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WORKSHO
GPU I D E
SAFETY
TIPS

TURNING
ANDCARVING
TOOLS

Power
tools

9kew chisel
UeedLo ehape
peaa6and
Pommels on workpieceemounLed
on ETne;ranqe7
beLween
/, inchand
1l incheatn wtdth

. Wearappropriatesafetygear:safety
glasses,
a faceshieldfor extraprotection
and hearingprotection.
lf therers no cust
collection
system,
weara dustmask.For
exotrcwoodssuchas ebony,usea respirator;the sawdustmaycausean allergic
reaction.Wearworkgloveswhenhand l i n gr o u g hl u m b e r .
o Drapethe powercord of a portable
powertool overyourshoulderto keep
it out of the way.

Round-end
earaPer
9moothe work
mounLedon lalthe
faceplaLe:typical
blade widtheare
, 1 ,l,a n d l i n c h

. C o n c e n t r a toen t h e l o b ; d o n o t r u s h .
Neverworkwhenyou aretired,stressed,
o r h a v eb e e nd r i n k i n ga l c o h ool r u s i n g
m e d i c a t i o nt h
s a t i n d u c ed r o w s i n e s s .
. A l w a y sk e e py o u rw o r ka r e ac l e a n
a n d t i d y ; c l u t t e cr a n l e a dt o a c c i d e n t s ,
and sawdustand woodscrapscan be a
fie hazard.

Roughing-out
gouge
UeedLo turn cyltndere from oquare
blankemounLedon
lathe;availablein
'/-,1 /- and 1y'inch widthe

. K e e py o u rh a n d sw e l l a w a yf r o m a
t u r n i n gb l a d eo r b i t .
o Do not usea tool if any partis worn
or damaged.

9pindle gouge
Kound-noaed
1ouqefor qenerai
turntnq;ran4e9
'/,
from Lo 1 ',1
incheetn wtdl,h

Handtools
. Usethe appropriate
tootfor the lob:
do not try to makea tool do something
for whichit wasnot intended.
. Clampyourworkpiece
to freeboth
handsfor an operation.

Parting tool
Narrow,chiael-like
tool ueed1taaecLion workptece
mountedon laLhe;
avatlablein'/:.-and
/,-tnch widtha

o Cut awayfromyourselfratherthan
towardyourbody.
. Do not forcea tool;if possible,
try
removing
lessstockon eachpass.
. Keepthe edgesof cuttingtoolssharp

Veiningchioel
Fartrng Loolfor ouLliningaeparate
areao and cuttin7
6harpqroovea;
availablein 1-, l-,

and ''/.-tnch wtdths

Eent gouge
For ehap,inqholtowaana curvea:
ranqeafrom'/ tnch
t o 1rnchin widLh
No.5 gouge
For
shaping
,ftne
worK;ranqea
from I inch Lo
1 inch in wtdth
No.8 gouge
For,rou4hehaping
worK;ran4e' rrom
'/

inch to 1 inch
in width
Handlee

With a typical lenqth of


10 to 14 rnchee,handleo
of turninq l;ooleare Lhicker
and lonqerLhanLhoeeof
carvinq Loola: the exl,ra

lenqth permiLsLwohanded operation

DESIGN
ANDMEASURING
T()()LS
. Awl

. Carpenter's
square
o Combination

square
o Compass
o Contourgauge
o Cuttinggauge
o D i a lc a l i p e r

. Dovetail
square
r F l e x i b lceu r v e
r Frenchcurve
o I n s i d ec a l l p e r s
. Markinggauge
o M e a s u r i nt g
ape
o M i t e rs q u a r e
. Mortisegauge
. Outside
ca||pers

o Protractor
o Sliding
DEVCI

o Steelruler
. Straightedge

. Trammel
points
. Trysquare

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THEARTOFWOODWORKING

CABINETS
ANDBOOKCASES

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THEARTOFWOODWORKING

CABINETS
AN{DBOOICNES

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TIME.LIFE
BOOKS
VIRGINIA
ALEXANDRIA.
ST.REMYPRESS
MONTREAL.
NEWYORK

THE ART OF WOODWORKING wasproduced by


ST. REMYPRESS
PUBLISHER KennethWinchester
PR-ESIDENT PierreL6veill6
SeriesEditor
SeriesArt Director
SeniorEditors
Art Directors
Designers
ResearchEditor
PictureEditor
Writers
Research
Assistant
Cont r ibuting I IIustrators

Administrator
ProductionManager
SystemCoordinator
Photographer
Proofreader
Indexer

PierreHome-Douglas
FrancineLemieux
Marc Cassini(Text)
HeatherMills (Research)
Normand Boudreault,Luc Germain,
SolangeLaberge
Jean-GuyDoiron, Michel GiguEre,
H6ldneDion
TimMcRae
ChristopherJackson
Andrew Jones,Rob Lutes
BryanQuinn
GillesBeauchemin,RollandBergera,
Michel Blais,Jean-PierreBourgeois,
RonaldDurepos,RobertPaquet,
JamesTh6rien
NatalieWatanabe
MichelleTirrbide
fean-LucRoy
RobertChartier
Iudith Yelon
ChristineM. Iacobs

Time-Life Booksis a division of Time-Life Inc.,


a wholly ownedsubsidiaryof
THE TIME INC. BOOK COMPANY

TIME-LIFEBOOKS
President Iohn D. Hall
Vice-President NancyK. Jones
Editor-in-Chief ThomasH. Flaherty
Directorof Editorial Resources EliseD. Ritter-Clough
MarketingDirector
EditorialDirector
ConsultingEditor
ProductionManager

ReginaHall
LeeHassig
fohn R. Sullivan
MarleneZack

THECONSUTTANTS
fon Arno is a consultant,cabinetmakerand freelancewriter who livesin Tioy, Michigan. He also
conductsseminarson wood identificationand
earlyAmericanfurniture design.
Kam Ghaffari is a freelancewriter and editor.
He hashis own businessin RhodeIsland
designingand building one-of-a-kindand limited production furniture. Kam's background
alsoincludesworking professionallyin furni
ture reproductionand fine carpentry,and
studyingwith furniture patriarchsWendell
Castleofthe U.S.and FredBaierofEngland.
Giles Miller-Mead taught advancedcabinetmaking at Montreal technicalschoolsfor more
than ten years.A nativeofNew Zealand,he has
worked asa restorerof antiquefurniture.
fosephTruini is SeniorEditor of Hoze
Mechanixmagazine.
A former Shopand Tools
Editor of PopularMechanics,he hasworked as a
cabinetmaker,home improvementcontractor
and carpenter.

Cabinetsand bookcases
p. cm.-(The Art of Woodworking)
Includesindex.
ISBN0-8094-99
45-2 (trade)
l. Cabinetwork-Amateurs' manuals.
2. Bookcases-Amateurs'manuals.
I. Time-Life Books.II. Series

TTr97.C23
684.1'6-dc20

93-20771
CIP

For information about any Time-Life book,


pleasecall l-800-621-7026,or write:
ReaderInformation
Time-Life CustomerService
P.O.Box C-32068
fuchmond, Virginia
23261-2068
@ 1993Time-LifeBooksInc.
All rights reserved.
No part of this book may be reproducedin
any form or by any electronicor mechanical
means,including information storageand
retrievaldevicesor systems,without prior written permissionfrom the publisher,exceptthat
briefpassages
may be quotedfor reviews.
First printing. Printed in U.S.A.
Publishedsimultaneouslyin Canada.
TIME-LIFE is a trademarkof Time WarnerInc.
U.S.A.
R 1 0 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

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CONTENTS
6

INTRODUCTION

t2
T4
T6
L9
20
24

CABINETMAKING BASICS
Wood movement
Selectingand orderinglumber
Lumber defects
Preparingstock
Cabinetmakingjoinery

40
42
44
45
50
52
54
56

BOOKCASE
Anatomy of a bookcase
Bookcaseaccessories
Adjustableshelving
Fixed shelves
Edgetreatmentfor shelves
Faceframes
Basesand feet

106
108
110
Llz
116
118
I20
L24
L28
130
I34
136

HIGHBOY
Anatomy of a highboy
Assemblingthe upper chest
Cabriolelegs
Assemblingthe lower chest
Cockbeading
Drawers
Crown moldings
Rosettes
Finials
Quarter columns
Applied sculptures

I4O

GLOSSARY

I42

INDEX

T44 ACKNO\{LEDGMENTS

60
62
64
66
72
84
86
88
93
100
104

ARMOIRE
Anatomv of an armoire
Pilasters'
Cornicemoldings
Doors
BLANKET CHEST
Anatomy of a blanketchest
Tops
Basesand feet
Hardware
Inlays

INTRODUCTION

Nain Morcelandhis

LIBRARYI.]NIT
wasoneof my
helibrary unit shownhere,madeout of Hondurasmahogany,
Loeven,
with
Frdddric
I
in
the
shop
co-own
It wasbuilt
I first big commissions.
past,
was
our
but
this
pieces
in
the
lot
single
Wehadbuilt a of
a fine cabinetmaker.
large,
inteof
a
planning
construction
and
first opportunityto experimentwith the
gratedwall unit.
of theroom that theunit would
Our first stepwasto takeaccuratemeasurements
walls
arenot alwaysstraight.Thedifsince
occupy.Thishadto bedoneverycarefidly,
thewallsat the corners
between
ferencecanbe asmuch as%inch.Sowe measured
to cut our stockonce!
We
wanted
only
of the room andagaineveryfewinchesout.
piece
Our clientwanted
in
the
shop.
the
in hand,wedesigned
With measurements
mahogany.The
why
we
chose
a
dark
a traditionalEnglish-librarylook, which was
ofthe
unit.
appearance
Frenchdoorsalsocontributedto the classical
would be
wasto makesurethebookcases
Themostcriticaldesignconsideration
height,
depth
between
the
wellproportionedfor thesizeof theroom.Therelationship
as
visual
reference
with
a
andwidth of the unit hadto be right. To provideourselves
plan
of
we
drew
a
full-scale
the componentsof the structure,
we cut and assembled
and
usto keeptrackofall thepieces
theroomon thefloorofthe shop.Thisenabled
positionthemin theirproperlocationsaswewentalong.
fiberboardfor the basicstructureandjoinedthe
We usedmahogany-veneered
theysit on brassshelfsupports
areadjustable;
pieceswith biscuits.Mostof theshelves
in thesidepanels.Weaddedsolidmahoganybanding,
into sleeves
whicharescrewed
to givethem
twicethe thicknessof the shelfstock,to the front edgesof the shelves
of
morerigidity.Thebackpanelssit in rabbetscut into the backedges the unit. We
jointswith
madethepaneleddoorsout of solidmahoganyusingmortise-and-tenon
pieces
molding.Thecornicemoldingis madeup of threeseparate
a fineintegrated
the
unit.
of wood individuallyshapedand gluedtogetherbeforebeingappliedto
with a darkredmahoganystainfollowedby severalcoats
Wefinishedthebookcases
the molding
lacquer,thenwipedon a glazingstainto accentuate
of cellulose-based
andgivethepiecean agedappearance,

Alain Morcel operatesLesRialisations Loeven-Morcel,a


cabinetry shop in Montrdal, Qutbec, along with his partner, Fr,lddricLoeven.The shopspecializesin architectural
woodwork and reproductionsof antiquefurniture.

INTRODUCTION

ChrisBecksvoort
describes
the

CHALLENGES
OF
CABINETMAKING
asepieces---<upboards,
bureaus,
bookcases,
chests,
sideboards,
andotherassorted cabinets-areat bestmerelyglorifiedboxes.Yetthereis something
special

aboutthem.All containanelement
justwaitingto beexplored.
of mystery,
who can
resist
opening
a smalldoorwithatinyturnedknobandspinner,
oi liftingthelid of
a dovetailed
keepsake
box?AskPandora.

To thecabinetmaker,
casepiecesarea pleasure,
aswell asa challenge
to build.The
possiblelay'outcombinationsareendless:
pull-out trays,
doors,drawers,shelves,
dividers,pigeonholes,
and oneof my favoritecomponents,
secretcbmpartmenls.
Nothingthrillsa customermorethanto betold thattheirnewacquisition
h,asa hidden
compartment.And nothingaddsto the anticipationmorethan to sayit is up to
themto find it.
Woodworkers
specializing
in individuallybuiltpieces
thriveon variety.I concentrate
on cases
that arenot available
commercially,
suchasa special-size
pieceto fit a specific
spot,a l5-drawercameracabinet,a displaycasefor a watchcoll-ction,or a tinware
cupboardlike theoneshownin thephotograph.It wasinspiredby a shakeroriginal
I sawat the RenwickGalleryof theSmithsonian
Institutionin 1973.Thecupboard
is oneof themostversatile
piecesI build,equallysuitablein a hallway,
bedroom,bath,
kitchen,or livingroom-anlnvherespaceis at a premium.
EachpieceI makeinvolves
theintegiationof functionanddesign.
Therealchallenge
comesin thebuildingprocess.
wood expands
duringsummer's
humidityandshrinks
duringwinter'sdryness.
A boardmovesacrossitswidth,whileits lengthremainsvirtuallyconstant.Any constraintthat physicallylimits this movementlnvites
disaster.
Moldingscannotbegluedacross
a cabinetside;insteadtheyrideon dovetails.
Door
framesarecut from relatively
narrowquartersawn
woodto minimizemovement,
while
the wide panelsarefreeto float in their grooves.Theframesbetweendrawersmust
jointsto followthemovementof the
telescope
in andout of theirmortise-and-tenon
casesides.
Backs,
likedoors,consistof quartersawn
framesandfloatingpanels,
mortisedand tenonedto providestrengthand resistracking,Eventhe gapi aboveeach
drawermustbe figuredpreciselyto keepthem from swellingshut.
when the elementsof design,wood,andjoinerycometogithercorrectly,thecase
will survivesothat futuregenerations
will becomeintriguedenoughto wantto turn
theknob,openthedoor,andsearchfor thesecretcompartment.

Chris Becksvoortbuildsfine furniture at his workshop


in New Gloucester,Maine. He is shown herewith
his tinware cupboardin the Meeting House at the
Shakercommunity of SabbathdayLake,Maine.

INTRODUCTION

aboutbuildinghis
Mario RodriguLeztalks

CORNER
CUPBOARD

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in thecountrywelookedat newcon1 A f henmy wifeandI startedhouse-hunting


andold houses.
built in traditionalstyles,
V V temporaryhomes,newhouses
plumbing.
dependable
and
thingslikelayout,heatingsystems,
weconsidered
Naturally,
an old
that
knowledge
For me,therewasthe
But wewerestilldrawnto old houses.
the
hand-split
up
to
housewasbuilt by hand-from thehand-dugfoundationright
andskill.
werebuiltwith sheerstren$hguidedby experience
roof.Oldhouses
shingle
Weendedup buyingan old house.
that undulateand ripplefrom hand
Walkingthrbughour placeyou seesurfaces
beamswith shirnplanesthaipasedoverthemnearly200yearsago.Therearechestnut
cut by an adzeand thick, pine floorboardsstudded
mering,fatetedsurfaces
mantels,
andpanelingwereproducedwith
with hind-wroughtnails.Nl thedoor-ways,
base
or finger-jointed
handplanesfrom choiceHudsonValleypine.No flakeboard
moldinehere.
stonefireplace,
for thediningroom.With itsmassire
I waitedto builda specialpiece
I decided
room.
aroundthis
it istheheartof thehouJe.In thel8th Centuryiiferevolved
fireplace.
to buildthecornercupboardshownin thephotoandplaceit oppositethe
It'slikelythata similarpieceoccupiedthesamespotmanyyearsago.
I built thecupboardfromtigermaple;muchof it wasmadeusingantiquehandtools.
someof whichI mademyself.Thehard
I shapedthemoldingwith planesandscrapers,
smallbitsof
andup closeyou cansee.
werJhandplaned,not sanded,
mapiesurfaces
Theinteriorof
fromthe lBthCentury.
wouldfind on cupboards
tearout-justas.you
It is madeof pineandjoined
asidefroma fewangles.
thecaseisfairlystraightforward,
with srnallcutnails.I mortisedandtenonedthe
andrab6etjointssecured
with dadoes
I evenuseda dark,less-refined
glass.
cabinetframesandfinedthesashwith oid,seeded
to givethewooda warmhoneycolor.Thenit wasrubbedwith a mlxtureof
shellac
satinfinish.I madethecabinetas
pumiceanldfinseedoilto achieve
an antique-like
andplacedin thecorner,
it wouldhavebeenbuilt 200yearsago.Whenit wascompleted
the cupboardand the room cameto life.Togethertheytakeyou backto the lBth
Centurv.It'sa perfectmatch.
Likea painting,a pieceof furnitureneedsthepropersettingto createtherightmood
important,but soisscale,
Xot onlyistheproperperiodenvironment
andatmoiphere.
theimpactof thepiece
thatwillheighten
color,andiighting.Theseareconsiderations
I wouldenjoymy cupboardplantedaq'wherebut without
andcontributetolts success.
a doubtI enjoyit ntoreinthediningroomof my beautifulold horne.
nt WarwickCotuttryWorkjnps irt
woodworking
teoches
MnrioRodriguez
in NewYork
Instituteof Technology
Warwick,NewYork,andat theFttshion
editorof FineWoodworkingntngctzine.
City.He is alsoa contributirtg

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CABNETKG
BASICS
herearetwo kindsof skill
a
involved
in constructing
putting
finecabinetor bookcase:
of the
thebasicskeleton
together
pieceandthenembellishing
it.
the
of
Thefinialsandrosettes
QueenAnnehighboyfeatured
on page106mustbe turned
with careon a latheandthen
artfullvcarved:the distinctive
pilasters
of anarmoire(page60)
attention
to prorequirecarefirl
duceontherouter.Butalthough
thesedistinctiveadornments
attention,
maycaptureaviewer's
together.
Panelsareoftenmadeof boardsedge-glued
theyalsoreflecta truism:No
produce
pattern
pieces
is
visually
a
that
The
should
will conamountof decoration
should
run
grain
of
all
the
boards
poorlybuilt
while
the
interesting
of a
cealthedefects
will
help
A
marked
triangle
the
same
direction.
looksin
in
Thischapter
structure.
you rearrangethe boardscorrectlyif theyare moved
detailat thebasicskillsyouwill
beforeglueup.
it
needto selectstock,prepare
professionally,
and then assemble it into a sturdyfoundationfor your cabinetor bookcase.
with an understanding
Thebasicsof cabinetmakingbegin
of wood.Thesectionson dealingwith woodmovement(page
14),orderingwo od,(page16),andpreparinga cuttinglist based

on a sketch(page18)will help
youpurchase
theright lumber
for yourproject.
With your stockin hand,
you canbeginthestep-by-step
process
of buildinga carcase.
stock
Thisbegins
withpreparing
(page20)andgluingup panels
Qage2a).A varietyof corner
joineryoptions,
handincluding
andplate(or biscutdovetails
begincuit)joints,arepresented
ningon page26.Nextcomes
jl)
installing
abackpanel(page
andfinalglue-upandassembly.
method
Theframe-and-panel
isdescribed
ofbuildingacabinet
startingon page32.Thistechniqueispopularnotonlyfor its
it allows
butbecause
appearance,
In many
for woodmovement.
cabinets,
the
frame-and-panel

"raised"-that
panelsare
is,theyhavebevelscut aroundtheir
touch,but they
Not only do thebevelslenda decorative
edges.
alsoallowthewoodto expandandcontractwhilepreservingthe
worKsintegrity.Raisingpanelsis shownstartingon page36.

sliversof wastefrom the


A skewchiselremoves
dovetailsin a drawerside.Cuttingthejoint by
handispainstakingbut it impartsa traditional
of furniture.
and distinctivelookto a Diece

t3

WOODMOVEMENT
ood is a hygroscopic
material,
absorbing
andreleasing
moisture
astherelativehumidityof thesurrounding air risesandfalls.And asthe moisturecontentofa pieceofwoodchanges,
sodo its dimensionsandweight.When
wood is assembled
into a pieceof furniture, the changescan produceproblems-somegreat,somesmall.A cabinet
door that shutssmoothlyin December
may not closeat all in lune; a perfectly
squarebookcase
canliterallypull itself
apartat thejointsashumiditychanges
throughout the year. Knowing how
moistureaffectswood will help vou
avoidtheseproblems.
The waterin wood is measured
as
a percentage
ofits oven-dry,or waterfreeweight.Forexample,
if a 4O-pound
pieceofwooddropsto 30poundswhen
oven-dried,the weight of the shed
water-10 pounds-divided by the
wood'sdry weight-30 pounds-is the
moisturecontentof the originalpiece:
in thiscase,33percent.
Woodholdswaterboth asvapor-like
moisturecalledfreewaterin itsiell cavitiesandasboundwaterin thecellwalls.
Whenwood is cut and exposedto the
air,it shedsits freewaterfirst. Whenall
freewateris expelled,
the wood is said
to beat its fibersaturationpoint (FSP),
typicallybetween23 and 30 percent
moisturecontent.Tothispoint therehas
beenno change
in thedimensions
of the
piece;it simplyweighsless.As wood
driesfurther,however,wateris shedfrom
the cellwalls,causingthem-and the
board-to shrink.
Undernormalcircumstances,
wood
neverregainsits freewater;a dried
board'scellcavitieswill alwaysremain
emptyof moisture.But the amountof
boundwatercontainedin thecellwalls
changes
with shiftsin the humidity in
the air.At 100percentrelativehumidity, wood reaches
its FSP.At 0 percent
humidity,woodis drainedof all water,
Therelativemoisturein theatmosphere
normallyfallsbetweenthesevalues,and
the moisturecontentof mostwoods

rangesbetween5 and20 percent.Still,


possible.
Remember
to makeallowances
the fluctuationin relativehumidity
for woodmovementin theconstruction
betweentypicalNorth Americanwinof your work. Usingframe-and-panel
tersand summerscan causesubstan- joinery for example(page32) will protial wood movementoverthe course vide spacefor wood to expandand
of a year.
contractwithout affectingthe overall
Youcancompensate
for thisin several conditionof thepiece.Somewoodstend
ways.Usea humidifier in winter and a
to movemore than others;consulta
dehumidifierin summerto keepthe
lumberdealerto find the mostdimenindoorlevelofhumidityasconstintas sionallystablespecies
for yourprojects.

Moisture
content
above
30% (nochange)

(nochange)
Moisturd
contentatFSP-26%

Moisture
content
at 17%(%"shrinkage)

Moisture
content
at 13%(%"shrinkage)

Moisture
contentat 8o/o('1"shrinkage)

plain-sawn
plankof softwood
Asthemoisture
levelof a 2-by-10
lumber
point(FSP),
dropsbelow
thefibersaturation
thewoodshrinks.
At 17 percent,theboardis %inchnarrower
thanit wasat its FSP;it loses
another
%inchof widthwhenkiln-dried
to 8 percent.
partly
Shrinkage
depends
generally,
onthedensity
of thewood;
a denser
species
shrinks
andswells
morethana lighter
one.Sapwood
alsotendsto change
in sizemore
quickly
thanheartwood.

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CABINETMAKING BASICS

WOOD
SHRINKAGE
andradialshrinkage
Tangential
asshown
Wooddoesnotshrinkuniformly;
bythedottedredlinesin theillustration
to
shrinkage-tangent
at right,tangential
thegrowthrings-isabouttwiceasgreat
across
whichoccurs
asradialshrinkage,
boards
causes
therings.Thisdifference
andpanels
to warpastheyshrinkor swell
lt can
in relative
humidity.
withchanges
jointsto loosen
ortighten
from
alsocause
below.
asdiscussed
excess
Dressure,
alongthe lengthof a boardis
Shrinkage
plankthat
A 2-by-10
insignificant.
usually
itswidthmightlose
%inchacross
shrinks
lessthanXeinchalongan8-footlength.

ANDJOINERY
WOOD
GRAIN

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Tan4ential
plane

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15

graindirection
0ptimizing
planes
of
Thelocation
of thetangential
willsignif
icantly
affecta
mating
boards
joint'sstrength
Intheideandstability.
in theillustration
al situation-as
shown
jointat left-the
of a mortise-and-tenon
planes
are
of joinedpieces
tangential
parallel.
Thisensures
thatthe boards
similar
woodmovement
willexperience
astheirmoisture
in thesamedirection
Orienting
boards
this
content
changes.
a jointfromcoming
wayhelpsprevent
it alsoprevents
themating
boards
loose;
whentheyswellwithhighfromsplitting
er levels
of moisture.

SELECTINGAND ORDERINGLUMBER
V ou canbuy the lumberfor your
I woodworkingprojectfrom several
sources,
eachwith its own advantages
and drawbacks.
The locallumberyard
is oftenthe most convenientsupplier,
but the selectionmaybelimitedto constructionwoodssuchaspine,spruce,
and other softwoods.Though you
mayfind the occasional
cacheof hardwood at a lumberyard,you will probably have to venture farther afield,
consultingwoodworkingmagazines
in the
to find dealerswho soecialize
hardwoodsusedin cabinetry.Pricesfor
goodhardwoodlumbercanbe high,
but asis oftenthe case,you will generally getwhat you pay for.
you canbuy locallycut
Sometimes
lumber from a smallsawmill,but the

woodwill oftenneedto be seasoned


andsurfaced.
Rerycled
boards
aregrowingin popularity,
a resultof thescarcity of certainwoodsandthegrowing
responsibility
sense
of environmental
felt bv manvwoodworkers.
Whether
removed
fromanoldbarnor a pieceof
timewornfurniture,suchwoodmaybe
relatively
inexpensive
it
and,because
fromoldgrowthtimber,
oftenoriginates
it canbevisuallyandstructurally
superior to thesmallbilletsof younger
lumberavailable
today.
Before
yourwood,consider
ordering
yourrequirements
carefully
andreferto
thefollowingtipsto helpyougetwhat
youneedat a reasonable
cost.
. Species:
Askfor thespecific
wood
species,
not a broadfamilyname.For

example,orderWesternred cedar,not
simplycedar.Tobeabsolutely
sure,learn
the botanicalnameof the wood you
want and askfor it.
.Quantity: Let your supplierknow
whetheryou areorderingin boardfeet
or linealfeet.A lineal foot refersto a
board'slength,regardless
of its width
andthickness.
Theboardfoot is a measureof the volumeof woodtit is usualIy necessary
to referto board feetfor
orderinghardwoods,which areoften
availablein randomsizesonly.
.Size:Woodissoldin nominalrather
thanactualsizes.
somakeallowances
for
the difference
whenorderingsurfaced
lumber.A nominal 2-bv-4is actuallv
l'/i'-by-31"
. The thickness
of wood ii
oftenexpressed
asa fractionin quarters

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BOARD
FEET
CATCUTATING
0rdering
lumber
bytheboardfoot
usedwhen
Theboardfootis a unitof measurement
commonly
withhardwood
lumber.
Asshownbelow,
thestandard
dealing
boardfootis equivalent
to a pieceof wood1 inchthick,12
of
inches
wide,and12 incheslong.Tocalculate
thenumber
pieceof wood,multiplyits three
boardfeet in a particular
dimensions,
thendividethe resultby I44 if thedimensions
areall in inches.
or bv 12 if oneof thedimensions
is in feet.

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-,iy6:[,::;#f,
difterent,
sizeboardg
1-by-3= 2 board feet i

Theformulafor a standardboard:
I " x 1 2 "x 1 2 "+ I 4 4 = I ( o r1 "x 1 2 "x 1 ' : 1 2 = I )
youwouldcalculate
the
Soif youhada 6{ooflong1-by-4,
boardfeetasfollows:
1"x 4" x $' + 12 = 2 (or2 boardfeet).
Otherexamoles
areshownin theillustration,
Remember
that
boardfeetarecalculated
onthebasisof nominal
ratherthan
actualdimensions.

l-D!-O = + OOarATeeT ',

1-by-12=Bboardfeet

1"x 12"x 12"= 1 eLandardboardfoot


2-by-4=5%boardfeet

2-W-6 = B board feet i,

T6

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CABINETMAKING BASICS

primary differencebetweenthe two


of an inch.A 2-inch-thickboard,for
is the moisturecontent(MC) of the
as%;surfacingwill
is expressed
example,
reduceit to 1%inches.Wth unsurfaced wood.Kiln-driedwoodhasa moisture
or greenwood,the nominaland actual contentof about8 percent;it will not
drv anvfurtherwhenusedfor indoor
arethesame.
dimensions
. Grade: The primary difference fuiniture.Air-driedwood hasan MC
of 12to 15percent.Thiswoodis often
betweenhigh and low gradesof hardor by woodworkers
chosenby carvers,
ratherthan
wood lumberis appearance
the gradeofa board who preferto dry their own wood.
strength.Because
.Surfacing:Surfacingrefersto how
by theproportionsof clear
isdetermined
wood it contains,large high-grade wood is preparedat the mill beforeit
comesto the lumberyard.Hardwood
thanlowboardsarefar moreexpensive
er-gradeboards.If you needonly small- lumberis usuallysurfacedon both faces
(S2S).
Ifyou havea planerandajointer,
er high-gradepiecesyou cancut them
board,at greatsav- buying rough lumber and surfacing
out ofa lower-grade
it yourselfwill provelessexpensive.
ings.Consultyour localdealerfor a chart
ofthe differentgradesavailable.
. Seasoning:
Lumberis soldeither
kiln-dried(KD) or air-dried(AD).The

THESTAGES
OF
PRODUCTION
CABINET
Likemosttasks,the building
canbe
of a oieceof furniture
mostsmoothly
accomplished
andefficientlyif youtakea
Most
approach.
methodical
projectsinvolve
the stepslistbecared below;theyshould
shown,
riedoutin thesequence
board
startingat the drawing
witha finalinspecandending
efficiency,
tion.Formaximum
layoutyourtoolsin theshop
sothatyourwoodfollowsa
directroutefrom
relatively
roughstockto f inalassembly.
ing
fordetermin
Considerations
yourneedsandordering
wood
at leftandonpage
arediscussed
andjoin18.Stockpreparation
erybeginon page20.
rDesign
andplanpiece
. Listandordermaterials
. Prepare
stock
.Jointonefaceandedge
. Plane
otherface
. Ripto width
rGrosscut
to length
. Cutjoints
.Sandbefore
assembly
.Assemble
components
.Finishsand
oMakeandinstalldoors
anddrawers
'APPIY
finish
.Givefinalinspection

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CABINETMAKINGBASICS

CUTTING
LISTS

Making
andusinga cutting
list
A cuttinglistrecords
thefrnished
sizes
pieceof
of lumberneeded
fora particular
furniture.
lf oneis notincluded
withthe
plansyoupurchase,
youwillhaveto make
yourownbased
ona sketch
of thedesign.
U s et h ef o r m u l sah o w n
o n p a g e1 6 t o
totalthe number
of boardfeetforeach
component
of the prolect;
add20 to 40
(depending
percent
on thespecies)
to
account
forwasteanddefects
in thewood.
Forthe bookcase
shownat right,which
totalsroughly
14 board
feet,youshould
purchase
17 to 20 board
feetof %lumber
in addition
to theplywood
forthebackof
thecase.
Asshown
below,
a cuttinglist
should
i n c l u dteh en a m eo f t h ec o m p o nent,thequantity,
thedimensions
of each
piece,
andthewoodspecies
selected
for
the project.
Forconvenience,
assign
each
piecea kevletterfor laterreference,

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Adjuotableehelf

CUTTING
tlST
Qtv.
1

Th.

w.

L.

Material

Boardfeet

1u

23Yo'

ash

1.6

B Bottom

1',

23Yo'

ash

1.6

C Side

a
Z

1u

4z',

asn

5.8

D Fixedshelf

1u

23%'.

ash

1.6

Y"'

asn
plywood

3.0

10'
10'
10"
10'
10'
24',

Piece
A Top

EAdjustable
shelves
F Back

1u

18

zL-k

42',

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LUMBERDEFECTS
mayreducea board's
T umberdefects
L.i strengthor workabilityor mar its
Or, in the handsof a creappearance.
ativewoodworker,somedefectsmayin
transforming
factbecomevisualassets,
an ordinarypieceinto a work of art.

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The chartbelowillustratessomeof
the most commondefectsand details
the wayin whichmostcanbe corrected;with diligentuseof the band saw
cuppedboards
eventhemostseriously
(page21).
canbe salvaged

INWOOD
DEFECTS
REMEDIES

CHARACTERISTICS

as Tightknotscanbecutoutor used,
bysoundtissue.Formed
asa whorlencircled
Appears
deador
dictates;
gradually
Live asappearance
branch.
girthof treeincreases,
enveloping
must
be
removed
loose
knots
in
resulting
wood,
withsurrounding
integrate
branches
withstock.
withsurroundingbeforeworking
tightknots;deadstubscannotintegrate
deador looseknots.
forming
tissue,
of the boardor in pockets Donotusestockif a quality
onthesurface
Anaccumulation
asgumwill
finishis required,
whena treehassufdevelops
Usually
withintheboard.
most
finishes.
bleed
through
insect
attack.
fire,
or
to
injury,
exposure
feredan

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however,
areundiminMostdefects,
somemayresult
Although
ishedtrouble.
treeor the
to thestanding
fromdamage
greatest
number
lumbercutfromit, the
drybyirregular
areproduced
ofdefects
ingof thewood.

Crook

ffi

lJ---------/
Twist

.-'-t-Z

Y--t'-Split

in thewood,usually
orseparations
ruptures
Lengthwise
and
strength
Maycompromise
caused
byrapiddrying.
appearance
of board.

Canbecutoff'

caused
by
curvealongtheface,usually
Anend-to-end
internalstresses
of lumber.Introduces
storage
improper
in thewoodthatmakeit difficultto cut.
in
theface.Common
curveacross
Anedge-to-edge
cutcloseto thepith,
cutstock,or boards
tangentially
withtheairthan
if onefaceof a boardhaslesscontact
theother.

onthe
Flattenbowedboards
jointer,
pieces,
or cut intoshorter
thenusethejointer.
canbesalvaged
Cupped
boards
onthe bandsaw(page21) or
onthejointer.
flattened

curvealongtheedge,causedby incorrect
End-to-end
orcuttingtheboardcloseto thepithof a tree.
seasoning
forweightit unsuitable
Weakens
thewood,making
applications.
bearing
is not
whenonecorner
warping
or irregular
Uneven
drying
or
fromuneven
Results
withtheothers.
aligned
patternthat is notparallel
to theedge.
a cross-grain

byjointing
Boardcanbesalvaged
andrippingwastefromtheedges.
remainunstable,
boards
Crooked
andmaynotstainorfinishwell.
onjointer,
Board
canbeflattened
boards.
orcut intoshorter

alongthe
Board
canbeused,butsplitmay
asseparations
appeartng
to checks,
Similar
of thewood,
martheappearance
grovuth
rings.Alsoknownasringcheckor ringshank.
when
morenoticeable
of woodorfellingdamage. becoming
drying
fromimproper
Results
stainis applied.

l9

PREPARING
STOCK
nceyouhavedesigned
a projectand
/l
\-rl purchasedthe lumber,you must
preparethe stock,jointing and planing
it smoothand square,cuttingit to the
properdimensions
andsandinganysurfacesthat will be difficult to reachwhen
the work is assembled.

The procedures
you follow depend board to makeit parallelto the first.
on how the wood wassurfacedbefore Whenthe stockisiquareand smooth,
you boughtit. For rough,unsurfaced youarereadytorip it to widthandcrossIumber,first smoothone faceon the
cut it to length.
jointer,then one edge,producingtwo
For S2Slumber,which hasalready
adjoiningsurfaces
thatareat 90oto each hadboth facessurfaced,
you needonlv
other.Next,planethe other faceof the
joint one edgeacrossthe jointer,then
cut to width andlengh. S4Sstock,with
all four surfaces
dressed,
canbe ripped
andcrosscutimmediately;only surfaces
thatwill begluedtogethermustbejointed.Beforegluing up anypart ofyour
project,rememberto sandanysurfaces
thatwillbe hardto reachafterassembly.

A jointer producesa smooth,even


edgeon a hardwood board. For best
results,seta cutting depth between
Vtaand t/einch.

SURFACING
LUMBER

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lointing
a board
Slidethefencetowardtheguard,if necessary,
to ensure
thatno portion
of thecutterknives
will beexposed
asthe
passes
workpiece
overthem.Laytheworkpiece
face-down
on the infeedtablea fewinches
fromthe knives.
Buttits
edgeagainst
thefence,thenplacetwopushblocks
squarely
(Usepushblocks
on itsface,centered
between
theedges.
withoffsethandles
yourhandsfromhittingthe
to prevent

fence.)Feedthe boardslowly
andsteadily
across
the knives
(above)
pressure
applying
downward
on the outfeedsideof
t h ek n i v e a
s n dl a t e r apl r e s s u raeg a i n st th e f e n c e W
. hen
w o r k i nw
g i t hl o n gs t o c kb, r i n gy o u rl e f th a n dt o t h e b a c k
o f t h ew o r k p i e cweh e ny o u rr i g h th a n dp a s s etsh e k n i v e s .
W h e no n ef a c ei s d o n ej,o i n tt h e b o a r de d g ea ss h o w ni n
the ohotoabove.

20

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CABINETMAKING BASICS

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stock
Planing
depthto %oinch.Stand
Setthecutting
anduseboth
to onesideof theplaner
into
handsto feedthestockcarefully
Oncethefeedmechanism
themachine.
g r i p st h eb o a r da n db e g i ntso p u l li t
thetrailsupport
thecutterhead,
across
i n ge n dt o k e e pi t f l a to n t h et a b l e
hbove).Thenmoveto the outfeed
theworksideof theplanerto support
the
prece
withbothhandsuntilit clears
thestockfrom
roller.To prevent
outfeed
onlyone
in use,avoidplaning
warping
plane
thesameamount
face;instead,
of woodfrombothsides

llllilllltillllililllllllllill
l]llllljlllllllll]lllllllllllllllllllll1
)HO? TI?
galvagingouppedotoak
on lhe band eaw
cuppedboardoueinq
Youcanoalvage
Nhebandsaw,radialarm eaw,or table
narrower
ehockinNo
eawfo riVVinqNhe
boarde.lf you are ueinqlhe bandeaw
yourwideet'
as ehownhere,ineNall
bladeand a rip fence.Thenarrower Nhewidlh of cuI,I'he flaNt'erthe
reeulting boarde.5 el Nheboard
convex(hiqh)eideup on lhe Iable
and,bul5inqLheboardaqainet
the fence,teed it eteadilyinbo
the blade,Finishthe paeewiNha
puehetick.Kemove
any remaininq
hiqhopote on the jointer.

2l

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CABINETMAKINGBASICS

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ST(]CK

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Ripping
a board
onthetablesaw
posiSetthe bladeheightabout%inchabove
theworkpiece.
tiontheripfenceforthewidthof cut,thenpushthestockinto
t h eb l a d eh, o l d i nigt f i r m l ya g a i n st ht ef e n c ew i t hy o u rl e f t
handandfeeding
theboardwithboththumbs(above).
SIand
slightly
to onesideof theworkpiece
andstraddle
thefence

withyourrighthand,
makrng
certain
thatneither
handis in line
wrththeblade.
Keeppushing
theboarduntilthebladecuts
throughit completely.
Tokeepyourfingers
fromcoming
closer
than3 inches
fromtheblade,
usea pushstickto complete
the
pass.(Caution:
Bladeguardpartially
retracted
for clarity.)

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Crosscutting
stock
W r t ht h ew o r k p i e cf leu s ha g a i n st ht e
mitergauge,
alignthecuttingmarkwith
theblade.
Position
theripfence
wellaway
fromtheendof thestockto prevent
the
cut-offpiecefromjamming
against
the
blade
andkicking
you.Hook
backtoward
thethumbsof bothhands
overthemiter
gauge
to holdthestockf irmlyagainst
the
gauga
e n df l a to n t h et a b l et,h e nf e e d
theboardintothe blade(right).(Caution:
Bladeguardpartially
retracted
for clarity.)

22

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CABINETMAKING BASICS

SANDING

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llllllllllllllllllllllllllllljl]lllllllllll iltlll llllllllIIlllllllt


1HO?TI?
Making repeat
cuts with the
lable eaw
To cut, several
boardeLo Nhe
on
eamelenqNh
Nhet ablesaw,
6crewa boardLo
lhe miler qauqe
a e a n e x t e n e i o ne,n o u r i n q
Lhe
beYond
Nhat one ende>lvends
sawblade.Tueht'he miberqauqet'o
offthe
cut,intol'heendof the e>l1ension.Turn
eawand markf'helenqlhof cut on Ihe erteneion.
Aliqnawoodblockwi|ht'he mark and clampiNin p.lace
ae-a olop block.To lineup oachcul, bulN'lheend of
aqainet'Nheblockand makeNhecut'
vhe workpiece

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23

a beltsander
Using
to
Clampa stopblockto a worksurface
a
Install
moving.
keepthestockfrom
power
cord
beltanddrapethe
sanding
to keepit outof the
overyourshoulder
parallel
direction
way.Withthesanding
and
grain,
the
tool
turnon
to thewood
(above).
slowlylowerit ontothesurface
preferto setthetool
Somewoodworkers
it.
starting
before
f latontheworkpiece
along
In eithercase,movethemachine
strokes
thegrainwithlong,overlapping
To
is smooth. avold
untilthesurface
keepthe sander
gouging
thesurface,
do notletthe
moving;
f lat andalways
pause
in onespot.
machine

CABINETMAKINGIOINERY
his sectionintroducessomestan-

J. dardjoinerytechniques
common
to thebuildingof virtuallyanystyleof
cgline1
orbookcase.
Ifyouareusingsolid lumberforyourproject,youwill make
upthewidepanels
forthecarcase
or the
panelof aframe-and-panel
assemblyby
gluingboardstogether
edge-to-edge,
as
shownbelow.Thistechnique
enables
youto savemoney-wideboardsare
prohibitively
expensive-without
sacrificingstrength;
a glued-uppanelisjust
asstrongasa singlepieceof lumber.If
youareworkingwith plywoodpanels,
hardwoodbandingwill hideunsightly
(page25).
edges
Of thedozens
ofjoineryoptions,the
throughdovetailjoint remainsthe
benchmark
of craftsmanship.
Thejoint

canbecut on a varietyof powertools,


but thehand-cutting
technique
shown
startingonpage26will giveyouthedistinctivelookassociated
withfinefurniture.A platejoint,shownbeginning
on
page29,is a muchquickeroption.
Althoughit lacksthedovetail's
esthetic appeal,the platejoint is virtually
asstrongandis anexcellent
choiceif
youareworkingwith p\nvoodpanels,
whichcannotbejoinedwith dovetails.
joint youchoose,
Whichever
yourcar-

casewill needa back.Installationdetails


areprovidedon page31.
Manytypesof cabinets,
includingthe
armoireshownon page60, are built
around frame-and-panel
assemblies
ratherthancrcrses.Twojoinery options
for buildingsucha cabinetarepresented:themortise-and-tenon
(page33)and
joint (page35).The
the cope-and-stick
panelsfor a frame-and-panel
cabinet
can be raisedon eitherthe tablesaw
(pagej6) or router (page3S).

GLUING
UPA PANET

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Theplate,or biscuit,
joint ffirs a strong
and simplemethodof connecting
carcasecornerswith a minimum of set-up
time. The slotsarecut with a special
toolknownasa platejoiner. Onceglue
isaddedto the slots,
ovalbiscuitsof compressed
beechare inserted.When the
joint isgluedand assembled,
thebiscuits
swell,creating
a durableconnection.

t
theglue
1 Applying
r Settwobarclamps
on a worksurface
andlaythe boards
on top.Adoas many
clamps
propthecramos
asyouneedto support
thepieces
at 24-to 36-inchintervals.
on notched
woodblocks
to keepthemfromfallingover.Marktheendgrainorientation
of eachboard
witha pencil,
thenarrange
thepieces
to enhance
theirappearance,
as
shownin thephotoonpage13.Tominimize
warping,
makesuretheendgrainof adjacentboards
runsin opposite
directions.
onceyouhavea satisfactory
arrangemenr,
alignthepieces
edgeto-edge
andmarka triangle
onthestockto helpyouassemble
the
boards
at glueup.Next,cuttwoprotective
woodpadsat leastas longastheboards.
Leaving
thefirstboardfacedown,standtheotherpieces
onedgewiththealignment
marksfacingawayfromyou.Applya thingluebeadto eachboard(above),
rnenuse
a small,stiff-bristled
brushto spread
theadhesive
eventv.

24

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llltlll lllllllllllllllllillfllllllllllllilllllllllllillllllllllllJllll
1HO?Tt?
Adding edge molding
to plywood
Coicealthe vieibleedqeeof
plywoodpanelewilh eolid'
woodmoldin7.Uoea I'onguejoint'lo )oinlhe
and-groove
pieceo.CUI a qrooveinNo
lhe ed4eone-t'hirdas Nhick
a e N h eo a n e l . T h esna wa
matchiiqlonyueon the edqe
of lhe hardwoodboardthat'
willbeusedaslhe edqemoldinq.(lNis besl'o maket'he

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lhe 7rooveand on Lhetonque.


gecurelhe moldinqin 7lacewilh
clampo.
Nhree-way

25

r) Tightening
theclamps
facedown,making
L Settheboards
align.Tightsurethesidesof thetriangle
s n d etrh eb o a r djsu s t
e nt h ec l a m p u
Installa
themtogether.
to press
enough
thetopof thestock,
thirdclampacross
Gradually
theothers.
it between
centering
untilthere
alltheclamps(above)
tighten
and
the boards
arenogapsbetween
outof the
a thinbeadof gluesqueezes
joints.Usea C clampto leveladjacent
f lushwith
thatdonotlieperfectly
boards
witha
theboards
eachother.Protecting
theclamponthejotnt
woodpad,center
n e a tr h ee n d sa n dt i g h t e ni t u n t i lt h e
thenremove
arelevel(inset),
boards
theclampandpad.Usea puttyknifeto
as muchof thesqueezed-out
remove
it dries.Oncethe
glueaspossible
before
theclamps
hascured,remove
adhesive
any
to remove
andusea patntscraper
gluethatremains.

I
CABINETMAKING BASICS

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HAND.CUT
DOVETAILS

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thoulder

1
Waate

Center

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0utlining
thepins
I Marktheoutside
faceof eachboardwitha bigX,thenset
gauge
a cutting
to thethickness
of thestockandscribe
a line
around
theendsof thefourpanels
to marktheshoulder
of the
pinsandtails.Thepanels
thatwillformthetopandbottom
of
thecarcase
willbethepinboards.
Secure
eachonein turnin
a viseandusea dovetail
square
to ouflinethepinsontheends
of theboardin thesequence
(youcanalsousea
shown
above.
slidingbeveltomarkthepins;setanangleof l:6 forsoftwood
o r 1 : 8f o rh a r d w o o d . ) T haerreen of i r mg u i d e l i n feosrs i z i n g
a n ds p a c i ntgh ep i n so f a d o v e t aj iol i n t .I n g e n e r at lh, ep i n s
r) Cutting
thepins
Z- Secure
thef irstpin boardrna vise
wrthits outsidefacetoward
you.Usea
dovetail
saivto cut alongtheedges
of
thepins,working
fromonesideof the
panelto the other(right).Somewoodworkers
findit easier
to cut all the lefthandedges
first,andthenmoveonto
theright-hand
edges.
Foreachcut,align
thesawbladewiththewastesideof the
cuttinglineandusesmooth,
evenstrokes,
takingcareto keepthebladeperpendicularto thepanelendasyoucutto the
shoulder
lines.Repeat
theprocedure
at
theopposite
endof theboardandat both
endsof theotherpinboard.

s h o u lb
d en ow i d etrh a nt h et a i l se; v e n lsyp a c epdi n sa t l e a s t
one{hird
thesizeof thewaste
sections
around
themwillmake
j o i n t .B e g i nw i t hh a l f - p i nast e a c h
f o r a n a t t r a c t i v set,r o n g
edge,making
certain
thatthenarrow
sidesof thepinsareon
theoutside
faceof thepanel.Outline
thewastesections
beside
thehalf-pins
andmarkthecenter
of thepanelend.Oufline
a
pinat thecenter
mark,thenmarktheremaining
pins(above,
right),indicating
all thewastesections
withXs.Usea combinationsquare
to extend
themarksdownto theshoulder
lineon
bothfacesasyougo.

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llllllljt]llilllllllll[ lllll]illllllllllllJlll tjillll i[ tlil]Illll


9HO7Tt?
Cuttin7 awaywaole
with a aoping saw
A copinqsawworKe
a s w e l la s a c h i e e l
for clearingawayNhe
bulkof the wast'ewood
betweenNhepine.WiNh
N h ep a n e le e c u r e du p r i 4 h l i n
a v i e e ,s l a n d f a c i n q t h e o u N s i d e f a c e o f N h e V a n e la n d o l i d e
the saw blade into t'he kerl beeide
each pin, Kolale lhe frame wit'houL
e N r i k i n aN h ee n d o f L h e b o a r d a n d c u No u t '
a e m u c h w a e t ' ea o y o D c a n w h i l ek e e p i n qt h e
b l a d ea b o u l / , ai n c h a b o v et ' h e s h o u l d e rl i n e .C u l

u n N yi lo ur e a c h l h e k e rot n L h ee d q eo f t ' h ea d l a c e n t
wasLe.
pin.Dsea chieello pareawayany remaininq

outthewaste
Q Chiseling
r-J Mostof the wastewoodbetweenthe
p i n sc a nb e r e m o v ew
d i t ha c o p i n gs a w ,
a s s h o w ni n t h e s h o pt i p b e l o wl,e a v i n g
. o w e v e irt,
t h e f i n a lp a r i n gf o r a c h i s e l H
i s n o t m u c hm o r ed i f fi c u l tt o c h i s eol u t
all the waste.The keyis to workpatientl y , r e m o v i ntgh i n s l i v e r so f w o o dw i t h
e a c hc u t , u s i n ga c h i s e nl o w i d e rt h a n
the narrowsideof the wastesection.Set
t h e p i n b o a r do u t s i d e - f a cuep o n a w o r k
a n dc l a m pa g u i d eb l o c ko n t o p
surface
w i t ht h e s h o u l d e r
w i t ht h e e d g ea l i g n e d
l e v e l - o uatg a i n s t
t h ec h i s eb
l i n e .H o l d i n g
t h e g u i d eb l o c ka n d p e r p e n d i c u ltaort h e
s t, r i k et h e h a n d l e
f a c eo f t h e w o r k p i e c e
w i t ha w o o d e nm a l l e t o s c o r ea % - i n c h deepcut (above,left).Thencut fromthe
end of the boardto shaveoff a %-inch
layerof wasle (above,rrght). Continue
r e m o v i ntgh e w a s t eu n t i ly o ua r ea b o u t
halfway
throughthe stock.Onceyouhave
all the wastefromonesideof
removed
the edge
the board,turn it over,reposition
y v e rt h e s h o u l o f t h eg u i d eb l o c kd i r e c t l o
d e rl i n e ,a n dr e m o v teh e w a s t ef r o mt h e
o t h e rs i d e .

I
CABINETMAKING BASICS

?in board

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()utlining
andcutting
thetails
M a r ks h o u l d el irn e so n t h et a i lb o a r dassv o ud i do nt h e t o e x t e n tdh e l i n e so n t ot h ee n d so f t h eb o a r d sM. a r k
a l lt h e
p i n b o a r d sS, e to n eo f t h et a i l b o a r dosu t s i d e - f adcoew no n wastesections
withXs.Usea dovetail
sawto cutthetailsthe
a w o r ks u r f a c ae n dc l a m pa g u i d eb l o c ka l o n gt h ee x p o s e d samewayyoucut the pins(step2). Forsomewoodworkers,
s h o u l d el irn e .T h e nu, s i n ga h a n d s c r eaw
n dc l a m p sf i,x o n e anglingthe board(above,right)ratherthanthe sawmaKes
pin boardon endagainst
theguideblockwithitsoutside
face f o r e a s i ecr u t t i n gI.n e i t h ecr a s es, a ws m o o t h layn de v e n l y
a w a yf r o mt h et a i l b o a r dM
, a k es u r et h ee d g e sa r ea l i g n e d , a l o n gt h ee d g eo f e a c ht a i l ,s t o p p i nagt t h es h o u l d el irn e .
, f f ) .R e p e at th e p r o c e d u r e O n c ea l l t h e s a wc u t sh a v eb e e nm a d ei n
t h e no u t l i n et h et a i l s( a b o v e/ e
b o t ht a i lp a n e l s .
o n t h e o p p o s i teen do f t h e b o a r da n do n t h eo t h e tr a i l
remove
thewaste
witha chiselor a copingsaw.
panel,
thenremove
theclamps
andusea combination
square

upthecarcase
f, Gluing
r.,l Dry-assemble
thecarcase
glueupto ensure
before
the
jointsfit properly.
Press
eachcorner
together
byhandasfar
asit willgo,thentapthepieces
intofinalposition
withthe
mallet,protecting
thewoodwitha scrapboard.lf a jointis
tootrght,markthespotwhereit binds,
thendisassemore
thecarcase
andpareexcess
woodat themark.Onceyou
aresatisfied
withthefit, takecareoftheotherrequirements
of thecarcase,
suchasinstalling
a backpanel(page
3j) or
preparing
thesidesforshelving
or drawers.
Forglueup,
makefourwoodpadsaslongasthewidthofthepanels
and
cutsmalltriangular
notches
in thepadssotheyonlyconract
thetails.Spread
a thin,evenlayer
of glueonallthecontactingsurfaces,
thenassemble
thecarcase
andinstall
two
barclamps
across
the pin boards.
Tighten
the clamps
a
littleata timeuntila smallamount
ofgluesqueezes
outof
thejoints(rghf).

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CABINETMAKINGBASICS

J()INTS
WITHPLATE
A CARCASE
ASSEMBLING
theslotlocations
1 Marking
l
d
e
n
t
i
ftyh eo u t s i dfea c eo f e a c h
I
lines
panel
withanX,thenmarklocation
four
corners.
of
the
on
each
fortheslots
Tostart,placeonesidepaneloutside-face
d o w no n a w o r ks u r f a c ae n dh o l dt h e
to it. Usea penat a 90' angle
top panel
a
d j o i n i npga n e l s
l
i
n
e
s
o
n
t
h
e
c i lt o m a r k
make
each
corner;
in
from
abou|2inches
(left).
the
edge
midway
along
a thirdmark
b li s l si l lr e q u i raed d i t i o n a
W i d epr a n e w
o
ne
g
e
n
e
r
a
l
,
b
e
t
h
e
r
e
s
h
o
u
l
d
c u i t s ;i n
t
h
e
R
e
p
e
a
t
4
6
i
n
c
h
e
s
.
b i s c u iet v e r y t o
p r o c e d u tr oe m a r ks l o tl o c a t i o nosn
t h e o t h e trh r e ec o r n e rosf t h ec a r c a s e .
to helpyouidentiletters
Addreference
fy thecorners.

/":.

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r) Cutting
theslots
willallowyouto cutalltheslotsfor
above
L m" setupshown
Leaving
a side
moving
thepanels.
without
corner
onecarcase
piece
upon
outside-face
the
top
panel
down,set
outside-face
making
panel
thickness,
by
the
stock
thetop
topof it. Offset
arepermarks
onthetwopanels
slotlocation
surethemating
p
l
a
c
e
p
i
e
c
e
s
a
s
u
pport
i
n
a
n
d
s
e
t
fectla
y l i g n eC
d .l a m tph e
panels.
front
of
the
in
asthestock
thesamethickness
board
thedepthof
forsetting
instructions
themanufacturer's
Follow

butt
board,
Restthetoolonthesupport
cutontheplateloiner,
andaligntheguidetheendof thetoppanel,
against
itsfaceplate
Then
markonthestock.
witha slotlocation
lineonthefaceplate
left).Iocutthematingslotsin
cuta slotat eachmark(above,
thetoppanbaseplateagainst
buttthejoiner's
thesidepanel,
e l a n dt h e na l i g nt h ec e n t egru i d e l i no ent h ep l a t ew i t ha s l o t
rrght).
locationmark(above,

29

I
CABINETMAKINGBASICS

Inserting
thebiscuits
Q
r-,1 Onceall the slotshavebeencut, dryf i t t h e p a n e l sa n dc u t a b a c kp a n e li f t h a t
is partof yourdesign(page31),or make
r e a d yf o r s h e l v e so r d r a w e r sT. h e ns e t
l u t s i d e - f a cdeo w no n t h e
o n es i d ep a n e o
w o r ks u r f a c e
a n ds p r e a dg l u ei n t h e s l o t s
a n d a l o n gt h e p a n e sl u r f a c ei,n s e r t i n g
b r s c u i ta
s s y o ug o ( l e f ) . f o p r e v e ntth e
w o o d e nw a f e r sf r o m e x p a n d i n g
before
t h e p a n e l sa r ea s s e m b l e dp .r o c e e tdo
s t e p4 a s q u i c k l ya s p o s s i b l e .

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Gluing
upthecarcase
F i t t h e t o p a n d b o t t o mp a n e l so n
l n d t h e na p p l ya d h e s i v e
t h e s i d ep a n e a
i n t h e s l o t sa n d a l o n gt h e p a n e e
l nds,
i n s e r t i nb
g i s c u i t sa s y o ug o .A d dt h e o t h e r s i d e p a n e l( r i g h t ) .T u r n i n gt h e c a r caseon end,usetwo barclampsto press
t h e t o p a n d b o t t o mp a n e l st o g e t h ear n d
t i g h t e nt h e c l a m p se x a c t l ya s y o uw o u l d
w h e ng l u i n gu p a c a r c a sw
e i t hd o v e t a i l
(page
28),Ihis
time
using
standard
lotnIs
woodpadsto protectthe stock.

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30

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CABINETMAKINGBASICS

A BACKPANEL
INSTALLING
'l

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\\-

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forthepanel
a rabbet
Routing
ona worksurandsetthecarcase
I Drv-assemble
theoanels
usinga
together
facewithitsbackfacingup;holdthepieces
w i t hs u p p o b
r to a r d sI n. s t a al l % - i n crha b b e t i nb gi t
b a rc l a m p
loa
t n da d j u stth ed e p t ho f c u tt o m a k e
w i t ha b a l l - b e a r ipni g
s sf t h e
t a tw i l lb e ' l oi n c hd e e p et hr a nt h et h i c k n e o
a r a b b et h
b a c kp a n eyi o uw i l lb ei n s t a l l i nSgt.a r t i nagt o n ec o r n eorf t h e
board
with
baseplateonthesupport
resttherouter's
carcase,
firmlyin
Holding
therouter
thebitjustclearof theworkpiece.
0nce
thebitintothepanel.
turnonthetoolandguide
bothhands,
pulltherouter
thedirecagainst
meets
thestock,
thepilotbearing
thebaseplatef lat.Whenyoureach
keeping
tionof bitrotation,
boardand
thesupport
turnoff thetool,reposition
thecorner,
t h ee d g eos f t h er e m a i n i npga n e lfso l l o w i n g
c u tr a b b e tasl o n g
(/eft).
thesameprocedure

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r)

S q u a r i ntgh e c o r n e l s
l n da s t r a i g h t e d gt oe
L t l s ea p e n c i a
m a r ks q u a r ec o r n e r sa t t h e r o u n d e d
' l - i n c ho r
e n d so f t h e r a b b e t sU. s i n ga
w i d e rw o o dc h i s e ls, t r i k et h e t o o lw i t h
cuttingto the
a woodenmallel(above).
d e o t ho f t h e r a b b e tB. e s u r et h e c h i s e l
b e v e fl a c e st h e i n s i d eo f t h e c a r c a s e .

thepanel
2 Installing
e i l l h e l pk e e pt h e a s s e m b l y
r J I n s t a l l i ntgh e p a n e dl u r i n gg l u eu p o f t h e c a r c a sw
. l u eu p t h e c a r c a s e
s q u a r eC
. u t a p i e c eo f p l y w o o tdo f i t s n u g l yi n t ot h e r a b b e t sG
g
l
u
e
r
a
a l o n gt h e b b e tasn do n t h ec o n a n d ,a t t h e s a m et i m e ,a p p l ya t h i n b e a do f
glue
and
evenly,setthe panelin position,
Spreadthe
of the plywood.
tactingsurfaces
g
l
u
e
up
Y
o
u
c
a
n
a
l
s
o
u s ef i n i s h i nnga i l s t os e c u r ei t a t 4 - t o 6 - i n c hi n t e r v a lbsb o v e ) ,
p
a
n
e
l
.
t h e c a r c a ssee p a r a t e llye,tt h e a d h e s i vder y ,a n dt h e ni n s t a ltlh e

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CABINETMAKING BASICS

FRAME.AND.PANEL
C(lNSTRUCTI()N
Frame-and-panel
cabinets
mayvary
cope-and-stick
on page35. Whatever
nerontheedges
thanin themiddle.
widelyin theirdetails,
butallshare
sev- thejoint,cabinetmakers
generally
build
Theshapeof sucha so-called
raised
eralfeatures:
Theassemblies
arecomframes
fromstockthatis at least%inch
panelis achieved
bycuttingawaythickprisedof framesmadefromstilesand
thickand2 inches
wide.Larger
stock
nessat theedges.
rails,andpanels
thatfit intogrooves
in
canalsobeusedto suitthedimensions
Thereareseveral
waysof making
a
theframe.A typicalfrontandsidesecproject.
of a particular
panel,
raised
depending
onthevisual
tionis shownbelowat right.To provide
Thepanels
thatfit inside
theframes
effectyoudesire.
A common
method,
access
to the insideof thecabinet,
the
canbemadeeitherof plywood
or edge- shownbeginning
on page36, involves
frontfrequently
hasa framebutnopan- gluedboards(page24).Toensurethat
beveling
theedges
of thepanelwitha
el.Thisonefeatures
a median
railwith
a panelwillfit snuglyin thegrooves
of
tablesawor router.
openings
fora dooranda drawer.
The
therailsandstiles,
butstillhavea little
Thestepsforgluingup individual
twomissing
assemblies
wouldbesimiroomto moveasthewoodexoands
and
frame-and-panel
assembl
iesandcabilarto thesideassembly
shown;
eachhas
contracts,
it is madesubstantially
thinnetsareshownon page39.
a frameanda panel.In thiscase,the
sideswouldsharestileswiththefront
andbackassemblies,
allowing
therails
AI{ATOMY
OFA FRAME.AI{D.PANEL
CABIT{ET
to fit intoboththeedges
andfacesof
thestiles.
Bottoms
aretypically
attached
to
the frameby ledgerstripsor let into
Rail
grooves
cut in the insideedges
of the
Frovidea horizontal auppori at top and bottom
frame.
Topscanbeattached
withwood
of cabinet
buttons
thatfit in grooves
in theframe,
orwithmetalfasteners,
ledgerstrips,or
pocketholes.
Stile
Vertical compojointsusedin
Thetwomostcommon
nent
of frami,e
frame-and-panel
construction
arethe
mortise-and-tenon
shownin the illustrationandthecope-and-stick.
Themorprovides
tise-and-tenon
a relatively
large
gluingarea,making
joint.
it a verystrong
Twovariations
areemployed
in thetypicalcabinet:
Blindmortise-and-tenons Panel
Solid woodpiece
joinmedian
railsandstiles,
whilethe
that fits into
haunched
version
is usedto fill the
qroove-typically
groove
end,eliminating
theneedfor
%inch deep-in
inoide edqea of
grooves.
stopped
Thecope-and-stick
is
frame;
aan be flat
quite
not
asstrong,butoffersan addiwith edqeorabbettionaldecorative
touch.Therouterbit
ed or beveledon
thatcutsthegrooves
forthepanelalso
four oifufn"raige"
carves
a decorative
molding
on the
center ofthe panel
insideedges
of theframe.Step-by-step
techniques
for producing
theseloints
areshownin thissection:
themortiseand-tenons
starting
on page33 andthe

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32

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CABINETMAKING BASICS

JOINTS
M(lRTISE.AND.TEN()N
intherails
thetenoncheeks
1 Cutting
tenons,
startby
I Forbothblindandhaunched
i n s t a l l i nagd a d oh e a do ny o u rt a b l es a wt h a ti s
widerthanthe lengthof thetenons-often
slightly
3/oinch.
fenceandraisethe
Thenattachan auxiliary
notchin it. Setthewidth
to cuta clearance
blades
of cut equalto thetenonlengthandthecutting
Feedthe
heightto one-third
thestockthtckness.
the
face-down,
butting
theendagainst
workpiece
Turn
the mitergauge.
fenceandtheedgeagainst
thecut ontheotherside
therailoverandreoeat
(left).TesI
thetenonin a scrappieceof woodwith
a mortise
thesamewidthasthoseto becut in the
the heightof thedadohead
stiles(page34); adJust
Cuttheremaining
andrepeat
thecuts,if necessary.
proceeding.
before
tenoncheeks

thetenonshoulders
O Cutting
tenons
canbe
Z m" shoulders
forbothblindandhaunched
leave
thecutting
cutonthetablesaw.Forthe blindtenons,
andsetthe heightof thedadoheadto about
widthunchanged
thefenceandthe miter
Y,inch.Withtherailf lushagainst
gauge,
Turnthe
feedtheworkpiece
on edgeintotheblades.
railoverandrepeatonthe othersideof thetenon(abovd.
C u tt h es h o u l d ear st t h eo p p o s i teen do f t h er a i lt h es a m e

usethesamecuttingheight
tenons,
way.Forthe haunched
a rsf o rt h eb l i n dt e n o n st h, e np o s i t i o n
a n dc u to n es h o u l d e
equalin widthto thedepthof
thefenceto leavea haunch
Withthestockon
on theothershoulder.
the panelgroove
to feedit intcthe
edge,usethefenceandthe mitergauge
on theotherend
Repeat
to cut the haunch
blades(insef).
of theboard.

33

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CABINETMAKING BASICS

Routing
themortises
Clampall thestilestogether
faceto face,endsaligned,
and
useoneof theblindtenons
cut in step2 to outlinethemortises
on thestiles.Tocuteachmortise,
secure
onestilein a vise.
Installa commercial
edgeguideon a plunge
router,
thenscrew
a woodextension
ontotheguide.Fittherouterwitha straight
bit thesamewidthasthe mortise
andsetthecuttingdepth.
Center
thebitoverthemortise
outline
andbutttheextension
against
thestile.Gripping
therouter
firmly,turnit onandplunge
the bit intothe stock(right).Movethetoolfromoneendof the
mortise
to the other,makingas manypasses
as necessary
to
complete
thecutto therequired
depth.Repeat
to routtheother
mortises,
thensquare
theendsof thecavities
witha chisel.

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Cutting
thegrooves
Ontherailsandstilesof eachframe.
markthelocation
of thegrooves
thatwill
holdthepanel.Leave
thestraight
mortisingbit in therouter,
mountthetoolin
a table,andadjustthecuttingdepthto
aboutYz
inch.Center
theedgeof a stile
on the bit andbuttthefenceagainst
thestock.Clampa featherboard
to the
tableto holdtheworkpiece
against
the
fenceandfeedthestockwithbothhands,
making
sureto press
thestileflushagainst
thefence(/eff).Complete
the passwith
a pushstick.Tocut grooves
in thestile
faces,keepthefencein thesameposition,butreposition
thefeatherboard
as
necessary.
Next,youcancut andraise
the panels(page36).

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CABINETMAKING BASICS

CABINET
A COPE.AND.STICK

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Miter qauge
extension

i /

Rail
Copin4

\//'

- .-

bit

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thetongues
in therails
1 Cutting
I Beginconstructing
a cope-and-stick
in theendsof all
framebycuttingtongues
for the
the rails.Afterthat,routgrooves
panels
of theframe
alongtheinsideedges
pieces;
in thestileswillaccomthegrooves
at thesametime.
modate
the railtongues
installa pilotedcoping
Tocutthetongues,
bit-the railcutter-in yourrouterandmount
thetoolin a table.Setthecuttingdepthby
thebit and
buttingtheendof a railagainst
depthsettingsothat
adjusting
therouter's
cutteris slightly
thetop of the uppermost
Position
thefenceparabove
theworkpiece.
slotandin linewith
allelto themitergauge
theedgeof thebit pilot.Fitthemitergauge
face
withanextension
andlaytheoutside
of thestockflatonthetable;keeptheends
of theworkpiece
andextension
buttedagainst
thefencethroughout
eachcut (left).

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r) Cutting
thegrooves
Z Replace
the copingbit witha pilotedstickingbit-also
knownasa stilecutter.To setthecuttingdepth,buttthe end
railagainst
the bit,andadjustthebit until
of thecompleted
teethis levelwiththe railtongue
oneof its groove-cutting
(above,
left).Alignthefencewiththeedgeof the pilotbearing.
theworkpiece
duringthecut:
to secure
Usetwofeatherboards

the bit andsecure


the
Clamponeto theroutertableopposite
(ln
fence.
this
illustration,
the
otheronthe infeedsideof the
hasbeenremoved
for clarity,)
Makeeach
featherboard
second
pressing
the
workpiece
down,
cut withthestockoutside-face
right).Usea pushstickto complete
againstthefence(above,
thegroove
cut onall therailsandstiles.
thepass.Repeat

35

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CABINETMAKING BASICS

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RAISING
A PANEI
WITHA TABLE
SAW
theendgrain
1 Cutting
I Test-fit
therailsandstilesandmeasuretheopening
between
them.Add
Y ,i n c ht o e a c hd i m e n s i o%
n ;i n c ho f
eachpanel
sidewillfit intothegrooves
in theframe.Thencutthepanelto size
onthetablesaw.Todetermine
theblade
angle
forraising
thepanel,
drawa %-inch
square
at thebottomcorner,
thenmark
a linefromthefrontfaceof the panel
through
theinside
corner
of thesquare
to a pointon the bottomedge%inch
fromthebackface(inset).
Holdthepanel against
an auxiliary
woodfenceand
adjust
thebladeangleuntilit aligns
with
themarked
line.Adjust
theheight
of the
cutting
edgeuntiltheoutside
trpof one
toothextends
beyond
thefaceof thepanel,thenclampa guideblockto theworkpieceto ridealong
thetopof thefence.
Feed
thepanelintotheblade,
keeping
it flushagainst
thefencewhilepushing
it
forward
withtheguideblock(lef\.f esIfit thecutendin a groove.
lf lessthan
%inchof thepanelenters
thegroove,
move
thefencea littlecloser
to thebladeand
pass.Repeat
makeanother
thecutat the
otherendof theoanel.

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r) Cutting
withthegrain
1 Setthe panelon edgeandfeedit
i n t ot h eb l a d et,h e nt u r nt h ep a n eol v e r
to cut the remaining
edge(nghf).No
guideblockis needed
forthesecuts,but
takecareto keepthebackflushagainst
thefence.Cutting
intotheendgrarn
ofthe
panelf irst-beveling
thetopandbottom
before
thesides-helps
reduce
tearout.

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CABINETMAKING BASICS

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PANETS
RAISED
A JIGFORCUTTING
at righw
t i l le n a b l e
T h ej i g s h o w n
youto raisea panelonthetablesaw
to tilt thesawblade.
without
having
forsuggestReferto the illustration
eddimensions.
Screwthe lip alongthe bottom
edgeof the angledfence,making
where
to position
thescrews
certain
theywillnotbestruckbytheblade
whenthejig is used.Leantheangled
fenceat
theauxiliary
fenceagainst
thesameangleasthecuttingltne
marked
onthepanel(page36l (Use
theangle.)
a slidingbevelto transfer
supports
to fit between
Cuttriangular
thetwofencesandfastenthemin
olacewithscrews.
Tn rrsethe iip set it on thesaw
thelip
tablewiththeseambetween
fenceovertheblade;
andtheangled
arewell
checkto besurethescrews

An4led
fence

12"x 30"
Auxrliary
fence

9" x 30"

N
LIP

11"x30"

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Position
clearof thetableopening.
theauxiliary
the rip fenceagainst
fence,thenscrewthetwotogether.
Turnonthesawandcrankup the
bladeslowly
intothejigto cuta kerf
through
thelip.Turnoffthesaw,seat
thepanelin thejig andadjustthe
tip of
bladeheight
untiltheoutside
onetoothextends
beyond
thefront
faceof theoanel.Makea testcuton
a scrapboardthesamethickness
as
thentest-fit
thecutend
theoanel.
in a groove.
Reposition
thebladeor
fence,if necessary.
Then,placethe
panelin thejig andmakethecuts,
theendgrainfirst(/eff).
beveling

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37

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CABINETMAKING BASICS

MAKING
A RAISED
PANEL
WITHA ROUTER
uptherouter
1 Setting
I Install
a panel-raising
bit in yourrouterandmountthetoolin a table.Toensure
posithatthecuttingdepthis uniform,
tionthefenceparallel
to themitergauge
s l o ta n di n l i n ew i t ht h eb i t p i l o t W
. ith
therouterturnedoff,adjustthefenceby
placing
a scrapboardalongthefenceand
across
thebit.Thebit pilotshould
turnas
the boardtouchesit (right).Startwith
a %-inch-deep
cutsothatyouwillreach
yourfinaldepthin twoor morepasses.

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r) Raising
thepanel
L Lower
theguardoverthebit andturn
onthe router.
To minimize
tearout,
cut
theendgrainof the panelf irst.Work
caref
ully;a panel-raising
bit is oneof
themoredangerous
routerbitsbecause
of the largeamountof stockthat it removes
witheachpass.Keepthe panel
flaton thetableoutside-face
downand
flushagainst
thefenceasyoufeedit
across
the biI (left).Repeat
the cut at the
otherendandalongbothsides.Turnoff
therouterandtest-fit oneendin a frame
groove.
lf thepanellieslessthan%inch
deepin thegroove,
increase
thecutting
depthslightly
pass
andmakeanother
allaround.
Continue
in thismanner
until
thepanelfits properly.

38

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CABINETMAKINGBASICS

CABINET
A FRAME.AND-PANEL
ASSEMBLING

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Notched
wood black

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assembly
upa single
1 Gluing
(above,
b a rc l a m p sa,l i g n i ntgh eb a r sw i t ht h er a i l sT, o k e e pt h e
left).ll a
the frame-and-panel
I Test-assemble
o v e rp, r o pt h e mu p i n n o t c h ebdl o c k s .
c
l a m pfsr o mf a l l i n g
p
i
e
c
e
s
a n du s ea c h i s e l
t hl e
, isassemb
l o i n ti s t o ot i g h t d
t es t o c kt,i g h t e e
nach
b
l
o
c ktso p r o t e ct h
c
l
a
m
p
i
n
g
fit,
U
s
r
n
g
withthe
to pareawaysomewood.Onceyouaresatisfied
g
l
u
e
o
u
to f t h e
o
f
s
q
u
e
e
z
e
s
b
e
a
d
u
n
t
i
a
l
t
h
i
n
i
n
t
u
r
n
c
l
a
m
p
w h e nt h e
s a n da n ys u r f a c et hs a tw i l lb ed i f f i c u lt to r e a c h
(above,
90o
as
are
at
corners
that
the
right).
Check
g
l
u
e
f r a m eh a sb e e ng l u e du p ,a n ds p r e a d o n a l lt h ec o n t a c t - loinIs
glue
a
n
y
d
r
i
e
d
r
e
m
o
v
e
y
o
u
g
o
.
h
a
s
d
r
i
e
d
,
a
d
h
e
s
i
v
e
O
n
c
e
t
h
e
i n gs u r f a c eosf t h el o i n t sD
. on o ta p p l ya n ya d h e s i vi net h e
p
a
i
n
t
t
he
a
n
d
s
a
n
d
s
c
r
a
p
e
r
,
w
i
t
h
a
w
o
o
d
o
n
t
h
e
r
e
m
a
i
n
i
n
g
panelgrooves;
the panelmustbefreeto movewithinthe
surfaces.
outside
theframeandsetit facedownontwo
frame.Reassemble

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r) Gluing
upthecabinet
adjust
anyill-fitit thecabinet,
Z- Test-f
of
surfaces
tingjoints,andsandtheinside
y l u et o t h ej o i n t s a l lt h ep i e c e sA.p p l g
thatholdthepanelsthegrooves
except
Then,withthe
thecabinet.
andassemble
install
fourbarclamps
upright,
cabinet
fromfrontto backovertherails,
running
thestock.
usingwoodpadsto protect
evenly(/eft)until
Tighten
theclamps
outof the
a thinbeadof gluesqueezes
joints.
tssquare
Check
thatthecabinet
t hged i s t a n cbee t w e e n
b ym e a s u r i n
thetwomeasurements
corners;
diagonal
anextra
lf not,install
bethesame.
should
of thetwo
the longer
barclampacross
onthose
theclamp.1aws
setting
diagonals,
Tighten
theclampuntil
in place.
already
t h ed i a g o n aal rsee q u a lO. n c et h eg l u e
andscrape
theclamps
remove
hascured,
awavanvdriedadhesive.

39

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BOOKCASE,

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sizeandweightof theitemsit is
hetheritis asimpleplywood
for examto hold.Shelves,
intended
or acustom-made
structure
to dotheir
ple,mustbelongenough
wall unit craftedfrom fine hardjob,but not solongthattheywill
twofuncserves
wood,abookcase
canbefixedin
sagin use.Shelves
tions at once:It is an efficient
Each
hasitsown
place
or
adjustable.
accommodating
system,
storage
shelving
Adjustable
advantages.
accuitems
that
other
and
books
mulatein mosthomes,anda fine
Qagea5)permitsa moreflexible
interiof abookcase's
organization
pieceof furniturein its ownright,
(page
50)
fixed
shelves
but
space,
or
freestanding
as
the
handsome
as
rigidity.
structural
lend
a
bookcase
at
left.
unit
choiceof
Youhaveconsiderable
on
illustrated
Thebasicbookcase
joinerymethbuildingmaterials,
to storejust
page
42canbeadapted
when
A lengthof moldingis shapedon a routertable. ods, and ornamentation
aboutanything,from boundvolThe
chapter
a
bookcase.
building
carcase,
top
ofthe
or
the
to
thebase
Fixed
records,
toys,
china,
crystal,
umesto
compactdiscs,andvideocassettes. moldingprovidesa classictouchto a bookcase. thatfollowsdetailstheconstruction
of abasicunit.Youmaywishto add
Withtheadditionof somespecialthepieceandsoftenitslines(page
frame
to
strenghen
face
a
(page
can
be
transformed
simple
bookcase
44),a
izedhardware
to
andfeet(page56)canallowabookcase
and 54).Moldedbases
centerto housea television
into a homeenteitainment
will
surround
that
pieces
of
furniture
other
with
harmonize
utilitarian
gear.
This
and
computer
components
VCR,stereo
of
most it. Seepage59for a simplemethodof stringinga series
oneof thewoodshop's
versatilitymakesthebookcase
into awallunit.
together
bookcases
popularprojects.
to work,
skill,andpatience
Byputtingyourimagination,
mayvaryfromone
of abookcase
Althoughtheappearance
pieceof
a
fine
building
rewards
of
reap
the
you
able
to
will
be
remain
constant.
its
design
principles
of
the
unit to another,
furniture.
useful
and
the
its
size
between
a
balance
strike
must
Everybookcase

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with
and sizes,bookcases
Because
bookscomein manyshapes
they
are
built.
after
long
their
retain
adjustableshelves
Jlexibility
at
left
can
the
bookcase
movable,
its
shelves
With all but oneof
growing
collection.
of
a
demands
the changing
accommodate

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ANATOMYOFA BOOKCASE
suchascrown
|-\ espiterefinements
Iul and.basemolding,a faceframe
andturnedfeet,thebookcase
at right
is basicallya carcasewith shelves.
Theprocedurefor buildinga carcase
canbe foundbeginningonpage24.
Mostof theotherdetailsof thebookcase,from the shelves
to the feet,are
discussed
in this chapter.Thecrown
moldingis similarto thetypeinstalled
on thearmoireon page66.
Designa bookcase
to suittheitems
it will store.Standardbookshelves,
for
example,
areatleast8 inchesdeepand9
inchesapart;allowanadditional3 or 4
inchesof depthandheightfor oversize
bools.Recordalbumsneed13inchesin
bothdepthandheight.Televisions,
video
recorders,
andstereoequipmentmay
requireapto24inchesof depth.
After you havesettledon dimensions,decidewhichtype of shelving
bestsuitsyour needs.Thebookcasi
on thispagefeatures
threeadjustable,
or floating,shelves
andonefixedshelf.
Although the fixed shelfcannotbe
movedonceinstalled,
it helpsto snengthenthepieceandislesslikelytosagthan
adjustable
shelves.
Theloadtheshelves
will haveto bearshouldbeconsidered
whenchoosing
materials(page43).The
thickerthe lumber,the strongerthe
shelf.Whilel-by-10pineor fir is economical,% hardwoodwill support
greater
loads.
Alsorememberthat a shelfweakens
asit increases
in length.Shelves
thatare
too,longarenotlikelytobrealgbut they
will almostalwayssag.Ifyou areplanninga bookcase
widerthan36inches,
consider
insallingcleatsunderthemiddleoftheshelves
atthebackor averticalpartitionbetween
them.

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Foot

Qaoe

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BOOKCASE

MATERIATS
SHETF
COMMON
u/oHardwood
LJsedfor heavier
loadoand ahelf
epaneup to
4B inchba

ReinforcedoAhardwood
L)aedfor liqht-to-medium
loade.gpan for ahelveereinforced with 1-by-2lipe can
be up to 42 inches:without
reinforcement,epan ahould
not exceed32 iiches

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%'inchplywood
For meAiumloadsand ahelf
ePaneuP to 32 inchee;up to
42 incheo,if reinforced with
lipa.For enhancedaPPearance, front edqe ahould be
concealedwith bandin4

SUPPORTS
SHETF
AD'USTABIE
Hidden adjuat'able euPPott
Woodatripe with dowelathat fit in holea
drilled in eide panele;etripe are concealed
in blind rabbets routed in the
undersideof the ahelf
Dowel

?laetic
aupport

Adjuatable auppotte
Flaced in drilled holea in aidea of bookcaEe;
holedepth ia one-halfthe lenqth of aupport

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Temperedhardboard
Conipooite,Ii7htwei7ht shelf for
medium-to-heavyloadaand shelf
epaneup to 36 inchea;features
two layere of tempered hardboard oandwichinqPieceeof 2by-2 etock. Front edgecan be
rounded for decorative eFfeot

ffi--WW

r-_ri
F-'s-$wr-1
Pa))tc-an)L*,*t.il-:j
W
e,eeve6uPPot-,
Two-piecemetal-plated a uPPo rt; sl eevea
are ineerfedinto holeadrilledin eidepaneleand paddleeare elippedinto aleeves
at each ahelf location

Threaded \fl,JS,

euppot+
Two-pieceadjuetable
eupport; threaded part
is inaerted into holea
drilledin eidepaneloand
6UPpOrt6are qcrewed
in to hold up ohelf

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to hold ehelvinq
rnPEce

(-.".*

Standards and alipa


Track ehelvin4eyetem that featurea slotted verDical etripo Lhat 6it in grooveerouted in eidepanel;
clipa lock into alote at ahelf locatione

ffi
43

BOOKCASE
ACCESSORIES
ff ooksarenot the only itemscomI) monlystoredin a bookcase.
With
thecommercial
accessories
shownbelow,
you caneasilyorganizerecordalbums,
compactdiscs,audiotapes,andvideocassettes.
Ifyou intendyour bookcase
to housea stereosystem,televisionor

VCR,wire clipsandcord-holeplugscan
tamethetangleof wiresandconnectors
thataccompany
them.
Specialty
itemslike runnerslet you
slideshelves
in andout of thecarcase,
providingeasyaccess
to the contents,
whileswivelattachments
canbeinstalled

on a slidingshelfor thebookcase
top for
a television
set,
Youcanevenilluminatethe insideof
your bookcasewith a cabinetlight or
hideand protectthe contentsbehind
tintedglassor acrylicdoorsheldclosed
by magneticlatches.

()FSHETF
A SAMPLING
HARDWARE
Cabinei light
Uauallymounted out of
aight inaidecarcaoe;moaet
ehownia uaedto dieplavchina and qlaeewareaia ieaLureea 25-watt bulb

Glaaa door hinge


)wivelinq hingea
uaed for glaoadooro
up to %inch thick;
ocrewapreee eafety
plate aqainet qlaoe
to hold it in place.

Wire clip
9 elf-adheatveclipemo unted inaide bookcaaeto hold
wireaout of eiqht

Compact diac holder


Conaiateof two tracks
with adheaivebackingfor
mounting to carcaee;
modelahowncan hold up
to 24 diace. )imilar holdera for videocasaetteaand
audio tapea are available

f#*,ffi

fite eniqly-in hole in bookcaae back;holdeand feede


wireoout of carcaae

Mag netic d oor Iatch -a nd -plate


Uaedwith acrylic or 4laaa d'oora
up to %ainch thick. Latch plate
attachea to door and maqnetic
latch ia mountedineidebookcase: latch holdoplate ma4netically, keepinqdoor cloeed

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SHELVING
ADJUSTABLE
shelves
do not
I lthoughadjustable
.{1. contributeto the strengthof a
theydo giveit greaterflexibookcase,
biliry allowingyouto adaptto changing
needsand organizespacemostefficiently.It isunwiseto makeabookcase
withoutprovidingatleastonefixedshelf
for structuralrigidity.
shelves
arecommonly
Adjustable
or metheldin placewithwood,plastic,
(page43)thatfit in
al shelfsupports
The
sides.
holesdrilledin thecarcase
trickisto makecertainthattherowsof
Usea comaligned.
holesareperfectly
jig (below)
or a
mercialshelf-drilling
jig (page46)to borethe
shop-made

holes.Otheroptionsincludeadjustable
whicharemountedin
shelfstandards,
or shop-made
grooves
in thesidepanels,
a8).These
aredadoed
cornerstrips(page
to theinteriorcornersof
andattached
to holdup theshelving.
thebookcase

shelf
Madeof solidbrass,thesetwo-piece
supportsaddan eleganttouchto a bookcase.Thesupportscanbescrewedinto
alongthe
any of the threadedsleeves
to be
sidepanels,permittingtheshelves
mountedat any heightin thebookcase.

SUPPORTS
THREADED
SHELF

holes
forthesleeves
1 Drilling
rowsof holesto
requires
twoparallel
system
I Thismounting
jig
Thecommercial
of thebookcase.
bedrilledin thesidepanels
youto boreholesat 1-inchintervals
and
allows
shown
above
aligned.
Set
holeswill be perfectly
ensures
thatcorresponding
andclampthe
ona worksurface
inside-face-up
thesidepanels
jigto theedges
from
theholescanbeanydistance
of onepanel;
butabout2 inchesin wouldbe bestforthe
the paneledges,
panels
drillwitha bitthesamediameter
Fityourelectric
shown.

depth
andinstalla stopcollarto markthedrilling
asthesleeves
at ettherendof oneof the
length.
Starting
equalto thesleeve
jig'srails,place
bushing
in thefirstholeof the
theappropriate
(Thebushing
to
keeps
the bit perfectly
square
bushing
carrier.
borethehole.Bore
Holding
thedrillandcarrier,
theworkpiece.)
holesalongbothrails.Remove
thejig
spaced
a series
of evenly
positioning
thejig
fortheothersidepanel,carefully
andrepeat
withthosein thefirstpanel.
willbealigned
sothattheholes

45

BOOKCASE

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r) Mounting
thesleeves
andsupports
l to installthreaded
sleeves
without
d a m a g i nt h
g e m ,u s ea s l e e v e - s e t t i n g
punch.
Place
a sleeve
ontheendof the
punchandpushit f irmlyintooneof the
holesin a sidepanel(above).
Inserta
sleeve
intoeachholeyoudrilled.
Once
youhaveinstalled
allthesleeves,
screw
shelfsupports
intothesleeves
at each
(inseil.
shelflocation

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ilufiI]llllilltfilttjllilltfilllll ilIjfilttllllltlll lll1
tltllllilt1 t

1HO?TI?
A shop-made
ahelt drillingjig
jiq
TheI-ehaped
ehownherewillallow
youto borea rowof evenly epacedholeeas accujig.
ral,elyas a commercial
Makethe jig from 1-by-Zebock,
beinqcarefullo ecrewlhe fence
and arm NoqelheraNa pertecN90"
angle.Marka linedownLhecenlerot
Nhearm and boreholeeatr2-inchinlervaloalonqit,wiLhlhe eamebil you would /,usetor threadedsleevee.
Touselhe jiq,
panel
a n e lw
clamp
c l a m Qfiti Tto
. oa e
eide
t a ep
with
t l n tlhe
n e rfence
cnce )
b u | I e d a q a i n e Ne i l h e r e n d o f t h e p a n e la n d

the markedcenNerline
2 incheein from ito edge.
FiNyour drill bit wiLha stop collar,boreNheholee,
and repoeiLion
the ji7 for eachnewrow.

46

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BOOKCASE

HIDDEN
SHELF
SUPPORTS
andinstalling
1 Making
I theshelfsupports
Usea jig to boreholesfortheshelfsupporls(page45). lfake twosupportsper
shelf.Eachoneis a thinwoodstripabout
1 inchlonger
thanthegapbetween
the
rowsof holes;
makethestripwideenough
dowto holda dowelat eachend.(%-inch
foraverage
loads.)
elsarelargeenough
on the
To helpyouposition
thedowels
supports,
inserta dowelcenterintoeach
of twoparallel
holesandpressthestrip
against
the points.Usethe indentations
pointsfor
fromthecenters
asstarting
drilling
theholes.
Maketheholesin the
shelfsupports
thesamedepthasthe
holes
inthesidepanels.
Gluedowels
into
and,oncetheadhetheshelfsupports
s i v eh a sd r i e di,n s t a tl lh e mo nt h es i d e
panels
at the heightthatyouwantthe
shelfto resl(left).

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r) Preparing
theshelves
andinstalling
cut
I to conceal
the shelfsupports,
in eachshelf.Markoutthe
blindrabbets
rabbets
by positioning
theshelfon the
on
andoutlining
theirlocations
supports
of theshelf.Cuttherabtheunderside
betsusinga routerf ittedwitha rabbeting
theendswitha chiseland
bitandsquare
mallet.
Therabbets
shouldbe
a wooden
of theshelfsupasdeepasthethickness
ports.Onceall therabbets
havebeencut,
(right).
test-fittheshelfin the bookcase
if necUsea chiselto adjusttherabbets,
fit thatcomessary,
to ensure
a perfect
pletely
hidesthesupports.

47

BOOKCASE

STANDARDS
ANDCTIPS
Installing
thestandards
Metal
standards
andclipsareamong
the
simplest
accessories
to install
formountingadjustable
shelves
in a bookcase.
Two
slotted
standards,
ortracks,
arefastened
to theinside
facesof thesidepanels
and
shelf-support
clipsareinserted
in theslots
at thedesired
height.
Rather
thannotchingtheshelves
to accommodate
thestandards,recess
thetracksin grooves
cut in
thesidepanels.
Install
a dadobladeon
yourtablesawandcuttwoparallel
grooves
in eachpanel.
Thegrooves
shouldbeas
wideandasdeepasthestandards;
forthe
position
widthof panelshown,
thegrooves
about2 inches
in fromeachedge.
Withthe
panels
inside-face-up
on a worksurface,
setthestandards
in thegrooves
andfix
themin place,
driving
screws
through
the
predrilled
holesin thetracks(left).AtIach
clipsto thestandards
at eachshelflocation.

CIip

^v
CORNER
STRIPS
thecorner
strips
1 Making
I Dadoed
corner
striosinstalled
in each
insidecorner
allowbookcase
shelves
to be
adjusted.
Youcanmakefourstripsfrom
a single
4-inch-wid
be
oard
t h a ti s l o n g
enough
to extend
fromtopto bottomof the
interior.
Install
a dadoheadonyourtable
sawandsetthewidtheoualto thethickyouplanto
nessof the shelfsupports
use.Determine
thedesired
spacing
of the
notches
andcuttwodadoes
thatdistance
apartin a mitergauge
extension
board.
Lineuptheleft-hand
dadowiththeblade
andscrewtheextension
to yourgauge.
0nedadoshouldbeoffsetto theright;
cuta 2-inchpieceof shelfsupport
stock
andpress
it iniothatdado,whereit will
serve
asan indexing
key.Buttoneendof
t h ew o r k p i e caeg a i n st ht e k e ya n dc u t
yourfirstdado.Cutthesecond
andsubsequentdadoes
bymoving
thepieceto the
rightandfittingthelastdadooverthekey
(right).
Whenthedadoes
areall cut,rip
theboardintofour1-inch
corner
strios.

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48

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BOOKCASE

r) Installing
thecorner
sttips
I
andshelfsupports
of thebookPosition
eachstripin a corner
face
case,making
surethatthedadoes
andscrew
thestripsto the
the interior,
Placean extra
sidesat topandbottom,
fastener
in themiddle
ona tallbookcase.
Fortheshelfsupports,
measure
thedisthefrontandbackof the
tancebetween
to fit.
bookcase
andcut the supports
M a k es u r et h a tt h es u p p o r tasr ew i d e
properly;
testenough
to holdtheshelves
in
f it themto ensure
thattheyf it snugly
thedadoes(/eft).

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T

lllllll lllrllllllllllllllltllllllllllll
ilttrl1lllriiltlli lllilllllll1

1HO?T'?

Jig for routinq evenly


opaceddadoes
tILachNhejig ehown
h e r e t o N h e b a s te
VlaNeol your ..-\i'rouler fo cui -----

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?."'

lhe dadoesin the

cornerotrripeof a ehelf
(ThieNech'
eupVort6yoNem.
niquecan aleobe ueedIo roul

----iiie tne baee


da'doeefor fixeder,elreo.)
from'/"-inch
plywood
and'thee?acerfromsolid

-\--.
----\12

wood.CUNa bit clearanceholeLhroughthe baseand


--.-_-/
ecrewiI to the roufer.Makethe widlh of Ihe o?acerg,quu,l,
you
Lo
the
willuse cul
dadoee.
NoNhediameterof the ot raiqhNbiL
1crewlhe opacerto NheboNlomof Lhejiq baeeeo Nhedisf,ancebethe dadoes.
tweenil and NhebiI equaleNheopacinqyou wanNbeNween
Cut,the firet,dadowilh the 6?acerridinqalonqt'heendof the work'
cuts wibhNheeVacerin t'heiuot'-cut'dado.
Viece.Makeeubeequent

49

Preparing
theshelves
Allfourcorners
of eachshelfmust
b e n o t c h etdo f i t a r o u n tdh ec o r n e r
andmarking
strips.Aftermeasuring
it in a viseandcut
eachshelf
, secure
witha backsaw
outthecorners
hbove),

FIXEDSHELVES

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bolsterthe structural
f, ixedshelves
I' integrityof a bookcase,
but since
they cannotbe movedoncethey are
installed, you need to give careful
thought to their location.You can
mount fixed shelvesquite simply by
screwingthem to cleatsthat arefastened
to thebackandsidepanels.
Yourbookcasewill be strongerand more attractive,however,if the shelves
areattached
to thesidepanelsusingoneof thejoinery methodsshownbelow.
Ifyou do not intendto add a face
frameto your bookcase,
rememberthat
someof thesejointswill conceal
thecut
madein the sidepanelfor the shelf.
Cuningthroughdadoesin thesidepanelsis oneof thequickestwaystojoin
a fixed shelfto a bookcase.
In thephotoabove,thesidepanelsareclamped
togetherwith theirendsflush,allowingtwoperfectlyaligneddadoesto be
jig guidestherouterthroughthecut.
cut at thesametime.A straightedge

JOINERY
OPTIONS
FOR
FIXED
SHELVING

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50

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BOOKCASE

DOVETAIL
A HALF-SLIDING
MAKING

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thesidepanels
1 Preparing
arerouted
in
in thesidepanels
dadoes
I Thehalf-dovetail
with
a
dovetail
bit.
bit,
and
then
firstwitha straight
twosteps:
in yourrouter.
Clamp
diameter
bitof thedesired
Install
a straight
panels
a
work
surinside-face-up
to
edge-to-edge
and
theside
Clamp
a
board
against
face;makesuretheirendsarealigned.
Also
tearout.
thestockat theendof thecuttinglineto prevent
properly
panels,
guide
locate
offset
to
across
the
clampanedge
at one
theedgeof therouterbaseplateandthebit.Starting
pressing
panels,
the
stock,
feedtherouteracross
edgeof the
thecuI(above).
theedgeguidethroughout
thebaseplateagainst
with
a dovetail
thesecond
cut
thedadobymaking
Complete
(inset),
guide
from
firsi
cut by
away
the
shiftingtheedge
biI
bitdiameter.
one-half
thedovetail

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r') Preparing
theshelf
ontheendsof the
mating
half-dovetail
tongues
L fo creale
bit in therouter
andmountthetool
leave
thedovetail
shelves,
cut.Feed
theshelf
thefencefora shallow
in a table.Position
it flushagainst
thefencewithone
onendintothebit,keeping
Testit forward
withtheotherhand(/eff).
handwhilepushing
dado.Adtust
thefit, if necesfit thecutendin a half-dovetail
thefencerluinchawayfromthebit andmaking
sary,bymoving
Reoeat
thecutat theotherendof theshelf.
another
oass.

5l

EDGETREMMENTSFORSHELVES
arestripsof solid
E dg. treatments
I--i wood,veneer,
or commercial
banding appliedto the visibleedgesof plywood shelves;
theyconcealthe panels'
plies,creatingtheillusionthattheshelving is madeof solidwood.Commercial
edgebandingis available
by the roll in
a wide varietyof wood types,colors,
and widths.To install,simply cut off
thelengthyou need,setit in place,and
heatit with a householdiron to melt

the adhesive
that bondsit to the edge
of the shelf.
Althougha little morepainstaking
to apply,shop-made
wood stripsoffer
severaladvantages
overstore-bought
banding.Theyareoftenlesscostly,and
you can finish your shelfedgeswith
any availablewood species,
cut to
whateverthicknessyou desire.A variety of solidwoodedgetreatments
is
shownbelow.

If your shelvesare made of solid wood,you can rout a


decorativedesignin their edges.For plywood shelvesyou
will needto attach wood stripsor veneerto covertheplies.

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A SETECTION
OFEDGE
TREATMENTS

V-groove

Wood atrip

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Molded wood atrip

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Tongue-and-groove

Reinforaededge

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BOOKCASE

A SHELF
REINFORCING

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llllfiltllllillllllllllljlllllll
lllllllllllJll11
tllltllJiltllltllll1{1lr
9HO7Tt?
Springboard
alamp
for edgegluing
ForIhick edgetrrealmenls,youmiqh|
needthreeor four clamVo
to holdthe piecein place
whileNheqluedriee.A
oinqleclampwilldo
rhe job jueNas wellif
you ueea oprinqb o a r d . T om a k eL h e d e v i c ec, u t
a 4enLlecurve-'/o-inch-deepaL

boardlhe eame
iLs cenLer-alongoneedgeof a 2-inch-wide
the Vanelon NoVof Nhebar
len7thand thicknessas lhe panel.CenNer
edge
againeNNhe
edqeoflhe oVringboard
clampand eet.Nhe
concave
material.Uoinqa woodpad f,o ?roLectlhe other edqeof lhe panel,
Nighten th e clamp unt il Ih e eprinqboard fl aLt ene againot th e edqe,

53

Rabbeting
theedgepiece
A pieceof hardwood
canbegluedto the
it. Torout
edgeof a shelfto strengthen
install
a %in theedgepiece,
therabbet
inchstraight
bit in yourrouter
andmount
thetoolin a table.Setthefencefora
of the
widthof cuteoualto thethickness
theworkpiece
throughshelf.Tosecure
to a
outthecut,screwa featherboard
s h i ma n dc l a m pt h ea s s e m btloyt h e
t a b l eT. h es h i mw i l lr a i s et h ef e a t h e r to themiddle
of
board
to applypressure
featherboards
theworkpiece.
Alsoinstall
t o t h ef e n c eo n b o t hs i d e so f t h eb i t .
(Forthesakeof clarity,
thefeatherboard
sideof thefencehasbeen
ontheoutfeed
r e m o v eidn t h e i l l u s t r a t i o nD.o) n o t
to routtherabbetin onpass;
attempt
increasinstead,
makea series
of passes,
ingthedepthof cuteachtime(abovd.
R e p e autn t i tl h es h e lffi t sf l u s hi n t h e
rabbet(inset).
Youcanroundor shape
to yourliking.
theedgepiece

FACEFRAMES
theycompletely
coverthe
|f ecause
IJ edgesof sidepanels,faceframes
areideallysuitedfor plywoodbookcase
construction.
Madefroma contrasting
wood,theycanalsoprovidea decorativedetail.Cuttingandassembling
aface
framedemands
precision;
thejoints
mustbetightandtheframesquare
if it
is to fit properlyandprovidestrength.
Usetheassembled
carcase
asa reference
to measure
therailsandstiles.
Face
frames
areeithergluedin placeor attached
with
biscuitjointsasshownbelow.

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A faceframestrengthens
A cArcase
whilehidingpaneledges.
It also
jambsfor doorhinges.
provides

INSTALLING
A FACE
FRAME

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slotsin the
1 Gutting
I carcase
andfaceframe
yourcarcase
Measure
andcutthetworails
andstilesof thefaceframeto length;
also
cut median
railsto coveranyfixedshelves.
Theframeshouldrestflushwiththeoutsideof thecarcase.
Jointherailsandstiles
withdowels,
biscuits,
or mortise-and-tenon
joints,thenglueupthefaceframeassembly,ensuring
thatit is square.
Oncethe
adhesive
is dry,sandit andplaceit ontop
of thebookcase.
Markthe locations
of the
biscuitjointson boththecarcase
andthe
faceframe-typically
every
4 to 6 inches.
Setthe platejoinerfor the biscuityou
areusingandcuttheslotsin thecarcase
(right),aligning
theguideline
ontheface
platewitheachpencilmark.Thencut
matingslotsin theframe.

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54

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BOOKCASE

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thefaceframe
Installing
A p p l yg l u et o t h es l o t si n t h ec a r thematcaseandfaceframeandalong
in the
Insert
thebiscuits
ingsurfaces.
carcAqe
slots.thensetthefaceframe
sincethe
Workquickly
in placehbove).
g l u ew i l lc a u s teh eb i s c u i t so e x p a n d
almostimmediately.

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theassembly
Clamping
C l a m pt h e f a c ef r a m et o t h e c a r c a s e

Toapplypressure
12 inches.
aboutevery
t o t h ec e n t eor f t h em e d i a rna i l ,u s ea
at
pieceof stockclamped
to thecarcase
eitherendwitha shimin themiddle(/efil.

BASES
AND FEET

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-,'tr,
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qp*

\,
'lq- .;,

Basentoldingand Jbetadd n firishing touchto a bookcase.


The nnlding cnn be
routed to rnatcltilrc crown rrrolditrgor thestn'roundingtrint in the room.

isoftenaddedto a book$.)"asemolding
"anchor" piece
S-J caseto
the
andcomplement
anycrowrr
nrolding
installed
at
thetop.Therearetwobasicwaysto build
a base.The firstis to rnake.r rabbeted
miteredframeof moldedpiecesfrom
stockstanding
on edgefseabclowl;
rhis
framewrapsaroundthe baseof the
bookcase
likea skirtandhidesthejoineryat thebottomofthecarcase.
Thesecondn-rethod
involves
buildinea mitered
fraureof horizontal
rnolded
stock;this
providesa flat surfacefor attaching
turned feet(page5B).Both rnethods
allowfor woodexpansion
andcanalso
beadaptedto fit modularbookcases
or
joinedtogether.
bookcases

INSTALLING
A RABBETED
BASEM()LDING

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'l

Assembling
theframe
I Theframeshownaboveis madefromthreepiecesof molded
s t o c ka
, b a c k ,a n df o u rc o r n e b
r r a c e sA. r a b b e its c u t a l o n gt h e
i n s i d ee d g eo f t h e m o l d e dp i e c e sf,o r m i n ga l i p t h a tt h e b o o k c a s ew i l l s i t o n . T o m a k et h e b a s em o l d i n gf,i r s t p r e p a r teh r e e
p i e c e so f s o l i ds t o c ka n d r o u ta d e c o r a t i vm
e o l d i n si n t h e e c l s e

of eachT
. h e ni n s t a lal s t r a i g hbt i t a n dc u t a r a b b e itn t h e o p p o s i t ef a c eo f e a c hp i e c eC
. u tt h e m o l d i n g
t o l e n g t hw i t h m i t e r sa t
b o t hf r o n tc o r n e r st ,h e n c u t a p i e c eo f s t o c kf o r t h e b a c ka n d
j o i n i t t o t h e s i d e sw i t h b i s c u i t sG. l u et h e f r o n tt o t h e s i d e sa n d
s c r e wc o r n e rb r a c e si n p l a c et o s e c u r et h e l o i n t ( a b o v e ) .

56

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BOOKCASE

thebasemolding
lnstalling
a s s e m b l i nt hge
O n c ey o uh a v ef i n i s h e d

frame,attachthe unitto thebottomof the


thejoint,screwtwo
Toreinforce
bookcase.
alongthe inside
midway
anglebrackets
glueon
Spread
frameof thebasemolding.
therabbetonthefrontpieceof theframe
a n do nt h ef i r s ti n c ho f t h es i d ep i e c e s .
( T h i sw i l lc a u s ea n yw o o dm o v e m etnot
thebackof thecarcase,
takeplacetoward
preventrng
themiterjointsat thefrontfrom
Thensettheframein placeon
breaking.)
to
andscrewthebrackets
thebookcase,
the bottomof thecarcase.

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ANDFEET
MOLDINGS,
BASE
BRACES,
BOTTOM

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brace
lnstalling
a bottom
nearthebotanda f ixedshelfis located
nobasemolding
features
lf yourbookshelf
youcaninstalla bottombraceto
bottom,
tomof thepiecein placeof a carcase
/eff).Simplycut thebraceto sizeandglue
hidethespacebelowtheshelf(above,
shelf.Youcanalsocuta
or nailit in placefromtheendsandthetopof thebottom
center)glued
A basemolding(above,
patternin the brace(dottedlines).
decorative
Youmight
optton.
isanother
thecarcase
to thefrontandsidesfrominside
orscrewed
(above,
right)'(seepage97for moretnforto attachogeebracketedleer
alsochoose
andinstallation.)
ontheirconstruction
mation

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BOOKCASE

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INSTATTING
A BASE
WITHFEET

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thefeet
1 Turning
I C u tb l a n k fso rt h ef e e tf r o mt h e
a p p r o p r i astiez es t o c kT. ot u r ne a c h
blank,determine
itscenter,
mountthe
blockona faceplate,
andattach
thefaceplateto thelathe.Position
thetoolrest
in linewiththecenter
of theblankand
ascloseto thestockaspossible
without
touching
it, thenusea round-end
scraper
to shapethefoot(above).
Always
work
onthe"down"
sideofthespinning
block
to prevent
kickback.
Periodically
check
theprofileof thefootwitha pairof out(rnset).
sidecalipers
Onceyouaresatisfiedwithitsprofile,
sandthefootonthe
lathewithprogressively
finersandpaper.

llilllfltltlllltlllt]lllllllltll]l1
t]lllllltll]llljtltllltillllltltlll
";;

5HO?TI?
Routin6 deaorativedet ails
lf youare building
a bookcaee
Lhatfeatureeboth base
andcrownmoldinq,you
AV

' tl'

f#iy

can uoe lhese adorn-

or otrherdetail in
i] ;t
Nheeideeofrhefaceil 11
f r a m e e , l n e t aal l
li
pilobed
decoralivebit li
ti
in your rouIer.WiNh
the bi| clearof lhe
work,bull the t ool'ebaeeVlaheaqainsllhe crownmoldinq.
Turn
on Nheroulerand easethe bit,into the work,Continuecuttina
unlilthe baoeVlate louchesNhemoldinqat lhe oppositeend-.

ii

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BOOKCASE

r) Installing
thefeet
L Oncevouhaveturnedall thefeet,
screwthemto the bottomof the base
basemolding
theverttcal
Unlike
molding.
at
on page56,thebaseillustrated
shown
witha widerabbetroutleftis horizontal,
ed in thefaceof eachpiecethataccepts
is
a molding
of thebookcase;
thebottom
cutontheframe'souteredge(page96)
the base,drilla counAfterassembling
of theway
tersunkholethree-quarters
of eachfoot,thenbore
thecenter
through
the
a pilotholetherestof thewaythrough
wood.Screwthefeetto the base(/eft).

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T(IGETHER
B()()KCASES
ATTACHING

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filtllllllllllllljlllllllll lllllllllllllllllllllllll]llfijllll illlllll


1HO?TI?
Anchorin1 bookaases
to the wall
OnceelackedwiLh
and
books,maqazineo,
of,her iLeme,bookcaees
topcan be danqerouely
heavy.Larqe, f reeeI'and'
i n g b o o k c a e easr e b e e t '
a n c h o r e dt o t h e w a l l ,
Lo a eIud.lf
preterably
y o u r b o o k c a e ies l a l l
enouqh,
an anglebracket
Or
on Nopw.illbe invi.sible.
you can locatelne anqle
brackel underneaI'hlh e
fixedshelfand
hiqheot,
Nheback
ecrewit,Nhrou4h
paneland into the wall.

connectors
Using
threaded
morethanonebooklf youarebuilding
c a s eo r a m o d u l awr a l lu n i t ,c o n s i d e r
together
bookcases
adjacent
attaching
A quickandefficientwayto
forstability.
connectors
dothejob is to usethreaded
Withthe
sides(above).
to joinadjacent
sidebysideandproptwobookcases
witheachother,borea hole
erlyaligned
t h r o u gthh et w os i d ep a n e l sl n. s t a lal
use
for stability,
connector;
threaded
alongthelength
fourto sixconnectors
o f t h es i d ep a n e l sl f. y o u rb o o k c a s e s
youcaninstallinterhavefaceframes,
stilesto hidethegapbetween
mediate
thetwobookcases.

59

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ARMOIRE
andadothesclosettoanentercupboard
tainmentcenter.
Whatever
its use,the modernarto meetthegrowingneedfor
Centuries
moireis usuallybuilt in thetraditionEurope's
space
by Renaissance
storage
al,or period,style.Likeits ancestors,
city dwellers.
wealthyandacquisitive
with anupright,
today's
armoirebegins
Thearmoireprovideduprightstorage
rectangular
cabinet,typically74to 80
were
of finegoods;before,belongings
wide.For
inches
talland36to 48inches
usuallypackedin largechests.
thepieceshouldbe
useasa wardrobe,
thearmoirewas
Fromthebeginning,
deepenoughto housea clotheshangas
attributes
asprizedfor itsdecorative
er-about 22inches.
Thepieceis essenfor its practicality.
Thebasiccabinetshownonpage60
closetfeaturingone
tiallyafreestanding
with frame-and-panwasput together
to hang
or two doors,providingspace
a combi32)toachieve
eljoinery@age
drawersand
clothes,andoccasionally
andstrength.
nationof attractiveness
shelvingto furnishadditionalstorage.
Dovetails(page26) and platejoints
a pinnaclein the
Thedesignreached
(page29)areequallysturdyalternatives.
cabilate17thCenturywhenParisian
Thischaptershowshowto addthe
Boullepronetmaker
Andrd-Charles
adornments
of an armoireto a basic
for thecourtoflouis XIV.
ducedseveral
(page
64),corniceand
cabinetpilasters
Thoughhis pieceswereundeniably
basemoldings(page66), andframein theirelaborate
ornamenta- This glasscurio,or display,cabinetwas
Baroque
and-paneldoors(page72).Theelein muchthesamewayas
constructed
tion,theystillserveasloosemodelsfor
in
mentsof thearmoirearehighlighted
except
thearmoireon thefacingpage,
of today.
thearmoires
theanatomyonpage62.
and thesideand
In America,thetermarmoireisoften that thewoodenshelves
the
Despite
itselaborate
appearance,
doorpanelswerereplacedwith glass.
with its Englishequivainterchanged
projectfor a
armoireis a reasonable
name,the
Bywhatever
lent,wardrobe.
carefi.rlly
of average
skills.Buildthevariouspieces
piecehasprovento bepopularin NorthAmericasincethe woodworker
pieceof furniture.
versatile
fromafood andtheresultwill beanattractive,
aseverything
late18thCenturyandnowit serves
he armoire cameinto favor during the late 15th and early 16th

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Thearmoireat leftdisplaysa muted


Baroquedesigntypicalof manymodernAmericanwardrobes.

6l

ANATOMYOF AN ARMOIRE,

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Layered
cornice
moldinq
( 2 a q e6 6 )

'\
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--','-'

,,'

/
Top panel
FlywcoC or aoltd
jr;ccK ett.aahae
fluslt tvt*ch
eC4es
of c;ebinel,uein4
rnrooci
buLfone,
met.al fastenert,
(-1fltoaKaTtlotea

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\

Layered
cornice molding

_!

Stile
YerTicat
ir;eme
aomFa)neni

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ncIizon"tei
frame
aornPOnent.

to"t /
( 2 a q eb 3 ' ;

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Door /
( 2 a q e7 2 )

Pilaeter
l.2aqe64'1

t / \
Eott.om
r^,,-/
aZ

Bottom panel
,.'ii. a t l tr,::l t.o f r :l tr e
wi r.it 1cr14er t,l.rtp:'
al ctat ,t: .et. inf.o
a 4 i ' L ) a r ( ' , ; t . t i .t.n i . i i c
in:t,it: ::ti4t::' of tht
i:ctli,arr: r:|l:t

Decorative base moldinq


rt.t.aclted t.h. aeffi. riet
'o.\'
l ': .t

Muttion /
t,'erfical member f,hat,
a.peral,e. fronl, tnto fwo
parts. pro',,tCtnqeur'face for
d o c r L o o l o s ea 4 a t n e t a n d
for mcunLtn4lock hardware

bl

\..-

i:a?e../ inc.habovr,'bcl,t.om
oi :srrnotret.c prcvenT.nol'7rnq ircrr i:carinq any wct4lit..
0r'. tnst,alta rabberetl ba?t
nttltitnq (2aqe 56'1

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ARMOIRE

()FARMOIRE
HARDWARE
ANASSORTMENT

*--l
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-l\a/l : :

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f^-=----------e
:

Il:'

l\6/l

r1l

l\6/l

t - - -l/n f\|l - l
lL-Jl

]
l:t

i\6-ll

Double-ballcatch
9mall catch wiLhtwo eprinq-loadedballeecrewedLo
mullionor rail. Dallaonap in placeovera keepermounted to door; catch can ehter'keeperfrom front or srdee.

Adjuatable levelera
UaedLo levela pieceoffurnrture;
threaded bolt with plaatic baae
aecuredin threaded T nut

Laaehinge
Full-len7thhinqewith finialeat top and bottom;
htnqete bolted to cabrnetand mortiaed into door

Rat-tail hinge
Ftvotaon pin wtLhdecorative
Lail natledto armoire:like (
clock-caee hinqe,allowe
o
door to be eaaily removed

----\./
4 ^\

-E

--*<_
\

Straight cupboard loak


wrtha
Eack-mounteddoor lock wrt
through bolt extendtnglefLor
riqht, ao required;key chamber
centeredin lock case

Cloak-aaeehinge
Tivots on a pin, which
allowadoor to be lifLed off

63

Caeementbolt lock
Eolta exLendthe full
len7thof Lhedoor
and are aecuredin
brackete faetened to
the top and bottom
ratla of Lhearmoire

PILASTE,RS
MAKING
ANDINSTATLING
PITASTERS

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Pilastersare narrow boardsfastened


to thefront stilesof an armoire and
Jluted with two or three blind grooves
for decoration.

thegrooves
1 Cutting
I C u tt h ep i l a s t epri e c etso s i z et,a k i n gr n t oa c c o u nt ht ew i d t ho f t h es t i l e sa n d
allowing
enough
spacebetween
thedoorandthepilaster
youplanto
forthehinges
use.Then,installa coreboxbit in yourrouter
andmountthetoolin a table.Adjustthe
cutting
height
fora semicircular
cove.Markthelocation
of thegrooves
ontheendof
theboard
andaddmarks
onthefaceindicating
where
thecutshould
startandend.
AIignthefrontcuttinglinewiththebit,thenusetheleading
endof thepieceto marka
reference
Iineontheoutfeed
fence,Repeat
theprocedure
withthebackcuttingline
andmakea similar
reference
lineontheinfeed
fence.
Adjustthefenceforthefirst
groove,
theninstalla featherboard
on thetableto holdthe pilaster
firmlyagainst
thefence.Roundoverthetopedgeof thefeatherboard
to prevent
thestockfrom
catching
whenit is pivoted
downintothecut.Tomakethecuts,aligntheleading
end
of thepilaster
withthereference
lineontheoutfeed
fenceandlower
theboard
face
ontothe biI (above,
topl.Holdtheworkpiece
flat on thetableasyoumakeyour
p a s sW
. h e nt h eb a c ke n do f t h ep i e c ea l i g n w
s i t ht h er e f e r e n cl ien eo nt h ei n f e e d
fence,pivotthe stockoff the Iable(above,
bottom).Repeatthe cut on the other
p i l a s t etrh, e na d j u stth ef e n c et o c u tt h er e m a i n i nggr o o v e s .

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64

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ARMOIRE

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fillllllllllllill]llllllllllllllfillllllllll
llllfilll]l1
llllilltillllll1
gHO? TI?
thaping pilaeteroonthetable eaw
Wilh Lhehelpof a oimpleohop-builljiq,youcan useNhecove-cut'tin4
Forlhe iiq, cul a
ehownon ?aqe69 ro ehapeVilaohere.
Nechnique
an7lef or lhe coveyou
6hapedbaee pieceal Nheappropriahe
wedqeneeAand ecrewil t d two tencee:a' lowfencealongonelonqeideand
a hi4heroneon lhe adlacenleide,lhenscrewlhe jiq t'o the eawe rip
fence.Io makeNhecule,lineup t'hemiddleof the leadinqendof a
IesI boardwith Nhebladeand adjueLNherip f enceuntilIhe anqled
4uidebuLIoaqainotthe pilaet'er,lurnon t'heeawand feedlhe board
inlo the bladeao shown;adjuotI'hecultinq heiqhl
groove.
untilyou creaNetheaVVropriaNe
Markqroovelocalionlineeand
fronNand backculLinqlineson
a6 you did in oNeV
Nheworkpiece
1 on paqe64,then eawIhe
qrooveg.Useexlremecare
in lowerinq
and raieinq
EheworkaT,
?tec,e
,
eacnena
of the
troove.

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65

r') Installing
thepilasters
withglue
Z. Pilasters
canbesecured
usesome
alone,butforaddedstrength,
ine
First,determ
screws.
well-concealed
onthestile.
of thepilasters
thelocatron
its
between
centered
Theyaretypically
Next,spread
a thin,evencoatof
edges.
glueonthebackfaceof thepilaster,
set
andclampit, usingwoodpads
it in place,
thestock.Drillpilotholesinto
to protect
and
frominside
thecabinet
thepilaster
drivea screwintothetopandbottomof
(abovd.Repeat
theprocess
thepilaster
pilaster.
to mountthesecond

CORNICEMOLDINGS
Created by the three separaterouter
bits shown below, the three layersof
molding that make up the typical cornice at right appear as one singlepiece
when theyare installedcn an armoire.
Besidesproviding a visual framework
for the armoire, the molding servesa
secondestheticfunction, leading the
eye into the center of the piece and
keepingit focused there.

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MAKING
CORNICE
MOLDING
TAYERED
C(|RNICE
MOTDING

t
Covebit

themolding
1 Routing
I Cutthreeboards
longer
andwiderthan
youwill needforthethreelayers
of molding(above).
Installa panel-raising
bit in
yourrouter
andmountthetoolin a table.
Alignthebit bearing
withthefenceand
adjustthecutterheightto leavea flat lip
nomorethan%inchthickontheedgeof
thestockabove
themolding.
Mounttwo
featherboards
onthefenceandoneonthe
tableto secure
thestockthroughout
the
cuts.(lnthisillustration,
thefeatherboard
ontheoutfeed
fencehasbeenremoved
forclarity.)
Turnonthetoolandfeedthe
stock(left).Tocomplete
the pass,move
to theoutfeed
sideof thetableandoull
thestockthrough
theendof thecut.
passes,
Makeseveral
increasing
thewidth
of cut%inchof stockat a time.Formthe
second
boardwiththecovebit andthe
thirdpiecewiththeRoman
ogeebit.

66

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ARMOIRE

r) Mitering
themolding
L Wnenvouhavemadethethreemoldripeachto width(thefirst,inneringstrips,
andthe
bethewidest
mostoieceshould
Thencutstripsslightthirdthenarrowest).
ly longer
thanyouwillneedforthefront
Theendsof
andsidesof theworkoiece.
at 45' to
stripsaremitered
themolding
The
goaround
andpilasters.
thecorners
procedure
foreachlayeristhesame:Hold
itsbackend
in position,
thesidemolding
Mark
flushwiththebackof thecabinet.
onthestrip.
of thecabinet
thefrontcorner
(Forthesecond
markthe
andthirdstrips,
layerof moldof the previous
frontcorner
i n g . I) n a d d i t i o nm, a r kt h ed i r e c t i or ne quired
forthemitercut.Tiltthetablesaw
bladeto 45" andfeedthestockusingthe
Bladeguard
mitergauge(/eff).(Caution:
Repeat
thecutonthe
forclatity.)
removed
Then,markandcut
sidepiece.
second
theendsof thefrontpieces.

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thefirstlayerofmolding
2 Installing
is fastened
to
r-J Eachlayerof molding
strips
Thelonger
in twosteps:
thearmoire
first,
forthesideandfrontareattached
pieces
the
around
followed
bythesmaller
pilasters.
a thinlayerof glueonthe
Spread
thenset
backfaceof thefirstsidepiece,
withitstop
thearmoire
it in placeagainst
thetopof the
above
levelwithor slightly
Usea cut-offbradasshownon
cabinet.
p a g e1 2 3t o h e l pp o s i t i otnh em o l d i n g
it in placeat
whileyouclampandscrew
you
areusing
eitherendof thestrip.lf
conrather
thanframe-and-panel
carcase
usea sliding
struction
to buildthearmoire,
in place
dovetail
to holdthesidemoldings
(page
procedure
to attach
the
127).Repeat
thenmountthe
theothersidemolding,
franl
, , v , , (

nioeo

(riohfl

P ' v v v

67

ARMOIRE

Applying
themolding
around
thepilasters
O n c et h e s i d e sa n d m a i nf r o n tp i e c eo f t h e f i r s t l a y e o
rf

molding
areinstalled,
thesmallpieces
around
thepilasters
mustbecutto sizeandmounted
in place.
Foursmallpieces
needto befittedaround
eachpilaster;
miterallthepieces
at 45'at bothends.Holdthemitered
endof a stripof the
f irstmolding
flushagainst
themrtered
endofthemainfront
piece,
thenmarkthefrontcorner
of thepilaster
ontheedge
o f t h em o l d i n gM. a k ea 4 5 " m i t e cr u ta t t h i sp o i n tT. h e n ,
holdthemolding
in placeandrepeat
theprocedure
to mark
a n dc u tt h en e x p
t i e c eC. o n t i n ui net h i sm a n n eurn t i tl h e
fourpieces
arecutto surround
eachpilaster.
Dry-assemble
thepieces
to ensure
anaccurate
glueonthe
fit,thenspread
p i e c eas n df i t t h e mi n p l a c eS. e c u rteh ef r o n tp i e c eo n
t h ep i l a s t ewri t ha s c r e wU. s ef i n i s h i nnga i l sf o rt h es m a l l er pieces,
driving
theheads
below
thesurface
witha nailset
(right).
Thesecond
layerof molding
cannowbeattached
thesamewayasthefirs1.

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theoutside
layerof molding
in place
f, Clamping
. - , 1S r n c teh eo u t s i dlea y eor f m o l d i nw
g i l lb ee n t i r e lvyi s i b l e
f r o mt h ef r o n to f t h ea r m o i r ei t,s h o u l d
b es e c u r ewdi t ho n l y
g l u eA
. s b e f o r ea,p p l yt h es i d e sa n dm a j nf r o n tp i e c ef i r s t ,
t h e na d dt h es m a lsl t r i p sa r o u ntdh ep i l a s t e rW
s .h e ni n s t a l l i n gt h ef r o n tp i e c es, p r e agdl u eo n i t a n da l i g ni t st o pe d g e
w i t ht h et o po f t h ef i r s tt w ol a y e rosf m o l d i n gI n
. stallthree
b a rc l a m p a
s c r o stsh ea r m o i rteo s e c u rteh ep i e c ei n p l a c e ,
t r g h t e n rtnhgec l a m pgsr a d u a li lnyt u r nu n t i a
l t h i nb e a do f

gluesqueezes
outfromthejoint;usewoodpadsto protect
thestock(above).
lf necessary,
usecut-offbrads(page123)
t o h o l dt h em o l d i nign p o s i t i ownh i l ey o ua p p l yt h ec l a m p s .
R e p e at ht ep r o c e d ufroert h et w os i d ep i e c e sT.of i n i s ht h e
m o l d i n g ,l u eu p a n di n s t a tl lh ep i e c easr o u ntdh ep i l a s t e r s .
C l a m tph es m a lflr o n tp i e c ew
s i t hb a rc l a m p sF. o rt h es i d e s ,
s e tt h ep i e c eisn p l a c ea n di n s t a l l o ncel a m pa c r o srsn e
pilaster
to secure
thembothat once.

6B

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()NTHETABLE
SAW
MOLDING
CUTTING

theguidelines
thewidthandmarking
1 Setting
twicethe
of thetwolongarmsequals
edges
theinside
withthehelpof thecove-cutting between
molding
cornice
I Fashion
you
the
blade
install.
Set
part
will
molding
of
coved
jig
width
of
the
you
moldcut
a
cove
guideshown
The willenable to
above.
guide
the
blade
across
Lay
the
of
cut,
depth
desired
height
at
the
p
r
o
d
u
c
e
c
o
r
n
i
c
e
t
w
o
i n g ,w h i c hc a nt h e nb er i p p e di n h a l ft o
just
the
intouches
hand,
by
blade,
turned
it
until
the
rotate
and
1-by-2s
two18-inch-long
the1ig,fasten
Toconstruct
moldings.
pencil
edges
the
inside
along
run
a
Then
the
arms.
edges
of
side
wing
nuts,
and
bolts
withcarriage
1-by-2s
to two9-inch-long
onthetableinsert(above).
thejig sothedistance of thelongarmsto traceguidelines
arms.Adjust
twosetsof parallel
forming
r) Cuttingthe cove
Z- Remove
the suideand lowerthe blade
beneath
t h e t a b i e .O u t l i n et h e d e s i r e d
c o v ep r o f i l eo n t h e l e a d i n ge n d o f t h e
thensetthe stockon the saw
workpiece,
o u t l i n ew i t ht h e
t a b l ea
, l i g n i n tgh e m a r k e d
g u i d e l i n eosn t h et a b l ei n s e r tB. u t tg u i d e
boardsagainstthe edgesof the workpiece
a n dc l a m pt h e mp a r a l l et ol t h e g u i d e l i n e s ;
u s eb o a r d sl o n ge n o u g ht o s p a nt h e s a w
t a b l e .D r a wl i n e s3 i n c h e st o e i t h e sr i d eo f
t h e b l a d eo n t h eg u i d eb o a r d sd,e l i n e a t i n g
a d a n g e zr o n et h a t y o u rh a n d ss h o u l d
a v o i dC
. r a n kt h e b l a d e% i n c ha b o v et h e
t a b l e .T o m a k et h e f i r s tp a s s f, e e dt h e
w o r k p i e cset e a d i liyn t ot h e b l a d ew i t hy o u r
l e f t h a n d ,w h i l eh o l d i n gt h e w o r k p i e c e
a g a i n stth e t a b l ew i t h y o u rr i g h th a n d
(/eff)F
. i n i s ht h e c u t u s i n ga p u s hb l o c k .
M a k ea s m a n yp a s s eas s n e c e s s a rrya, i s i n gt h e b l a d e% i n c ha t a t i m e .F o ra d e e p
c o v e t, a c ka b a c k u pb o a r dt o t h e t o p o f
. o ra
t h e w o r k p r e cteo p r e v e nst p l i t t i n gF
s m o o t hf i n i s h ,r a i s et h e b l a d ev e r ys l i g h t ly for the lastpassand feedthe workpiece
s l o w l yi n t or t .W h e nt h e c u t i s c o m p l e t e d ,
r i p t h e s t o c ki n h a l ft o f a s h i o nt h e m o l d i n g ,t h e ns a n dt h e p t e c e s .

69

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MITER
JIG
jigwillallowyouto miter
Thissimple
theendsof molding
onyourradial
armsawwiththebladein thenormal
position.
90'crosscutting
Refer
to the
illustration
forsuggested
dimensions.
Tobuildthejig,bevel
theendsof
theguides
at 45". Next,cutthebase
andfenceandscrewthetwopieces
together,
leaving
enough
of thefence
extending
belowthebaseto sit in the
slotbetween
thefrontauxiliary
table
andthespacer.
Then,remove
the
saw'sfenceandposition
thebaseof
thejigonthesawtable,seating
the
fencein thetableslot.Settheblade
in the90'crosscutting
position
and
adjustthecuttingdepthto makea
%-inch-deep
kerfin the base.0nce
thecut is made,
remove
thejig and

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screwoneof theguidesedge-down
onthebasewithitsbeveled
endflush
against
thefenceandits pointjust
touching
thekerfin thebase.Positionthebeveled
endof thesecond
guideflushalong
thekerfinthebase.
Usea carpenter's
square
to ensure
guideis square
thesecond
to the
firstone,thenscrewit in place.
(There
shouldbeenough
spacebetweenthetwoguidesforthestock
youwillbecutting.)
Install
thejigonthetable.Holding
t h es t r i po f m o l d i nfgi r m l ya g a i n s t
oneof theguides,
butttheendof
thestockagainst
thefence.Turnon
thesawandpulltheyokethrough
the
cuI (left),Tocut the matingmiter,
secure
pieceagainst
thesecond
the
guide,thenpullthesaw
opposite
through
thecut.

70

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ARMOIRE

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MOLDING
DENTIL
MAKING
a tablesaw
Using
D e n t im
l o l d i nigs a c l a s s iocr n a m e n t a l
d e t a icl o n s i s t i nogf s m a l rl e c t a n g u l a r
between
withspaces
or dentils,
blocks,
typicalthem.lt is madefromthinstock,
, n di s
l y b e t w e e%
n a n d% r n c ht h i c k a
placed
thecabinet
against
directly
either
w i t ha n o t h emr o l d i nogn t o p ,o r s a n d (inset).
twomoldings
wichedbetween
width.
First,rip thestockto thedesired
Theninstalla dadoheadaswideasthe
and
youwantbetween
thedentils,
space
to setthelength
adjustthebladeheight
board
of the blocks.Screwan extension
thenfeedit intothe
to themrtergauge,
dadoheadto cuta notch.Movetheextensionto therightbythewidthof thedena small
Make
notch.
til,thencuta second
in thenotches;
keyto f it snugly
wooden
s l i d ei t i n t ot h ef i r s tn o t c hu n t i li t p r o trudesabout1 inch.Butttheendof the
the keyandholdit f irmly
stockagainst
to cut thef irst
the mitergauge
against
d e n t i lF. o rt h en e x ct u t ,p l a c et h ef i r s t
the procenotchoverthe keyandrepeat
d u r eC
. o n t i n ui net h i sm a n n eurn t i tl h e
is cuI (right).
lengthof molding

ARMOIRE
THE
LEVELING
levelers
adjustable
Installing
floor,install
foran uneven
Tocompensate
on the baseof your
levelers
adjustable
of a T nut
consists
Thehardware
armorre.
rodwitha plasticfoot.
anda threaded
forthe
holes
byboring
thelevelers
Install
of thefeet.Drillthem
T nutsin thebottom
rods.Tap
thanthethreaded
longer
slightly
then
witha mallet,
thenutsintotheholes
(/eff).Adjustthefeet
screwin thelevelers
to levelthecabinet.

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7l

DOORS
he frame-and-panel
doorsof an
armoirearebuilt in muchthesame
wayasthe sideassemblies
of a frameand-panelcabinet(page32).However,
therearedifferences.
Boththeinsideand
outsideedges
of thestilesandrailscanbe
moldedfor addeddecoration.
In addijoint usedto
tion,themortise-and-tenon
connecttheframepieces
incorporates
a
miteredmolding,shownon page73.A
final differenceinvolvesthe stockused
to build doors.Because
theyswingfree,
doorshavea tendencyto deform.To
counteractthis, doorsareoften made
from heavierstock.To avoidan excessivelyheavyappearance,
thebackofthe
door framecanbe rabbetedto allow a
portion of thedoor to remaininsidethe
armoirewhenit is closed.Theresultins
lip alongthe outsideedgeofeachdooi
restson a verticalmullion dividins the
cabinetopeningor on a falsemulTion,
whichis a stripofwood attached
to the
edgeofthe left-handdoor.

Theglass
doorshownon page73is
essentially
a frame-and-panel
doorwith
glass
panels.
Theglass
sitsin rabbets
cut
alongtheinsideedges
of theframeand
isheldin placeby stripsof molding.

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Thedoorsof thearmoireaboveharmonizewith theframeand-panelconstruction


of thepiece.Theirtip-rabbeted
mountingpartly recesses
thedoorsinto thecabinet,makingthem
appearthin and delicatedespitetheirsturdyconstruction.

TWODOOR-MOUNTII{G
METHODS

t
Lip-rabbeted
FIueh-mounted
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ARMOIRE

ANATOMIES
TW()D()()R
DOOR
GLASS

9Lile

Median

--.-'rait

9I;ile

Kabbet

ARMOIRE

MAKING
A FRAME-AND.PANEL
D()()R

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Cutting
thetenons
I Makeyourarmoire's
frame-and-panel
doors
bycuttrng
blindtenons
attheendsof alltherails,
asshown
here,
andthenshaping
theinside
edges
o f a l l t h ef r a m ec o m p o n e nat ss,i l l u s t r a t ei nd
s t e p s2 t h r o u g4h. F i n a l l yd,r i l lm o r t i s ei nst h e
stiles(sfep5) andprepare
eachframefora panel (step6).Tocutthetenons
onyourtablesaw,
install
a dadoheadslightly
widerthanthetenon
length.
Install
anauxiliary
woodfenceandnotch
it byraising
thedadoheadintoit. Setthewidth
o f c u te q u atlo t h et e n o nl e n g t a
h n da d j u st th e
cuttingheight
to aboutone-third
thethickness
o f t h es t o c kH. o l d i ntgh er a i lf l u s ha g a i n st ht e
mitergauge
andthefence,feedthestockfaced o w ni n t ot h eb l a d etso c u t o n et e n o nc h e e k .
Turntheboardoverandmakethesamecuton
t h eo t h e sr i d e C
. h e c fko rf i t i n a t e s tm o r t i s e ,
thenrepeat
theprocess
ontheotherendof the
boardandon theotherrailshbovd.Tocutthe
tenonshoulders,
setthecuttingheight
at about
I tnch.Then,withtherailfacef lushagainst
the
mitergauge
andtheendbuttedagainst
thefence,
feedtheworkpiece
intotheblades.
Turntherail
overandrepeatthecut onthe olherside(right),
Cuttherestof thetenonshoulders
thesamewav.

/+

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ARMOIRE

r) Shaping
therailsandstiles
onthe
molding
integrated
fashion
I to
your
f
it
frame,
the
door
of
insrde
edges
mount
piloted
bit
and
molding
witha
router
thetoolin a table.Alignthefencewiththe
onthebit,thenadjustthecutting
bearing
of the
depthto shapethebottomportion
pass,
the
stock
feed
board.Foreach
it
good-face-down
intothe bit, pressing
c
u
tt
h
e
f
e
n
c
e
a
;
d
j
u
s
t
t
h
e
f i r m l ya g a i n s t
only
the
Shape
if
necessary.
tingheight,
of therailsandstilesaround
interior
edges
rail,
perimeter.
Fora median
thedoor's
edges.
both
right,
shape
liketheoneat

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therailsforglueuP
Q Preparing
r.J Thecorners
of thetenonshoulders
with
to mateproperly
mustbe mitered
fence
theauxiliary from
thestiles.Remove
a crosscut
thetablesawfenceandinstall
angle
blade.
Settheblade
orcombination
board,
to 45', makea testcut in a scrap
a n dc h e c kt h ec u tw i t ha c o m b i n a t i o n
and
Adjustthefenceposition
square.
as
bladeheightsothatthecut is exactly
wideanddeepasthewidthof theedge
justpro(Thebladeteethshould
molding.
Tomake
thetenonshoulder.)
trudebeyond
piece
the
flushagainst
thecuts,holdthe
andthefenceasyoufeedit
mitergauge
thecuts
intotheblade.Repeat
edge-down
edgeof the
ontheendsof eachmolded
rails(left).
remaining

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75

ARMOIRE

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Notching
thestiles
L e a v et h e t a b l es a wb l a d ea n e l e da t

45o,measure
thewidthof eachrail,and
marka lineonthemolded
edgeof themati n gs t i l ea c o r r e s p o n ddi ni sgt a n cf er o m
theend.Cutintothemolded
edgeat the
line,making
certain
thatthecutwillnot
marthefaceof thestile.Forstilesmatrngwithmedian
rails,youneedto make
twoopposing
45" cutsandsliceawaythe
wastebetween
them.Sliceoff mostof
thestripof molding
between
the45" cut
andeachendof thestilewitha bandsaw
(above).
Smooththe cut edgeusingthe
tablesaw.Leaving
theripfencein place,
holdthestileflushagainst
themitergauge
andslidethestockbackandforthacross
the blade(right).Repeat
the process
for
a l lt h es t i l e s .

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76

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ARMOIRE

mortises
in thestiles
f, Cutting
r-,f Useoneof the tenonsyoucut in step
t h e m o r t i s eos n
i a s a g u i d et o o u t l i n i n g
T
t h e e d g e so f t h e s t i l e s , o m a k et h e j o b
e a s i e rc, l a m pa l l t h e s t r l e st o g e t h efra c e t o - f a c ew i t ht h e i re n d sa l i g n e dI.n s t a lal
m o r t i s i na
g t t a c h m e notn y o u rd r i l l p r e s s
a n dc l a m po n es t i l et o t h ef e n c ec, e n t e r i n g
e u t l i n eu n d e tr h e c h i s eal n d
t h e m o r t i so
d e p t hX i n c hm o r e
b i t ,M a k et h e d r i l l i n g
; a k ea c u t a t e a c h
t h a nt h et e n o nl e n g t hm
e n d o f t h e m o r t i s eb e f o r eb o r i n go u t t h e
wastein between(/eff).Repeatthe proceg ortises.
d u r et o c u t t h e r e m a i n i nm

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forpanels
thelrames
1i Preparing
withyourrouter
in theframeedges
\J Cutthepanelgrooves
. r y - a s s e mtbhleer a i l sa n d
a n da t h r e e - w i sn lgo t t i ncgu t t e rD
on a work
stilesof eachdoorandclamptheframeface-down
t es t o c kA. d j u stth ec u t t a b l e u, s i n gw o o dp a d st o p r o t e ct h
between
the
midway
to cuta groove
tingdepthof yourrouter
W. i t ha f i r m
bottom
o f t h ef r a m ea n dt h ee d g eo f t h em o l d i n g
and
gripontherouter,
lowerthebaseplateontothesurface
Once
of theframe.
suidethebit intothestocknearonecorner

t h e b i t p i l o tb u t t sa g a i n stth e e d g eo f t h e s t o c k ,c o n t i n u et h e
for the
Repeatthe process
direction(above).
cut in a clockwise
o t h e rp a n e ol p e n i n g sM. a k ea r a i s e dp a n e fl o r e a c ho p e n i n g
( p a g e3 6 ) a n d g l u e u p t h e d o o ra s y o u w o u l da n yf r a m e - a n d p a n ea
l s s e m b l yY.o uc a n n o wr o u ta d e c o r a t i vm
e o l d i n ga r o u n d
t h e o u t s i d ee d g e so f t h e d o o r sa n da r a b b eat r o u n dt h e i rb a c k
faces;be sureto leaveenoughstockbetweenthe two to install
ihp hinopc lnaop

77

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t
BUILDING
A GLASS
DOOR
'l

Cutting
a rabbetto holdgtass
I G l a s sp a n e l sl i e r n r a b b e t rsa t h etrh a n
g r o o v easn da r eh e l di n p l a c eb yt h i n s t r i p s
o f m o l d i n gC. l a m pt h eg l u e d - ufpr a m et o
a w o r ks u r f a c eu, s i n ga w o o dp a dt o p r o t e c ty o u rs t o c k T
. h e ni n s t a lal % - i n c hr a b b e t i n gb i t i n a r o u t e ar n ds e tt h e d e p t ho f
c u t t o t h e c o m b i n e tdh i c k n e sosf t h e g l a s s
a n dt h e m o l d r n gH. o l dt h e t o o lf i r m l yw i t h
b o t hh a n d sw h i l er e s t i n g
t h e b a s ep l a t eo n
t h e f r a m en e a ro n ec o r n e rt,h e ng u i d et h e
b i t i n t ot h e i n s i d ee d g eo f t h e d o o r .M o v e
the routerclockwise
alongthe edges(far
ieft)untilthe cut is completed.
Squarethe
c o r n e rw
s i t ha c h i s eal n da w o o d e nm a l l e t
(nearleft).Makethe cutsacrossthe grain
f i r s tt o a v o i ds p l i t t i n g
t h ef r a m e .

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r)

M a k i n gt h em o l d i n a
gnd
L gluingupthe door
Shapeboth edgesof a board(page66)
t h a t i s l o n ge n o u g ht o p r o d u c e
the length
o f m o l d i n yg o un e e dT. h e nr i pt h e m o l d i n gf r o mt h es t o c ko n a t a b l es a w .C u tt h e
molding
t o l e n g t hm
. i t e r i n tgh e e n d sa t
4 5 ' . C u ta n df i t o n ep i e c ea t a t i m e .0 n c e
t h e m o l d i n gi s r e a d ys, e ta d r o po f c l e a r
glaztng
c o m p o u nedv e r yf e w i n c h e st o
p r e v e ntth e g l a s sf r o m r a t t l i n g L
. a yt h e
m o l d i n gi n p l a c ea n d ,s t a r t i n 2
g inches
f r o m t h e c o r n e r sb, o r ep i l o th o l e sa t 6 i n c hi n t e r v a ltsh r o u g ht h e m o l d i n ga n d
r n t ot h e f r a m e T
. a c kd o w nt h e m o l d i n g
w i t h b r a d s u, s i n ga p i e c eo f c a r d b o a rtdo
protectthe glassfrom the hammer(right).

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7B

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ARMOIRE

LACE
HINGES
THED00RS
0NTHEARM0IRE:
HANGING

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onthedoors
thehinges
1 Installing
to thedoorwitha
I Thetypeof hingeshownhereattaches
The
fasten
the
assembly
to
thearmoire.
leafat eachend;bolts
Begin
by
securinto
the
door
edge.
mustbe mortised
leaves
thehingeontheedge
in a vise.Position
ingthedooredge-up
l
e
a
v
e
s
A
.
t
e a c ho u t l i n eu, s ea
a n dm a r kt h e l o c a t i oonf t h e
t
h
c h i s etlo c u t a r e c e sisn t h ec h e e ko f er a b b eat r o u n tdh e
b a c ko f t h ed o o re q u a il n d e p t ht o t h el e a ft h i c k n e ssst;o p
. e nf i t a ne l e c t r idcr i l lw i t h
t h ec u ta t t h er a b b esth o u l d eTr h
a t w i s tb i te q u ailn d i a m e t et or t h et h i c k n e sosf t h el e a fa n d
therecesses
down
holesto extend
of overlapping
borea series

(above,
theleaves
/eff).Periodically
test-fit
intotheshoulder
i n t h em o r t i s etsa,p p i ntgh e mi n w i t ha m a l l e ts;t o pd r i l l i n g
oncethe hingerestsflushon theedgeof thedoorwiththe
s .e m o vteh eh i n g ef r o mt h ed o o r ,
l e a v eisn t h e i rm o r t i s e R
l a yt h ed o o rf l a to n a w o r ks u r f a caen dp o s i t t otnh e h i n g e
Mark
outside
themortises.
the leaves
ontheedge,leaving
s c r e wh o l e so n t h e b a c kf a c eo f t h ed o o rs t i l ea n db o r ea
. l i d et h eh i n g el e a v ebsa c k
c o u n t e r s uhnokl ea t e a c hm a r kS
thehinge
to secure
intothemortises,
anddrivethescrews
right).
to the door(above,
r) Installing
thedoor
L to mountthehinpeboltsto the
armoire,
setthepiecJonits back.
if necessary,
Working
witha helper,
andmark
holdthedoorin position
onthefrontstileof
theboltlocatrons
holeat
Borea clearance
thearmoire.
thedoor
eachmark.thenreposition
slipping
theboltsinto
onthepiece,
theholes(left).Fixthedoorin place
withthenutsorovided.

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ARMOIRE

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HANGING
THED00RS:
CL0CK-GASE
HINcES
thehinges
1 Positioning
I Setthearmoire
on itsback.Foreach
door,fix stripsof masking
tapeacross
the
corners
of theopening.
Place
smallsandpapershimsbeside
thepieces
of tapeto
prevent
thedoorfrominadvertently
shifti n ga sy o uw o r kS
. e tt h ed o o ri n p l a c e ,
c e n t e r i ni g
t o v e tr h eo p e n i n gM. e a s u r e
frombothsidesto makecertain
thedoor
is parallel
to thestiles.Onceyouaresatisfiedwiththepositioning,
markthecornersof thedooronthetapewitha pencil.
Next,buttthehinges
against
theedgeof
thedoor;usea tapemeasure
to makesure
thattheyareequally
spaced
fromthetop
and bottomof the door(right).Holding
theupperhalfof thehingein place,
slip
offthebottom
halfandthehingepinand
usea pencilto markthescrewholeson
the dooredge(below).

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Dottom half

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r) Mounting
thehinges
onthedoor
L Securethe
on a worK
dooredge-up
surface.
thenboreoilotholesat each
point.Holdthetophalfof each
marked
hingesquare
to thedooredgeandscrew
it in place(/eff).

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Hanging
thedoor
Place
thedoorbackonthearmoire
thehinges.
Check
that
andreassemble
of thedoorarealigned
with
thecorners
tape.Trace
themarkson themasking
witha
around
thebottom
of thehinges
p e n c i lr,e m o vteh ed o o rd, i s a s s e m b l e
the hinges,
andreposrtion
the bottom
halves
on thearmoire.
Markthescrew
holes
onthecabinet,
borepilotholes,
and
screwthe bottomhalfof eachhingeto
(below).
thearmoire
Remove
theshims
a n dt a p es t r i p si,n s e rtth e p i n i n t h e
halfof thehinge,
bottom
andplacethe
dooronthearmoire.

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HANGING
THED00RS:RAT-TAII
HINGES
'l

Mounting
thehingeson the door
I Measure
the distancebetween
the top
e d g eo f t h e h i n g el e a fa n dt h e s c r e wh o l e s
i n t h e l e a;f t h e h o l e sw i l l b e h i d d e no n c e
the leafis readyto be fastened
to the door.
Makea mortisefor eachhingeleafas you
wouldfor lacehinges(page79). Withthe
d o o re d g e - u ipn a v i s e ,s l i d et h e l e a fi n t o
i t s m o r t i s eT. h e ns l i pt h e r a t - t a ipl i n i n t o
its bracketandsetthe bracketon the door
edgewith the tail pointingtowardthe bottom of the door.Holdingthe pin and brack, p t h e l e a fd e e p e irn t ot h e
e t i n p o s i t i o nt a
d o o re d g eu n t i lt h e h o l ei n t h e l e a fa l i g n s
with the pin (left).Measure
fromthe top
o f t h e l e a ft o m a r ki t s s c r e wh o l e so n t h e
doorand borecountersunk
holes.Drivethe
screwsto f ix the leafto the door.

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r) Mounting
thedoor
Z. Position
thedoorin itsopening
in the
a r m o i raen da s s e m btlheeh i n g es,l i d i n g
therat{ailpinintotheholein theleaf.
F a s t e n i nt hgeh i n g et o t h ea r m o i ries a
t w o - s t eopp e r a t i obne, g i n n i nwgi t ht h e
bracket.
Traceitsoutline
onthearmoire,
remove
the bracket
andoin.thenborea
clearance
holeforthe bracket
boltsupp l i e dw i t ht h eh i n g et h r o u gthh ec e n t e r
o f t h eo u t l i n eT.h r e atdh eb o l ti n t ot h e
b r a c k est ,l i pt h eb o l ti n t ot h ec l e a r a n c e
h o l ea, n du s et h en u ts u p p l i etdo f a s t e n
thebracket
to thearmoire.
Thenslidethe
pinintothebracket,
checking
thattheratt a i ll i e sf l a to nt h ec a b i n e bt ;e n dt h et a i l
in a vise,if necessary,
to makeit sit flat.
R e a s s e mtbhl eh i n g e
o n ef i n a tl i m ea n d
u s ea f i n i s h i nnga i lt o f a s t e tnh er a t - t a i l
to Ihe armoire(right).

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ARMOIRE

A L()CK
INSTALLING
the keyhole
Cutting
1
I T o m a r kt h e k e v h o l el o c a t i o n
on the
d o o r ,m e a s u r teh e d i s t a n c eb e t w e e nt h e
o u t s i d ee d g eo f t h e l o c ka n dt h e c e n t e ro f
t h e k e yc h a m b eor n t h e i n s i d eo f t h e l o c k .
( T h el o c kb e i n gi n s t a l l e d
h e r ei s i l l u s t r a t e d o n p a g e6 3 . ) T h e nt r a n s f eyr o u rm e a s u r e m e nt to t h e d o o r ,m e a s u r i nfgr o mt h e
rabbetcheekon the door'sbackface.You
n e e dt o d r i l l t w o h o l e sf o r t h e k e y :o n e
f o r t h e s h a f ta n d a n a r r o w eorn ef o r t h e
k e yb i t ,w h i c hi s t h e s t r i po f m e t a lb e l o w
t h e f o r w a r de n d o f t h e s h a f t ,B o r et h e
w i d e rh o l ef i r s t ,u s i n ga n e l e c t r i cd r i l lf i t t e d w i t h a t w i s tb i t s l i g h t l yl a r g e trh a n
'fhen
f i t t h e d r i l lw i t h a b i t
t h e k e ys h a f t .
s l i g h t l yl a r g etrh a nt h e t h i c k n e sosf t h e
k e yb i t a n d b o r ea s e c o n dh o l eb e l o wt h e
shafthole(right);localethe holeto suit
t h e k e y .H o l dt h e d o o rs t e a d ya s y o ud r i l l
t h e h o l e sU
. s ea s m a l lf i l e o r a r i f fl e rt o
j o i n t h e t w o h o l e sa n d c r e a t ea c a v i t y
t h r o u g hw h i c ht h e k e yf i t s e a s i l y .

r) Mounting
thelockand
L makingthe
boltmortise
Position
thelockonthebackof thedoor,
in theholein the
sliding
thekeychamber
door,andfit thekeyintothe lock.With
t h ek e yi n p l a c eh, o l dt h e l o c ks t e a d y
it to thedoor(/eff).Make
whilefastening
surethatthe lockis square
to theedge
of thedoorasyoudrivethescrews.
To
locate
the mortise
forthe bolt,turnthe
keyto extend
theboltandusea pencil
to coattheendof theboltwithgraphite.
Retract
thedoor.Extend
theboltandclose
theboltagainst
theedgeof the mullion
to markitslocation
andusethedrilland
a c h i s et lo c u t a m o r t i scee n t e r eodn
l a r k l.f d e s i r e di n, s t a lal n
t h e p e n c im
escutcheon
around
thekevhole.

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B3

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CHE,ST

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areall relatively
Blanketchests
hechestis oneof theearliest
beginning
witha rectangusimilar,
typesof furniture,withalong
larcarcase
andahingedtop.Dimenutilitariantradition.Duringthe
guideline
sionsvarybutasageneral
served
asthe
MiddleAges,chests
a lengthof 40to 45inchconsider
primaryreceptacles
of household
anda
es,awidthof i8 to 20inches,
Theywere
also
goodsandvaluables.
Thecarheightofabout25inches.
calleduponto performdoubleduty
caseis madefrompanelsof edgeplace,at a timewhen
asa seating
with
gluedboardsandassembled
chairswerealuxuryformostpeople.
joindovetail
or frame-and-panel
Althoughearlychestdesigns
routedwood
ery.Thetop features
wereprimitive,medievalartisans
withsliding
stripsthatareattached
Abiscuitjoiner cutsa slotin themiteredend
oftenadornedthemwith carved
joints (page91); or amolddovetail
of the blanketchest'smoldedbase.Thebaseis
chivalricand
arches
andelaborate
ing canbe cut into its edge(page
DuringtheRenais- rabbetedto acceptthecarcaseof thechestand
battlescenes.
thetopfromwarp92).Toprevent
thebracketfeet arethenscrewedto the base.
sanceand Baroqueperiods,the
touch,wood
ing,andasadecorative
piecebeganto assume
someof the
for stiffening(page
92).Thetop can
canbefastened
thatarestillusedtoday,includingframe-and-panel battens
elements
withapianohinge(page88)orbuttbnges(page89).
joinery,moldedtopsandbases,
bracketfeet. beattached
andpatterned
for makingbasemoldingandbracketfeet
Thetechniques
hardware
wasadded,suchasbrass
Overtheyears,attractive
onpage93.Youmight
arediscussed
starting
forablanket
chest
locks,handles,
andescutcheons.
feet;thesemakea fitting
instead
to installogeebracket
In ColonialAmerica,thechestwasusuallyplacedat the choose
box
blanket
andarmoires
aswell.Installing
quilts,andlinens-hencethe baseforbookcases
footof a bedto storeblankets,
isshownstartingon page100.Theseitemsprovide
thepieceis usedto storeevery- hardware
nameblanketchest.Today,
to
carefully
touchandshouldbechosen
arebuilt thefinaldecorative
thingfromtoysandclothingto books.Manychests
designofyourproject.
theparticular
complement
for additionalstoraqe.
with drawers

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chest,with itspatternedfeet
Thistraditionaldovetailed
and moldedtopand bottom,is basedon a designimportEuropein the18thCentury.
ed toAmericafrom eastern

85

ANATOMYOF A BLANKTTCHE,ST

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Batten
(pa1e92)

--

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ToP
^8)
1p-tqe

Piano hin4e
(paqe 88)

?ix;:i-,=-..--

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"t7

P\__

/
Cheotlock -/
(pale 1OO)

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Flap etay
)creweC to tnatde
of cheel: aiCeand
lid: can be adjusLed
lto suiL wide ran4e
of lid wetqhLeand
cloetn4epeede.ln
fttlly open poeitton.
collar enaps inLo
retd cap to hold
ltd oPen

Eacutaheon
(paqe 101)

'Flush handle
ln;ne
\ rulL

/
Dovetailed carcase
(pa7e 26)

Baee -----.'
( i ) . , 1 E9. C )

Bracket. foot.
(tttqe 93.) ---\-_____

_,___-

,/

86

tt]t7t
tvu
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Traditional blanket chestswere oftenfurnishedwith one or moredrawersto store


anythingfrom papersand pens to sewing
needlesand thread. The top and bottom
panelsof rhedrawerassemblyare mounted in stoppedgroovesin thefront and
backpanelsof the chest,with a divider to
separatethe openingfor the drawers.

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HARDWARE
CHEST
INVENTORY
OFBLANKET

Eutt hinge
)ta nda rd rectangular braoe
or eLeelhin4eeet fluah wtth
aurfaceof cheaL:pin cannot
be removedeo hingemuet
be unscrewedto rernovetop

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Decorative esautaheona
A aelectionof fittin4a ineLalted
on the front panelaround keyholeto prevent damageby key
Threaded eacutcheon
Key-eha ped fixtu re fita
onuglyin elightlyoveretzed
kevhole, proiectina eliahtlv
fim cf,'eeifroni

Cheat ahain
Ltnkchainuaed
ae a lid eLay

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Reaeesedhandle
Featurea receee
for finTera;handle
etopo at 90"
Elanket
aheat hinge
)trap-otyle cheet
htn4ewith forqed finieh
for anLtqueappearance;
availablein 9- to 14-inchlenqtha

Colonialchest handlea
TraditionalAmerican
cheet handlea

Campai6n ahest corner


Corn'erfittinqe ortqinallyueed
for protectronon cheote car'
ried on mtlrtarycampaiqne,
nowugedto decorate
varioua cheat type6

Marquetry banding
lnlayetrip conaietin4of
aeveralveneergaaaembled
into an attractive deaiqn

87

Large cheot- lifti ng ha ndlea


Handlewith 90" atop
for lrfttnqheavycheeta

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TOPS

I
Sincemoldingstripsarefastenedaround its edgeswith
slidingdovetailsto accommodatewoodmovement,the
chesttop shownat left does
not requirebattensto keepit
flat, thoughtwo havebeen
addedfor decorativeeffect.
Thelid stayholdsthetopopen
and allowsit to closeslowly
to avoiddamagingthepiece.

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ATTACHING
THETOPWITHA PIANO
HINGE
Installing
thehinge
T h eh i n g es h o u l db ee q u atlo o r s l i g h t ly shorter
thanthe lengthof thechest.
Clampthetopto a worksurface
using
woodpadsto protect
thestock.Holdthe
hingein position,
aligning
thecenterof
thepinwiththebackedgeof thetop,and
traceitsoutline.
Next,installa straight
bit in a routerandsetthecuttingdepth
to thethickness
of the hingeleaf.(Take
careadjusting
thedepth;if therabbetis
toodeepit willcausethe hingeto bind
whenthelid is closed.)
Alignthebitover
the insideedgeof theoutline,
thenfasten
an edgeguidebuttedagainst
therouter
baseplate.Routthe insideedgeof the
rabbet,
keeping
the baseplatepressed
against
theedgeguide.Makerepeat
cuts,
adjusting
theedgeguideeachtime,until
the rabbetis completed.
Then,setthe
h i n g ei n t h er a b b eat n dm a r kt h e l o c a tionof thescrewholes.
lf youareadding
(page91)orbattens(page92),
molding
doso now.Thenborepilotholesat the
putthe hingebackin position
marks,
(right),anddrivethescrews.
Setthetop
onthechest,withthefreehingeleafflat
onthetopedgeof theblanket
chest'sback
panel.Markthelocation
forthescrews,
borepilotholes,
anddrivein thescrews.

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BLANKETCHEST

THET()PWITHBUTTHINGES
ATTACHING

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thehinge
outlines
1 Tracing
youcanuse
of a pianohinge,
I Instead
thetopto
to attach
twoorthreebutthinges
aremortised
Thehinges
chest.
theblanket
intoboththetopandbackpanelof the
clampthetopgood-side
Tobegin,
chest.
andplacethef irst
downona worksurface
in fromone
in position
a fewinches
hinge
thepinjustofftheback
end,positioning
to tracethe
edgeof thetop.Usea pencil
the othoutlineof the hinge(left).ltAark
onthetopin thesamemanner,
er hinges
positioning
oneneartheotherendandone

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in tho eenter

epcs:r
, ,i f n p-----v.

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thehinges
2 lnstalling
in thetop,drillpilotholes,
in theirmortises
.J Setthehinges
(above).
Next,setthetoponthechest,
themin place
andscrew
onthe
hingemortises
forthecorresponding
markthelocation
the
themoutfollowtng
thenchisel
r) Chiseling
topedgeof thebackpanel,
outthewaste
procedure
in step2, Nowlaythecheston its backon
described
o u t l i n ae n dc u t i t t o t h e
L ' l s e a c h i s et lo s c o r teh eh i n g e
downbehindit. Place
andsetthetopgood-face
a worksurface
up,pare
thechiselbevel
Then,holding
ofthehinge.
thickness
(abovd.Repeat
thanthetopunderthebackof
slightly
thicker
to clear a woodspacer
theprocedure
fromthemortise
thewaste
withtheirmorthefreehingeleaves
chestto line-up
no
theblanket
to cutthemortises
mortises.
Becareful
outtheremaintng
in place.
thehinges
andscrew
binding. tises.Borepilotholes
to prevent
of thehingeleaves
deeper
thanthethickness

B9

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HINGE
MORTISIl{G
JIG
A routeris an idealtoolto cut mortisesfor yourblanketchest'sbutt
hinges,
butdo nottryto dothejob
freehand.
A jig liketheoneshown
at rightwill guarantee
fast,accurate
results.
Youwill needto equipyour
routerwitha straight
bit anda templateguideto makethecuts.
Makethetemplate
froma piece
of %-inchplywood
wideenough
to
support
therouter.
Outline
thehinge
leafonthetemplate,
beingsureto
guide
compensate
forthetemplate
andthethickness
ofthefence,
which
plywood.
is alsomadefrom%-inch
Cutoutthe template,
thenattach
thefencewithcountersunk
screws.
To usethejig, securethetop of
thechestedge-up
in a vise.Mark
thehingeoutlineontheworkpiece
andclampthetemplate
in position,
aligning
thecutoutwiththeoutline

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on the edgeandbuttingthe fence


against
theinnerfaceof thetop.Make
the cut below),movingthe router
in smallclockwise
circles
untilthe
bottomof the recessis smooth,
then

square
thecorners
witha chisel.
When
youareusingthejig to cut mortises
in thetopedgeof theblanket
chest,
besureto securethecarcase
to oreventit frommoving.

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BLANKET CHEST

TOTHET()P
MOLDING
ADDING
themolding
1 Making
and
bit in a router
I lnstall
a moldinp
thetoolin a iable.Routthemoldmount
i n gf r o ms t o c kt h t c k etrh a nt h et o ps o
t h a tw h e nt h e l i d i s s h u t h em o l d i n g
thesideandfrontpanels
willoverhang
(Thestockshould
alsobewider
slightly.
thanyouneedsothatYou
andlonger
to size
themolding
canripandcrosscut
later.)
Alignthefencewiththebearing
andfeedtheboardintothebitto carve
in onehalfof anedge.Mount
thedesign
on eithersideof thebit
a featherboard
t o s e c u rteh ep i e c ed u r i n tgh ec u t .( l n
thefrontfeatherboard
the illustration,
Flipthe
forclarity.)
hasbeenremoved
pieceoverandrouttheotherhalf,creatinga mirrorcut of the Itrst(right).Then
to thestze
themolding
ripandcrosscut
youneeo.

r') Installing
themolding
L Y o uc a ns e c u rteh em o l d i ntgo t h e
orgluealone.
dovetails
edgewithsliding
areattached
ln thiscase,
thesidemoldings
to allowfor
slidrng
dovetatls
withstopped
thefront
woodmovement;
cross-grain
m o l d i nw
g ,h i c hw i l l s h r i nakn ds w e lpl a r a l l e tl o t h et o pp a n e li ,s a t t a c h ewdi t h
glue.Makestopped
ontheends
dovetails
rnortises
dovetail
of thetop;cut stopped
(seepage127).
in thesidemoldings
joints,
Afteryouhavemadethedovetail
at 45".Then
mitertheendsof themolding
placethetopgood-face
uponwoodshims.
a thinlayerof glueonthelasttwo
Spread
andthedovedovetail
inches
of thesliding
intopositailslot,thenslidethemolding
towelonthetop
tion.Next,laysomepaper
andinstallbarclamps
scratches
to prevent
the
woodpadsto secure
withprotective
molding
in place(left).

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9l

BLANKETCHEST

R()UTING
MOLDING
IN THET()P
'l

Routing
theedge
I Instead
o f a t t a c h i n sge p a r a tset r i p so f
m o l d i n gy, o uc a n r o u ta d e c o r a t i vseh a p e
i n t h et o p i t s e l f S
. e c u r et h e t o p g o o d - f a c e
u p o n a w o r ks u r f a c ew r t h i t s e d g ep r o j e c t i n go f f t h e s u r f a c eI.n s t a lal p r l o t e d
r o u n d i n g - o vbei rt o r a n o t h em
r o l d i n gb i t
i n y o u rr o u t e rt,h e ns e tt h e c u t t i n gh e i g h t
t o m o l dt h e t o p p a r to f t h e e d g e T
. u r no n
t h e t o o la n dg u i d et h e b i t i n t ot h e s t o c k ,
m o v i n gt h e t o o l a g a i n stth e d i r e c t i o no f
bit rotation
a n d k e e p i n tgh e p i l o tb e a r i n g
buttedagainstthe stock (/eft).Oncethe
t o p h a l fo f t h e e d g ei s m o l d e df,l i p t h e
w o r k p i e coev e ra n d r o u tt h e b o t t o mh a l f i f
c a l l e df o r b y y o u rd e s i g n .

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r) Adding
battens
L Wnenmolding
isattached
withsliding
dovetails,
it serves
to stiffen
thetop,eliminating
theneedforbattens;
molding
that
issimplyrouted
in theedgeof thetopdoes
notofferthisadvantage.
In thiscase,
to
prevent
warping
fromchanging
humidity
levels,
fastentwoor threebattens
across
theundersrde
of thetop.Cutthestrips
of
woodfromthesamestockasthetop,makingthemaboullY,inches
wideand3 inchesshorter
thanthewidthof thetop.For
visual
appeal,
roundoneendof eachbatt e no n t h eb a n ds a w .N e x ts, e tt h et o p
good-face
downon a worksurface
and
h o l dt h ef i r s tb a t t e ni n p l a c ea b o u 5
t
inches
fromoneendofthetop.Drrve
three
(Io allow
screws
to fastenit in place(right).
thebatten
to expand
andcontract,
enlarge
thecounterbored
holes
attheendsofthe
woodstripsintoovals;
thecenterscrewis
t h eo n l yo n et h a ts h o u l b
d ed r i v e inn
tight.)Repeat
theprocess
to mountthe
otherbattens.

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92

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AND FEET
BASES

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o.l'tlrcblorrTIrcltottottrttssurtltls,
ol'brackct.lbct
kct clrcstcon,si-sr-s
t t t o t t r t t c trlv l r / r- s c r c t vt os a r o b tltat srtpprtrts
Itctcdltascrrroldirtg
Tltc ltrockct.lcclorc
tlrc cttrcasc.
joitrcdn,ith lttl.f blirtddttvctails.

FEET
BRACKET
MAKING
theninboard
1t Markins
-

I T h ef e e to f t h e b l a n k ect h e s a
t r em a d e
f r o mt w o i d e n t i c abl o a r d sc u t w i t h a d e c orative
scrolp
l a t t e r na n dl o i n e dw r t hh a l f t sa, k el h el o i n e rcyu t s
b l i n dd o v e t a i l l o i nM
f i r s t ,t h e ns a wo u tt h e p a t t e r nasn da s s e m b l et h e n i e c e sT o n e s i nc. u t b l a n k tso t h e
s i z eo f t h e f e e t ,t h e nm a r kt h e h a l f - b l t n d
d o v e t a i l sI n. d i c a tteh eo u t s r dfea c eo f e a c h
b o a r dw i t l ra n X . T h e na d l u s ta c u t t i n g
p a r r s teo t h e t h i c k n e sosf t h e s t o c ka n d
s c r i b ea l i n ea c r o s tsh e i n s i d ef a c eo f t h e
p i n b o a r dt o m a r kt h e s h o u l d el r n e .N e x t ,
s e c u r et h e b o a r de n d - u pI n a v i s e ,s e t
t h e c r r l l r nppa r p et o a h o u o
t n e - t h i rtdn e
s t o c k ' st h i c k n e s sa,n d m a r ka l i n ea c r o s s
t h e e n d c l o s e rt o i t s o u t s i d ef a c e .U s ea
d o v e t a i l s q u at o
r em a r kt h e p i n so n t h e
e n d o f t h e b o a r d .F o rt h e s i z eo f b o a r d
s h o w na, h a l f - p i na t e a c he d g ea n dt w o
e v e n l sv n a . e dn i n si n h e t w e ew
n i l lm a k e
^ ^ f ,^ + r - ^ ^ r i , r, r^n t I. n d r c a t e
he
d >LruilB dilu dLLrdLLrvc JL
w a s t es e c t i o nw
s i t hX s ,t h e nu s ea c o m b i n a t i o ns q u a r e
t o e x t e n dt h e l i n e sd o w nt h e
. ei n s i d ef a c et o t h e s h o u l d el ri n e ( / e f f )R
p e a t h e m a r k so n a l l t h e p i n b o a r d s .

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93

I
BLANKET CHEST

r) Cutting
thepins
Z- Secure
a pinboardin a visewithits
you,thencut down
outside
facetoward
alongtheedges
of thepinswitha dovetail
saw,working
fromoneedgeof the board
to theother.Foreachcut,alignthesaw
bladejustto thewastesideof thecutting
lines(left).Usesmooth,
evenstrokes,
continuing
thecutsto theshoulder
line.Next,
clamptheboardoutside-face
downon a
worksurface
andusea chiselandmallet
to pareawaythewastewood:Scorea line
about%inchdeepalong
theshoulder
line
andthenshave
off a thin layerof waste,
withthechiselheldhorizontally
andbeve l - u pR
. e p e at h
t e p r o c e d utroec u tt h e
pinboards.
remaining

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rherails
Q Gutting
r.,l Seta cuttinggauge
to thethickness
o f t h ep i n st,h e nm a r kt h es h o u l d el irn e
on all thetail boards.
Placethefirsttail
boardoutside-face
downontheworksurf a c e .H o l da p i nb o a r de n d - d o wwni t h
its insidefacealigned
withtheshoulder
lineof thetailboard,
making
certain
the
edges
of theboards
areflush.Outline
the
tailswitha pencil,
thenusea trysquare
to
extend
thelinesontotheendof theboard.
Markallthewaste
sections
withXs.Then
usea dovetailsawto cut Ihelails(right).
Angling
the board,
ratherthanthesaw,
makes
foreasier
cutting.
Thensecure
the
b o a r de d g e - uipn t h ev i s ea n dc u tt h e
wastebeside
thetwooutside
tails.Remove
thewastebetween
thetailswrtha chisel
using
t h es a m et e c h n i q udee s c r i b ei nd
step2. Whenyouhavechiseled
outhalf
thewaste,
flipthepieceandf inishthejob
fromtheotherside.Repeat
the process
to cuttheothertailboards.

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BLANKETCHEST

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Test-fitting
thejoint
M a k ea t e m p l a t ew i t h t h e d e s i r e d
p a t t e r nf o r t h e f e e ta n d t r a c et h e s h a p e
o n o n ef a c eo f e a c hb o a r dT
. h e n ,t e s t - f i t
the half-blinddovetailjoinl (right).Mark
a n ys p o t st h a t b i n dw i t ha p e n c i al n d
c a r euf l l y p a r es o m ew o o da w a ya t e a c h
m a r ku n t i lt h e f i t i s s a t i s f a c t o r y .

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CUTTING
THEPATTERN
Usingthe bandsaw
C u t t h e p a t t e r ni n e a c ho f t h e f e e t f r e e h a n do n t h e b a n ds a w .T o k e e pt h e b l a d e
f r o mb i n d i n gi n t h e k e r fa t t h e t i g h tp a r t
o f t h e c u r v e ,m a k ea s e r i e so f s t r a i g h t
r e l e a s ec u t s f r o m t h e e d g eo f t h e w o r k p i e c et o t h e m a r k e dl i n e .T h e n ,a l i g nt h e
b l a d ej u s tt o t h e w a s t es i d eo f t h e c u t t i n g
l i n ea n df e e dt h ew o r k o i e ci en t ot h e b l a d e
w i t hb o t hh a n d sm
, a k i n gs u r en e i t h ehr a n d
is in linewith the cuttingedge(left).

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95

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BLANKET CHEST

MAKING
THEBASEMOLDING
'l

Making
thebasepieces
I T h ef o u rp i e c etsh a tm a k eu p t h e
b a s em o l d i nagr es h a p eadn dr a b b e t e d
i n d i v i d u a lW
l yo
. r k i nwgi t hs t o c kl o n g e r
you
than need,routoneedgeof thefront
andsidepieces
thesamewayyouwould
(page66).Next
shapecornice
molding
y
o
u
r
use
t a b l es a wt o c u tr a b b e tisn a l l
fourpieces.
Therabbets
aresawnin two
passes,
withtheshoulders
f irst,followed
bythecheeks.
Adjust
thebladeheight
so
thecheeks
willbewideenough
to support
t h ec h e sw
t i t h o urte a c h i nt hg em o l d i n g
cuts;position
thefencesoone-third
of the
stockthickness
willbecutaway.
Usetwo
featherboards
to support
theworkpiece;
attach
thetable-mounted
featherboard
to
a s h i ms ot h em i d d l o
e f t h ew o r k p i e icse
p r e s s eadg a i n st h
t ef e n c eF. e e de a c h
pieceon edgeintothe blade(left)until
t h et r a i l i n eg n dr e a c h et h
s et a b l eT. h e n
m o v et o t h eo t h e sr i d eo f t h et a b l ea n d
pullthestockoasttheblade.

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r) Gluing
upthebase
pieces
L Sawthemolding
to length,
cuttingmiters
at both
endsof thefrontpieceandat oneendof thesrdes.
Thefroni
corners
of thebaseareassembled
withmiterjoints;buttjoints
aresufficient
fortheback.Theconnections
should
bereinforced
withwoodbiscuits,
Usea platejoiner
to cutslots,
thenspread
gluein theslots,insertbiscuits
in thefrontandbackpieces,
(above)
andpress
thecorners
together
andclampthem.

96

thefeetto thebase
Q Fastening
r-,1Working
position
ona flatsurface,
thebaseonthefeetof
thechest,making
surealltheouteredges
areflush.At each
corner,
borefourcountersunk
holes
through
thebaseandinto
(above).
thefootandscrewthetwotogether
Placethechest
in therabbets
of thebasepieceanddrivescrews
fromunderneath
through
thebaseandintothechest.

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BLANKETCHEST

BRACKET
FEET
A VARIATION:
OGEE

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It is easierto sandthe
surfaces
of the
contoured
ogeebracketfeet beforeinstallingthemon thebase.

FEET
MAKING
OGEE
BRACKET
theogeecove
1 Gutting
feetarecreatedmuch
I Ogeebracket
likethe bracket
feetshownon page93,
ogeeprofileshaped
butwithan S-shaped
in theiroutside
faces.Because
of their
surfaces,
thetwohalves
of each
contoured
joint
footarejoinedwitha miter-and-spline
(page98),ratherthana half-blind
dovetail.Theogeeprofileis cut in threesteps
Beginby
onthetablesawandtherouter.
marking
theprofileontheendof a pieceof
stocklongenough
to makeall thefeet.Set
up yourtablesawto makea covecut in
thefaceof theboardasyouwouldforthe
cornicemoldingof an armoire(page69).
Usea pushblockto feedthestock,makpasses
ingseveral
shallow
to cut a cove
depth(right).Onceyou
of theappropriate
havemadethecovecut,usea routerfitbit to shapethe
tedwitha rounding-over
of theboardto themarked
line.
corner

97

BLANKET CHEST

r) Finishing
theogeeprofile
L me rideeof wastebetween
thecove
cutandtherounding-over
cutissliced
off
bythetablesaw.Tosetupthecut,hold
theworkpiece
onedgeonthesawtable
andadjust
thebladeangle
to alignthecutt i n ge d g ew i t ht h em a r k e d
l i n eo n t h e
boardend.Butttheripfenceagainst
the
stock,lockit in place,
andsettheblade
herght
to sliceawaythewaste.Usethree
featherboards
to support
theworkpiece
duringthecut:Clamp
twoto thefenceanda
thirdto thetable;thisfeatherboard
should
bemounted
ona shimsoit willpress
closerto themiddleof thestockagainst
the
fence.Feedtheworkpiece
withbothhands
(right).Oncetheboard's
trailingendreachesthetable,moveto theothersideof the
tableandoullthestockoasttheblade.

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ASSEMBLING
OGEE
BRACKET
FEET

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thebevelcuts
1 Making
I Sincetheoseebracket
feetwill beassembled
withmiter- B e f o r m
e a k i n tgh ec u t ,c l a m pa s t o pb l o c kt o t h ee x t e n s i o n
joints,
and-spline
eachof theeightfootpieces
willhavebevels t o e n a b lyeo ut o l i n eu pt h ec u t sf o rt h et h r e eo t h e ird e n t i c a l
o n a d j o i n i negn d s F
. i r s tc, u t a l l t h ep i e c essl i g h t loyv e r s i z e .pieces.
Holdtheflatedgeof theboardagainst
theextension
Tocutthebevels,
setyoursaw'sbladeangle
to 45" andattach andtheendagainst
theblockasyoumakeeachcut (above).
. a r kt h e l e n g t h
a w o o de x t e n s i ot on t h e m i t e rg a u g eM
ofa
To beveltheendsof thefourmatching
footpieces,
holdthe
f o o tp i e c eo n y o u rs t o c ka n d ,h o l d i ntgh ef l a te d g eo f t h e
contoured
edgeof thestockagainst
theextension
asyou
b o a r da g a i n st h
t ee x t e n s r oanl ,i g nt h em a r kw i t ht h eb l a d e . m a k et h ec u t s .

98

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BLANKETCHEST

r) Gutting
thesplinegrooves
g
r
o o v ef o
s rt h es p l i n eisn t h e
1ne
of
the
footDieces
arecut
beveled
ends
Install
a
dado
head
and
onthetablesaw.
splines
adjustitsthickness
to thatof the
youwill use.Settheangleof the headat
45oandshifttheriofenceto theleft-hand
sideof theblades.
Holding
onefootpiece
flat-face-down
onthesawtable,buttthe
endagainst
thecuttingedgesof
beveled
thedadoheadandadjustthefenceand
groove
will be
bladeheightsoa %-inch
locatedaboul%inchfromthe bottomof
theend
the piece.Buttthefenceagainst
of the stockandlockit in place.Feed
eachpiecewith the miler gauge(left),
pressing
theendagainst
thefencethroughoutthecut.

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and
Cutting
thepatterns
gluingupthefeet
arecut,design
Onceallthesplinegrooves
thescrolloatterns
ontheflatfacesof the
pieces
andcutthemoutonthebandsaw
(page95).Sandthe piecessmooth,
then
or solidwoodto
fromplywood
cutsplines
shouldbe
fit intothegrooves.
Thesplines
maketheirwidth
aslongasthegrooves;
slightlylessthantwicethe combined
(lf youusesolid
depthof twogrooves.
cut themsothe
woodfor thesplines,
grainrunsacross
theirwidth,ratherthan
in thegrooves
lengthwise.)
Spread
adhesive
andglueup thefeet (right),thenattach
themto the baseasyouwouldstandard
bracketfeet (page96).

99

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HARDWARE
INSTATLING
A LOCK

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A commonfeature of traditional campaign chests,solid brassflush handles
add a touch ofclassto any blanketchest.
The handlesstop at a 90" angle to the
sidesof the chest,providing a convenient
way to lift the piece.

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thelockfaceplate
1 0utlining
I Laythecheston itsfrontpanelandposition
the lockface-down
midway
between
thesidesandflushwiththetopedgeof thepanel.Tracetheoutline
(above),
of thefaceplale
thenextend
thelinesontothetopedgeof thepanel.
r) Routing
thelockmoftise
l mis is oneof therareinstances
in
whichtherouteris usedto makea freehandcut.Careandpatience
arerequired.
Usea woodchiselto firstcut a shallow
mortise
forthefaceplate
lip in thetop
edgeof thefrontpanel.Next,installa
straight
bit in yourrouter,
setthecutting
depthto thethickness
of thefaceplate,
andcuta mortise
insidethemarked
outline.Startbyguiding
thetoolin a clockwisedirection
to cuttheoutside
edgesof
themortise;
clearouttheremaining
waste
byfeeding
thetoolagainst
thedirection
of bit rotation.
Usethechiselto souare
the
corners
andpareto theline.Measure
the
distance
between
theedgesof thefaceplateandthe lockhousing
andtransfer
the measurement
to themortise.
Adjust
therouter's
cuttingdepthto thethickness
of thehousing
andcutthef inalmortise
(left).Usethechiselto square
anycorners.
Test-fit
the lockin thecavityandusethe
chisel
to deepen
orwidenanyof themortises,if necessary.

100

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BLANKETCHEST

thekeyhole
Q Cutting
andmark
r-J Setthelockin themortise
Cuttheopenof thekeyhole.
thelocation
lock(page
ingasyouwouldforanarmoire
oneholeforthekeyshaftand
B3),drilling
forthekeybit.Usea smallf ileto
another
lointhetwoholes(nght)

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Installing
theescutcheon
onthefront
Position
theescutcheon
p a n eol f t h ec h e s ta, l i g n i nigt so p e n i n g
Usea stripof masking
overthekeyhole.
while
t a p et o h o l dt h eh a r d w a irnep l a c e
youstartthenailsin theirholes.
To proeachnail
whendriving
tectyourf ingers
flush,gripthenailshaftwithneedle-nose
pliers(/eff).

101

BLANKET CHEST

thelock
f, Mounting
r-f Oncethekeyhole
is cut,laythechest
on itsfrontpanelagainandsetthe lock
in itsmortise.
Markthescrewholesonthe
panel,remove
the lock,andborepilot
holes.
Setthelockin placeagainandfastenit to thechest,driving
thescrewheads
(/effl.
flushwiththefaceplate

Front panel

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Installing
thestrikeplate
Complete
h e l o c ki n s t a l l a t i ob ny
mounting
thestrikeplateto thetopof
thechest.Slipthescrews
through
their
holesin the plateandsetthe plateon
topof the lock.Turnthe keyuntilthe
lockengages
withthestrikeplate,then
adda stripof masking
tapeto holdthe
platefirmlyin place.Slowly
closethetop
of the chest(right)untilits underside
touches
thescrews.
Borea pilotholeat
eachmarkleft by the screwtipsand
attachthestrikeplateto thetop.

r02

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BLANKETCHEST

HANDLES
FLUSH
INSTALLING
thehandles
1 0utlining
I Laythecheston onesideandPosimidway
outside-face-down
tiona handle
panels
anda
back
between
thefrontand
the
outline
top.
Trace
below
the
fewinches
of the mountingplate
tight).

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/) Mounting
thehandles
L lnstalla straightbit in yourrouter,
of
setthecuttingdepthto thethickness
plate,
inandcuta mortise
themounting
asyouwouldfor
outline
sidethemarked
the disa lock(pageI 00). Next,measure
of themounting
theedges
tancebetween
and
plateandthe bowl-shaped
housing
to themortise.
themeasurement
transfer
cuttingdepthto the
Adjusttherouter's
andcutthedeepof thehousing
thickness
in thecavity
thehandle
Test-fit
er mortise.
andusea woodchiselto pareanyremain(farleft).
ingwastewoodfromthe mortises
platerestsf lushwith
Oncethemounting
faceof thesidepanel,mark
theoutside
and
thehandle,
remove
thescrewholes,
borea pilotholeat eachmark.Setthe
it to the
andfasten
handle
in placeagain
for
theprocedure
chest(near/eff).Repeat
theotherhandle.

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103

INLAYS

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Contrrrcrcinlbarding is at,nilaltleirr
a variety oJ'desigrts
to conrplenterfi
works rarrgirrg
r
Ji"ortta Welshtlresse
to n boardroonrtnble.Here, it nddsa
decorntivetortcltto the top ofn blanket chest.Inlay nurterinlsctm be nrctal,
wood verteer,or solid lurrdwood.

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INSTATTING
INLAY

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Routing
thegroove
I G r o o v efso r i n l a ya r ec u t w i t h a r o u t e fr i t t e dw i t h a s t r a i g h t s u r et h e d i s t a n c eb e t w e e n
t h e r o u t e rb a s ep l a t ea n d t h e e d g e
b i t t h e s a m ew i d t ha s t h e i n l a y .l f y o ua r ei n s t a l l i nsgh o p - m a d e o f t h e t o p , a n d c u t t h e e d g eg u i d ea n d s t o pb l o c k st o t h a t
r n l a ys, e tt h e c u t t i n gd e p t hs l i g h t l ys h a l l o w et hr a nt h e t h i c k - w i d t h .S c r e wa f e n c et o e a c hp i e c es o i t c a n b e p o s i t i o n e d
n e s so f t h e s t r i p s ;t h e i n l a yw i l l b e s a n d e df l u s h ( s f e p3 ) .
s q u a r et o t h e e d g e so f t h e t o p . F o re a c hc u t ,c l a m pt h e g u i d e
F o rc o m m e r c i abla n d i n gw, h i c hi s v e r yt h i n ,m a k et h e c u t t i n g a l o n gt h e e d g ey o uw i l l b e c u t t i n ga n df a s t e na s t o pb l o c ka t
d e p t he q u atl o t h e i n l a yt h i c k n e st o
s m i n i m i zsea n d i n gO. u | i n e e a c he n d . H o l d r n g
t h e r o u t e r ' sb a s ep l a t ea g a i n stth e e d g e
e n t h e t o p w i t ha p e n c i l i;t s h o u l db e e q u i d i s t a n t g u i d ea n do n es t o pb l o c k t, u r no n t h e t o o la n d p l u n g e
t h eg r o o v o
thebit
f r o mt h e e d g e sR
. o u tt h e f o u rs i d e so f t h e g r o o v ei n d i v i d u a l l y ,r n t ot h e s t o c k .F e e dt h e b i t ( a b o v eu) n t i lt h e b a s ep l a t ec o n g u r d i n gt h e t o o lw i t h a n L - s h a p eedd g eg u i d ea n d s t o pb l o c k s . t a c t st h e o t h e rs t o pb l o c k ,O n c ea l l t h e c u t sa r e m a d e ,
square
T o s e t u p t h e g u i d e sa, l i g nt h e b i t w i t ht h e c u t t i n gl i n e ,m e a - t h e c o r n e rw
s i t ha c h i s e.

i04

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BLANKETCHEST

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r) Setting
theinlayin thegroove
the
I Cut inlayto lengthto f it in the
groove,
usingyourtablesawfor shopmadeinlay,or a woodchtselforcommergroove
Fortherectangular
cialbanding.
at
the
ends
cuts
45"
miter
make
shown,
pieces.
it
test-f
one
Cut
and
of the inlay
pieceat a time,thenspread
a littleglue
of theinlayandinsertit
ontheunderside
(right),tapping
thestripgently
in theslot
bandCommercial
mallet.
witha wooden
place
with
masking
held
in
be
ingshould
cures.
tapeuntiltheadhesive

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theinlay
Trimming
sandthetoP
Oncethegluehasdried,
andbring
adhesive
anyexcess
to remove
f lushwiththesurface
theinlayperfectly
inlay,usea
of thewood.Forshop-made
b e l ts a n d efri t t e dw i t ha 1 2 0 - g r ibt e l t .
alongoneinlay
forward
Movethesander
pieceIeft)andpullthesander
backwhen
youreachtheendof thestrip,overlapping
thewidthof the
thefirstpassbyone-half
of theinuntilthesurfaces
belt.Continue
layandthetopareflush,thenmoveonto
witha
theprocess
theotherstrips.Repeat
(150the
to smooth
or 18O-grit)
finerbelt
Sand
surface.
inlayandthesurrounding
byhandwitha sandbanding
commercial
bandSomemodern
ingblock.Becareful:
inchthick.
ingis lessIhan%o

l r)l

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105

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HIGHBOY

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shown
Themodemreproduction
hehighboyoriginatedin 17th
page
106
dison
photograph
in
the
I CenturyEuropeandwasinof
elements
plays
manytt'aditional
lacspiredby theornateChinese
gracethe
18th
Centurydesign:
the
importedfor the
queredcabinets
frrl cabriolelegs,the scrolledpediof itssize,
Endishnobilitv.Because
mentor crownmolding,theflamethe"highboy-or high chestof
and-urnfinials,theflutedquarter
in two
drawers-wasconstructed
columns,andtheshellcarvingand
a lowerchestthat suPsections:
appliedmoldingadorningthescalporteda tallerchestwith four or
loped
aprononthelowerchest.
moretiers.ThetoPlevelwasfrechapterwillshowyouhow
This
quentlydividedinto threesmaller
thisclassic
andconstruct
design
to
drawerssetsideby side.
frombuildingthe
piece
of
furniture,
styleevolved
fu theQueenAnne
upperchest(page110)to sawing
andclasinto themoreornilmental
(Dase
less(page
legs
shaoins
thecabriole
andshaping
sryleduringthe
sicalChippendale
lowandthen
assemblins
the
and,thenassgmblinq
112)
cabinet,
Topreventdustfromenteringthe
futt.t p*ilf thersth Centu{ the
(page.116).
is
also
Attention
er
chest
thebotunderneath
areinstalled
speciilframes
tifihb"y found favorwith afflulike
details,
finer
to
the
devoted
nmdranerinthelowerchat.Thedustshield
.n?ro.i.ty in colonialcitieslike
the
around
cockbgl{ing
installing
construction
isabasicframe-and-panel
Itritaaapiria, Boston,and New
(page
crown
r.outing
118),
drawers
sides.
scrsuedto theiarcase
York.Towaing7 or 8 feethigh,the
molding (page124),carvingthe
i.foringhigliboy*miaeaiyiuit1j4)t
(2ag.el30),
thequartel.glp": (page
shaping
and
.a'to in.t."g.nt,lofty ceilihgsof themanorhousesof the frnals
and
upper
htghboy't
the
pagej
illustrate
two
The-foiiowing
time,anditsiumerousdraweisweretheperfectsolutionfor
piece
identified;
are
the
of
major
The
chests.
Highboysbecame lower
for entertaining'.
rt"riititft.rttiJes needed
{eatryeg
to find outhowto makeandinstall
indicated
the ha"llmarkof fashionableliving rooirs aid ttreir prices referto thepages
Today, eachelement.
Thetrendhascontinuedunabated.
rosedramatically.
butwith careand
ahighboyisa challenging.task,
cabi- -..Building
Philadelphia
by therenowned
tft. ftigiib"yrpr6duced
netm;kersofthe 1700sl.. rrnongthemostsought-after diligenceyoucangleateapieceoffurniturewiththegraceand
ancestors.
of its200-year-old
appeal
timeless
pieces
of antiquefurniture.

theharmony
at leftexempffies
Thehighboy
typiandfluid curves
straightlines
between
Anne-style
calof Queen
furniture.

r07

ANATOMYOF A HIGHBOY
UPPER
CHEST
Crown molding
ilr:irl. l,-/ij \

//

Top rail
(Y::.t;,1f
i^i;t'1
aaa..,

/
\

/'

l0.s

Roeette
il).,1q.i2a')

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HIGT{BOY

LOWER
CHEST

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Cockbeading
(.pa4e118)

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Bottom.rail

thell carvinq
(.paae137'1

t,|3q.|o t

Knee block
(Fqe 117.)
Cabriole leq
1 ; t a 4 e1 1 2 )

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I09

THE,UPPE,R
ASSE,MBLING
CHE,ST
lic highbol,'s
uppcrchc'sthastu'cr
majorconrponcnts:
a largccarcase
anclan claborate
lircetranrethat tits
1,ithi1it. As shorvn1.,.1sl1r,
tl.tecarcase
cor.rsists
of ir top anclbottour,tl'o sicle
panels,
ancltu'clbackpanclsscparatecl
'l'he
corbr.astile-ol mr-rntilt. carcasc
luersarejoincdn'ith throLrgh
clovctail
lssit
26J,anclthebacli.
parre
ioints(prrgc
in rabbets
the insidecclgcs
cr.rtrror.rncl
(prrgc
i 1).Thc
of thecarcase
anclr.r.runtir.r
n.r-rntir.r
is attachecl
to thetop andbotn'ithnrortise-andtonrofthe carcase
teuonjoints.
Thctracc
fl'rrnrc,
shorvnfrrce-Lrp
belorv
auclfacc-clou'n
on pageI I 1,isbuiltfronr
a top rail,tn'oL-shapccl
fi'ontposts,ancl

fl'anrefbr cachticr of cil'arvcrs.


r clrau,cr
T l l e t o p t r t i li s t l t r t l ' . ' t lr ' . t 6 6 . ' 11t111 . '
crorvnmolcling(prrgc124)nd rosettes
(ptrgc128),both of 1'hicharc aclcle
cl
latc'r.
The backtaceof the top rail is
qroovecl
top,ancl
to acceptthecarcase
hasa tenoncutin eachendto flt in r.norThcL shape
tisesin thetu,ofr-ontposts.
thespaccfbr
ol'thefl'ontpostscreates
(prrge
1,34).
The
the quarter-colunrns
firnt postssitin notches
cLLt
in thecarcasetop auclbottout.
The drrrrver's
supportingfl'trnres
irrc
from railsanclstilesjoined
assenrbled

(prryc
n'ithmortisr'-ancl-tenons
-16J.
lx6l1
franrehasan rrclclecl
dovetailedslicle
(pagc122).Tiranchortheframesto the
cArcase,
tn'obraces
rrrcscren'ecl
to thc'top
of cachoneanclto thesiclcpanels.
The
drau'erfl'aurcsarcnotchcdat thc front
to accou'uloclate
the front postsancl
scrcrvecl
to thenr.'l'he
uppernrost
clrarv
er franrcsllpports
thlecsmalldrau'ers;
it f'eatures
tu'ocliviclers
anclthreeclrau,hasbeen
er slicles.
Oncethefrrcefr-ame
bLrilt,
it is simpl,v
slipped
into thecarctrse(.scc
&c/orr')
aucltheu scrervc'c'l
to thc'
sicleofthe carcrsc
tliroLrgh
thebraces.

DETAIL
C()NSTRUCTION
(FACE-UP
VIEW)

'..

Faca
rrame

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li,,-:ck, --....-_
cenai

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'-

lll : )tf ! n --"-------,--'

Carcaea

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HIGHBOY

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FACE
FRAME
(FACE-DOWN
VIEW)

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Toppancl
)

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Stde
Panet
'l'lrt'

ol'tlrc lrighboy
tlratt't'rstlnt lit irtto lltc ltlrr c/ic-sl-s
-s.rc11'('rl
to tltc sidt'
trc tvpictlly sttltportctlbv.litrrrrt's
t
l
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t
l
raw
c
r
b
ott
o tt ts t t to l c
p a t tt' l s; t l o t't' t tt i l r:d t rttrrt t'-s ii i t'
troiIt'd to tItt'.l)'orrrt'.
tvitIr rrrott'Irirrs
-s/lrfu'-s

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Dtvider /

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Drawer
frame

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{

\,,.,,,,
{.)r,)t::l

DcvetatleC
drawcr oltdc
iri.i

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ir,.r'fi a'i

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lil

CABRIOLELEGS
()UTTHEIEGS
SAWING

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Foat block

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A distinctivefeatureof QueenAnne
style,the tapering,curyedcabrioleleg
haslongbeenconsidered
a challenge
But itsgracefullines
for cabinetmakers.
canbecut easilyon thebandsawand
smoothed
with handtools.

theleg
1 Designing
I Makea template
plywood
froma pieceof %-inch
or hardboard
cutto thesame
lengthandwidthasyourlegblanks.
Thedesign
shownabove
at topwillyieldan
attractive,
stable,
andwell-proportioned
leg,butyoucanalterthepattern
to suit
yourproject
or copythedesign
of an existing
legthatappeals
to you.Begindrawing
thelegbyoutlining
thepostblock.Makeits length
equalto thewidthof thelower
railthatwillbeattached
to it, plustheheightof thelowerchest's
sidepanels.
The
widthof thepostblockshouldbeadequate
to accepttherailtenon.Later,it will be
(page116)to acceptthequarter
notched
columns
of the lowerchest.Next,sketch
thepadandthetoe,thenthefrontof thelegfromthetoeto theankleusinga french
point,thediameter
curve;at its narrowest
of theankleshouldbeabouttwo-fifths
thestockwidth.Moveonto theknee,sketching
a gentlecurvefromthepostblock
to thefrontedgeof thetemplate
about2 to 3 inchesbelowtheblock.Thenjointhe
kneeto theanklewitha relatively
straight
line.Complete
theoutlineat thebackof
the leg,fromtheankleto the bottomof the postblock(above).
Experiment
untilyou
havea satisfactory
design.

T12

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HIGHBOY

r') Transferring
thedesign
I rcne legblanks
C u to u ty o u rt e m p l a toen a b a n ds a w ,
outto the marked
thensandtheedges
l i n e .H o l dt h et e m p l a tfel a to n o n eo f
facesof thelegblank,making
theinside
and
surethattheendsof thetemplate
t h eb l a n ka r ea l i g n eadn dt h a t h eb a c k
of theoostblockis f lushwiththeinside
edgeof theblank.Tracealongtheedges
. urn
o f t h et e m p l a t eo o u t l i n teh el e g T
theprocedure
theblankoverandrepeat
on the otherinsidefacetight).At this
point,somewoodworkers
prefer
to prepare
the legsandrarlsforthejoinerybefore
to clampand
cutting
theleg.(lt iseasier
legblank,
in a rectangular
cuta mortise
forexample,
thanto carryoutthesame
p r o c e d u r oe ns a l e gw i t hp r o n o u n c e d
cutthe leg
Otherwoodworkers
curves.)
firstandthendotheloinery.

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oneface
Cutting
Setthe leeblankon the bandsaw
facoutlines
tablewithoneof themarked
of thelegpointing
ingupandthebottom
thesawblade
awayfromyou.Aligning
justto thewaste
line
sideof themarked
forthebackof theleg,feedthestockinto
Turnoffthesawabouthalfway
theblade.
theworkpiece.
thecutandremove
through
t h es a m el i n ef r o mt h e
T h e nc u ta l o n g
thewaste
detaching
opposite
end.Toavord
piecefromtheblankandlosing
themarked
face,stopthecut
outline
ontheadjacent
a
about%inchfromthefirstkerf,leaving
thetwocuts.Retract
shortbridgebetween
thencutalong
thelinefor
theworkpiece,
thefrontof the leg(left),againleaving
thewastewoodfrom
to prevent
bridges
fallingaway.

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113

HIGHBOY

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Completing
thecutsand
severing
thebridges
Turnoverthe blanksothatthemarked
o u t l i n oe n i t sa d j a c e n
s itd ei s f a c i n g
up.
C u ta l o n gt h em a r k e ldi n e sb, e g i n n i n g
withthosealongthefrontof theleg,then
theback(above).
Thistime,complete
ihe
cuts,lettingthewastefall away.
Then
r o t a t teh eb l a n ka n dc u tt h r o u gthh e
bridges
leftduringyourfirstcuts(right).

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SHAPING
THELEGS
thepad
1 Forming
I Usea compass
to outline
thecircular
padonthebottom
of theleg.Thensecure
thelegin a vise,withthebottom
endfacingup,andusea backsaw
to cut away
t h eb u l ko f t h ew a s t e
s u r r o u n d itnhge
outline.
Maketwoseries
of cuts,starting
withfourcutsstraight
intotheendof the
l e ga t t h ec o r n e r tsh, e ns a w i nagr o u n d
theendof the legto severthecorners.
Next,secure
thelegin a barclamp,lock
t h ec l a m pi n a v i s ea, n du s ea p a t t e r n maker's
raspto roundthecorners
of the
p a dC
. o n t i n uuen t i l t h ep a di s c i r c u l a r
(right),
rotating
the legin theclampas
necessary.
Usea fileto smooth
thepad.

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HIGHBOY

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r) Shaping
thefoot
theclampin theviseso
Z- Reposition
thepatthefootistilteddown.Holding
raspat anangleof approxternmaker's
45" to theleg,beginbyshaping
imately
fromthebottomup hbove).
thecontour
thelegin theclampasnecesRotate
sarysothatyoucanshapethefootall
thesurface
Smooth
thewayaround.
file,then
flatbastard
usinga double-cut
f i n i s ht h ej o bw i t hs a n d p a p eurs,i n g
papers.
progressively
f iner-grit

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theknee
andsmoothing
Shaping
legand
thecabriole
Tof inishshaping
leftbytheband
anyblemishes
to remove
of theknee
thesurface
sawblade,smooth
witha rasp
following
witha spokeshave,
Holding
thespokeshave
andsandpaper.
of a curved
withbothhandsat thebottom
edgeof the leg,pushthetoolslowlyaway
(left).Make
fromyou,cuttinga thinshaving
passes,
working
of overlapping
a series
is smooth.
withthegrainuntilthesurface
Turnthelegin thebarclampto cleanup
Usethe raspto smooth
theotheredges.
cannotreach.
an areathatthespokeshave
thejobwithsandpaper.
Complete

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115

ASSEMBLING
THE LOWERCHEST

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ncethecabriole
lessarecompleted and the cavitie-'s
for tl-recluart c r c o l L r r t t ri lt rse r o u t e di n l l r e p o s t
blocks,thelou,erchestctrnbegluedup.
Thechest-sholvn in thephotoou page
107-is madeup of four legs,trvoside
panels,
trvobackpanels,
bottomrailsat
the front and back,i'Lndtu,o drau,er

frames.Thebottomdrau,erf}antecontainsdustpanelsandisdividedinto sectionsfor threedrau,ers.


Likethedraler
fiiules of theupperchest,thetop frante
features
a dovetailed
dralverslide.(The
threesmaillowerdr;ru,els
slidervellrvithout the aid of a s1ide.)
Thefiarrestrre
screrved
to bracesthat trreattached
to

MunL

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thesidepanels.
Thelegsaregrooved
to
accepttl-reentirethickness
of theback
panelsandrabbets
in thesidepanels.
Theleesalsofbature
nortisesthatrnate
nith tenor.rs
cut in thebottonrrails.As
lr,ithtl-reupperchest,
thebackpanelsirre
separated
bv a nr.urtin.Oncethelou,er
chestis gluedup,kneeblocksarefashionedandattached
to thelegs(pngcI 17).
Cockbeading
arround
the dralers and
the shellcarvirlgandappliedmolding
on the bottontrail areaddecllater.To
complete
thechest,thequartercolnrnns
aretnmedandinstalled
in thelegnotchesand,finall1,,
a moldedfl'ameis attachedto thetopeclee
of thechest.
The
f}amelvill conceirl
the seantrvhenthe
upperchestis setin place.

\
Frace

tsack
panel

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',,/
21

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/I
Drane'---//
raarrle

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--}

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/'-t'

/'
DoveLailed ---'
Crawer altde

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Diviaer-/
Cabriole
leq

/.'*

9ide
panel

/
Duet --'/

,/
/

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-/

/'

frame

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DotLom ratl
\nee
PlOCK

QuarLer
aolumn

I16

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HIGHBOY

BL()CKS
KNEE
ANDM()UNTING
MAKING
'l

thekneeblocks
Oesigning
whichlointhecurves
I Thekneeblocks,
of thelegsandbottomrails,aredesigned
For
andcut muchlikethelegsthemselves.
placea prece
of stiffcardboard
a template,
thelegandadjoinbetween
in thecorner
linethatconingrailanddrawa contour
Thesametemplate
nectsthetwopieces.
Transcanbeusedforallthekneeblocks.
f e rt h e l i n et o a w o o db l a n kt h a ti s a s
widerandlarger
thickastheleg,slightly
f
ill.
Place
theblank
it
must
the
area
than
face
leg
so
its
outstde
rail
and
the
against
is flushwiththeouterpartof thelegand
the
lineontheblankusing
drawa second
legas a guide(right).Thegrainof the
to thatoftheleg.
beparallel
blockshould
on
the
bandsawasvou
out
the
block
Saw
(page
113).
legs
did the

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r) Mounting
thekneeblocks
L Onceall thekneeblockshavebeen
gluethemup oneat
cutandsmoothed,
of adhesive
to
a time.Applya thinlayer
surfaces,
thenholdthe
thecontacting
pieces
witha clamp.Usewood
in place
padsto protect
the stockanddirect
pressure
themto
byshaping
clamping
the legs(left).Driuea
f it f lushagainst
thekneeblockandinto
screwthrough
thelegforaddedreinforcement.

TT7

COCKBEADING
Cockbeadingis a rounded molding that extends
beyond thefront of the highboy and frames
the drawer openings.It is set into rabbetscut
along the inside edgesof the openings.In addition to providing decoration, cockbeading
protects the edgesof veneereddrawer fronts.

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MAKING
ANDINSTALLING
COCKBEADING
thedrawer
openings
1 Preparing
I Usea routerfittedwitha %-inch
oiloted rabbeting
bit to cut therabbets
around
thedrawer
openings.
Setthedepthof cut
pieceof %at%inch,thenattacha square
inchclearacrylic
to thetool'sbaseplate
(inset).
Makethisauxiliary
sub-base
large
enough
to keepthetoolflatandstable
during
theoperation.
Setthecheston its
backon a worksurface.
Starting
at the
corner
of onedrawer
opening,
restthe
routeronthechestwiththebitlustclear
of theworkpiece.
Gripthetoolfirmlywith
bothhands
andturnit on,guiding
thebit
intothewood.Oncethe pilotbearing
buttsagainst
thestock,feedthe router
toward
theadjacent
corner,
keeping
the
sub-base
flal (right).Continue
around
theopening
untilyoureachyourstarting
point.Cutrabbets
around
theotherdrawer openings
thesameway,thensquare
thecorners
witha chisel.

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118

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HIGHBOY

r) Making
thecockbeading
fromlenoughcockbeading
L trttaie
cut
to fit in alltherabbets
stock
inchlhick
is bestshaped
in step1. Thecockbeading
onthetablesaw.(Do
cutters
usingmolding
cut pieces
stock;instead,
notusenarrow
wideandthen
thatareat least4 inches
an
fromthem.)Install
ripthecockbeading
woodfenceandf it themolding
auxiliary
onyourtablesaw.Raise
headwithcutters
theheadintothewoodfenceto notchit.
theworkto secure
Usea featherboard
piece;screwit to a shimsothatpressure
e ft h e
w i l lb ea p p l i eadg a i n st ht em i d d l o
with
Makea fewtestpasses
workpiece.
scraostockto setthewidthof cut.Forthe
firstpass,centertheboardedgeovera cuttheface
ter,thenbuttthefenceagainst
of thestock.Holdtheboardflushagainst
thefenceandthetableasyoufeedit into
withdifferthe cutters(right).Experiment
s n t i tl h ee d g eo f t h e
g idthu
e n tc u t t i n w
both
thenshape
rounded,
stockis properly
Onceall your
edgesof eachworkpiece.
a ripblade
install
stockhasbeenmilled,
from
onthesawandcutthecockbeading
to proit wideenough
making
theboards,
openings
trudebyI inchfromthedrawer
whengluedintotherabbets.

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thecockbeading
Q Mounting
miterto length,
.J Cutthecockbeading
ingtheendswiththetablesawora backto cutand
sawandmiterbox.lt iseasiest
f i t o n ep i e c ea t a t i m e ,m a k i nsgu r ey o u
of
endswiththecorners
alignthemitered
a littleglueon the
Spread
the rabbets.
andinsertonestripat
surfaces
contacting
in placewtth
thepieces
a time,securing
(/eff,).
at 6-inchintervals
clamps
spring

119

DRAWERS
MAKING
THEDRAWERS

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Thehighboy'sdrawersexemplifyclassic
cabinetmaking
techniques.
Thecorners
are
joinedwith throughdovetails
and theend
grain of the tail boardsis thenhidden
with a falsefront. A dovetailedrunner
attachedto the bottomglidesalonga
matingslidefastenedto theframe.

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joints
thedovetail
1 Cutting
I Sizethedrawer
partsto fit theopenings
in thechests,
then
routthedovetails,
cuttingthepinsin thefrontandbackpieces
andthetailsin thesides.
A setof commercial
templates
like
theoneshown
onthispagemakes
thejobsimple
andensures
accurate
results.
Attach
thepinandtailtemplates
to backup
boards
following
themanufacturer's
instructions.
Secure
one
of thedrawer
sidesend-up
in a vise.Clamp
thebackup
board
to thestock,making
suretherearehalttails
at either
end;the
template
andbackup
board
shouldbeflushagainst
theworkpiece.Protecting
thestockwitha woodpad,butta stopblock
against
thedrawer
sideandclampit to thesupport
boardto
h e l py o ua l i g ns u b s e q u ecnutt s .I n s t a tl h
l ed o v e t abi li t a n d
guidesupplied
template
withthejig andcutthetails,feeding
thetoolin andoutof thetemplate
slots(above).
Cuttheremaini n gt a i l st h es a m ew a y T
. h e nu s eo n eo f t h ec o m p l e t et a
dil
boards
to outlinethe pinson onedrawer
frontor back.Securethepinboardin theviseandclampthepintemplate
to
t h es t o c ka, l i g n i ntgh ej i g f i n g e rw
s i t ht h em a r k e od u i l i n e .
I n s t a lt lh es t r a i g hbti ts u p p l i ewdi t ht h ej i g a n dr o u to u tt h e
wastebetween
the pins(left).Repeat
at theotherendandfor
theremaining
frontsandbacks.

120

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HIGHBOY

r) Preparing
thedrawers
panels
Z to,bottom
parts
andclamp
of eachdrawer
it the
Dry-f
t
h
ec l a m p s
o
f
h eb a r s
, l i g n i nt g
t h eu n i t a
pieces;
remember
withthefrontandback
thestockwithwoodpads.Then
to protect
groove
forthe bottompanelalong
routa
with
Fita router
of thedrawer.
theinside
the
mount
and
cutter
slotting
a three-wing
to
height
cutting
toolin a table.Adlustthe
runners
of thedrawer
leave
thethickness
thegroove.
youwillmakein step3 below
on
up thetable
right-side
Setthedrawer
at themiddleof onedrawer
and,starting
side,feedthestockintothecutter.Keepi n gt h ep i l o tb e a r i nbgu t t e da g a i n st ht e
w o r k o i e cfee,e dt h ed r a w ecrl o c k w i s e
(right).Continue
pivoting
onthe
thedrawer
point.
your
you
starting
tableuntil returnto

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andslides
runners
thedrawer
Q Making
highboy
in
the
thedrawers
rJ Mounting
for
components
twoaddrtional
requires
a
dovetailed
with
a runner
eachdrawer:
groove
bottomanda matchonthedrawer
therunner
Prepare
ingslidefortheframe.
drawer
long
as
the
f irst;it shouldbeas
gap
the
as
sidesandthesamethickness
panel
the
bottom
and
thebottom
between
in the
Tocutthegroove
edgeof thedrawer.
router
and
bit
in
a
install
a dovetail
runner,
cutting
Set
the
mountthetoolin a table.
thickness.
therunner's
depthat one-half
groove
in
the
Adjustthefenceto center
passes
rout
it,
to
andmaketwo
therunner
(/eff).
stock
usinga pushblockto feedthe
slideonthetablesaw,
Makethematchtng
asthickastherunner.
one-half
using
stock
asthe
to thesameangle
Adjust
theblade
passes
groove,
thenmaketwo
sidesof the
theripfence
to cuttheslide,positioning
sideof thebladesothe
ontheleft-hand
awayfromthefence.
edgeisangled
cutting
Feedthestockusinga pushstick(insef).

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r2r

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HIGHBOY

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Gluing
upthedrawers
F o rt h e b o t t o mp a n e lo f e a c hd r a w e r c, u t a p i e c eo f % i n c hp l y w o o d
t o f i t t h e o p e n i n ga, d d i n gt h e d e p t ho f t h e
g r o o v etso i t s l e n g t ha n dw i d t h .D r y - f i a
t n d c l a m pt h e d r a w e r
againp
, osition
t h e r u n n e ra c r o s tsh e b o t t o mp a n e l a, n d m a r k
t h e s i d e so f t h e r u n n e r ' sd o v e t a i l egdr o o v eo n t h e d r a w e r
b a c k .D i s a s s e m btlhee d r a w ear n d u s ea c h i s e tl o e x t e n dt h e

gd
r o o vteh r o u gthh ed r a w ebr a c k l.f y o uw i s ht o
dovetaile
installdrawer
stops(page123),prepare
themnow.Thenglue
upthedrawer
asyoudidthechests,
adding
someadhesive
to
attach
therunners
to thedrawer
bottoms.
Notched
clamping
p a d sw i l le n s u rteh a tp r e s s u ri seo n l ya p p l i e tdo t h et a i l
boards(above).

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I n s t a l l i ntgh ed r a w esr l i d e s
R
r - , 1O n c et h e a d h e s i v e
h a sd r i e d .s l i o
e a c hd r a w esr l i d ei n t oi t s r u n n e or n t h e
d r a w e rb o t t o ma n d i n s t a l tl h e d r a w e ri n
t h e h i g h b o yM
. a r kt h e l o c a t i o no f t h e
s l i d eo n t h e f r o n ta n d b a c ko f t h e d r a w e r
f r a m e t, h e nr e m o v e
t h e d r a w e rR
. emove
t h e s l i d ea n dc e n t e ri t o n t h e f r a m eb e t w e e nt h e a l i g n m e nmt a r k sA
. p p l ya t h i n
l a y e ro f g l u eo n t h e c o n t a c t i n g
surfaces
a n ds e c u r teh e s l i d ei n p l a c ew i t hc l a m p s
(right).Oncethe clampshavebeentighte n e d ,s c r e wt h e s l i d et o t h e f r o n ta n d
b a c ko f t h e f r a m e .

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r22

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HIGHBOY

lltllllllllllllllllilllllllljllllllllllllllllllllltllllllllllltlll
Ill1
5HO?TI?
Adjuotable
\\
drawer otop
I
To keepa drawer
from beinqpulled
riqhNout, allach a
oimVle6No?Io trhe
frame.Deforegluingup
cul a \-inchthe drawer,
aquarenot'chin the mid'
dlb of the tup edgeof the
drawerback.1awNheeIoP
from ecrap,makinqiNlonqerand narrowerNhan1 inch.Mountt'he
etropNolhe boVt'omof Nheframe or 7anelunderwhichNhedrawer
wll'elide.LineiNup wibhIhe not'chin I'hedrawerback.)crewNhe
looeeenou7heo f'heeloV can be
otop in place,leavinqNhefaotener
turn Nhelto? 60 lhaL Nhelong
rot afed, Whenvou installthe drawer,
Ihrou7h
ie paralleliothe drawereides.Oncet'heoI'op'?ao6ee
ed,ae
back'
Io
Nhe
io
lonq
edge
it'e
r,hEnolch,NurniN90" eo
?arallel

t23

thefalsefronts
Installing
Attacha falsefrontto eachdrawer
theendgrainof thedrawer
to conceal
faceupona work
Setthedrawer
sides.
anddrivetwobradsintothe
surface
theirheadsprofront,leaving
drawer
Makesurethebradsarenot
truding.
pullwill be
wherethedrawer
located
and
thensnipofftheheads
installed,
Cutthefalsefront
thedrawer.
reinstall
position
to therightsize,thencarefuly
Once
it overthe drawerfront(above).
youaresatisfied
withtheplacement,
endsof the
press
f irmly;thepointed
intothe
willpunchimpressions
brads
thedrawbackof thefalsefront.Remove
alignerandgluethefalsefrontin place,
withthebrads.
ingtheimpressions

CRO\ArI\T
MOLDINGS

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The crown molding-or pediment-on eachsideof the highboyfront is actuallybuilt up
front four
separatepiecesof wood. The brokenswan-neckface molding that curvesupwards
from thefront corner to the rosetteis ntadefrom two piecesof molding glued together.With the hetp of a template cut
on the band sow,the moldingpiecesare shapedon a pin router (page 125). The moldingson both
sidesofthe highboy,calledthe returns,also consistoftwo piecesglued together.They are installed
with dovetailedslidesthat fit into matchinggroovesin the upperchest(page 127).

A COTTECTION
OFCROWN
M()TDING
STYLES

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Triangular pediment

Latticed broken pediment

Eroken pediment

5arolled broken pediment

124

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HIGHBOY

M()LDINGS
FACE
'l

thefirstpieceof molding
Shaping
I F o ra t e m o l a t et.r a c et h e c o n t o u r s
o f t h e u p p e r a i lo n t oa p i e c eo f % - i n c h
p l y w o o dA. d d a c u t t i n gl i n et o r e p r e s e n t
the bottomedgeof the f irstpieceof molding (inset),then sawthe templatein two
a l o n gt h e l i n ea n dd i s c a rtdh e b o t t o mh a l .f
o n t h e s t o c ky o uw i l l
O u t l i n et h e t e m p l a t e
usefor the moldingandcut it to size.Next,
screwthe moldingblankatopthetemplate,
m a k i n gs u r et h e f a s t e n e rwsi l l b e c l e a ro f
t h e r o u t e rb i t . I n s t a lal p i l o t e dp a n e l - r a i s i n gb i t a n dm o u n t h e r o u t e irn a p i n r o u t themanufacturer's
i n ga t t a c h m e nFt .o l l o w
for settingthe depthof cut,then
directions
p l a c et h e s t a r t e rp i n i n t h e t a b l eo n t h e
infeedsideof the bit.Asyoufeedthemoldi n gb l a n ki n t ot h e b i t , b r a c et h e t e m p l a t e
againstthe pin (right),keepingthe moldi n g b l a n ka g a i n stth e b i t ' sp i l o tb e a r i n g .
M a k el i g h tc u t s ,u s i n ga s m a n yp a s s eass
to reachyourfinaldepth.Repeat
necessary
to
the processwith the templatereversed
s h a p et h e m o l d i n fgo rt h eo t h e rs i d eo f t h e
c h e s tf r o n t .T h e ns h a p et h e s t d em o l d i n g s
u s i n gt h e s a m es e t u pa n da s t r a i g htte m p l a t eo f t h e s a m et h i c k n e s s .

r)

d i e c eo f m o l d i n g
S h a p i ntgh es e c o n p
L m " p i e c eo f m o l d i n gt h a t i s g l u e dt o
t h e f i r s to n et o b u i l du p t h e f a c em o l d i n g
i s s h a p e db y t h e s a m ep r o c e s su s e dI n
t h e f i r s t p i e c ef r o mt h e
s t e pl . U n s c r e w
t e m p l a t et ,h e nd r a wa c u t t i n gl i n ef o r t h e
s e c o n dp i e c e o, f f s e t t i ntgh e l i n eb y t h e
w i d t ho f t h e f i r s to i e c ep l u s%i n c h .B a n d
sawalongthe mark (left).Cul and shape
t h e s e c o n dp i e c eo f m o l d i n ga s y o ud i d
t h e f i r s t :C u t i t t o w i d t h ,a t t a c ht h e p i e c e
t o t h e t e m p l a t ea, n ds h a p ei t o n t h e p i n
r o u t i n ga t t a c h m e n t - t h itsi m e ,u s i n ga
r o u n d - o vbeirt .O n c et h e m o l d i n gh a sb e e n
i t f r o mt h et e m p l a t a
en d
s h a p e du, n s c r e w
s a wi t t o f i n a lw i d t h .

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t25

HIGHBOY

Preparing
thefacemoldings
Q
r-,f for installation
Gluethe partsof the facemoldingtogether
a n dh o l dt h e ms e c u r e lwy i t hc l a m p sO
. nce
the adhesive
hascured,eachpieceof face
m o l d i n gm u s tb e c u t a t o n ee n dt o m e e t
t h e s i d em o l d i n ga n da t t h e o t h e re n dt o
f it aroundthe rosette.Forthe side moldi n g - e n ds,e t u p y o u rt a b l es a wf o r a c o m p o u n dc u t b y a n g l i n tgh e b l a d et o 4 5 ' a n d
t h e m i t e rg a u g et o t h e a n g l ef o r m e db e t w e e nt h e s t r a i g h e
t d g eo f t h e m o l d i n g
a n d t h e s i d eo f t h e c a r c a s w
e h e nt h e
. l a m pt h ef a c e
molding
i s h e l di n p l a c eC
m o l d i n gt o t h e m i t e rg a u g ep, r o t e c t i n g
t h e s t o c kw i t ha w o o dp a d .S i n c et h e t o p
o f t h e m o l d i n gi s s t r a i g hat n dt h e b o t t o m
i s c u r v e dy, o uw i l l h a v et o f e e dt h e s t o c k
w i t hw h a tw o u l dn o r m a l lby e t h e t r a i l i n g
e n d f i r s t .H o l dt h e g a u g ea n d m o l d i n g
securely,
and pushthe stockintothe cut,
k e e p i n gy o u rh a n d sw e l l c l e a ro f t h e
blade (left).Then band saw the waste
(marked
w i t hX s ) .

INSTALIING
THECR()WN
M()TDING
thefacemolding
1 Installing
I O n c ea l l t h em o l d i n ghsa v eb e e n
shaped
andcutto length,
install
thequar(page134).Thenclampthe
tercolumns
s i d em o l d i n ign p l a c eu s i n gp r o t e c t i v e
woodpads.Next,mountthefacemolding
t o t h er a i la sy o ud i dt h ef a l s ef r o n t so f
(page123),usingbradsto
thedrawers
alignthe slock(right).
Themitered
endof
thefacemolding
shouldrestflushagainst
t h ee n do f t h es i d em o l d i n g
G.l u ea n d
clamp
t h ef a c em o l d i nt go t h er a i l .

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126

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HIGHBOY

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r) Preparing
theupperchest
L torthesidemolding
to thechest
tsattached
Thesidemolding
g o v e t aj iol i n t o a l l o wt h e
w i t ha s l i d i n d
because
andcontract
carcase
to exoand
o f c h a n g ei n
s h u m i d i twy i t h o ubt r e a k t n g
jointsonthefrontcorners,
The
themitered
groove
is cut in thechestside
dovetailed
bit,then
witha router.Installa dovetail
edgeguideto the
attacha commercial
tool'sbaseolateandscrewa woodextenits
sionto theguidefenceto increase
Setthecheston itsside
surface.
bearing
andplacethe routeron top.Adjustthe
willbecut
edgeguidesothatthegroove
joint.
With
the bit
corner
below
the
lust
clearof thechest,startat the backand
intothesidepanfeedthecuttingedges
flush
theedgeguideextension
el, pulling
the
Continue
toward
against
thetoppanel.
thecut
frontof thechest(right),stopping
point.
a littlepastthehalfway

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thesidemolding
Q Installing
produce
r-,1To
a slideto matchthe
groove
thedovetail
bit
in thechest,leave
in
a
table,
mountthetool
in therouter,
along
andshape
theslidein twopasses
rip
the
slide
Then
theedgeof a board.
Position
thesidemolding
fromtheboard.
against
thechestandmarkthesidesof
groove
onthebackof themolding.
the
in a vise
face-down
themolding
Secure
andscrewtheslideto theback(inseil,
glue
themarks.
Spread
it between
aligning
andon
endof themolding
onthemitered
of itsbackface,then
thefirst2 inches
clampsecurely.
slideit in place(left)and

r27

ROSETTES
Rosettes
are an onnnterttalfeatw'e
cotl1tltot1
to rttartyftu'ninre styles.
Theycttrrtnkerrtanyslnpesarrd be
producedin variottswttys.The concentric circleso.fthe rosetteot left
h l e r eI r t n t ( do r rn l o t l r e ,c r c n t i r rng
pattem thnt flowsseanilessly
f'orrt the
graceftl cLn'ves
o.fthe crown nnLlirg.

MAKING
THER()SETTES

Turning
the rosettes
C u tt h e r o s e t t eb l a n k st o f i t o n t h e e n do f t h e f a c em o l d i n g sA.t t a c ha b l a n kt o t h e c e n t e ro f a l a t h ef a c e p l a t et h, e nm o u n t h e
p l a t eo n t h e m a c h i n eA. d j u s t h e t o o lr e s ts o t h e t o p f a c eo f
t h es c r a p e r y owui l l u s ei s l e v ew
l i t ht h e c e n t e r otfh e b l a n kT. h e
r e s ts h o u l db e a s c l o s et o t h e w o o da s p o s s i b lw
e i t h o utto u c h i n g
r t . S w i t c ho n t h e l a t h e .H o l d i n gt h e t i p o f a r o u n d - e nsdc r a p e r

a g a i n stth e b l a n k ,r o u n do v e rt h e r o s e t t e 'osu t s i d ee d g e ,a n d
t h e n c u t t h e c o n c e n t r i rci n g so n i t s f a c e ( a b o v e )H. o l dt h e
s c r a p ebr l a d eo n t h e t o o lr e s tt o k e e pi t s t e a d yC. u to n t h e l e f t h a n ds i d eo f t h e b l a n kt o p r e v e nt th e s c r a p efrr o mk i c k i n gu p .
0 n c e t h e r i n g sh a v eb e e nc a r v e d r, e m o v et h e t o o l r e s ta n d
s m o o t ht h e f a c eo f t h e b l a n kw i t h f i n e - g r ist a n d p a p e(ri n s e t ) .

L28

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HIGHBOY

THEROSETTES
M(lUNTING

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thefacemoldings
1 Preparing
I fortherosettes
havebeenturned,use
Oncebothrosettes
therounded
endof the
a gouge
to shape
moldings
sothatthecontacting
surfaces
fit snugly
together.
Settheupperchest
face-up
andholdthe
on a worksurface
gougeuprightasyoupareawaywood
fromthe molding(left)untilit f its f lush
against
therosette.

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r) Gluing
uptherosettes
Z. Position
eachrosettein turnon the
chesisothat itswoodgrainrunsin the
This
samedirection
asthefacemolding.
willcreatethe impression
thatthetwo
piece.Markthe
partsareonecontinuous
then
rosette
whereit touches
themolding,
surfaces
applysomeglueto thecontacting
Useoneclampto secure
of bothpieces.
therosettein placeandasecond(right)
or backto keepit fromslidingforward
ward.Protect
thestockwithwoodoads.

t29

FINIALS
SHAPING
THEPOMMEL

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Traditionallyusedto decoratethecornersoffurniture,Jiniak takea variety


offor ms, including Jlame-and- urn,
acorn,pineapple,
andplume.The
above
incorporates
twoshapes,
finial
aflame-and-urnon allutedpommel
base.Thisexampleisproducedfrom
thebottomup: First,theflutesof the
pommelaregroovedon a routertable
(right),and thentheflameand urn
areturnedon a lathe(pagel3l). FinalIy,thefinishedshapeof theJlameis
carved
byhand(page133).

Cutting
theflutes
Makea blankforeachfinialthat
is slightly
larger
thanthefinished
dimensions.
Mark
thetopandbottom
of thepommel
onthe blankanduseXsto indicate
thewaste
section
below
thepommel.
Usethedadoheadin a tablesawto reduce
theblank's
thickness
between
thetwomarks.
Setthecuttingdepthat % inch.Feedtheblank
passes
withthemitergauge,
cuttingawaythewaste
withoverlapping
on eachface
(inseil.Theflutesarecut witha coreboxbit in a table-mounted
router.SetthecuttingdepthaI%inch.Alignthepommel
overthebitforthefirstsetof outside
flutes
andlockthefenceagainst
theblank.Toensure
thatallthefluteswillbethesame
length,
clampa stopblockto thefenceat eachendof theblank.
Turnontherouter
andlower
theblankontothebitwithitstrailing
endagainst
thestopblockclosest
to youanditsedgeagainst
thefence.Feedtheblankuntilit contacts
theotherstop
block.Lifttheblank,
thenrotateit andrepeat
theprocess
untilonesetof outside
flutesis finished.
Reposition
thefenceonceto routthemiddleflutesandagainfor
thesecond
setof outsidefluleshbovd.

130

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HIGHBOY

THEFLAME.AND.URN
TURNING
thecylinder
1 Turning
beI Cutoff mostof thewastesection
leaving
a couple
of inches
lowthepommel,
fora roundtenon.Mounttheblankona
latheandadjustthetoolrestascloseto
aspossible
without
touching
theworkpiece
gouge
to roundthe
it. Usea roughing-out
thepommel.
corners
of theblankabove
Turnonthe latheandholdthetio of the
gouge
blank.Begin
against
therotating
w i t ht h et i p o f t h eg o u g tei l t e du p ,t h e n
gradually
raisethehandle
untilthebeve l u n d etrh et i p i s r u b b i nagg a i n st ht e
stockandthecuttingedgeis slicinginto
it. Workfromtheright-hand
endof the
thepommel,
leaving
a square
blanktoward
the pommel(right).Keep
shoulder
above
thetoolat thesameangleto theworkpiecethroughout
thecut.Continue
until
andsmooth.
theblankis cylindrical

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r) Shaping
theflame
whileyoumarkthebottom
endsof
L L"uu"theblankrotating
cuta
flame
with
a
Use
a
skew
chisel
to
theurnandthe
oencil.
flame
flame
and
urn,
then
begin
shaping
the
notchseparating
the
(above).
gouge
process
for
The
is
the
same
as
the
witha spindle
fixed
instead
of
holdingthe
tool
at
a
angle
cylinder
in step1, but
thetip to
to theblank,
sweep
it fromsideto sidewhileangling
flame
has
the
desired
shaoe.
cuta contour.
Continue
untilthe

Shaping
theurn
gouge
asyoudidtheflame.
Shape
theurnwitha spindle
lowerend
Thenusea skewchiselto cuta notchdefiningthe
firmlyagainst
of theurn.Pressing
thechisel
thetoolrest,hold
theshortpointof thetip against
theblankto cuttheV-shaped
notch;
keepthebevel
onthebackof thebladerubbing
against
Thenusethe skew
thestockto helpcontrolthecut (above).
gouge
to shape
beads
below
theurn.
chiselandspindle

131

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HIGHBOY

Turning
thetenonand
smoothing
thefinial
U s ea p a r t i n gt o o lt o t u r n a % - i n c h - l o n g
r o u n dt e n o nb e l o wt h e p o m m e ll,e a v i n a
g
t h i nd i s ko f w o o da g a i n st th e h e a d s t o cokf
. h e nr e m o v teh e t o o lr e s ta n d
t h e l a t h eT
s m o o t ht h e s u r f a c e
o f t h ef i n i a lw i t hs a n d p a p e ru, s i n gp r o g r e s s i v fei n
l ye rg r i t s .F o l d
t h e p a p e tr o r e a c ha r o u n dt h e b e a d sa n d
(lefil.Io f inishsmoothing
intocrevices
the
p i e c eh
, o l da h a n d f uol f w o o ds h a v i n g s
u n d e rt h e r o t a t i n fgi n i a la n d a l l o wi t t o
r u ba g a i n st th e s h a v i n g C
s .o m b i n ew
di t h
y o u rs k i no i l s ,t h e s h a v i n gwsi l l i m p a r at
s m o o t hf i n i s ht o t h e s u r f a c eO. n c et h e j o b
i s d o n e t, u r no f f a n du n p l u gt h e l a t h e b. u t
l e a v et h e b l a n km o u n t e d
o n t h et o o l .

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THEFLAME
CARVING

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theDattern
1I Sketchins
-

. a r ka
I T o h e l py o uc a r v et h ef l a m e m
p r i do
- i n c hs o u a r eosn t h ee n t i r es u r " 'f
b " *
f a c eo f t h e f l a m es e c t i o nT. h e nd r a wi n
f o u re q u a l l sy p a c e sd p i r alli n e sf r o mt h e
h n i t n mt o t h e t o n n f t h e s e c t i o nt o d e l i n e a t et h e h o l l o w ys o uw i l l c a r v ei n s t e p2 :
t h e l i n e ss h o u l di n t e r s e cotp p o s i t ceo r nersof eac.hsotnre (ripht).
L v

L '

' v

L v P

t32

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HIGHBOY

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r) Caruing
theflame
gougeto
Usea narrower
Z . R e m o vt eh ef i n i a fl r o mt h e l a t h ea n ds a wo f f t h ew a s t e youcanreachthe entiresurface,
eachhollow(above,
definedridgebetween
d i s kb e l o w
t h et e n o nT. h e nc l a m pt h ef i n i atl o a w o r ks u r f a c e ,carvea sharply
thehol- right).\Norkf romthe bottomto thetopof thef lame,bringCarve
to thebenchtop.
usingshimsto holdit parallel
o u tt h et o pe n dt o r e i n ge a c hr i d g et o a p o i n tT. h e nh o l l o w
witha
starttng
lowsbetween
thegridlineswithtwogouges,
to thewoodgrain m o v et h e h o l el e f tb yt h e l a t h e 'tsa i l s t o cakn ds m o o t thh e
wide-blade
toolGbove,/eff).Workparallel
f l a m ew i t hs a n d p a p e r .
h ef i n i a sl ot h a t
a n dr e - c l a mt p
a s m u c ha s p o s s i b l reo; t a t e

MO U N T I T
NH
GEF IN IA L S
Gluing
thefinialstothechest
Foreachfinial,borea holeintothetopof
bitthesamediamthechestwitha soade
the
eterasthetenononthefinial.Locate
q
u
a
r
t
e
r
c
o
l
u
m
n
h o l ed i r e c t layb o v teh e
(page134).Thiswillcreate
impression
the
piece.
andfinialarea single
thatthecolumn
glue
sides
of
Spread onthetenonandthe
(left)
place
the hole,thenfit thefinialin
U s ea c l a m pt o h o l di t i n p o s i t i ounn t i l
cures.
theadhesive

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r33

QUARTERCOLUMNS
MAKING
ANDINSTATTING
THEOUARTER
COTUMNS
thecolumns
1 Making
I Cuta blankseveral
inches
longer
than
thef inished
lengthof thecolumns,
and
wideandthickenough
forthenumber
of
quarter
youneed.
columns
Ripthe blank
i n t oq u a r t e r jso, i n tt h e i n s i d seu r f a c e s
of thepieces,
thenglueandclampthem
backtogether
withnewspaper
in between
(inset,
youto pull
top).Thiswillenable
thecolumns
aparteasily.
Oncetheglueis
dry,mount
theblankona lathe.Marktwo
lineson theblankforthe lengthof the
columnandindicate
thewastewithXs
(inset,bottom).
Drivescrews
throughthe
wastesections
to holdthequarters
together.Adjusta setof outside
calipers
to the
desired
diameter
of thecolumn,
thenturn
theblankintoa cylinder
asyoudidforthe
finials(pagel3l). Periodically
turnoff
thelatheandusethecalioers
to checkthe
diameter
oftheblank(right).Onceyouhave
reduced
theblankto thecorrect
diameter,
turntwobeadsat eachendusinga skew
gouge.
chiselanda fingernail
Thencut
theflutesintheblank,
eitherbyhandusing
a gougeor withtherouterandjig shown
on page135.

Separating
andinstalling
thecolumns
Onceallthefluteshavebeenmade,
cut awaythewasteon theendsof
theblank.Thenusea woodchisel
quarter
to prytheglued-up
columns
apart.Holding
theblankupright
on
a worksurface,
workthechiseltip
intoa seamontheendof thestock.
Pushthebladedeeper
intotheseam
(left)untilthe blankseparates
in
half. Prythe halvesintoquarters,
thenusea scraper
to cleantheglue
a n dn e w s p a pfer or mt h ec o l u m n s .
Toinstall
thecolumns
onthechest,
spread
someglueon theirinside
surfaces
andclampthemin place.

Fluted quarter columnsadd a strong


visualframework to the highboy.

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134

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HIGHBOY

JIGFORFTUTING
A ROUTER.LATHE
qUARTER
COTUMNS
jigshown
you
below,
Withthebox-like
column
canroutflutesin a quarter
onthelathe.
blankwhileit is mounted
Cutthepartsof thejig from%-inch
plywood,
forthetop,whichis
except
The
clearacrylic.
madefrom%-inch
jig should
be longandwideenough
therouterandhighenough
io support
thecolumn
to holdthetooljustabove
blankwhenthejig bottomrestson
the lathebed.Oncethetop,bottom,
addtwo
andsidesareassembled,
to makethejig more
vertical
braces
rigid.Restthejig onthelathebed.

piloted
fluf
a double-bearing
Install
drilla bit clearingbit in yourrouter,
thejig top,and
anceholethrough
screwthetool'sbaseplateto thejig.
so
Theroutershouldbe positioned
thecolumn
thebitwillliealongside
blankwhenthejig is used.Next,mark
cuttinglinesfortheflutesontheblank,
thenmounttheblankonthe lathe.
durBesureall toolsareunplugged
ingsetup.Adjustthecuttingdepth
onthe routersothe bit is aligned
withthecuttinglineat themidpoint
a handscrew
of theblank.Tighten
around
thelathedriveshaftto keep
Clampstopblocks
it fromrotating.

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135

to the lathebedsothatall theflutes


willbethesamelength.
one
Tousethejig,buttit against
stopblock,turnon therouterand
pushon thesideof thejig to feed
0ncethepilots
thebit intotheblank.
thestock,slidethe
areflushagainst
jig alongthelathebeduntilit contactstheotherstopblock.Keepthe
pilotspressed
against
the stock
asyourouttheflute.Turnoff the
and
remove
the handscrew
router,
rotatethe blankby handto align
the nextcuttinglinewiththe bit,
wu. t
a n dr e i n s t atlhl eh a n d s c r eC
flules(below).
the remaining

APPLIEDSCULPTURES

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Scallopshells,stylizedsunburstsand
fans werepopularcarvingsappliedto
and Chippendale
QueenAnne,Georgian,
furniturethroughoutthe18thCentury.
Carvedby hand,decorativemotifslike
theoneat right werecommonly
found
on theapronsof highboys.Theywere
alsousedto adornthekneesof cabriole
legsand thefronts of centraldrawers.

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A SAMPLING
OFFANANDSHEttMOTIFS

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Queen Anne ecallop ahell

QueenAnne fan

Re1encyflower

Chippendaleeaallop shell

r36

LouiaXIVshell

Chippendaleehell

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HIGHBOY

SHELL
A SCALLOP
ANDAPPLYING
MAKING

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theshellsurface
1 Sculpting
the
of thewoodgrain.Thentransfer
in thedirection
working
then
full-size
ona sheetof paper,
I Drawtheshellpattern
p
a
r
ting
y
o
u
r
p
a
t
t
e
r
n
u
s
e
a
t o t h eb l a n ka, n d
thickness. v e i nl i n e sf r o m
yourdesign
blankof thedesired
to a hardwood
transfer
(above,
right).
Cutfrom
it to a
chiselto etchthelinesintothewood
of theblankonthebandsawandfasten
Cuttheedges
stopeach
Start thebottomof theblankto thetop;to avoidtearout,
boardto a worksurface.
thebackup
Secure
board.
backup
(above,
direction.
it fromtheopposite
left), cutnearthetopandcomplete
of theshellusinga flatgouge
thesurface
sculpting
therays
Rounding
O n c ea l l t h e v e i n sh a v eb e e nc u t , u s e

of the
to roundthecontours
theflatgouge
theveinlines.Startbymakraysbetween
(or
of alltheraysconvex
rngthesurfaces
Tof inishcarving
the
outward).
crowning
pattern,
valley
intoevery
a concave
carve
gouge
raywitha narrow-blade
second
(lefil.fhesurfaces
raysshould
of adjacent
t ei r e c t i o nasl t, e r n a t i n g
c u r v ei n o p p o s i d
Usea partconvex
andconcave.
between
t h ev e i n si n t h ew i n g s
i n gt o o lt o c a r v e
at the lowersidesof the shell(photo,
page136).Onceyouaresatisf
iedwith
t h es h a p o
e f t h es h e l ls, a n dt h es u r f a c e
it fromthebackup
Thendetach
lightly.
andglueit in placeonthefrontof
board
to helplocate
thelower
chest,usingbrads
it (page123)andclampsto holdit tn
place
dries.
whiletheadhesive

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t37

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HIGHBOY

MAKING
ANDMOUNTING
THEAPPLIED
MOLDING
thevolutes
ontherouter
table
1 Shaping
I Thecurved
moldings,
calledvolutes,
whichdecorate
theaoronof the lower
partially
chest,
areshaped
withtherouter,
asshown
at left,andpartially
byhand,as
in step3. Startby making
a cardboard
template
of the molding,
thentransfer
yourpattern
to a workpiece
of thedesired
thickness.
Leave
enough
wasteon the
stockto feedit safelyacrossthe router
table.Cutalongoneof thepattern
lines
on thebandsaw,exposing
oneedgeof
themolding.
Toshape
thisedge,install
a piloted
r o u n d - o vbei rt i n a r o u t ear n d
m o u ntth et o o li n a t a b l e R
. a t h et rh a n
m a k i ntgh ec u tf r e e h a ncdl,a m pa p i v o t
pointto thetablein linewiththebit,using
a braceto steadyit. Asyoufeedtheworkpieceintothebit, bracethestockagainst
the pivotpoint(left).Makesureyoukeep
theworkpiece
flushagainst
thebit pilot.

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r) Cutting
awaytheremaining
waste
L Onceyouhavefinished
shaping
one
edgeof thevolute,
detach
themolding
fromthewasteusingthe bandsaw.To
keepthebladefrombinding
in thekerf,
makea release
cut through
thewaste,
stopping
at the patternline.Thensaw
along
theline,feeding
theworkpiece
with
bothhands(right).Makesurethatneither
handis in linewiththeblade.

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HIGHBOY

edge
thesecond
Q Hand-shaping
to
a worksurboard
a
backup
r-J Secure
to
theboard.
molding
clamp
the
faceand
of
thevolute
edge
the
second
Round
over
produced
profile
gouge,
the
copying
witha
(right).
Shape
I
bit
in
step
by the router
are
smooth;
contours
its
the edgeuntil
to cut withthe
try as muchas possible
fromthebackgrain.Remove
themolding
lightly.
surface
sand
the
and
up board

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Mounting
thevolutes
a thin,evenlayerof glue
Spread
of the
surfaces
on thecontacting
Clamp
the
molding
andthechest.
v o l u t ien p l a c el ,i n i n gi t u p f l u s h
withtheedgeof thebottomrailand
it
leaving
a smallspacebetween
a n dt h ew i n go f t h es c a l l o sph e l l
(\efl. Usetwoclampsforeachpiece
of molding.

r39

GLOSSARY

I
A-B-C
Air-driedlumber: Lumber that has
reachedits equilibrium moisture
content by exposureto unheatedair.
Batten: A board fastenedacrossthe
grain ofa flat surfacesuch asa chest
lid to minimize warping.
Bevelcut A cut at an anglefrom
face-to-facealong the length or
width of a workp.iece.Seimiter cut.
Biscuit joinfi Seeplatejoint.
Board foot A unit of wood volume measurementequivalentto a
pieceof wood I inch thick and 12
inchessquare.
Boundwater: Moisture presentin
the cell walls of wood. It remains
evenafter drying; seefreewater.
Cabriole leg: A styleof furniture lee
characterize?
bv rbundedcontours
designedto imilate the hind leg of a
leaping animal.
Carcase The boxJike foundation
of a pieceof furniture; made from
solid panels.
Cockbeading:Narrow projecting
molding surroundingthe inside
edgeof a draweropening.
Cope-and-stickjoint: A method of
joining stilesand rails in frame-andpanel construction. Tonguesin the
rails meshwith groovesin the stiles;
a decorativemolding is cut along
the insideedgeof thEframe.

Crosscut A cut made acrossthe


grain of a workpiece.
Cuttinglist A list of the dimensionsof the lumber neededfor a
specificproject.
D-E-F
Dado: A rectangularchannelcut
into a workpiece.
Dentil molding: A decorativedetail
consistingof a row of small,evenly
spacedbars or teeth;usuallyadded
to cornicemolding.
Doretail joint A method ofjoinery
usinginterlockingpins and tails;
the name derivesfrom the distinctive shapecut into the endsof the
joining boards.
Dowel center: A metal rylinder
that is insertedinto a dowel hole to
pinpoint a matching hole in a mating workpiece.

Escutcheon:A decorativefitting
installedaround a keyholeto prevent damageto the surrounding
wood by the key.
Faceframe A decorative frame
attachedto the front ofa carcasebasedbookcase,cabinet,or armoire;
alsoservesto stiffen the structure.
Falsefronfi A pieceof veneeror
wood fixed to the front of a drawer,
usuallyto concealits joinery.
Fiber saturation point A condition
in which wood cell cavitiesare free
of all water while the cell walls
remain fully saturated.
Finiat An ornament-usually
turned and carved-projectirig
from the upper cornersof a fuiniture piecesuch asa highboy.

Drawer slide: A strip of wood or a


commercialmetal devicefixed to a
carcaseto support a drawer.

Frame-and-paneljoinery: A method
of assemblingdoors and cabinet
sidesusing framesenclosingpanelsthat float m groovesto accommodateshrinkageand swellingof
the wood.

Dust frame: A frame-and-panel


assemblyinstalledat the bottom of
a pieceof furniture or betweenthe
drawersto preventdust from entering.

Freewater: Moisture presentin the


cell cavitiesof wood, so called
becauseit is free to evaporateduring
the drying process;see-bound
waterl

Edgegluing: Bonding boardstogether edge-to-edge


to form a panel.
Equilibrium moisture content:
The moisture content that wood
eventually reacheswhen it is
exposedto a given levelofrelative
humidity and temperature.

Cornice or crown molding:


Molding attachedto the top of a
pieceof furniture; typically mounted aboveeyelevel and angledoutwardsat 45o.

140

G-H-r-l-K
HeadstoclcThe shaft attachedto
the motor of a lathe;holds work for
spindle-turningin conjunctionwith
the tailstockor for turning with a
faceplate.Seetailstock
Highboy: An elegant18th Century
styleofdresser,consistingofan
upper and lower chest.

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Keybit: The part of a key that


engagesthe locking mechanism.
Kiln-dried lumber: Lumber that
hasbeen dried with heat to a specific moisture content.
Knee block A contoured pieceof
wood usedto ioin the curved lines
of a cabriole169with the bottom
chestof a dresseror chest.
L-M-N
Marquetry: Decorativeinlays of
veneer,metal, or other materials.
Median rail A horizontal member
betweenthe upper and lower rails
of a frame,dividing the opening
into two sections.
Miter cut A cut that anglesacross
the faceof a workpiece.Seebevelcut.
Miter-and-spline joint A mitered
joint that is reinforcedwith a spline,
or strip of wood,let into the pieces.
Moisture content The amount of
water containedin wood, expressed
asa percentageof the wood's ovendried weight.
Molding: Decorativestrips of
wood usedto embellisha pieceof
furniture; seedentil and cornice
moWing.Decoration may alsobe
carvedon the edgeofthe piece
with a router.
Mortise-and-tenon joint A joinery
techniquein which a projecting
tenon on one board fits into a cavity
-the mortise-in another.
Mullion: A verticalmemberbetween
the outsidestilesof a frame: also
known asa muntin.

O-P-Q
Pediment Arched or S-shaped
molding mounted on the upper
rail of a dresser;alsoknown as
crown molding.

Releasecut A preliminary incision


from the edgeof a workpieceto a
line about to be cut: enablesa band
sawor sabersawto cut tighter curves
by facilitating the removal of waste
wood. Also known asa relief cut.

Pilaster:A decorativeboard fixed


along the full length of the front
stilesof a cabinet.

Rip cut: A cut following the grain of


a workpiece-usually alongits length.

Platejoint A method ofjoining


wood in which oval wafersof compressedwood fit into slotscut in
mating boards.
Pommet The bottom sectionof a
finial; rectangularshaped,sometimes fluted.
Quarter column: A turned and
sometimesfluted column setin
nichesin the front cornersof highboys and other piecesof 18th
Century furniture.
QueenAnne: A sryleof furniture
that emergedin the early 18th
Century, characterized by graceful,
flowing lines.
R-S
Rabbet A step-likecut in the edge
or end of a board; usuallyforms part
of a joint.
Radial shrinkage: Shrinkagethat
occursacrossthe growth rings as
wood dries.
Raift The horizontal member of a
fr ame-and-panelassembly.
RaisedpaneLA pieceof wood with
bevelededgesthat createthe illusion
"raised."
that the centralportion is
Relativehumidity: The ratio of
water vapor presentin the air comparedto the amount the air would
hold at its saturationpoint, usually
expressedasa percentagefigure.

r41

Rosette A circular ornament found


at the end of crown molding on higboys;typically turned on the lathe.
Scallopshel} A decorative,carved
motif found on the bottom aprons
ofhighboys and other piecesof 18th
Century furniture.
Seasoning:The processor technique
of removing moisture from green
wood to improve its workability.
Slidingdovetail joint A joinery
method in which a dovetailedslide
on one piecefits into a matching
grooYein the other.
Stile: The vertical member of a
frame-and-panelassembly.
T-U-V-W-X-Y-Z
Tirilstock The adiustableshaft on a
lathe;usedin conjunction with the
headstockto hold work for spindle
turning. Seeheadstock.
Tbngential shrinkage Wood
shrinkagethat occurstangentialto
the growth rings.
Volute: An S-shapedscroll carving
mounted on the bottom apron of
highboysand many other pieces
of furniture.

INDEX
Pagereferencesin italicsindicate
an illustrationof subiectmatter.
Pagereferences
in bdld indicate
a Build It Yourselfproiect.

A-B-C
Applied sculptures,136 137
Armoires,60,61, 62
Decorativefeatures
cornice moldings, 66-69
dentil moldings, Zl
pilasters,64-65
shapingpilasterson the table
saw (ShopTip), 65
Doors,72-73
glass,61,73,78
hanging,72,79-82
Hardware. 63
adjustablelevelerc,63, 71
clock-casehinges,63, 80-81
lacehinges, 63, 79
locks,63,83
rat-tail hinges,63, 82
LeveIing, Tl
Band saws:
salvagingcupped stock on the band
saw(ShopTip),21
Becksvoort,Chris,8-9
Belt sanders,23
Biscuitjoints. SeePlatejoints
Blanketchests,84-85,86
Bottom assemblies
basemoldings,85,96
feet, 93-95,97-99
Decorativefeatures
escutcheons,
87,101
inlays,87, 104-105
Hardware, ST
handles,87,100,103
hinges,87,88-89
locks,8Z 100-102
Tops
inlays,104105
moldings,9I-92
piano hinges,88
Board-footmeasurement
. lG 17
Bookcases,G7, 40-41,42
Anchoring bookcasesto the wall
(ShopTip), 59
Basemoldings,56-57
Bottom braces,57
Connecting bookcasestogether,59
Decorativefeatures,41, 52,54,57
face frames, 54-55
moldings,4I
routing decorativedetails,58
F e e t , 5 65, 7 , 5 8 - 5 9
Hardware.43-44
threadedconnectors.59
SeealsoShelves

Build It Yourself:
Radial arm saws
miter jigs, 70
Routers
hinge mortising jigs, 90
routerJathe jigs for fluting
quartercolumns,135
Table saws
raisedpaneljigs, 37
Cabinetmaking,8,13
Projectplanning,l7
Cabinets.SeeArmoires; Blanket chests;
Highboys
Cabriolelegs, 112-115,
117
Carcases:
Backpanels,3I
Edge-gluedboards, 13
Gluing up,28
SeealsoFrame-and-panelconstruction; foinery
Chests.SeeBlanket chests;Highboys
Chisels,fr ont endpaper
Clamps:
Springboardclampsfor edgegluing
(ShopTip), 53
Cockbeading,118-119
joints, 35
Cope-and-stick
Corner cupboards,l0- I Cornice moldings, 66-69
Crosscutting,22
Crown moldings,124-127
Bookcases,42
Curio cabinets,61, 73,78
Cutting lists, 18

D-E-F
Decorativetechnioues:
Applied sculptu?es,136-137
Faceframes.54-55
Finials,130-133
Hardware
escutcheons,
87,101
Inlays,87, 104-105
Pilasters.6465
shapingpilasterson the table saw
(ShopTip), 65
Quarter columns, 134,135
Rosettes,128-129
Routing decorativefeatures
(ShopTip), 58
SeealsoMoldings
Dentil moldings, Zl
Display cabinets,61, 73, 78
Doors:
Armoire* T2-73
fiame-and-panelconstruction,
7i-78
glass,61, 7j,78
hanging,72,79-82

t42

r
Dovetail joints:
Blanket chests.84
Hand-cut, 12,2G28
cutting awaywastewith a coping
saw(ShopTip),27
Shelves.50-51
Drawers,120-123
Adjustabledrawer stops (Shop
Trp), 123
Blanket chests,87
SeealsoHighboys
Drills:
Shelf-drilling jigs, 45, 46
Shop-madeshelf-drilling jigs
(ShopTip), 46
Edge-gluedboards, 13,24-25
Edgemoldings, 52-5i
Adding edgemolding to plywood
(ShopTip),25
Springboardclampsfor edgegluing
(ShopTip), 53
Escutcheons,
87,101
Faceframes.54-55
Feet:
Adj ustable lev elers, 63- 7I
Bracketfeet,93-95
ogeebracket feet,97-99
Turned, 58-59
SeealsoLegs
Finials, 130-133
Frame-and-panelconstruction, 32-39
Carcaseassembly,39
Cope-and-stickjoints, 35
Doors,73-77
glass,28
Mortise-and-tenonjoints, 33-34
Raisedpanels,36,37, 38

G-H.I
Gluing:
Carcases.28
Edge-gluedb oards,24-25
Springboardclamps for edgegluing
(ShopTip), 53
Gotges,front endpaper
Hand-crafting:
Dovetailjoints, 12,2G28
Hardware:
AdjustableIevelers,63, 71
Locks,63, 83,87, 100-102
SeealsoHinges;subheading
Hardware under types of cabinets
Highboys,106,107, 108-109
Decorativefeatures
appliedsculptures,136-137
cockbeading,1 18-119
crown moldin gs,124-127
finials, 130-133
quarter columns, 134,135
rosettes,128-129
volutes.138-139

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Drawers,1lU 111, 120-123


adjustabledrawer stops (Shop
Tip), 123
Dust shields.102
Legs,112-115,
117
Lower chest,109,116-117
Upper chest,I l0
Hinges:
Hinge mortising jigs, 90
Tlpes of furniture
armoires,63,79-82
blanket chests,8Z 88-89
Typesofhinges
butt hinges,82, 89
clock-case
hinges,63, 80-81
lacehinges, 63, 79
piano hinges,88
rat-tail hinges,63,82
Inlays,87,104-105

I-K-t
figs:
CIamps
springboardclamps for edge
gluing (ShopTip), 53
Drills
shelf-drilling jigs, 45, 46
shop-madeshelf-drilling jigs
(ShopTip), 46
Radial arm saws
miter jigs, 70
Routers
jigs for routing evenlyspaced
dadoes(ShopTip), 49
router-lathe jigs for fluting quarter
columns.135
Table saws
cove-cuttingjigs, 69
raisedpaneljigs, 37
loinery,24
Cope-and-stickjoints, 35
Mortise-and-tenonjoints, 33-34
Platejoints, 24, 29-30,85
Wood grain, 15
SeealsoDovetail joints
lointing,20
Lathes:
Router-lathejigs for fluting quarter
columns,135
Tools,front endpaper
Legs:
Cabriole,112-115,117
SeealsoFeet
Locks:
Armoires, 63, 83
Blanketchests,8Z 100-102
Loeven,Frd6ric,7

Lumber,16-17
Defects,19
salvagingcupped stock on the
bandsaw(ShopTip),2l
Grades,backendpaper
Measurement,backendpaper,1G17
cutting lists,18
Selection,l6-17
Shrinkage/swelling, 14- 15
Surfacing/dressing,20-23
SeealsoWood

M-N-O
Moldings:
Cockbeading,1 18-119
Cornice moldings, 66-68
Crown moldings, 124-127
Dentil moldings, ZI
Edgemoldings, 52-53
adding edgemolding to plywood
(ShopTip),25
springboardclampsfor edge
gluing (ShopTip), 53
Integral moldings, 92
Iigs
radial arm sawmiter jigs, 70
table sawcove-cuttingguides,69
Volutes,l38-1i9
Morcel, Nain,6-7
Mortise-and-tenonioints:
Frame-and-paneiconstruction,
3i-i4
Ogeebracket feet,97-99

P-Q-R
Panels:
Edge-gluedboards, 13,24-25
Frame-and-panel
construction,
32-39
raisedpanels,36,37, 38
Pediments,42, 124-127
Pilasters,64-65
shapingpilasterson the table saw
(ShopTip), 65
Planing,2l
Platejoints, 24, 29-30,85
Plywood:
Edgetreatments,52-53
adding edgemolding to plywood
(ShopTip),25
Projectplanning,17
Quarter columns, 134,135
Radialarm saws:
Miter jigs,70
Raisedpanels, 36, 37, 38
Ripping,22
I
Rodriguez,Mario, -10-1

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143

Rosettes,128-129
Routers:
Hinge mortising jigs, 90
Integral moldings, 92
|igs for routing evenlyspaceddadoes
(ShopTip), 49
Raisedpanels,38
Router-lathejigs for fluting quarter
columns,135

S.T-U-V
Safetyprecautions,front endpaper
Sanding,23
Sculpture.SeeDecorativetechniques
Shelves,43
Adjastable, 45-49
Edgetreatments,52-53
adding edgemolding to plywood
(ShopTip),25
springboardclampsfor edge
gluing (ShopTip), 53
Fixed, 50-5I
Hardwarc,43,44
standardsand clips,43, 48
threadedshelf supports, 43, 45-46
loinery, 50-51
Supports,43,45-51
jigs for routing evenlyspaced
dadoes(ShopTip), 49
shop-madeshelf-drilling jigs
(ShopTip), 46
ShopTips:
Armoires,65
Bookcases,46, 49, 53,58
Cabinetmakingbasics,21, 23, 26, 27
Highboys, i23
Table saws.22
Cornice moldings, 69
Making repeatcuts with the table
saw(ShopTip),23
Raisedpanels,36,37
Shapingpilasterson the table saw
(ShopTip), 65
Tools:
Safetyprecautions,front endpaper
Turning and carving tools,
front endpaper
SeealsoDrills; Radial arm saws;
Routers:Tablesaws
Volutes.l38-139

W.X-Y-Z
Wall units. SeeBookcases
Wardrobes.SeeArmoires
Wood:
Grain, 15
SeealsoLumber

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Theeditorswish to thank thefollowing
CABINETMAKING BASICS
AdjustableClampCo.,Chicago,IL; DeltaInternationalMachinery/Porter
Cable,Guelph,Ont.;
FreudWestmoreTools,Ltd.,Mississauga,
Ont.; GreatNeckSawMfrs. Inc. (BuckBros.Division),Millbury, MA;
LeeValleyToolsLtd., Ottawa,Ont.; SandvikSawsand ToolsCo.,Scranton,PA;Shopsmith,Inc.,Montreal,Que.;
StanleyTools,Division of the StanleyWorks, New Britain, CT; Steiner-LamelloA.G.
Switzerland/ColonialSawCo., Kingston,MA
AdjustableClamp Co., Chicago,,r, o-..i..rur?3[:t:Etin.oln,
NE; Black& Decker/EluPowerTools,
Towson,MD; LesBoisM & M ltde.,St-Mathieu,Que.;DeltaInternationalMachineryiPorter
Cable,Guelph,Ont.;
FreudWestmoreTools,Ltd.,Mississauga,
Ont.; GrisetIndustries,Inc.,SantaAna,CA; LeeValleyToolsLtd.,
Ottawa,Ont.; SandvikSawsand ToolsCo.,Scranton,PA; Sears,
Roebuckand Co.,Chicago,IL; Shopsmith,Inc.,
Montreal,Que.;Steiner-Lamello
A.G. Switzerland/Colonial
SawCo.,Kingston,MA; VeritasToolsInc.,
Ottawa,Ont./Ogdensburg,NY
ARMOIRE
AdjustableClampCo.,Chicago,IL; Black& Decker/EluPowerTools,Towson,MD; DeltaInternational
Machinery/PorterCable,Guelph,Ont.; Allan Flegg,Montreal, Que.;FreudWestmoreTools,Ltd.,
Mississauga,
Ont.; GreatNeckSawMfrs. Inc. (BuckBros.Division),Millbury, MA; LeeValleyToolsLtd.,
Ottawa,Ont.; Sears,Roebuckand Co.,Chicago,IL; Shopsmith,Inc.,Montreal,Que.;StanleyTools,
Division of the StanleyWorks, New Britain, CT; Vermont AmericanCorp., Lincolnton, NC and Louisville,KY
BI-ANKETCHEST
AdjustableClampCo.,Chicago,IL; AmericanTool Cos.,Lincoln,NE; Black& Decker/EluPowerTools,
Towson,MD; DeltaInternationalMachinery/Porter
Cable,Guelph,Ont.; FreudWestmoreTools,Ltd.,
Mississauga,
Ont.; GeneralToolsManufacturingCo.,Inc.,New York, NY; GreatNeckSawMfrs. Inc. (BuckBros.
Division), Millbury, MA; Alain Morcel, LesRdalisationsLoeven-Morcel,Montreal, Que.;SandvikSawsand
Tools Co., Scranton,PA; StanleyTools,Division of the StanleyWorks, New Britain, CT; Steiner-LamelloA.G.
Switzerland/Colonial
SawCo.,'Kingston,
MA; VermontAmericanCorp.,Lincolnton,NC and Louisville,KY
HIGHBOY
AdjustableClampCo.,Chicago,IL; AmericanTool Cos.,Lincoln,NE; Anglo-AmericanEnterprises
Corp.,
Somerdale,NJ; Black& Decker/EluPowerTools,Towson,MD; Delta InternationalMachinerylPorterCable,
Guelph,Ont.; FreudWestmoreTools,Ltd.,Mississauga,
Ont.; GreatNeckSawMfrs. Inc. (BuckBros.Division),
Millbury, MA; Hitachi PowerTools U.S.A.Ltd., Norcross,GA; RobertLarsonCompany,Inc., SanFrancisco,CA;
Alain Morcel,LesR6alisations
Loeven-Morcel,
Montreal,Que.;Shopsmith,Inc.,Dayton,OH and Montreal,Que.;
RobertSorbyLtd., Sheffield,U.K./BusyBeeMachineTools,Concord,Onl
Thefollowingpersonsalsoassisted
in thepreparationof this book:
Lorraine Dor6, Dominique Gagn,Graphor Consultation,GeneviiveMonette,Brian Parsons,J. Gail Sowerby

FURNITURECREDITS
Cover LesR6alisationsLoeven-Morcel,Montr6al, Qudbec
40 GilesMiller-Mead,Brome,Qu6bec
60,6l GilesMiller-Mead,Brome,Qubecand fean-Frangois
Brunelle,St-Bruno,Qu6bec
84, 106LesRdalisations
Loeven-Morcel,
Montrdal,Qudbec

PICTURECREDITS
Cover RobertChartier
6,7 Mark Tomalty
8,9 Tom Stewart
10,ll GraceHuang

r44

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GUIDE
WORKSHOP
CABINETMAKING
FOR
GRADES
LUMBER
FAS

GRADE
HARDWOOD

N0.1
COMMON

SETECT

N0.2A& 28
COMMON

NO.3A
COMMON
4 ' , -t 6 '

NO.38
COMMON
4'- 16'

A l l o w a b llee n g t h
of board

8'- 16'

6'-16'

4',-r6',

4 ' , -1 6 ' ,

A l l o w a b lw
eidth
of board

6" orwider

4" orwider

3" orwider

3" orwider

3" orwider

3" orwider

M i n i m u m% o f
c l e a rf a c ec u t t i n g s

83i/2"/'

83Vz%

662/z%

50%

33Vz%

25%

M i n i m u ms i z eo f
c l e a rc u t t i n g s

3"x7';
4 , ' x5 ,

3 "x 7 ' ;
4 ' ,x 5 '

3 "x 3 ' ;
4" x2'

3" x2'

3 "x 2 '

GRADES
SOFTWOOD

CHARACTERISTICS

SelectB and BTR


( s up r e m e )

minordefectsand
and highestQuality;
Clearappearance
. o t a l w a y sa v a i l b l e m i s h e lsd. e a lw i t h c l e a rf i n i s h e sN
a b l e :e x P e n s i v e
H i g hq u a l i t ys; m a l ld e f e c t sa n d b l e m i s h e s

C S e l e c (t c h o i c e )
D S e l e c (t q u a l i t Y )
S u p e r i oFr i n i s h
P r i m eF i n i s h
N o .1 C o m m o n
( c o l o ina l )
N o .2 C o m m o n
(sterli ng)

s o r ep r o n o u n c e d
G o o dq u a l r t yd; e f e c t sa n d b l e m i s h em
Highestqualityof finishgradelumber;minordefects
a n db l e m i s h e s
H i g hq u a l i t yw i t hf e w d e f e c t sa n d b l e m i s h e s
H a sl i m i t e da v a i l a b i l iat yn ds i z er a n g e sm; a yh a v es m a l l
if a knotty
tight knots,makingthis gradeappropriate
a p p e a r a n ci sed e s i r e d
oftenusedwhere
Larger,coarserdefectsand blemishes;
i
s
d
e
s
i
r
e
d
a k n o t t ya P p e a r a n c e

THICKNESS
STANDARD
HARDWO(ID
SURFACED
FOR
NOMINAL
(rough)

ACTUAL
(surfaced
twosides)

3/a'

3ho"

r/zu

tAr"'

Tz'
3/q'

e/',0"

1"
rlh'

3/4" or r3a6''

Ir/z'

z',

I1Ao"
1 F t

I'/

Lt)

IVz" or I3/q"

3"

23/t'

A r

33Li

Usethe chartsaboveandat leftto


grade
theappropriate
helpyouchoose
you
Whether
of woodforyourproject.
or softwood,
decideto usehardwood
useof the board
keeothe intended
i n m i n dw h e nd e t e r m i n itnhgeg r a d e
hardwood
youwill need.A high-grade
will havemore
for instance,
board.
thana lowergradeboard,
clearcuttings
it will havefewerdefects,
meaning
andmoreof theboardwill be usable'
if youPlanto usesmaller
However,
pieces,
lowergradestockwillsuffice,
the defects'
asvoucancut around
usinglowergradeboards
Consider
for hiddenparts.

SIZES
ANDACTUAL
N()MINAL
TUMBER
ORSOFTWOOD
NOMINAL
ilNCHES)
7-by-2

1/rc"

Notlessthan
172"wide
36
containing
inches
square

ACTUAL
(rNcHES)
dry
Surfaced
3h-by-Ir/z

1-by-3
1-by-4

3k-by-2t/z

1-by-6
1-by-8
1-by-10

3h-by-5r/z

I-by-12

3h-by-lIrh

3h-by-3t/z

3h'by-7rh
3/+-by-9th

NOMINAL

(rNcHES)

ACTUAL
(INCHES)
Surfaceddry

Z-by-2

Ir/z-by-IVz

2-by-4
2-by-6

7t/z-by-3r/z

2-by-B
2-by-10

IVz-by-7|iq

Z-by-12
4-by-4

It/z-by-I1\./,t

It/z-by-51/z
I\/z-by-91/t
3r/z-by-31/z