might affect
(i)

the carbon cycle;


...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................[2]

(ii)

the water cycle.


...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................[2]
[Total : 8]

0610/2/M/J/03

For
Examiners
Use

For
Examiners
Use

7
4

Fig. 4.1 shows a typical animal cell and a typical plant cell.

Fig. 4.1
(a) (i)

Name the parts of the cells labelled A and B.


A ...............................................................................................................................
B ...........................................................................................................................[2]

(ii)

Label on the diagram, with a letter C, another structure that occurs in both cells. [1]

(b) For each of the following types of cell, state one way in which it is different from the
animal cell in Fig. 4.1. State the function of each type of cell.
(i)

cell lining the trachea (windpipe)


difference ..................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
function .....................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................[2]

(ii)

red blood cell


difference ..................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
function .....................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................[2]

0610/2/M/J/03

[Turn over

For
Examiners
Use

8
(c) Materials can enter the cells shown in Fig. 4.1 by diffusion and osmosis.
(i)

Define diffusion.
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................[2]

(ii)

Describe how osmosis differs from diffusion.


...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................[2]
[Total : 11]

0610/2/M/J/03

For
Examiners
Use

9
5

(a) Complete the following passage using only words from the list below.
diploid

gametes

haploid

meiosis

mitosis

red blood cells

The transfer of inherited characteristics to new cells and new individuals depends on
two types of cell division.
During ..............................................., the chromosomes are duplicated exactly and
............................................... cells are produced.
However, during ..............................................., the chromosome sets are first
duplicated and then halved producing ............................................... cells. These cells
will become ............................................... .
[5]
(b) Using a labelled, genetic diagram, explain the inheritance of the sex of an individual.

[4]
[Total : 9]
0610/2/M/J/03

[Turn over

For
Examiners
Use

10
6

(a) Using a single line in each case, link each definition to the correct process.
definition

process

getting rid of fibre


(roughage) from an
animal

digestion

egestion
large food molecules
broken down into
simple substances
excretion
taking in food into an
animals alimentary
canal

ingestion

[3]

(b) Fig. 6.1 shows the alimentary canal and associated organs.

Fig. 6.1
On Fig. 6.1, label the sites of each of the following processes.
(i)

absorption of water

[1]

(ii)

bile production

[1]

(iii)

glycogen storage

[1]

(iv)

lipase production

[1]
[Total : 7]
0610/2/M/J/03

For
Examiners
Use

11
7

Fig. 7.1 shows the eye in section.

Fig. 7.1
(a) State the function of each of the labelled parts of the eye.
A .......................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
B .......................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
C .......................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
D .......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................[4]

0610/2/M/J/03

[Turn over

For
Examiners
Use

12
(b) Fig. 7.2 shows two external views of the eye.

changes
to

Fig. 7.2
The change shown in Fig. 7.2 happens when certain drugs are present in the blood.
Suggest how this could affect a persons vision.
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................[2]
[Total : 6]

0610/2/M/J/03

For
Examiners
Use

13
8

(a) Translocation and transpiration are processes that occur in plants.


Describe each of these processes.
translocation .....................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
transpiration .....................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................[4]
(b) Fig. 8.1 shows an investigation that was set up and left for 30 hours.

pale green leaf

leaf stalk

red dye

Fig. 8.1
At the end of this time, the leaf had become red.
Suggest an explanation for this result.
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................[4]
[Total : 8]
0610/2/M/J/03

[Turn over

For
Examiners
Use

14
9

Fig. 9.1 shows some parts of an ecosystem.

zebra eats
grass

energy

Fig. 9.1
(a) (i)

In what form is energy passed from the Sun to the grass?


...............................................................................................................................[1]

(ii)

In what form is energy passed from the grass to the zebra?


...............................................................................................................................[1]

(b) When the zebra dies, the energy in its body is released by decomposers.
(i)

Name one group of microorganisms involved in this process.


...............................................................................................................................[1]

(ii)

Suggest in what form most of the energy is finally passed to the environment.
...............................................................................................................................[1]

(c) Why is the movement of energy in an ecosystem described as a flow and not as a
cycle?
..........................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................[1]
[Total : 5]

0610/2/M/J/03

15
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0610/2/M/J/03

16
BLANK PAGE

0610/2/M/J/03

Name

ap
eP

e
tr
.X

Candidate Number

Centre Number

0610/03

BIOLOGY
Paper 3

May/June 2003
1 hour 15 minutes
Additional Materials: Answer Paper

READ THESE INSTRUCTIONS FIRST


Write your Centre number, Candidate Number and Name on all the work you hand in.
Write in dark blue or black pen.
You may use a soft pencil for any diagrams, graphs or rough working.
Do not use staples, paper clips, highlighters, glue or correction fluid.
Section A
Answer all questions.
Write your answers in the spaces provided on the Question Paper.
Section B
Answer any two questions.
Write your answers on the separate Answer Paper provided.
At the end of the examination,
1. fasten all your work securely together;
2. enter the numbers of the Section B questions you have answered in the grid below.
The number of marks is given in brackets [ ] at the end of each question or part question.

For Examiners Use


If you have been given a label, look at the
details. If any details are incorrect or
missing, please fill in your correct details
in the space given at the top of this page.

Section A
Section B

Stick your personal label here, if


provided.
Total
This document consists of 8 printed pages.
SP (AT/KN) S41697/2
CIE 2003

[Turn over

om
.c

s
er

CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS


International General Certificate of Secondary Education

For
Examiners
Use

2
Section A
Answer all the questions.
Write your answers in the spaces provided.

Fig. 1.1 shows an incomplete diagram of the female urinary system.


to
heart

from
heart

kidney

bladder

Fig. 1.1
(a) On Fig. 1.1, draw and label the following parts:
renal artery, urethra and ureter.

[4]

(b) Name three components that are present in the urine of a healthy person.
1. ......................................................................................................................................
2. ......................................................................................................................................
3. ..................................................................................................................................[3]

0610/3/M/J/03

For
Examiners
Use

3
(c) If the kidneys fail, the patient may be put on a kidney machine.
Explain how a kidney machine works.
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................[4]
(d) The kidneys are part of the bodys homeostatic mechanism.
(i)

Define homeostasis.
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................[2]

(ii)

Outline the role of the kidneys in homeostasis.


...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................[2]

(iii)

Name another organ of the body also involved with homeostasis and outline its
role.
name of organ ...........................................................................................................
role ............................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................[3]
[Total : 18]

0610/3/M/J/03

[Turn over

4
2

A study was carried out to compare the amount of tooth decay in the children of two different
towns. Town A had drinking water containing fluoride at a concentration of 2 parts per
million. Town B had no fluoride in its drinking water.
Fig. 2.1 shows the results of the study, but the graph is incomplete.
50

town A
40
town B
%
children

30

20

10

10

11-19

number of decayed teeth


Fig. 2.1
(a) Complete Fig. 2.1, using the following data.

(b) (i)

town

number of decayed teeth

% children

13

[2]

For town B, state the percentage of children with three decayed teeth.
...............................................................................................................................[1]

0610/3/M/J/03

For
Examiners
Use

5
(ii)

For town A, calculate the total percentage of children with less than five decayed
teeth. Show your working.

For
Examiners
Use

total percentage .................................................[2]


(c) (i)

What conclusion, relating to the effect of fluoride, can be drawn from this study?
...................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................[1]

(ii)

Based on your conclusion, what recommendation should be given to town B?


...................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................[1]

(iii)

Explain why some people may object to this recommendation.


...................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................[1]
[Total : 8]

0610/3/M/J/03

[Turn over

6
3

The seaweed, Caulerpa taxifolia, lives in tropical oceans but is now also found in the
Mediterranean sea, where it grows at twice the rate of local seaweeds. As a result, the local
seaweeds are becoming rare.
Although not poisonous, Caulerpa produces a chemical in its cells that makes it inedible to
Mediterranean herbivores, such as sea urchins. They do not feed on it and their numbers are
decreasing. Carnivorous fish populations have also decreased by up to 50 %.
Marine conservationists are very concerned. At first they used chlorine to kill Caulerpa but
are now considering the introduction of tropical sea slugs (herbivorous molluscs). Caulerpa
is part of their natural diet.
(a) The seaweed, Caulerpa taxifolia, is named using the binomial system.
Explain the term binomial system.
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................[2]
(b) (i)

Suggest why the local seaweeds are becoming rare.


...................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................[2]

(ii)

Sea urchins are herbivores. Define the term herbivore.


...................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................[1]

(iii)

Suggest why the populations of carnivorous fish have decreased by up to 50%.


...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................[2]

(c) Suggest why using chlorine to kill Caulerpa might not be a good idea.
..........................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................[1]

0610/3/M/J/03

For
Examiners
Use

7
(d) (i)

Suggest why conservationists are concerned about the effects of Caulerpa on


other organisms in the Mediterranean.

For
Examiners
Use

...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................[2]
(ii)

Explain how the introduction of herbivorous sea slugs from the tropics could be
effective in re-establishing a balanced ecosystem.
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................[2]

(iii)

Outline the possible dangers of introducing tropical sea slugs.


...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................[2]

[Total : 14]

0610/3/M/J/03

[Turn over

For
Examiners
Use

8
Section B
Answer any two questions.
Write your answers on the separate answer paper provided.

(a) (i)

Describe the main similarities between insects and arachnids.

[3]

(ii) By means of a table, show the differences between insects and arachnids.
(b) Suggest and explain how a named insect could evolve over a period of time.

[5]
[7]

[Total : 15]

(a) Explain why, in some parts of the world, not enough food is available to feed the people
living there.
[10]
(b) Describe the uses of hormones in food production.

[5]
[Total : 15]

(a) Explain the term codominance.

[3]

(b) Using a suitably labelled genetic diagram, explain how a baby can have blood group O
[6]
(IoIo) when its mother is group A and its father is group B.
(c) (i)
(ii)

Describe and explain what could happen when blood of different groups is mixed.
[3]
Describe and explain the role of the placenta in relation to this problem.

[3]
[Total : 15]

(a) State the functions of five named parts of the male reproductive system.
(b) (i)
(ii)

[5]

Explain how sperm, deposited in the vagina during sexual intercourse, reach an
egg.
[4]
Describe the process of fertilisation.

(c) Outline the ways in which HIV can be prevented from spreading.

[3]
[3]
[Total : 15]

0610/3/M/J/03

Name

ap
eP

e
tr
.X

Candidate Number

Centre Number

0610/05

Paper 5 Practical Test


May/June 2003
1 hour
Candidates answer on the Question Paper.
Additional Materials:
As listed in Instructions to Supervisors.

READ THESE INSTRUCTIONS FIRST


Write your Centre number, candidate number and name in the spaces provided at the top of this page.
Write in dark blue or black pen in the spaces provided on the Question Paper.
You may use a soft pencil for any diagrams, graphs or rough working.
Do not use staples, paper clips, highlighters, glue or correction fluid.
Answer all questions.
The number of marks is given in brackets [ ] at the end of each question or part question.

If you have been given a label, look at the


details. If any details are incorrect or
missing, please fill in your correct details
in the space given at the top of this page.
Stick your personal label here, if
provided.

FOR EXAMINERS USE


1
2
TOTAL

This document consists of 7 printed pages and a Supervisors Report.


SP (SC/KS) S40211/5
CIE 2003

[Turn over

om
.c

BIOLOGY

s
er

CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS


International General Certificate of Secondary Education

2
1

For
Examiners
Use

You are provided with two samples of bread dough in test-tubes, labelled S1 and S2.
Do not remove the dough from the tubes.
Support the tubes vertically and measure the highest level of the dough in each tube
immediately and note the time on the clock.
Record these heights and the time the readings were taken in the space below.
(a) At 5 minute intervals over the next 30 minutes, measure the levels of the dough for S1
and S2. Record the heights and times in a suitable table in the space below.
You should start Question 2 whilst you continue with your readings.

[5]

0610/05/M/J/03

3
(b) On the grid below, plot your measurements for S1 and S2 as two curves on one set of
axes.

For
Examiners
Use

[6]
(c) Describe the two curves on the graph for both dough samples, S1 and S2.
S1 .....................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
S2 .....................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................[3]

0610/05/M/J/03

[Turn over

4
(d) The two dough samples are similar in content of flour and water but dough sample S1
also contains yeast and a small amount of sugar.
Use this information to explain your recorded data.
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................[6]
[Total : 20]
2

(a) You are provided with a test tube S3 containing a material similar to mollusc secretion,
suspended in water.
Test the contents of the tube for the presence of protein.
(i)

Record your results in the table below.


Observation after testing for protein

Conclusion

S3
[2]
(ii) Describe how you carried out the test for protein.
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................[2]

0610/05/M/J/03

For
Examiners
Use

For
Examiners
Use

(b) You have been provided with specimen S4.

Take care not to touch or disturb the animal.


Examine the specimen carefully, using the hand lens.

(i)

Make a large, labelled drawing of S4 in the space below.


Label those features which enable you to recognise this specimen as a mollusc.

[6]
(ii)

Measure the length of specimen S4 and your drawing of specimen S4. Calculate
the magnification of your drawing.
length of specimen S4 ..............................................................................................
length of your drawing of specimen S4 ....................................................................

magnification .............................................................................................................

[2]
0610/05/M/J/03

[Turn over

6
(c) It has been suggested that the body temperature of molluscs is the same as the
temperature of their environment.
Fig. 2.1 shows some snails in a beaker.

Fig. 2.1
Plan, but do not carry out, an experiment to find out if the temperature of the snails in
the beaker in Fig. 2.1 is the same as their environment.
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................[3]

0610/05/M/J/03

For
Examiners
Use

7
(d) Specimen S5 is part of a mollusc and was formed by the animal when it was alive.
(i)

Describe the appearance and structure of specimen S5.


...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................[2]

(ii)

Dilute hydrochloric acid reacts with calcium carbonate to produce carbon dioxide
gas.
Place the specimen on the tile provided. Carefully add a few drops of dilute
hydrochloric acid on to the specimen and observe the effect.
Comment on your observation and suggest an explanation.
observation ...............................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
explanation ...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................[2]

(iii)

Suggest a function of S5 in the living animal.


...................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................[1]
[Total: 20]

0610/5/M/J/03

For
Examiners
Use

8
SUPERVISORS REPORT
*The Supervisor or Teacher responsible for the subject is asked to answer the following questions.

Was any difficulty experienced in providing the necessary material? If so, give brief details.

Did the candidate experience any difficulty during the examination as a result of faulty material? If
so, give brief details.

Did the candidate suffer any accidents with apparatus or materials? If so, give brief details.

Please state any other information that is likely to assist the Examiner, especially if this cannot
readily be discovered from the answers.

Please identify S4 and S5.


S4 .....................................................................................................................................................
S5 .....................................................................................................................................................
Please describe briefly the appearance of any features likely to assist the Examiner.

Declaration (to be signed by the Principal, and completed on the top script from the Centre)
The preparation of the practical examination has been carried out so as fully to maintain the
security of the examination.
Signed .....................................................................
Name (in block capitals) .....................................................................
*Information that applies to all candidates need be given only once.
N.B. If scripts are required by CIE to be despatched in more than one envelope, it is essential that a
copy of the relevant Supervisors Results (when requested), the Supervisors Report and the
appropriate seating plan are sent inside each envelope.

0610/05/M/J/03

Name

ap
eP

e
tr
.X

Candidate Number

Centre Number

0610/02

BIOLOGY
Paper 2

May/June 2004
1 hour 15 minutes
Candidates answer on the Question Paper.
No additional materials are required.

READ THESE INSTRUCTIONS FIRST


Write your Centre number, candidate number and name in the spaces provided at the top of this page.
Write in dark blue or black pen in the spaces provided on the Question Paper.
You may use a soft pencil for any diagrams, graphs or rough working.
Do not use staples, paper clips, highlighters, glue or correction fluid.
Answer all questions.
The number of marks is given in brackets [ ] at the end of each question or part question.

For Examiners Use


1
2
3
4
5

If you have been given a label, look at the


details. If any details are incorrect or
missing, please fill in your correct details
in the space given at the top of this page.

6
7

Stick your personal label here, if


provided.

8
Total

This document consists of 13 printed pages and 3 blank pages.


MML 5810 5/03 S64493/3
UCLES 2004

[Turn over

om
.c

s
er

UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS


International General Certificate of Secondary Education

For
Examiners
Use

2
1

Fig. 1.1 shows changes in the population of yeast during the production of beer.

population
size

0
0

time
Fig. 1.1

(a)

(i) On Fig. 1.1 name the phase labelled X.

[1]

(ii) Suggest two reasons why the population stops growing.


1. ..............................................................................................................................
2. ........................................................................................................................ [2]
(b) Write an equation, in either words or chemical symbols, for anaerobic respiration by
yeast.
.................................................................................................................................... [2]
(c) Alcohol has long term effects that cause damage to some body organs.
Name two of these organs and state an effect that alcohol can have on each of these
organs.
1 Organ ............................................................................................................................
Effect ................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
2 Organ ............................................................................................................................
Effect ................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................... [4]
[Total: 9]

UCLES 2004

0610/02/M/J/04

3
BLANK PAGE

0610/02/M/J/04

[Turn over

For
Examiners
Use

4
2

Fig. 2.1 shows the female reproductive system.

A
B
Fig. 2.1
(a) Name the structures labelled A and B.
A ......................................................................................................................................
B ................................................................................................................................ [2]
(b) Label, on Fig . 2.1, with the appropriate letter, where
(i) fertilisation normally occurs F.

[1]

(ii) gametes are produced

G.

[1]

(iii) oestrogen is produced

O.

[1]

(c) List three secondary sexual characteristics that are stimulated by oestrogen.
1. ......................................................................................................................................
2. ......................................................................................................................................
3. ................................................................................................................................ [3]

UCLES 2004

0610/02/M/J/04

5
(d) Outline the changes occurring in the ovaries and uterus during the menstrual cycle.

For
Examiners
Use

..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................... [4]
[Total: 12]

UCLES 2004

0610/02/M/J/04

[Turn over

For
Examiners
Use

6
3

Fig. 3.1 shows the ears (fruiting heads) of five types of cereal.

awn

grain

ear

awn

Fig. 3.1

UCLES 2004

grain

0610/02/M/J/04

ear

7
(a) Use the key to identify each of the types of cereal in Fig. 3.1. Write the names of the
cereals in Table 3.1.

For
Examiners
Use

Key
1

Awns present
Awns absent

2
3

Individual awns can be longer than whole ear.


Individual awns never longer than whole ear

Grains not close together in the ear


Grains very close together in the ear

4
Triticum

Grains hang down from stalks


Grains do not hang down from stalks

Avena
Oryza

Hordeum
Secale

Table 3.1
diagram letter

name of cereal

A
B
C
D
E

[4]

(b) Most cereal plants are wind-pollinated. Suggest three ways in which cereal flowers
may differ from insect-pollinated flowers.
1. ......................................................................................................................................
2. ......................................................................................................................................
3. ................................................................................................................................ [3]

UCLES 2004

0610/02/M/J/04

[Turn over

For
Examiners
Use

8
(c) Plants need both magnesium ions and nitrate ions for healthy development.
(i) State why each of these is important for healthy development.
magnesium ions .......................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
nitrate ions ................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................ [2]
(ii) Nitrate ions are often provided in fertilisers. Excess fertiliser may be washed into
streams and ponds polluting the water. Suggest what is likely to happen in the
stream or pond.
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................ [4]
[Total: 13]

UCLES 2004

0610/02/M/J/04

9
BLANK PAGE

0610/02/M/J/04

[Turn over

For
Examiners
Use

10
4

Table 4.1 shows the rate of water loss by a plant over a period of 24 hours.
Table 4.1
time / hours

rate of water loss / grams per hour

0300

0600

12

0900

18

1200

24

1500

24

1800

20

2100

10

2400

(a) Plot the above data on Fig. 4.1.

0600

[3]

1200
time / hours
Fig. 4.1

UCLES 2004

0610/02/M/J/04

1800

2400

11
(b)

(i) Predict and explain how a large increase in humidity at 1000 hours would affect
the rate of water loss in the next two hours.

For
Examiners
Use

..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................ [2]
(ii) State two environmental factors, apart from humidity, that can cause a change in
water loss and explain how each of these has its effect.
1 factor .....................................................................................................................
explanation ...............................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
2 factor .....................................................................................................................
explanation ...............................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................ [6]
(c)

(i) Name the tissue that transports water to the leaves of a plant.
............................................................................................................................ [1]
(ii) State one other function of this tissue.
............................................................................................................................ [1]
[Total: 13]

UCLES 2004

0610/02/M/J/04

[Turn over

12
5

Use only words or letters from the list below to complete the sentences in the following
paragraph.

diploid,
haploid,

forty-four,

twenty-two,

forty-six,

twenty-three,

gamete,
X,

Y,

zygote

The nuclei of human body cells contain pairs of chromosomes,


that is chromosomes and two sex chromosomes.

Sperm cells have a nucleus with a single sex chromosome.

The formed from the fusion of an ovum with a sperm cell,


containing a sex chromosome, will develop into a male.
[Total: 5]

UCLES 2004

0610/02/M/J/04

For
Examiners
Use

For
Examiners
Use

13
6

Table 6.1 gives some details of the digestion of food. Complete Table 6.1.
Table 6.1
food material

digestive enzyme

source of enzyme

end products

salivary glands
+

starch

stomach

fat

pancreas

fatty acids
+

[8]
[Total: 8]

UCLES 2004

0610/02/M/J/04

[Turn over

For
Examiners
Use

14
7

Fig. 7.1 shows a food web from farmland in Europe.


foxes
kestrels

toads & lizards


carnivorous
insects
herbivorous
insects

stoats

spiders
voles

rabbits

vegetation
Fig. 7.1
(a)

(i) Name an organism from the fourth trophic level of this food web.
............................................................................................................................ [1]
(ii) Using examples from this food web explain the difference between primary and
secondary consumers.
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................ [4]

(b)

(i) State the source of energy for this food web.


............................................................................................................................ [1]
(ii) In the food web the herbivorous insect population receives the same total amount
of energy as the rabbit population. The rabbits pass a smaller percentage of this
total energy to the next trophic level compared with the herbivorous insects.
Suggest reasons for this difference.
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................ [3]

UCLES 2004

0610/02/M/J/04

For
Examiners
Use

15
(c) Myxomatosis is a disease of rabbits from which there is a high death rate.
Explain a likely effect on the population of kestrels if there was a serious outbreak of
myxomatosis in the rabbit population.
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................... [4]
[Total: 13]

(a) During exercise the rate of blood flow to skeletal muscle is increased.
Explain why this is necessary.
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................... [4]
(b)

(i) Name the hormone that can cause an increased flow of blood to skeletal muscle.
............................................................................................................................ [1]
(ii) Suggest two ways by which the heart can increase the flow of blood.
1. ..............................................................................................................................
2. ........................................................................................................................ [2]
[Total: 7]

UCLES 2004

0610/02/M/J/04

16
BLANK PAGE

Copyright Acknowledgements
Every reasonable effort has been made to trace all copyright holders where the publishers (i.e. UCLES) are aware that third-party material has been
reproduced. The publishers would be pleased to hear from anyone whose rights we have unwittingly infringed.
University of Cambridge International Examinations is part of the University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate (UCLES), which is itself a department
of the University of Cambridge.

0610/02/M/J/04