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Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering and Applied Sciences (JETEAS) 2 (1): 43-49

Scholarlink Research Institute Journals, 2011 (ISSN: 2141-7016)


Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering and Applied Sciences (JETEAS) 2 (1): 43-49 (ISSN: 2141-7016)
jeteas.scholarlinkresearch.org

Digital Wieners Filtering in Seismic Data Processing in


Trans-Ramos Prospect of Rivers State
J. C. Egbai
Department of Physics
Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria
__________________________________________________________________________________________
Abstract
The basic objective of seismic processing is to convert the information recorded in the field into 1Aa form that
most greatly facilitates geological interpretation. This was carried out in Trans-Ramos Prospect of Rivers State
by applying the Wieners digital filtering to the unprocessed data got from the field. The unprocessed data got
from the field operations are fed into automatic computer whose program is written in line with the theory. A
filter operator was designed if the observed trace is known to specify the desired signal. In this situation, a filter
operator when convolved with the recorded trace would yield an output as close as possible to the desired
signal. In this work, the processes of spiking deconvolution, prewhitening, Wiener shaping filter and predictive
deconvolution were applied to the unprocessed data for effective processing. The aim of spike deconvolution is
to flatten the output spectrum. The actual output from the Wiener filter using optimum delayed spike shows the
most possible result. These processes when fully and correctly carried out give room for effective interpretation
of the seismic data for oil wells.
__________________________________________________________________________________________
Keywords: Seismic processing, deconvolution, filter operator, reflectivity, desired output and actual output.
__________________________________________________________________________________________
ITRODUCTIO
A seismic information data obtained from the field in
In order to obtain the respective coefficients of the
a seismogram consists of a desired signal immersed
desired filter operators the least-squares approach to
in noise. Wieners method of filtering turned out to
filtering was considered, simultaneous equations are
have many other applications to information
set up which are solved by computer. Fig. 2 compares
processing, including enhancement of seismic
desired output with actual output from Wieners filter
reflection data. He designed a filter operator which
which may not coincide exactly, but the differences
when convolved with the recorded trace would yield
can be minimized by proper choice of parameters.
an output as close as possible to the desired signal. If
Wiener filters can be used either in single-channel or
the observed trace is known, one will only need to
multichannel processing.
specify the desired signal in order to determine this
operator. Fig. 1 explains the basic principle of a
An output designed in form of a spike through
simple Wiener filter. The three signals are: the input
deconvolution filtering could be regarded as being
x (t ) , the desired output d (t ) and the actual output
closely related to Wiener filtering. Wiener filtering is
applied in ghost suppression and velocity filtering.
y (t ) . The aim of this work is to determine the filter
The problem of ghost suppression arises from
operator k (t ) that brings y (t ) as close as possible
removing undesired repetitions, or ghosts, of primary
to d (t ) by minimizing the differences between
reflection signals caused by downward reflection of
y (t ) and d (t ) .
energy from the shot at interface, a short distance
above (Dobrin 1976). The application of
Desired
multichannel Wiener filters is the problem of
Output
removing coherent noise on reflection records that
Signal
d (t )
has a different movement time or apparent velocity
than the desired reflection events. The objective of
velocity filtering is to suppress high-velocity noise
without detriment to the reflection quality. The
Actual Output
Filter k (t ) (
Wiener filter is a solution to the restoration problem
Input
To be
Signal y (t )
Signal
based upon the hypothesized use of a linear filter and
designed)
the minimum mean-square ( or rms) error criterion (
Khireddine et al, 2007). The techniques available to
suppress noise can be divided into those techniques
Fig. 1: Principle of Wiener filtering. Desired output
that are based on temporal information and those that
signal provides basis for designing filter. ( Source:
are based on spatial information ( Gao and Wang ,
Robinson and Treitel,2006)
2003, Rajagopal and Potter, 2003).
43

Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering and Applied Sciences (JETEAS) 2 (1): 43-49 (ISSN: 2141-7016)

are Opomoyo, Akarino, Dodo, Tumogbena,


Osuopele, Bulou-Ojobo, Opomoko, etc. These are all
in Western Ijaw Local Government Area of Rivers
State, Nigeria.

THEORY
The theory of optimum Wiener filter is based on
(Robinson and Treitel 2006). The filtering involves
designing the filter so that the least-square error
between the actual and desired outputs is minimum
(fig 1).
Error R is defined as
(1)
(d y )2
R =

t
5

The actual output is the convolution of the filter with


the input:
yt = kt * xt
(2)
Substituting equation 2 into equation 1, we have

0
5
0
5
10
Fig. 2: Comparison of desired output and actual
output from Wiener filter.
(Source: Robinson and Treitel, 2006).

R =

d t

k t x t t

(3)
The aim is to compute the filter coefficients
k 0 , k 1 , k n 1 so that the error is minimum

The basic model for the filtering process considered


consists of input signal, a desired output signal, and
an actual output signal. If one minimizes the energy
or power existing in the difference between desired
and actual filter outputs, it becomes possible to solve
for the so-called optimum, or least squares filter,
commonly known as the Wiener filter (Robinson,
2006).

and filter length l must be predefined. The minimum


error is obtained by setting the variation of R with
respect to k i to zero

R
= 0
k i

i = 0 ,1 ,2 , , (l 1)

Within the class of linear filter, the optimal filter for


restoration in the presence of noise is given by the
Wiener filter. The word optimal is used here in the
sense of minimum mean-square error (mse). Because
the square root operation is monotonic increasing ,
the optimal filter also minimizes the root meansquare error(rms) (Khireddine, et al, 2007). The
Wiener filter is characterized in the fourier domain
and for addictive noise that is independent of the
signal (Pei and Tseng, 2003). Further reading could
be seen from the work of the following ; Towghi et al
2001, Leonardis and Bischof, 2003 and Cherniakov
et al , 2000.

(4)

Expanding equation (3), we have


R =

d t2 2 d

k x t +

k x t

(5)

Obtaining the partial derivatives and equating to zero,


we get
R

= 2 d t x t i + 2 k x t
k i
t
t

x t i = 0

(6)

or

k x

x t i = d t x t i , i = 0 ,1 ,2 , (l 1 ) (7)
t

By using
x t x t i = ri

LOCATIO
The Trans-Ramos 3-D prospect spans a large area of
OMLS (Omission Lines) 46 to 62. It is located within
longitude 05000I to 05030IN and latitude 07000I to
The total area of the prospect is
07030IE.
approximately 320 square kilometers. The area is
swampy and low-lying with surface elevation
gradually rising from 2.28m in the south to 1.98m up
north (Egbai, and Ekpekpo, 2003).

(8a)

and

x ti = g i

(8b)

for each ith term, we have

k ri = g i ,
i = 0 ,1 , 2 , , (l 1 )

Putting in matrix form, equation (9) becomes:

Vegetation varies from mangrove to rainforest


interspersed with raffia palms. The area is drained by
numerous rivers and creeks, which makes access to
some locations difficult. The prospect covers
Opukushi and Benisede fields. The adjoining villages
44

(9)

Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering and Applied Sciences (JETEAS) 2 (1): 43-49 (ISSN: 2141-7016)

r0

r1
.

.
.

r l 1

r1

r2

r0

r1

.
.

rl 2

rl 3

k0 g0

k1 g1
.
=
.
.

kl 1 gl 1

rl 1

rl 2
.

.
.

r0

r0

r1
.

.
.

r l 1

(10)

2
t

x t k +

k x

x t = g
(12a)

x t x t = r

(12b)

R min =

or
R min =

d
t

2 k g +

2
t

k k

2 k g +

x t x t i

(13)

ki

(14)
Using equation (9), we finally get
R min =

d t2

(15)

k g

x t =

t+

x t =

x t x t ( + )

(16)

x t x t ( + ) = g

r1

r2

r0

r1

rl 2

rl 3

r0

r1

r1

r0

rl 1

rl 2

r1

r0

.
rl 1 .

.
.

(17)

rl 1 k r
0
1

rl 2 k r
1 2 (20)
. .
.

=
.
. .
. .
.


r 0 k l 1 rl


rl 1

rl 2
. . .
.
. . . .
. . . .
. . . r
0

1 0
k
0 0 (21)
k1 0
=
. .
. .

kl 1 0

rl 1
.

.
.

r 0
rl

1 R
k
0

0
.
.

= .
.
.


k
0

l 1

(22)

(23)

2
t

= r0

(25a)

and

+ lag, equation (17) becomes

r + =

Applying equation (15), the minimum error


associated with the unit prediction lag filter can be
computed as follows. If we start with
d t = x t +1
(24)
so that

For

.
rl 3 .

R = r0 r1 k0 r2 k 1 ... rl k l 1

We have by definition
r = x t x t

k (t ) that predicts x (t + ) from the past value of


the input x (t ) . The cross-correlation function
g becomes

k0 r
r
k1 +1
. . (19)
=
. .
. .

kl1 r +l1

There exist l + 1 equations and l + 1 unknowns,


e.g., k0 , k 1 ,..., k l 1 , R . From equation (22)

If the desired output in the filter model of Fig. 1 is a


time-advanced
version
of
the
input,
d (t ) = x (t + ) we want to design a Wiener filter

g =

rl 2

r0

r1
.

.
.

r l

k r

. rl 1
. rl 2

. .

. .
. .

. r0

If we add one row and putting the negative sign to the


filter column, we obtain

into equation (11), we get


2
t

.
.

.
.

r1

r2
.

.
.

r l

and

.
.

If we augment the right side to the square matrix on


the left side, we have

Substituting the following relationships:

r1

r0

r1
.

.
.

r l 1

the desired output and input.


Applying the Levinson recursion (Claerbout, 1976.),
the optimum Wiener filter coefficients k i can be
computed. The least-squares error involved in this
process can now be computed. Equation (5) becomes
2

(11)
2
R min =

r2

r0

If = 1 a case of a unit prediction lag equation (19)


takes the form

ri = autocorrelation lags of the input


g i = lags of the cross-correlation between

where

r1

g t = rt + 1

(18)

(25b)

Sbstituting into equation (15), we obtain

Rmin = r0 (r1 k 0 + r2 k 1 + ... + rl k l 1 )


(26)
This is identical to R given by equation (23). The
desired output is x t + . The actual output is x t +

Substituting into equation (10), we have the


set of normal equations that should be solved to get
the prediction filter ( k 0 , k 1 , , k l 1 ) :

which is the estimate of the desired output. Equation


(19) gives the prediction filter with prediction lag .

45

Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering and Applied Sciences (JETEAS) 2 (1): 43-49 (ISSN: 2141-7016)

The error series contains the


component of the series defined as:
C

t+

= x t + x t + = x t +

unpredictable

k x t

Input

(27)

We assume that the unpredictable component C t is


the uncorrelated reflectivity we want to extract from
the seismogram. Taking the Z-transform of equation
(27), we have
(28)
Z E (Z ) = Z X (Z ) K (Z ) X (Z )
or
E (Z ) = 1 Z K (Z ) X (Z )

A new filter
as

Desired Output

Auto-correlation

Cross-correlation

Wiener Filter(F)

(29)

a(t ) whose Z-transform is now defined

A (Z ) = 1 Z F (Z )

(30)

If substituted into equation (29), we have

E ( Z ) = A( Z ) X ( Z )

(31)

Actual Output

The corresponding time-domain relationship is

C (t ) = a (t ) * x (t )
(32)
Reflectivity C (t ) is obtained by applying filter
a(t ) to the input seismogram x (t ) computing the

Fig. 3: Flowchart for Wiener filter design


( Source: Yilmaz O. , 1988)
The optimum Wiener filter k i is optimum if the
least-squares error between the actual and desired
outputs is minimum. When the desired output is the
zero-lag spike ( 1 ,0 ,0 , ,0 ) , then the Wiener
filter is identical to the least-squares inverse filter
(Yilmaz 1988.).

reflectivity series is a goal of deconvolution,


prediction filtering can be used for deconvolution.
The time-domain form a t of the filter according to
equation (30) is
(33)
a t = (1 ,0 ,0 , 0 , k 0 , k 1 , k n 1 )

()

The filter

a(t ) is obtained from the prediction filter

Fig 4 shows data which are highly contaminated with


60Hz line interference. This was acquired from the
field in Trans-Ramos prospect of Rivers State. The
following processes are adopted to the unprocessed
data got from the field.

k (t ) and this is the solution to equation (19). We


call a (t ) the prediction error filter. For unitprediction lag, the filter coefficients is given by
equation (33) are of the form:
a t = 1 , k 0 , k 1 , , k l 1
(34)
This has the same solution as equation (22). A
prediction error filter with unit-prediction lag and
with l + 1 length is equivalent to an inverse filter of
the same length.

FIELD DATA EXAMPLE AD DISCUSSIO


The recording ground motion from reflected seismic
waves, it is customary to receive the signals from
each shot point. Dynamites are detonated from the
shot point with a large number of geophones and the
data obtained were highly contaminated with 60Hz
line interference (Egbai, 1999). Reflectors at late
record times are totally obscured by the line noise.
Fig. 4: Contaminated noise data with 60Hz line interference

The unprocessed data got from the field operations


are fed into automatic computer whose program is
written in line with the theory above. Fig 3
summarizes the flowchart for Wiener filter design
and application.

Spiking Deconconvolution
This process of desired output known as zero-lag
spike is called spiking deconvolution. Fig 5 shows
spike deconvolution based on the Wiener Levinson
algorithm. The input mixed-phase wavelet is 5(a)
while 5(b) is the amplitude spectrum which indicates
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Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering and Applied Sciences (JETEAS) 2 (1): 43-49 (ISSN: 2141-7016)

Prewhitening

adding a constant to the zero lag of the autocorrelation function.

Amplitude

that the wavelet has most of the energy within a 10to 50Hz range. The autocorrelation function 5(c) is
used to compute the spiking deconvolution operation
in 5(d). The amplitude spectrum of the operator in
5(e) is the inverse of the amplitude spectrum of the
input wavelet in 5(b). The aim of spike deconvolution
is to flatten the output spectrum. If this operator is
applied to the input wavelet the result is shown in
5(h). The amplitude spectrum of the operator is the
inverse of the amplitude spectrum of the minimumphase equivalent to 5(e) and 5(g). The desired ouput
5(i) is obtained if the input is minimum-phase
wavelet in 5(f). If the input wavelet is not minimumphase, then spike deconvolution cannot convert it to a
perfect zero-lag spike in 5(h).

Wavelet (a) Frequency

Operator (Inverse)
Spike Output (c)
Frequency
(b) Frequency

Fig. 6: Prewhitening Process


Wiener Shaping Filter
The process that a desired output of desired arbitrary
shape is called wavelet shaping. The filter that does
this is called a wavelet shaping filter. This is a case of
a given input wavelet having series of desired outputs
as delayed spikes. The least-squares errors is plotted
as a function of delay. The actual output from the
Wiener filter using optimum delayed spike shows the
most compact possible result.
Fig 7 shows a series of wavelet shapings that use
delayed spikes as desired outputs. The purpose of the
shaping filter is to convert the mixed-phased wavelet
(0) to a series of delayed spikes 7(a through h) by
using an operator. The best result is achieved by
using a 60-ms delay as shown in fig 7(e)

Fig. 5: Spike deconvolution based on the WienerLevinson algorithm


Prewhitening
This is achieved by applying a minimum-phase bandpass filter with a wide passband (3108Hz) to the
minimum-phase wavelet of Fig 5(f). This does not
produce a perfect spike because of high-frequency
pre and post cursor. Secondly, the deconvolution
operator tries to boost the absent frequencies as seen
from the amplitude spectrum of the output. Noise is
always generated in the seismogram and it is additive
in both the time and frequency domains. In
processing, numerical noise generated is additive in
the frequency domain. In order to ensure numerical
stability, an artificial level of white noise is
introduced before deconvolution and is called
prewhitening. This is shown in fig 6.
Prewhitening results to adding a bias to the amplitude
spectrum of the seismogram to be deconvolved. It
prevents dividing by zero since the amplitude
spectrum of the inverse filter 6(b) is the inverse of
that of the seismogram 6(a). This is achieved by

Fig. 7: Shaping filtering. (0) Input wavelet, (1) desired output,


(2) shaping filter operator, (3) actual output

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Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering and Applied Sciences (JETEAS) 2 (1): 43-49 (ISSN: 2141-7016)

Predictive Deconvolution
The design of a prediction filter requires only
autocorrelation of the input series. There are two
approaches to predictive deconvolution.
1. The prediction filter may be designed and
applied on input series.
2. Predictive deconvolution is a general
process
that
encompasses
spiking
deconvolution.
Fig 8 interrelates the various filter and indicates the
kind of process they imply. This shows that Wiener
filters can be used to solve a wide range of problems.

COCLUSIO
Deconvolution is a process that improves the
temporary resolution of seismic data by compressing
the basic seismic wavelet. It compresses the wavelet
components and eliminate multiples, leaving only the
earths reflectivity in the seismic trace. The inverse
filter, when convolved with the seismic wavelet,
converts it to a spike. The Wiener filter converts the
seismic wavelet into any desired shape. Like the
inverse filter, a Wiener filter can be designed to
convert the seismic wavelet into a spike. The Wiener
filter differs from inverse filter in that it is optimal in
the least-squares sense.

Inverse Filter Least-squares

Wiener filters can be used to solve a wide range of


problems. In particular, predictive deconvolution is
an integral part of seismic data processing that is
aimed at compressing the seismic wavelet thereby
increasing temporal resolution. It can be used to spike
the seismic wavelet and obtain an estimate for
reflectivity.These processes when fully and correctly
carried out give room for effective interpretation of
the seismic data for oil wells.

Optimum Weiner Filters

Zero-Delay
Spike
Time-Advanced
Version of Input
with Prediction Log

Unit Prediction

Spiking
Deconvolution

Any
Other
Form

ACKOWLEDGEMET
I wish to express my gratitude and appreciation to
staff of United Geographical Company Limited,
Warri and Exploration Department of Shell Company
Limited, Warri for enabling me do my industrial
attachment where the data and analysis used for the
research were obtained.

Predictive Wavelet
Deconvolution

Fig. 8: A flowchart for interrelations between various


deconvolution filters
(Source: Yilmaz O. 1988).

REFERECES
Cherniakov M., Sisov, V.I, Donskov L., 2000,
Synethesis of a periodically time-varying digital
filter. VISP Vol.147(5): Pp. 393-399.

Finally, the processed field data trace of spike


deconvolution is as shown in fig 9. It shows spiking
deconvolution 9(c) on a shot record 9(a) followed by
band-pass filtering 9(d). fig 9(b) shows
autocorrelograms before and after deconvolution.

Claerbout, J. F, 1976. Fundamental of geophysical


data processing. McGraw-Hill Book Co. Pp 274
Dobrin, M. B, 1976 Introduction to geophysical
prospecting 3rd ed., 180-200.
Egbai, J. C, 1999. Noise reduction in seismic data
acquisition in Atala Prospect of Rivers State Nigeria.
J. Nig. Ass. Math. Phy. Vol 3, 208-221.
Egbai, J. C. and Ekpekpo, A, 2003. Migration
velocity analysis by Fourier transform in seismic data
processing J. NAMP Vol. 7, Pp 147-154
Gao H. and Wang C. 2003, Robust energy-to-peak
filtering with improved LMI representations. VISP,
150(2): Pp 82-89
Khireddine , A Benmahammed,K. and Puech, W.
2007, Digital image restoration by Wiener filter in
2D case
Pub. By Elsevier Ltd. Advances in
Engineering software 38, 512-516

Fig. 9: Spiking deconvolution (c) on a shot record (a)


followed by band-pass filtering (d). (b)
Autocorrelograms before and after deconvolution.
48

Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering and Applied Sciences (JETEAS) 2 (1): 43-49 (ISSN: 2141-7016)

Leonardis A and Bischof, H. 2003, Kernel and


subspace methods for computer Vision PR, V. 38 (9):
Pp. 1925-1927
Pei S.C and Tseng,2003, An efficient design of a
variable fractional display filter using a first-Order
differientiator. SP letters 10(10): 307-310.
Rajagopal R. and Potter, L.C.,2003, Multivariate
MIMO FIR inverses. 12(4): Pp. 458 465
Robinson, E. A. and Treitel, S, 2006. Principles of
Wiener filtering Geophysical Prospecting Vol. 15. Pp
311-332
Towghi N, Pan L, Javidi B,2002, Noise robustness of
nonlinear filters for image recognition JOSA-A. Vol.
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