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Commissioning Procedure No. : GUT/Comm./001/Rev. R0


Title:
POWER TRANSFORMER
Contents:
1.

Purpose

2.

Kind of Inspections

3.

References

4.

Test Equipments

5.

Work Sequence

6.

Annexes

01.April.2010

First issued

Issue

Changes
Prepared by:

Checked by:

Approved by:

Organizational unit:

Technical Dept.

Technical Dept.

Director

Name:

Fahmi Assegaf

Luwi Wibowo

Hidayatullah

Date:

01.April.2010

01.April.2010

01.April.2010

Signature

sgd.

sgd.

sgd.

Technical Department

issue: 01-April-2010

PT GRAHA USAHA TEKNIK

Commissioning Procedure No. : GUT/Comm./001/Rev. R0


Distribution list:
Technical Department
Quality Management

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Commissioning Procedure No. : GUT/Comm./001/Rev. R0


1. Purpose
Power Transformers are critical, capital-intensive assets for utilities and industry. Their failure
is unacceptable, because usually severe damage occurs not only to the asset itself but also
to the surroundings. However, replacing on a time-based principle is not the alternative since
the replacement costs for these assets can be enormous. Therefore, testing and
commissioning of power transformers on site is of utmost importance before energizing.
The purpose of testing and commissioning program should be to recognize deterioration and
provide means for correcting them. With testing and commissioning program, potential
hazards that can cause failure of equipment or interruption of electrical service after shipping
and site installation can be discovered and corrected. Also, the testing and commissioning
program will minimize the hazards to life and equipment that can result from failure of
equipments.
2.

Kind of Inspections
2.01 Insulation Resistance.
2.02 AC Power Frequency Withstand Test.
2.03 TTR (Turn-to-Turn Ratio).
2.04 Polarity Test.
2.05 Induced potential test (optional).
2.06 Frequency response analyzer (FRA)/sweep FRA (SFRA).
2.07 Transformer core ground test.
2.08 Partial Discharge (optional).
2.09 Excitation current test.
2.10 Insulating Oil & Fluids.
2.11 Dissolved Gas Analysis (DGA) tests.
2.12 Voltage Displacement ( Vector Group).
2.13 DC winding resistance.
2.14 Tan Delta (PF & C)

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Commissioning Procedure No. : GUT/Comm./001/Rev. R0

3.

References
3.1 IEC 61363 Procedures for Calculating short circuit current in three-phase ac.
3.2 IEC-60060 High Voltage Test Techniques.
3.3 IEC-60270 HV test techniques - PD measurement.
3.4 IEC-61558 Safety of power transformers, power supply units and similar.
3.5 IEC 60076 Power transformers

4.

Test Equipments
4.1 Megger.
4.2 AC High-Potential test (e.g ; Hipotronic).
4.3 CPC+TD1.
4.4 MPD600.
4.5 DIRANA
4.6 Whitestonebridge
4.7 Oil breakdown Test.

5. Work Sequence
5.01. Insulation Resistance Test
This test is performed at or above rated voltage to determine if there are low resistance paths
to ground or between winding to winding as a result of winding insulation deterioration. The
test measurement values are affected by variables such as temperature, humidity, test
voltage, and size of transformer.
This test should be conducted before and after repair or when maintenance is performed.
The test data should be recorded for future comparative purposes. The general rule of thumb
that is used for acceptable values for safe energazion is 1 M per 1000 V of applied test
voltage plus 1 M.
The Procedure describes below ;

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Commissioning Procedure No. : GUT/Comm./001/Rev. R0


1. Do not disconnect the ground connection to the transformer tank and core. Make sure that
the transformer tank and core are grounded.

2. Disconnect all high-voltage, low-voltage, and neutral connections, lightning arresters, fan
systems, meters, or any low-voltage control systems that are connected to the transformer
winding.
3. Before beginning the test, jumper together all high-voltage bushings, making sure that the
jumpers are clear of all metal and grounded parts. Also jumper together all low-voltage and
neutral bushings, making sure jumpers are clear of all metal and grounded parts.
4. Use a meg-ohmmeter with a minimum scale .
5. Resistance measurements are then made between each set of windings and ground. The
windings that are to be measured must have its ground removed in order to measure its
insulation resistance.
6. Meg-ohmmeter reading should be maintained for a period of 1 min.
Make the following readings for two-winding transformers:
a. High-voltage winding to ground

b. Low-voltage winding to ground

c. High-voltage winding to low-voltage winding

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Commissioning Procedure No. : GUT/Comm./001/Rev. R0

Do not make the meg-ohm test of the transformer winding without the transformer
liquid because the values of insulation resistance in air will be much less than in the li
quid. Also, do not make the insulation resistance test of the transformer when it is
under vacuum because of the possibility of flashover to ground.
5.02 AC Power Frequency Withstand Test.
The AC hi-pot test is applied to evaluate the condition of transformer windings. This test is
recommended for all voltages, especially those above 34.5 kV. This test is commonly used
for acceptance testing or after repair testing of transformers. The AC HV test value should
not exceed 75% for ANSI, or 80% for IEC of the factory test. Test duration will be 1 minute.
The procedure for conducting this test is as follows :
Transformer must have passed the insulation resistance test immediately prior to starting
this test.
Make sure transformer case and core are grounded.
Disconnect all high-voltage, low-voltage, and neutral connections, low-voltage control
systems, fan systems, and meters connected to the transformer winding and core.
Short-circuit with jumpers together all high-voltage bushings and all low-voltage bushings to
ground as discussed under Insulation resistance measurements.
A sample of Transformer high voltage (hi-pot) test connection:
(a) high winding hi-pot test connection and
(b) low winding hi-pot test connections.
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Commissioning Procedure No. : GUT/Comm./001/Rev. R0

Connect hi-pot test set between high-voltage winding and ground. Gradually increase test
voltage to the desired value. Allow test voltage duration of 1 min, after which gradually
decrease voltage to zero.
Remove low-voltage to ground jumper and connect hi-pot test set between low-voltage
winding and ground. Also connect the short-circuited high-voltage winding to ground.
Gradually increase test voltage to desired value. Allow the test voltage duration of 1 min, after
which gradually decrease voltage to zero.
If the preceding two tests do not produce breakdowns or failures, the transformer is
considered satisfactory and can be energized.
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Commissioning Procedure No. : GUT/Comm./001/Rev. R0


Remove all jumpers and reconnect primary and secondary connections and other system
equipment that may have been disconnected.

The following are some cautions and considerations in performing hi-pot tests:
In liquid-filled transformers two insulation systems are in series, that is, solid insulation with oil
or synthetic fluid. When AC or DC hi-pot test voltage is applied, the voltage drops are
distributed as follows:

When using DC hi-pot test voltage on liquid-filled transformers, the solid insulation may be
overstressed. Insulation that may be weakened near the neutral may remain in service due to
lower stress under operating conditions. However, when subjected to hi-pot test voltage, it
may break down and require immediate repair. The weakened insulation may usually be
detected by the measurement at lower voltages.
5.03 Turn-to-Turn Test (TTR)
The TTR test applies voltage to one winding of a transformer and detects the voltage being
generated on another winding on the same core. In the case of an electronic TTR test set, a
voltage (typically 80 V AC) is applied to the HV winding of the transformer under test. The
voltage generated on the low-voltage winding is measured and the voltage ratio between
high and low windings is calculated. Voltage ratio is proportionally equal to turns ratio.
5.04 Polarity Test
The polarity test can be performed with the TTR on power, distribution, and potential
transformers. However, for current transformers the TTR test is not used. Instead a test
commonly known as the kick test, consisting of applying a DC battery and multimeter is used.
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Commissioning Procedure No. : GUT/Comm./001/Rev. R0


The kick test can also be used for power distribution, and potential transformers; however,
the TTR test is preferred.

5.05 Induced Potential Test (optional)


The induced potential test is a proof test and performed at higher voltage levels than normal
operating voltages. Under this test, turn-to-turn insulation and phase-to-phase insulation are
stressed at 65% of factory test voltage. When transformers have one winding grounded for
operation on a grounded-neutral system, special care should be taken to avoid high
electrostatic stresses between the other windings and ground.
In the case of transformers having one end of the HV winding grounded during the induced
potential test, the ground on each winding may be made at a selected point of the winding
itself or of the winding of a step-up transformer which is used to supply the voltage or which
is merely connected for the purpose of furnishing the ground.
Three-phase transformers may be tested with single-phase voltage. The specified test
voltage is induced, successively, from each line terminal to ground and to adjacent line
terminals. The neutrals of the windings may or may not be held at ground potential during
these tests.
When the induced test on the winding results in a voltage between terminals of other
windings in excess of the low-frequency test voltage specified, the other windings may be
sectionalized

and grounded. Additional induced tests should then be made to give the

required test voltage between terminals of windings that were sectionalized.

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Commissioning Procedure No. : GUT/Comm./001/Rev. R0

5.06 FRA (frequency respond Analysis)


The FRA test may be performed as an impulse response or as a SFRA test. The impulse
method estimates the frequency response whereas sweep frequency response method
measures the response over a range of frequencies of interest. Both the FRA and SFRA
methods are non-destructive tests used to detect if deformation (displacement) of core and
coils has taken place. Sweep frequency response is a major advance in transformer
condition analysis, allowing visualization of the inside of the transformers tank without costly
detanking. The standard definition of FRA is the ratio of a steady sinusoidal output from a test
object subjected to a steady sinusoidal input. SFRA is a proven technique for making
accurate and repeatable measurements. There is a direct relationship between the geometric
configuration of the winding and core, and the series and parallel impedance network of
inductance, capacitance, and resistance. This network can be identified by its frequencydependent transfer function.
Typical internal mechanical problems identified in transformers with FRA are:
Core movement
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Commissioning Procedure No. : GUT/Comm./001/Rev. R0


Winding deformation and displacement
Faulty core grounds
Partial winding collapse
Hoop buckling
Broken or loosened clamping structures
Shorted turns and open windings
These test methods are generally used on large HV power transformers because they are
sensitive tests to detect winding distortion and deformation (i.e., in coils, layers, turns, and
leads) in power transformers.
5.07 Transformer Core Ground Test
The procedure for the test requires the transformer to be de-energized and isolated. The
intentional core ground connection is lifted and the DC IR test is made between the core
connection and the grounded transformer enclosure. Acceptable readings are 100 M or
greater.

5.08 Partial Discharge Test


PD is an electrical discharge that only partially bridges the insulation between conductors.
PD can be a sign of deterioration involving external surfaces (slot or end turn) or of
delamination internal to the ground wall.
PD current pulses can be measured in two ways: (1) off-line PD measurements and (2) online
PD measurements. The off-line PD test requires a power supply to energize the winding to at
least rated phase-to-neutral voltage.
5.09 Transformer Excitation Current Test
Excitation current is also known as the no-load or magnetizing current of the transformer. In
this test, voltage is applied to the primary windings one at time with all other windings left
open. The excitation current of a transformer is the current the transformer draws when
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Commissioning Procedure No. : GUT/Comm./001/Rev. R0


voltage is applied to its primary terminals with the secondary terminal open. The excitation
current test, when used in routine preventive maintenance or field acceptance testing of
transformers, provides means of detection for winding problems, such as short-circuited or
open turns, poor joints or contacts, core problems, etc.
The excitation current test is conducted on each phase winding at a time, that is
only one winding is under test with the other winding including the secondary
winding are floating. When performing this test, the bushings are not shorted
together.
5.10 Transformer Insulating Oils and Fluids
In order to make this test, a sample of the insulating fluid or oil should be obtained from the
transformer by opening the sample valve. Remember to flush approximately one-quart of oil
or fluid into a bucket to clean any contaminants from the valve housing. Once this is done,
then fill cell with oil sample to just above the raised centre of the cell to prevent any sparking
due to insufficient amount of oil. This cell holds approximately one-quart of fluid. Take the
temperature of the oil or fluid sample immediately after the test completion. Correct the
measured PF to 20C.

Please connect as per connection below ;

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Commissioning Procedure No. : GUT/Comm./001/Rev. R0

5.11 DGA (dissolved gas analysis)


The DGA is basically a laboratory test using an oil sample taken from a transformer. The oil
sample is subjected to a vacuum to remove the combustible gases. These gases are then
passed through a gas chromatograph and each gas is then extracted and analyzed for type
and quantity. The quantity of each gas is given in part per million (ppm) or percent of the total
gas present. The analysis of each gas present provides a useful tool in determining the
condition of the transformer.
5.12 Voltage Displacement ( Vector group )
The purpose of this test is to check the phase displacement or connection symbol of the
transformer.
This Vector gorup of Transforme can be checked by Transformer Turn ratio Meter, for special
connection Dyn3 and Zig-Zag, This connection shall be checked by Vector Voltage.
A sample of Vector Group Connections.

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Commissioning Procedure No. : GUT/Comm./001/Rev. R0

Dyn3 connection
Measured Terminal : A-B ; A-n ; B-C ; B-n ; B-a ; B-b ; C-B ; C-b ; C-a : a-b ; b-c ; c-a
Phase relation : B-a = B-b ; C-a > C-b
5.13 Transformer Winding Resistance.
After the transformer has been under oil without excitation for at least 3 h, the average oil
transformer is determined and the temperature of the winding is deemed to be the same as
the average oil temperature. The difference in temperature between the top and bottom oil
shall be small,but not more than 5 C. The average oil temperature is taken as the mean of
the top and bottom oil temperatures. The resistances between all pairs of phase terminals of
each transformer winding are measured using direct current. The measurement is performed
for each connectable winding and for each tapping connection.
The measurement is carried out with the Voltmeter and Ammeter Method. using the
measuring circuit of figure below. Direct current is injected to the measuring circuit and
simultaneous readings of current and voltage are
taken. The required resistance is calculated from the readings in accordance with Ohm's law.
The voltmeter leads shall be independent of the current leads and shall be connected as
closely as possible to the terminals of the winding to be measured. This is to avoid including
in the reading the resistances of current carrying leads and their contacts and of extra
lenghts of leads.

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Commissioning Procedure No. : GUT/Comm./001/Rev. R0

5.14 Tan Delta (DF and C).


Capacitance and Tan is measured by a special test instrument (e.g : Omicron TD-1) with
voltage range between 1 to 12 kV and frequency of 50 hz.
The transformer shall have the following:
- All windings immersed in insulating oil.
- The temperature of windings and insulating oil near the cooling air temperature.
- All windings short-circuited.
- All bushings in place.
Capacitance and insulation power- factor (Tan ) measurements are made of windings to
ground and between windings.
The voltage to be applied for measuring capacitance and tan shall not exceed half of the
low frequency-voltage-test.
The types of transformers considered for the purposes of PF testing are
1. Two-winding transformers
2. Three-winding transformers
3. Autotransformers
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Commissioning Procedure No. : GUT/Comm./001/Rev. R0


4. Potential transformers (PTs)

When performing PF tests on transformers, the below listed conditions should be observed:
1. Transformer is de-energized and completely isolated from the power source.
2. Transformer housing is properly grounded.
3. All bushing of HV and LV winding, including the neutral are shorted to make them into an
equivalent HV and LV bushings. Neutrals must be ungrounded.
4. Transformers equipped with load-tap-changers should be set to some position off neutral,
and this position should be noted on the test data sheet.
6. Annexes.

a) CPC-100 +TD1

e) Hiprotonic (hipot)

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b) MPD600

f) Megger

c) DIRANA

g) Oil Test

d) FRA