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NAME : NUR SAHIRA ROSHARUDIN

STUDENT ID: B0116003


1. Identify the five components of a data communications system.
-Message (information to be communicated; text numbers, pictures, audio, video)
-Sender (device that send data message; computer, workstation, telephone)
-Receiver (device that receive message; computer, workstation, telephone)
-Transmission medium (physical path which a message travels from sender to receiver; twistedpair wire, coaxial cable, fiber-optic cable, radio waves)
-Protocol (set of rules, agreement between communicating devices)
2.

What are the advantages of distributed processing?


(Computer networking method in which multiple computers across different locations share
computer- processing capability)
- Lower cost
- Reliable
- Improved performance and reduced processing time
- Flexible (geographical locations)
3. What are the three criteria necessary for an effective and efficient network?
- Performance: transit time and response time (no. of user, transmission medium)
- Reliability: frequency of failure, time takes to recover from failure, networks robustness in a
catastrophe (fire, earthquake)
- Security: protecting data from unauthorized access and virus
4.

What are the advantages of a multipoint connection over a point-to-point connection?


- Ease of installation
- low cost
- can install more than 2 devices

5. What are the two types of line configuration?


- Point-to-point configuration: microwave link, remote TV
- Multipoint configuration: capacity of channel is shared
6. Categorize the four basic topologies in terms of line configuration.
Point-to-point configuration: Star, Mesh, Ring
Multipoint configuration: Bus
7. What is the difference between half-duplex and full-duplex transmission modes?
- Half duplex: two devices can send and receive but not at the same time
- Full duplex: two devices can send and receive at the same time

8. Name the four basic network topologies, and cite an advantage of each type.
- Mesh topology: fast communication, robust, privacy
- Star topology: less expensive, robust
- Ring topology: easy configuration, fault isolation
- Bus topology: easy installation, cheap
9. For n devices in a network, what is the number of cable links required for a mesh, ring, bus,
and star topology?
- Mesh topology: n(n-1)/2
- Star topology: n
- Ring topology: n-1
- Bus topology: one backbone and n drop lines
10. What are some of the factors that determine whether a communication system is a LAN or
WAN?
LAN (Local Area Network)

WAN (Wide Area Network)

Size and coverage

area less than 2 mile

worldwide

Owned

certain entities (government,


educational institution,
company)

Not owned by anyone

11. What is an internet? What is the Internet?


- An internet : interconnection of networks
- The internet: name of specific worldwide network
12. Why are protocols needed?
(set of rules that govern data communication)
- Avoid lead to breakdown in communication
- To give accurate and timely transfer of information
13. Why are standards needed?
Essential in creating and maintaining an open and competitive market for equipment
manufactures.
14. What is the maximum number of characters or symbols that can be represented by Unicode?
- 32 bits to represent characters or symbols

Can define as 232 = 4 294 967 296 characters or symbols

15. A color image uses 16 bits to represent a pixel. What is the maximum number of different
colors that can be represented?
- 216 = 65 536
16. Assumes six devices are arranged in a mesh topology. How many cables are needed? How
many ports are needed for each device?
17.
Cables
Cables =
=

(1)
2
6 (61)
2
6 (5)
2

=
= 15

Ports
Each devices need to connected to each other.
Ports = 6 devices x 5 devices
= 30 devices

18. For each of the following four networks, discuss the consequences if a connection fails.
a. Five devices arranged in a mesh topology
The others device will still work
b. Five devices arranged in a star topology (not counting the hub)
The hub still can be access by other device except the failed one.
c. Five devices arranged in a bus topology
Bus is in a straight line (like series circuit), if one device fails, the other devices will eventually fail too
d. Five devices arranged in a ring topology
Ring will make the device to connect back onto itself. If one device fail, the other devices will
eventually fail too

19. You have two computers connected by an Ethernet hub at home. Is this a LAN, a MAN, or a
WAN? Explain your reason.
It is a LAN because LAN usually connects in small area such as house and we use Ethernet hub to
connect LAN

20. In the ring topology in Figure1.8, what happens if one of the stations is unplugged?
In a ring topology, unplugging one station, interrupts the ring. However, most ring networks use
a mechanism that bypasses the station; the ring can continue its operation.
21. In the bus topology in Figure1.7, what happens if one of the stations is unplugged?
In a bus topology, no station is in the path of the signal. Unplugging a station has no effect on
the operation of the rest of the network.
22. Draw a hybrid topology with a star back bone and three ring networks.

23. Draw a hybrid topology with a ring back bone and two bus networks.

24. Performance Is inversely related to delay. When you use the Internet, which of the following
applications are more sensitive to delay?
a. Sending an e-mail
b. Copying a file
c. Surfing the Internet
24. When a party makes a local telephone call to another party, is this a point-to-point or multi point
connection? Explain your answer.
Point to point because it is between two party. Multi point need more than two parties to communicate
25. Compare the telephone network and the Internet. What are the similarities? What are the
differences?
SIMILARITIES
Both can be used for communication
Both can be wire / wireless

DIFFERENCES
Telephone is limited to voice communication only
while Internet can be in written form or video
Can share data using Internet