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# International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Technology (IJAERT) 202

## OPTIMIZATION OF GEAR TO IMPROVE PERFORMANCE OF

GEARBOX
Krunalkumar Makwana*, Purnank Bhatt**
*PG Student, Silver Oak College, Ahmedabad, India
**Asst. Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering

ABSTRACT
The goal of gear optimization is to decrease total mass of
gears while assuring adequate stiffness. Optimization
tools and computer simulations have gained the
paramount importance in industrial applications as a
result of innovative designs, reduced weight and cost
effective products. In this work we use software called
Creo.2 to model a gear, ANSYS for optimization and
MINITAB for parametric optimization. These are
extensively used for scientific & research purposes. It is
accurate & also has a number of built in functions which
makes it versatile.

## No. of teeth (N) = 25

Pitch circle diameter(D) = 50mm
Pressure angle () = 20
Module= 2 mm
Tooth thickness (t) = 3.14mm
Root fillet = 0.628mm
Dedendum diameter (Dd) = 45mm
Base circle diameter (Db) = 46.984mm
Yield Tensile Strength= 250 Mpa
Material used: Structural Steel

colons, etc.

I.

III.

INTRODUCTION

## The design and optimization of gears is a highly

complicated task, and the need to develop light weight,
quiet and more reliable designs has resulted in a variety
of changes in the design process. For transmission of
power, gears have been in use since the dawn of
civilization. Gears in the early stages were in the form of
cylindrical discs having surface irregularities. These
primitive transmission tools were adequate to meet the
operational needs of those days. Ancient engineers were
aware of the desired performance parameters such as a
gear ratio, centre distance and available power source
(water current, wind, horse power) and used them to
define the gear parameters (diameters, number and shape
of the teeth).

II.

DESIGN PROCEDURE

## First of all, the design tangential tooth load is

obtained from the power transmitted and the pitch
line velocity by using the following relation:

## SPUR GEARS SPECIFICATION

WT =

......................i.e (1)

Where
WT = Permissible tangential tooth load
in newton,
P = Power transmitted in watts,
v = Pitch line velocity in m / s v
=
DN/60
D = Pitch circle diameter in meters

## Here, presenting the calculations for the involute spur

gear of gearbox of windsmith state of the art company
for stress reduction studies.
Model No: 917 WINDSMITH STATE of ART single
reducer gear box
Horse Power: 0.14 hp
Input RPM: 2000
Gear Ratio: 10
Gear type: Spur gear
Gear specification:

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## From equation (1) we get

Spur gear RPM = Input RPM/G.R
= 200
v

= 0.52 m/s
= 3.18 revolution/s

## International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Technology (IJAERT) 203

Volume 4 Issue 6, June 2016, ISSN No.: 2348 8190

= 1144.8 degree/s
WT = 200 N

IV.

## Fig 2. Boundary Condition

Figure 3 shows von mises stress distribution. Average
stress is around 30 Mpa and maximum stress at fillet is
106.16 Mpa which is safer side.
Fig.1. Modeling of spur gear
Following are the parametric equation.
Angle=t*90

## Fig. 3 Von-Mises stress of gear

X=X_ins+ (Cir_len*sin (Angle))
Figure 4 shows total deflection of teeth which is
0.0041143 mm.

Y=Y_ins-(Cir_len*cos(Angle))
Z=0

V.

FEA OF GEAR

## After completing gear model in CREO, file is called as a

IGES in ANSYS software for analysis purposes.
As shown in fig.2, boundary condition is applied. Load
on teeth the load is being transmitted from one gear to
another, it is all given and taken by one tooth, so 200 N
load is consider as a point load and applied on one teeth.
Also rotational velocity 20 rad/s is applied and gear is
considered fixed at centre part.

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## International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Technology (IJAERT) 204

Volume 4 Issue 6, June 2016, ISSN No.: 2348 8190

VI.

PARAMETRIC OPTIMIZATION

## As per optimization we can conclude that hole diameter,

pitch circle diameter and number of hole play major role
in optimization.
Following possible value of hole diameter, pitch circle
diameter and number of hole is selected based on
geometry of gear.
Pitch circle diameter: 26,31,36,41 mm
Number of hole: 04,06,08,10
Hole diameter: 02,03,04,05 mm
Here we have total three parameters and four values of
each parameter. So total 34 = 81 solution is possible. So
to reduced solution we need to go for parametric
optimization.

VII.

## Results of FEA are analysed using Minitab. Minitab

offers four types of designed experiments: factorial,
response surface, mixture, and Taguchi (robust). After
conducting the analysis and entering the results, Minitab
provides several analytical and graphing tools to help
understand the results. Taguchi designs experiments
using especially constructed tables known as
orthogonal arrays (OA).The use of these tables makes
the design of experiments very easy and consistent.
Out of 16 analysis, Sr no 8 analysis gives the
best optimization based on weight reduction is 9.67 %
for the same capacity of gear which having 31 mm of
pitch circle diameter, 5 mm of hole and 8 number of
hole. Maximum weight reduction is 12.09 % of Sr. no 4
gear but in this case stress of gear is increased. So for the
same capacity or stress L8 analysis is selected as best
optimum solution.

RESULT

## The Von-mises stress and deflection are measured for

each set of parameter using FEA in ANSYS, and the
Sr
PCD
Hole DIA No of Stress
No
mm
mm
Holes Mpa
1
26
2
4
110.1
2

26

26

26

10

31

31

31

10

31

36

10

36

10

11

36

12

36

13

41

10

14

41

15

41

16

41

128.63
111.59
124.78
84.53
112.51
125.49
102.31
103.96
126.83
103.97
105.68
133.69
110.91
157.92
161.77

## The Finite Element Analysis using ANSYS

software for spur gear was made for determination of
stress and deformations. Also optimization of spur gear
with circular shape of hole at different PCD is done. For
the parametric optimization MINITAB is used to find

Displacement
mm

Weight
gm

% Weigh
Reduction

0.0046
0.0039
0.0048
0.0051
0.0038
0.0046
0.0048
0.0048
0.0046
0.0045
0.0047
0.0042
0.0046
0.0050
0.0052
0.0060

39.71

0.77

38.98

2.61

37.55

6.19

35.19

12.09

39.56

1.16

39.33

1.74

36.93

7.74

36.15

9.67

39.40

1.55

38.28

4.35

38.78

3.09

37.12

7.25

39.25

1.93

39.06

2.42

38.98

2.61

39.08

2.37

## out best optimum solution. The stress and deflection of

modified spur gear comes within safe limit. Overall near
about 10 % weight of spur gear is reduced. Good
agreement between predicted and measured results was
obtained for spur gear.

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## International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Technology (IJAERT) 205

Volume 4 Issue 6, June 2016, ISSN No.: 2348 8190

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American Gear Manufacturers Associatio, 2013.
[3] Bhatt Parth, A review on design, analysis and
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