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International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Technology (IJAERT) 206

Volume 4 Issue 6, June 2016, ISSN No.: 2348 8190


Yavana Rani.S.*, Manikandan.S.M**
*M.E VIth Sem, Dept of Civil Engineering, Mt. Zion College of Engineering , Anna Universirty, Tamilnadu
** AP., Dept of Civil Engineering, Mt. Zion College of Engineering, Anna Universirty, Tamilnadu

investigation of Self compacting concrete columns
(SCC) mix design and flowability test. A total of 8
numbers of column specimens have to be tested in this
experimental investigation. (two as conventional SCC
columns and remaining six as confined SCC
columns).The specimens are of size 130mm diameter
and 750mm in height. The concrete grade is M40. The
properties of fresh SCC were confirmed with slump flow
test, V-funnel and L-box test. For strengthening, the
SCC columns were confined with GFRP (Glass Fibre
Reinforced Polymer Sheet) wrap and Polypropylene
fiber rope in different volumetric ratios.

an ever increasing triaxial compression state. Glass fibre

sheets provide the needed lateral restriction to alter
concrete from a fragile to a rather ductile material. Glass
sheets are more advantageous than other reinforcing
fibres for their time dependent performance and their
durability while they have a high modulus of elasticity.
FRP with high modulus of elasticity possess low strain
at failure. In fact the failure in columns confined by
conventional FRPs usually involves the fracture of the
jacket. To overcome this failure, Confining
reinforcement in the form of fiber ropes (FR) has
attracted little attention so far. They present low
sensitivity to local damage of fibers because of handling,
scratching, or stress concentrations in the edges of
noncircular sections. They need no impregnation resins
or binders in external confinement applications.

Key words: Self compacting concrete, confinements,

strength, ductility.

Self compacting concrete (SCC) represents
one of the most significant advances in concrete
technology for decades. Inadequate homogeneity of the
cast concrete due to poor compaction or segregation may
drastically lower the performance of mature concrete insitu. SCC has been developed to ensure adequate
compaction and facilitate placement of concrete in
structures with congested reinforcement and in restricted
areas. The composition of SCC is similar to that of
normal concrete but to attain self flow ability
admixtures, such as fly ash, glass filler, limestone
powder, silica fume, Super-pozz, etc; with some super
plasticizer is mixed. Since Super-pozz is a new
emerging admixture and is a highly reactive alumino
silicate pozzolanic material, its fineness and spherical
particle shape improves the workability of SCC. Thus, it
can be used as a suitable admixture in SCC. Three basic
characteristics that are required to obtain SCC are: high
deformability, restrained flowability and a high
resistance to segregation.
The confinement of self-compacting concrete with
FRP material is more reliable, efficient, and easy to
apply. It utilizes the increased strength, axial strain
ductility and energy dissipation of concrete when being

Marc Quiertant et al., (2011) investigate the
performance of eccentrically loaded columns externally
strengthened with different carbon fiber-reinforced
polymer (CFRP) systems. The 10 specimens were
representative scale square columns made of normalstrength concrete
with substandard (internal)
reinforcement details that were designed to represent old
building structural columns. Eight columns were
upgraded by four types of commercially available
systems of external reinforcement, using plates,
unidirectional or bi-directional composite fabrics.
Experimental results presented in this paper show that a
significant improvement of the strength capacity,
deformation capacity and ductility of columns can result
of the CFRP application, but the observed gains strongly
depend on the reinforcement systems.
A. Navaneethakrishnan et al., (2012) deals with
the experimental study to evaluate the performance of
SCC by varying the percentage of silica fume as
replacement of cement. A simple mix design for SCC
proposed by Nan su et al., is used for fixing the trial mix.
Cement is replaced with various percentage of silica
fume (0%, 10%, 15%, and 20%). Self-compacting
concrete with 15% silica fume showed better results
when compared to other replacements. Hence silica
fume can be effectively used for cement replacement.

International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Technology (IJAERT) 207

Volume 4 Issue 6, June 2016, ISSN No.: 2348 8190

An analytical model is proposed to predict the

loaddisplacement response of wall-like (i.e. high aspect
ratio) reinforced concrete columns strengthened with
FRP wraps with and without sustained loading. The
model assumes that the general loaddisplacement
response of the strengthened column consists of two
distinct branches: a parabolic ascending branch and a
linear descending branch. The ascending branch is
influenced by the lateral confining pressure from the
transverse reinforcement as well as the FRP wraps,
while the descending branch is influenced by the
buckling of the longitudinal reinforcement and the
failure of the core concrete. Comparisons between model
results and experimental results indicate close agreement
between the two. M. Maalej et al., (2003)
A simple apparatus and a rapid method for
testing the segregation resistance of self-compacting
concrete (SCC) were developed. Extensive test programs
of SCC with differences in waterbinder ratios, paste
volumes, combinations between fine and coarse
aggregates and different types as well as different
contents of cements and mineral admixtures were carried
out. The test results showed that the developed apparatus
and method are useful in rapidly assessing the

segregation resistance of SCC in both vertical and

horizontal directions. V.K. Buia, et al., (2002).
The non-linearity or shear thickening in the
rheological behaviour of fresh SCC is described with the
modified Bingham model, after the elimination of
possible measurement artefacts. Analysis indicates that
shear thickening is mainly correlated with the type of
super plasticizer, the type of filler, the W/P-ratio and the
slump flow of the concrete. From this research, it is
clear that shear thickening behavior is mainly influenced
by the type of filler and the type of super plasticizer. The
increase in shear thickening behaviour is significantly
related with a decrease in W/P-ratio and an increase in
slump flow. Other parameters have a smaller effect on
the shear thickening. Dimitri Feys., et al., (2008)
Hajime Okamura., et al.,(2003) has made an
investigation for establishing a rational mix-design
method and self-compactability testing methods carried
out from the viewpoint of making self-compacting
concrete a standard concrete. When self-compacting
concrete becomes so widely used that it is seen as the
standard concrete rather than a special concrete, we
will have succeeded in creating durable and reliable
concrete structures that require very little maintenance


Literature Survey

Material Collection & Testing

SCC Mix Design and

Flowability Test

Slump Flow Test

L-Box Test
V-Funnel Test

4.1 Characteristic of SCC
1. Self Compatibility:

The L-Box test gives an indication of the

resistance of the mixture to flow round observations in
the L-Box mould. This test also detects the tendency of
the coarse aggregate particles to stay back and settle

International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Technology (IJAERT) 208

Volume 4 Issue 6, June 2016, ISSN No.: 2348 8190

down, when the mixtures flows closely spaced

2. Deformability:
The Slump flow test judges the ability of
concrete to deform under its own weight the friction of
the base. This test is usual as a routine control test to
tendency for slurry to separate from the mixture.
3. Viscosity:
Viscosity of the mortar phase is obtained by a V
funnel apparatus. This is useful for adjusting the powder
content, water content and admixture dosage.


The higher the slump flow (SF) value, the
greater its ability to fill formwork under its own weight.
A value of at least 650mm is required for SCC. There is
no generally accepted advice on what are reasonable
tolerances about a specified value, though 50mm, as
with the related flow table test, might be appropriate.
The T50 time is a secondary indication of flow.
A lower time indicates greater flow ability. The Brite Eu
Ram research suggested that a time of 3-7 seconds is
acceptable for civil engineering applications, and 2-5
seconds for housing applications. In case of severe
segregation most coarse aggregate will remain in the
center of the pool of concrete and mortar and cement

paste at the concrete periphery. In case of minor

segregation a border of mortar without coarse aggregate
can occur at the edge of the pool of concrete. If none of
these phenomena appear it is no assurance that
segregation will not occur since this is a time related
aspect that can occur after a longer period.
This test measures the ease of flow of the
concrete; shorter flow times indicate greater flowability.
For SCC a flow time of 10 seconds is considered
appropriate. The inverted cone shape restricts flow, and
prolonged flow times may give some indication of the
susceptibility of the mix to blocking. After 5 minutes of
settling, segregation of concrete will show a less
continuous flow with an increase in flow time.
If the concrete flows as freely as water, at rest it
will be horizontal, so H2/H1 = 1. Therefore the nearer
this test value, the blocking ratio, is to unity, the better
the flow of the concrete. The EU research team
suggested a minimum acceptable value of 0.8. T20 and
T40 times can give some indication of ease of flow, but
no suitable values have been generally agreed. Obvious
blocking of coarse aggregate behind the reinforcing bars
can be detected visually.

Table1: List of test methods and acceptance criteria for fresh concrete

Slump Flow(mm)
V-Funnel ( sec)
L-Box (mm)

Fresh Properties

[1] Marc Quiertant, Jean-Luc Clement, (2011) Behavior
of RC columns strengthened with different CFRP
systems under eccentric loading Construction and
Building Materials 25: 452460
[2] A. Navaneethakrishnan and V.M. Shanthi (May
2012) Experimental study of self compacting concrete
(SCC) using silica fume International Journal of
Emerging trends in Engineering and Development, Issue
2, Volume 4, ISSN 2249-6149
[3] M. Maalej, S. Tanwongsval, P. Paramasivam, (2003)
Modelling of rectangular RC columns strengthened
with FRP, Cement & Concrete Composites 25: 263

Typical range of Values


[4] V.K. Buia, D. Montgomeryb, I. Hinczakc, K.

Turnerc (2002), Rapid testing method for segregation
resistance of self-compacting concrete, Cement and
Concrete Research 32: 14891496.
[5] Dimitri Feys, Ronny Verhoeven, Geert De Schutter
(2008) Fresh self compacting concrete, a shear
thickening material Cement and Concrete Research
[6] Hajime Okamura and Masahiro Ouchi (2003) Selfcompacting concrete Journal of Advanced concrete
Technology Vol.1, No.1, 5-15.