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Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering and Applied Sciences (JETEAS) 2 (1): 43-49 (ISSN: 2141-7016)

jeteas.scholarlinkresearch.org

Trans-Ramos Prospect of Rivers State

J. C. Egbai

Department of Physics

Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria

__________________________________________________________________________________________

Abstract

The basic objective of seismic processing is to convert the information recorded in the field into 1Aa form that

most greatly facilitates geological interpretation. This was carried out in Trans-Ramos Prospect of Rivers State

by applying the Wieners digital filtering to the unprocessed data got from the field. The unprocessed data got

from the field operations are fed into automatic computer whose program is written in line with the theory. A

filter operator was designed if the observed trace is known to specify the desired signal. In this situation, a filter

operator when convolved with the recorded trace would yield an output as close as possible to the desired

signal. In this work, the processes of spiking deconvolution, prewhitening, Wiener shaping filter and predictive

deconvolution were applied to the unprocessed data for effective processing. The aim of spike deconvolution is

to flatten the output spectrum. The actual output from the Wiener filter using optimum delayed spike shows the

most possible result. These processes when fully and correctly carried out give room for effective interpretation

of the seismic data for oil wells.

__________________________________________________________________________________________

Keywords: Seismic processing, deconvolution, filter operator, reflectivity, desired output and actual output.

__________________________________________________________________________________________

ITRODUCTIO

A seismic information data obtained from the field in

In order to obtain the respective coefficients of the

a seismogram consists of a desired signal immersed

desired filter operators the least-squares approach to

in noise. Wieners method of filtering turned out to

filtering was considered, simultaneous equations are

have many other applications to information

set up which are solved by computer. Fig. 2 compares

processing, including enhancement of seismic

desired output with actual output from Wieners filter

reflection data. He designed a filter operator which

which may not coincide exactly, but the differences

when convolved with the recorded trace would yield

can be minimized by proper choice of parameters.

an output as close as possible to the desired signal. If

Wiener filters can be used either in single-channel or

the observed trace is known, one will only need to

multichannel processing.

specify the desired signal in order to determine this

operator. Fig. 1 explains the basic principle of a

An output designed in form of a spike through

simple Wiener filter. The three signals are: the input

deconvolution filtering could be regarded as being

x (t ) , the desired output d (t ) and the actual output

closely related to Wiener filtering. Wiener filtering is

applied in ghost suppression and velocity filtering.

y (t ) . The aim of this work is to determine the filter

The problem of ghost suppression arises from

operator k (t ) that brings y (t ) as close as possible

removing undesired repetitions, or ghosts, of primary

to d (t ) by minimizing the differences between

reflection signals caused by downward reflection of

y (t ) and d (t ) .

energy from the shot at interface, a short distance

above (Dobrin 1976). The application of

Desired

multichannel Wiener filters is the problem of

Output

removing coherent noise on reflection records that

Signal

d (t )

has a different movement time or apparent velocity

than the desired reflection events. The objective of

velocity filtering is to suppress high-velocity noise

without detriment to the reflection quality. The

Actual Output

Filter k (t ) (

Wiener filter is a solution to the restoration problem

Input

To be

Signal y (t )

Signal

based upon the hypothesized use of a linear filter and

designed)

the minimum mean-square ( or rms) error criterion (

Khireddine et al, 2007). The techniques available to

suppress noise can be divided into those techniques

Fig. 1: Principle of Wiener filtering. Desired output

that are based on temporal information and those that

signal provides basis for designing filter. ( Source:

are based on spatial information ( Gao and Wang ,

Robinson and Treitel,2006)

2003, Rajagopal and Potter, 2003).

43

Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering and Applied Sciences (JETEAS) 2 (1): 43-49 (ISSN: 2141-7016)

Osuopele, Bulou-Ojobo, Opomoko, etc. These are all

in Western Ijaw Local Government Area of Rivers

State, Nigeria.

THEORY

The theory of optimum Wiener filter is based on

(Robinson and Treitel 2006). The filtering involves

designing the filter so that the least-square error

between the actual and desired outputs is minimum

(fig 1).

Error R is defined as

(1)

(d y )2

R =

t

5

the input:

yt = kt * xt

(2)

Substituting equation 2 into equation 1, we have

0

5

0

5

10

Fig. 2: Comparison of desired output and actual

output from Wiener filter.

(Source: Robinson and Treitel, 2006).

R =

d t

k t x t t

(3)

The aim is to compute the filter coefficients

k 0 , k 1 , k n 1 so that the error is minimum

consists of input signal, a desired output signal, and

an actual output signal. If one minimizes the energy

or power existing in the difference between desired

and actual filter outputs, it becomes possible to solve

for the so-called optimum, or least squares filter,

commonly known as the Wiener filter (Robinson,

2006).

error is obtained by setting the variation of R with

respect to k i to zero

R

= 0

k i

i = 0 ,1 ,2 , , (l 1)

restoration in the presence of noise is given by the

Wiener filter. The word optimal is used here in the

sense of minimum mean-square error (mse). Because

the square root operation is monotonic increasing ,

the optimal filter also minimizes the root meansquare error(rms) (Khireddine, et al, 2007). The

Wiener filter is characterized in the fourier domain

and for addictive noise that is independent of the

signal (Pei and Tseng, 2003). Further reading could

be seen from the work of the following ; Towghi et al

2001, Leonardis and Bischof, 2003 and Cherniakov

et al , 2000.

(4)

R =

d t2 2 d

k x t +

k x t

(5)

we get

R

= 2 d t x t i + 2 k x t

k i

t

t

x t i = 0

(6)

or

k x

x t i = d t x t i , i = 0 ,1 ,2 , (l 1 ) (7)

t

By using

x t x t i = ri

LOCATIO

The Trans-Ramos 3-D prospect spans a large area of

OMLS (Omission Lines) 46 to 62. It is located within

longitude 05000I to 05030IN and latitude 07000I to

The total area of the prospect is

07030IE.

approximately 320 square kilometers. The area is

swampy and low-lying with surface elevation

gradually rising from 2.28m in the south to 1.98m up

north (Egbai, and Ekpekpo, 2003).

(8a)

and

x ti = g i

(8b)

k ri = g i ,

i = 0 ,1 , 2 , , (l 1 )

interspersed with raffia palms. The area is drained by

numerous rivers and creeks, which makes access to

some locations difficult. The prospect covers

Opukushi and Benisede fields. The adjoining villages

44

(9)

Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering and Applied Sciences (JETEAS) 2 (1): 43-49 (ISSN: 2141-7016)

r0

r1

.

.

.

r l 1

r1

r2

r0

r1

.

.

rl 2

rl 3

k0 g0

k1 g1

.

=

.

.

kl 1 gl 1

rl 1

rl 2

.

.

.

r0

r0

r1

.

.

.

r l 1

(10)

2

t

x t k +

k x

x t = g

(12a)

x t x t = r

(12b)

R min =

or

R min =

d

t

2 k g +

2

t

k k

2 k g +

x t x t i

(13)

ki

(14)

Using equation (9), we finally get

R min =

d t2

(15)

k g

x t =

t+

x t =

x t x t ( + )

(16)

x t x t ( + ) = g

r1

r2

r0

r1

rl 2

rl 3

r0

r1

r1

r0

rl 1

rl 2

r1

r0

.

rl 1 .

.

.

(17)

rl 1 k r

0

1

rl 2 k r

1 2 (20)

. .

.

=

.

. .

. .

.

r 0 k l 1 rl

rl 1

rl 2

. . .

.

. . . .

. . . .

. . . r

0

1 0

k

0 0 (21)

k1 0

=

. .

. .

kl 1 0

rl 1

.

.

.

r 0

rl

1 R

k

0

0

.

.

= .

.

.

k

0

l 1

(22)

(23)

2

t

= r0

(25a)

and

r + =

associated with the unit prediction lag filter can be

computed as follows. If we start with

d t = x t +1

(24)

so that

For

.

rl 3 .

R = r0 r1 k0 r2 k 1 ... rl k l 1

We have by definition

r = x t x t

the input x (t ) . The cross-correlation function

g becomes

k0 r

r

k1 +1

. . (19)

=

. .

. .

kl1 r +l1

e.g., k0 , k 1 ,..., k l 1 , R . From equation (22)

time-advanced

version

of

the

input,

d (t ) = x (t + ) we want to design a Wiener filter

g =

rl 2

r0

r1

.

.

.

r l

k r

. rl 1

. rl 2

. .

. .

. .

. r0

filter column, we obtain

2

t

.

.

.

.

r1

r2

.

.

.

r l

and

.

.

the left side, we have

r1

r0

r1

.

.

.

r l 1

Applying the Levinson recursion (Claerbout, 1976.),

the optimum Wiener filter coefficients k i can be

computed. The least-squares error involved in this

process can now be computed. Equation (5) becomes

2

(11)

2

R min =

r2

r0

takes the form

g i = lags of the cross-correlation between

where

r1

g t = rt + 1

(18)

(25b)

(26)

This is identical to R given by equation (23). The

desired output is x t + . The actual output is x t +

set of normal equations that should be solved to get

the prediction filter ( k 0 , k 1 , , k l 1 ) :

(19) gives the prediction filter with prediction lag .

45

Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering and Applied Sciences (JETEAS) 2 (1): 43-49 (ISSN: 2141-7016)

component of the series defined as:

C

t+

= x t + x t + = x t +

unpredictable

k x t

Input

(27)

the uncorrelated reflectivity we want to extract from

the seismogram. Taking the Z-transform of equation

(27), we have

(28)

Z E (Z ) = Z X (Z ) K (Z ) X (Z )

or

E (Z ) = 1 Z K (Z ) X (Z )

A new filter

as

Desired Output

Auto-correlation

Cross-correlation

Wiener Filter(F)

(29)

A (Z ) = 1 Z F (Z )

(30)

E ( Z ) = A( Z ) X ( Z )

(31)

Actual Output

C (t ) = a (t ) * x (t )

(32)

Reflectivity C (t ) is obtained by applying filter

a(t ) to the input seismogram x (t ) computing the

( Source: Yilmaz O. , 1988)

The optimum Wiener filter k i is optimum if the

least-squares error between the actual and desired

outputs is minimum. When the desired output is the

zero-lag spike ( 1 ,0 ,0 , ,0 ) , then the Wiener

filter is identical to the least-squares inverse filter

(Yilmaz 1988.).

prediction filtering can be used for deconvolution.

The time-domain form a t of the filter according to

equation (30) is

(33)

a t = (1 ,0 ,0 , 0 , k 0 , k 1 , k n 1 )

()

The filter

60Hz line interference. This was acquired from the

field in Trans-Ramos prospect of Rivers State. The

following processes are adopted to the unprocessed

data got from the field.

call a (t ) the prediction error filter. For unitprediction lag, the filter coefficients is given by

equation (33) are of the form:

a t = 1 , k 0 , k 1 , , k l 1

(34)

This has the same solution as equation (22). A

prediction error filter with unit-prediction lag and

with l + 1 length is equivalent to an inverse filter of

the same length.

The recording ground motion from reflected seismic

waves, it is customary to receive the signals from

each shot point. Dynamites are detonated from the

shot point with a large number of geophones and the

data obtained were highly contaminated with 60Hz

line interference (Egbai, 1999). Reflectors at late

record times are totally obscured by the line noise.

Fig. 4: Contaminated noise data with 60Hz line interference

are fed into automatic computer whose program is

written in line with the theory above. Fig 3

summarizes the flowchart for Wiener filter design

and application.

Spiking Deconconvolution

This process of desired output known as zero-lag

spike is called spiking deconvolution. Fig 5 shows

spike deconvolution based on the Wiener Levinson

algorithm. The input mixed-phase wavelet is 5(a)

while 5(b) is the amplitude spectrum which indicates

46

Prewhitening

Amplitude

that the wavelet has most of the energy within a 10to 50Hz range. The autocorrelation function 5(c) is

used to compute the spiking deconvolution operation

in 5(d). The amplitude spectrum of the operator in

5(e) is the inverse of the amplitude spectrum of the

input wavelet in 5(b). The aim of spike deconvolution

is to flatten the output spectrum. If this operator is

applied to the input wavelet the result is shown in

5(h). The amplitude spectrum of the operator is the

inverse of the amplitude spectrum of the minimumphase equivalent to 5(e) and 5(g). The desired ouput

5(i) is obtained if the input is minimum-phase

wavelet in 5(f). If the input wavelet is not minimumphase, then spike deconvolution cannot convert it to a

perfect zero-lag spike in 5(h).

Operator (Inverse)

Spike Output (c)

Frequency

(b) Frequency

Wiener Shaping Filter

The process that a desired output of desired arbitrary

shape is called wavelet shaping. The filter that does

this is called a wavelet shaping filter. This is a case of

a given input wavelet having series of desired outputs

as delayed spikes. The least-squares errors is plotted

as a function of delay. The actual output from the

Wiener filter using optimum delayed spike shows the

most compact possible result.

Fig 7 shows a series of wavelet shapings that use

delayed spikes as desired outputs. The purpose of the

shaping filter is to convert the mixed-phased wavelet

(0) to a series of delayed spikes 7(a through h) by

using an operator. The best result is achieved by

using a 60-ms delay as shown in fig 7(e)

Prewhitening

This is achieved by applying a minimum-phase bandpass filter with a wide passband (3108Hz) to the

minimum-phase wavelet of Fig 5(f). This does not

produce a perfect spike because of high-frequency

pre and post cursor. Secondly, the deconvolution

operator tries to boost the absent frequencies as seen

from the amplitude spectrum of the output. Noise is

always generated in the seismogram and it is additive

in both the time and frequency domains. In

processing, numerical noise generated is additive in

the frequency domain. In order to ensure numerical

stability, an artificial level of white noise is

introduced before deconvolution and is called

prewhitening. This is shown in fig 6.

Prewhitening results to adding a bias to the amplitude

spectrum of the seismogram to be deconvolved. It

prevents dividing by zero since the amplitude

spectrum of the inverse filter 6(b) is the inverse of

that of the seismogram 6(a). This is achieved by

(2) shaping filter operator, (3) actual output

47

Predictive Deconvolution

The design of a prediction filter requires only

autocorrelation of the input series. There are two

approaches to predictive deconvolution.

1. The prediction filter may be designed and

applied on input series.

2. Predictive deconvolution is a general

process

that

encompasses

spiking

deconvolution.

Fig 8 interrelates the various filter and indicates the

kind of process they imply. This shows that Wiener

filters can be used to solve a wide range of problems.

COCLUSIO

Deconvolution is a process that improves the

temporary resolution of seismic data by compressing

the basic seismic wavelet. It compresses the wavelet

components and eliminate multiples, leaving only the

earths reflectivity in the seismic trace. The inverse

filter, when convolved with the seismic wavelet,

converts it to a spike. The Wiener filter converts the

seismic wavelet into any desired shape. Like the

inverse filter, a Wiener filter can be designed to

convert the seismic wavelet into a spike. The Wiener

filter differs from inverse filter in that it is optimal in

the least-squares sense.

problems. In particular, predictive deconvolution is

an integral part of seismic data processing that is

aimed at compressing the seismic wavelet thereby

increasing temporal resolution. It can be used to spike

the seismic wavelet and obtain an estimate for

reflectivity.These processes when fully and correctly

carried out give room for effective interpretation of

the seismic data for oil wells.

Zero-Delay

Spike

Time-Advanced

Version of Input

with Prediction Log

Unit Prediction

Spiking

Deconvolution

Any

Other

Form

ACKOWLEDGEMET

I wish to express my gratitude and appreciation to

staff of United Geographical Company Limited,

Warri and Exploration Department of Shell Company

Limited, Warri for enabling me do my industrial

attachment where the data and analysis used for the

research were obtained.

Predictive Wavelet

Deconvolution

deconvolution filters

(Source: Yilmaz O. 1988).

REFERECES

Cherniakov M., Sisov, V.I, Donskov L., 2000,

Synethesis of a periodically time-varying digital

filter. VISP Vol.147(5): Pp. 393-399.

deconvolution is as shown in fig 9. It shows spiking

deconvolution 9(c) on a shot record 9(a) followed by

band-pass filtering 9(d). fig 9(b) shows

autocorrelograms before and after deconvolution.

data processing. McGraw-Hill Book Co. Pp 274

Dobrin, M. B, 1976 Introduction to geophysical

prospecting 3rd ed., 180-200.

Egbai, J. C, 1999. Noise reduction in seismic data

acquisition in Atala Prospect of Rivers State Nigeria.

J. Nig. Ass. Math. Phy. Vol 3, 208-221.

Egbai, J. C. and Ekpekpo, A, 2003. Migration

velocity analysis by Fourier transform in seismic data

processing J. NAMP Vol. 7, Pp 147-154

Gao H. and Wang C. 2003, Robust energy-to-peak

filtering with improved LMI representations. VISP,

150(2): Pp 82-89

Khireddine , A Benmahammed,K. and Puech, W.

2007, Digital image restoration by Wiener filter in

2D case

Pub. By Elsevier Ltd. Advances in

Engineering software 38, 512-516

followed by band-pass filtering (d). (b)

Autocorrelograms before and after deconvolution.

48

subspace methods for computer Vision PR, V. 38 (9):

Pp. 1925-1927

Pei S.C and Tseng,2003, An efficient design of a

variable fractional display filter using a first-Order

differientiator. SP letters 10(10): 307-310.

Rajagopal R. and Potter, L.C.,2003, Multivariate

MIMO FIR inverses. 12(4): Pp. 458 465

Robinson, E. A. and Treitel, S, 2006. Principles of

Wiener filtering Geophysical Prospecting Vol. 15. Pp

311-332

Towghi N, Pan L, Javidi B,2002, Noise robustness of

nonlinear filters for image recognition JOSA-A. Vol.

18(9): 2054-2071

Yilmaz, O. (1988.), Seismic data processing.

Investigation in Geophysics, Vol. 2. Pp 98-152.

49

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