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UAN

UNIVERSIDAD ANTONIO NARIO

JUAN DIEGO BOHORQUEZ CONTRERAS

mechanical Engineering

RADIATION

TUNJA
2016

INTRODUCTION

This essay is written for the welding operator arc, and it contains both mandatory safety
procedures as those based on the experience of the workshop. Be sure to read the
standards and publications indicate in this trial for more detailed information on specific
issues of security in arc welding and as the manufacturers instructions.

RESUMEN
Electromagnetic radiation energy is applied by the arc or flame can damage the eyes and
burn the skin.
EFFECTS OF RADIATION
The effects of radiation depend on the wavelength, intensity and time duration one is
exposed to radiant energy. The following injuries are the most common:
- Skin burns.
- Eye damage.
TYPES OF RADIATION
There are two types of radiation:
-ionizing (such as X-rays).
-non-ionizing (such as ultraviolet, visible light, or infrared).
IONIZING RADIATION
-Electron beam Controlled within acceptable limits by using suitable shielding around area
electron beam welding.
-Dust produced during grinding (pointing) of thoriated tungsten electrodes for Gas
Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) process is radioactive.
NONIONIZING RADIATION
-Intensity and wavelength of energy produced depend on the process, welding
parameters, electrode and base metal composition, fluxes, and any coatings or plating on
the base material.
- Ultraviolet radiation increases.
- Processes using argon produce more amounts of ultraviolet radiation those who use
most other shielding gases.
HOW TO PROTECT AGAINST IONIZING RADIATION
-Use thorium-free electrodes whenever possible. When grinding (pointing) thoriated
tungsten electrodes, use dust collecting grinders. Always use local exhaust and, if
necessary, respiratory protection to prevent inhalation of dust.
- Use welding helmet with the proper tone Plate filter according to the standards
- Protect exposed skin with adequate gloves and clothing according to the rules
- Being aware of the reflections of welding arches and protect all people intense
reflections.

INFORMATION SOURCES ON NONIONIZING RADIATION


American Welding Society (AWS). Recommended Practices for Electron Beam Welding
(AWS C7.1), published by the American Welding Society, 8669 Doral Blvd., Doral, FL
33166; telephone 800-443- 9353; Web site: www.aws.org.
American Welding Society (AWS). Ultraviolet Reflectance of Paint, published by the
American Welding Society, 8669 Doral Blvd., Doral, FL 33166; telephone 800-443-9353;
Web site: www.aws.org

Conclusions

To prevent accidents, both instantaneous and produced by the use continuous welding,
welding engineer must make an analysis risk and plan security measures and risk
prevention so least once, but before that plans activities welding necessary in the
production:
- From the technical point of view:
Defining the characteristics and safety, both for use as maintenance of machines, tools
and materials used.
Definition and provision of materials necessary security and protection by activity and
recognized risks.
- From the point of view of organization:
Definition of responsibilities including appointing responsible
Development and maintenance of a Manual or Safety Plan
Training of operators who understand the risks associated with their work
Delimitation of areas and signaling risks associated with each.

GLOSSARY
Welding torch: By this element driving the wire, the electrical current is actuated and the
protective gas is operated at the area of the welding arc.

Wavelength: is the actual distance that a disturbance (wave) in a given time interval. This
time interval is the time between two consecutive peaks of some physical property of the
wave.

Electron beam: Electron current (small negatively charged particles found in atoms).

Grinding: It is a unit operation that reduces the average particle volume of a solid
sample.
Thoriated tungsten: The great advantage of this welding method is
basically obtaining stronger, more ductile and less sensitive to corrosion cords in
other procedures, as the protective gas prevents contact between atmospheric
oxygen and melting bath.

Pigmentation: is the concentration of colored substances called pigments in certain


cells or tissues.

Reflectance: relationship between incident electromagnetic power with respect to the


power that is reflected at an interface.