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A PEAOTICAL GRAMMAR
OF THE

Al^TIEI^T GAELIC,
OS

USUALLY CALLED

M A N K

S.

BY THE REV. JOHN KELLY, LLD.,


VICAR OF ARDLEIGH, AND RECTOR OF COPFORD,
IN THE COUNTY OF ESSEX.

EDITED, TOGETHER

WITH AN INTRODUCTION, LIFE OF

DR. KELLY,

AND NOTES,

BY THE

REV.

WILLIAM

GhILL,

VICAR OF MALEW.

DOUGLAS, ISLE OF MAN:

PRINTED FOR THE MANX SOCIETY.


MDCCCLIX.
Facsimile reprint for

BERNARD QUARITCH,
1870.

15 Piccadilly,

London.

EDITOR'S INTRODUCTION,

rXlHE Manx Grammar,


hastening to decay.

like

The

the language
original

become extremely scarce; insomuch


difficulty
crisis

in 1858,

"

which

it

turned

its

attention

acknowledges

and a

In the restoration of
its

with
this

for its preserva-

Among

the

first

was Dr. Kelly's Manx

Grammar, which it deemed deserving of a place among


publications.

At

for the publication of

National Documents of the Isle of Man.^^


to

fast

and only edition had

be found from which to re-edit the work.

The Society was formed

works

was

that a copy could

The Manx Society opportunely intervened

tion.

itself,

this

its

early

book, the Society

obligations to a lady, awarmfriend of the Island

relative of the deceased author, for the generous donation

of half the cost of the impression.

Besides the Grammar, Dr. Kelly had prepared two works of


great labour, and, in a philological point of view, great value,

Manx and

Manx,
still

Gaelic,

English Dictionary, and a Triglot Dictionary of

and

Irish,

based upon English.

These works are

lying in manuscript, but complete, and ready for the press.

EDITOR

IV

INTRODUCTION.

The Society considers the publication of these too heavy an


undertaking for
that

it

may

present funds

but

it

not without hope

is

at some future, pei"haps not distant^ time be able to

aid in giving

may open

its

the

them to the world, and

way to such

This reprint of the

that the present publication

a result.

Grammar

is

an accurate transcript of the

original work^ with corrections only of errors of the press

some obvious inaccuracies of the pen.

The

old plan of

and of

making

an English Grammar was to reduce the structure of the language


to a rigid conformity to Latin

names

and of moods and

of cases,

many cases, and

as

In

tenses.

The modern

thing was thought imperative.


as

and Greek, in the number and

Manx

rule

is,

the same

to have just

many moods and tenses, as there are actual

variations of the w^ords, without the admission of prepositions or

of auxiliary verbs.
require the

Manx,

To

this rule the

as well as the

laws of gi^ammar seem to

Enghsh, to be conformed.

As,

however, the adoption of such a principle in the present instance

would involve the rearrangement,


the

Grammar,

thought advisable not to attempt the change,

it is

but to give the work in

Grammar

to a considerable extent, of

Dr. Kelly's

original integrity.

its

thus presented, especially viewed as an original pro-

duction, unaided

by any

pre- existent

grammar, cannot

fail

to

strike the intelligent reader as reflecting the highest credit

on

the author's industry and ingenuity.

The

object of this reprint

spoken language,
ever so desirable
this interesting

when

is

not to uphold the

Manx

as a

that were a hopeless attempt, were the end


but

to afford

some

assistance to the student of

branch of the ancient

its lifetime is

Celtic,

and

to obtain for

it,

gone by, a place among the records of the

EDITOR

The

dead languages of Europe.


witliin the

memory

INTRODUCTION.
decline of the spoken

Manx,

of the present generation^ has been marked.

The language is no longer heard in our courts of law,

either from

The

the bench or the bar, and seldom from the witness-box.


courts are indeed
ditionary form

still

fenced in Manx, according to ancient tra-

and the Island laws are

that language on the

promulgated in

still

Tynwald Mount, where the

last lingering

once the language of Europe, the


universal language of the British
probably be heard.
accents of the Graelic in

Man

Isles

will

In our churches the language was used by many of the present


generation of clergy three Sundays in the month.

It

was after-

wards restricted to every other Sunday ; and is now entirely


continued in most of the churches.
the Island the
tion of the

Manx

has ceased to be taught; and the introduc-

Government system of education has done much

displace the language.

berg floating into southern


Let

it

Among

now heard

It is rarely

among the peasantry.

except

It is a

it

still

which they habitually resort

And no wonder

most congenial
lish,

for

in their

at ease.

There

is

immediate.

it is

fair

It is

the

the language

to

communications with each

the language which they find

thought and feeling.

In Eng-

knowledge of the tongue, they

speak with hesitation and under restraint.

and

end

retains a strong hold.

to their habits of

even where they have a

fluent,

an ice-

latitudes.

not, however, be thought that its

the peasantry

to

in conversation,

doomed language,

language of their affections and their choice,

other.

dis-

In the schools throughout

is little

In

Manx

they arc

probability, therefore, of their

soon forgetting their chengeij-ny-mayvey (mother- tongue).

language thus dear to the peasantry from

its

innate adap-

EDITOR

VI

INTRODUCTION.

tation to tteir use^ possesses at

mendations to

and

tlie

same time no small recom-

attention of the philologist and antiquary,

tlie

whose

especially of those

morals and religion.

office it is to instruct the

few of

people in

may be

distinctive qualities

its

here noticed.

The langiiage
the range of
tion

it is

cannot but

Manx

far as

For the purposes of devo-

There

especially adapted.*

plicity in the

and expressive, as

peculiarly forcible

is

vocabulary extends.

its

a solemnity and sim-

is

Liturgy of which the intelligent worshipper


In the

feel conscious.

Manx

Scriptures the idiom of

the language seems to bear a strong affinity to that of the

Old Testament.

originals, especially of the

The

poetical capabilities of the language are beautifully ex-

hibited in

many of the effusions of the

native muse.

The follow-

ing fugitive production of the pen of a late native clergyman


(the

Eev. T. Stephen), which appeared many years ago in an

Island newspaper, and

is

now

(at

the time of writing this Intro-

duction) probably lost to every person but the Editor,

wiU bear

comparison, for pathos and idiomatic beauty, with any passage


that can be produced from English poetry
'*

As

ere ta gloyr,

Ennym

ta

Shoh moylley'n
Son

agh aalid ennym

myr y

vie,

ghall ta sheidey shaghey ?

pobble,

my

she moylley

slien.

agh yurnaag anreaghit,

ere ta'n pobble,

Earroo neuchinjagh, ta son jannoo mooar

Jeh nheeghyn eddrym nagh

As

Ta'd moylley as

As
*

An

eminent Scotch nobleman

Latin is best to express them.


I

ta'd

have recourse

is

ooashlagh shen nagh nhione daue

shen ta'd gloyragh

wish to speak on philosophy,

Maker,

vel toilchin scansh,

coontey cadjin reddyn ta feeu arrym

jiu, ta'd jiooldey

said to have expressed himself thus:

employ the Greek language.

If I

mairagh;

If I utter

make love, I speak in French. But if

to the Gaelic."

"If

commands, the
I address

my


EDITOR
Cha

'soc eer quoi,

Fer er

VH

INTRODUCTION.

agh eermyr tad'yr

fer elley geiyrt,

myr

;'

leeidit

guoiee trooid doarlish.

As

cre'n cooilleen t'ayns soiagh vooar

Dy

veaghey er nyn ennal,

nyn

goo yn sleih

Iheid ?

Marvanee Iheaystagh, myr y gheay neuhiggyr


Quoi echey ta resoon veagh blakey lurgh oc ?
Lioroo dy ve Iheamysit te moylley."

Literal translation
"*

And what

is

A name

which, as a vapour, blows unheeded by

This

glory, but, the radiance of a

the people's praise,

is

if

praise

it

name,
?

be.

For what is the people ? An entangled skein,


fickle mob, who greatly prize
Things vain and worthless
While they contemn what merits veneration,
They praise and they esteem the things they know not.
And whom they praise to-day, they blame to-morrow

They know not whom, but just as they are led


One following another, as geese through a gap.

And what

advantage is in the esteem of such ?


upon their breath, the people's praise
Poor wavering mortals, as the wind inconstant

To

live

Their blame

commendation."

is

The language abounds


this the lines

The

The going

illustration.

greiney.

sun

(the zodiac).

north (the rainbow, which always appears in or towards the north).

ny

firrinys.

people of the

Cre-erhee

fell

truth

(the perfect).

dy ycmnoo,

Whatsoever he

doeth,

cur dty aigney

te cheet
it

lesh.

comes with him (prospers).

Ihieu.

Not give thy mind with them

(consent not).

Shass er dty cliione hene.

Stand on thy head

own

Bwitclioorys

hene.

er

Slaughtering on him
Goll slieese

(rely

on your own understanding).

self (on his

own

ny Ihargagh.

Going down the

declivity (failing).

account).

Of

The following

twoaie.

Feallagli

Ny

footpath of the

Goll

The

ny

in strong figurative expressions.

above quoted afford an

are additional examples


Cassan

editor's introduction.

viii

Ihiam

S'inie

slien dy-jarroo.

me is that

Very good

to

SJwoyl

ny

indeed

(very pleasing to me).

thieyn.

Going on the houses (begging).


Ta'n

uslvtey

The water

cloie.
is

playing (boiling).

Yuan

Bock

fannee.

The horse of John the flayer


walking

Craue

- 'sy -

teg

A bone

little

(one Juan,

who

Chengey lhiam,

(remorse).

inconstant person).

chengey

Ihiat.

Tongue with me, tongue with thee (blowing hot and

lu proverbial lore the

The

figures

Manx

language has

Wit

bought

Mannagh
If

Is a heart

kmdly

taken from nature.

yn

one

man

wit

best,

croutagh.

than a head

poor

fol-

cheeayl share,

the

Tcione

Tra ta un dooinney hoght cooney

When

is

The

bought too dear.

be not

it

better

to its proverbs

vel ee Tcionnit ro glieyr.

ny share na

dooie

its traditionary-

specimens of its popular sayings

Keeayl chionnit

cree

cold).

which give point and beauty

are^ as in all primitive languages,


io .ving will serve as

Ta

to his stick

cTdeeau.

in the breast

Lhiam - Ihiat.
With me, with thee (an

stores.

and took

flayed his horse,

stick).

crafty.

lesh dooinney loght elley, ta Jee

man

helps

poor another,

God

hene garaghtee.
himself laughs

(for delight).

Tra

hig

yn laa

hig

yn

coyrle

lesh.

When come the day will come its counsel with


Clagh ny Mllagh

ayns

A church stone

in

be

man who commits


Ta'n

aghaue

veg

Is the

hemlock

little

Laik Ihiat

re

Mone

goair.

of the goat.

it.

hie vooar.

the head of thy house great (thy punishment be that of the


sacrilege).

shuyr

da'n aghaue vooar.

sister to the

hemlock

big

(a small sin is

marish y chioltane

Thou wouldest fain be numbered


ny

dty

with the

flock;

akin to a great one).

agh ta'n eamagh ayd eamagh


but

is

bleat

thy the bleat

EDITOR

the attire

dooiwney

boglit.

man

poor.

Cronh ghlass foddey voym

The

hill

green

away

far

loam loam tra roshym

when I reach
Campbell's Pleasures

s'doo yn Jeeagh
Myr
However black the raven,

EsMn
He who
Change

EasM

ohhyr

Tn loam

leigh

jus

Shegin

goaill

You must

take

In

tlie

is

each

Summum

feh

hriiu erhec,

judge

any, he does

loam

summa

aggair.
injuria.

ny eairUyn marish
the

hriiuyns.

horns

with

cheh.

y
the

(Job

hide.

ii.

10.)

antiquary will find scope

tlie

for the exercise of his ingenuity in tracing the origin

many

To suggest

hene.
self.

judgment.

do

then

ear,

study of the language^,

fication of

eh

deyrey

condemn him-

rest.

dagh cleaysh, eisM jean

Listen with

lends en-

of Hope.)

aaish.

work

lesh

(" Distance

it.

he a mate.

will not take with (not allow)

of

yn

the riches of the

eh sheshey.

yioiv
will find

rish

Tiagh goiu

herchys

te
is

eh.

bare bare

chantment to the view."

Caghlaa

IX

INTEODUCTION.

yn dooinney lerchagli; as
coamrey stoamey
rich; and it
comely of the
man

Ta ynsagh
Is learning

and

signi-

of the proper nouns and peculiar expressions.

a few hints in this direction

Gaelic, Gailck, Oaelgagh, evidently indicate the affinity of the language

race to the old Celtic, or Keltic.

"

The

Galic," says Mr. Shaw, in his

tionary, "is the language of Japhet, spoken before the Deluge,

and the

Gahc Dic-

and probably the

speech of Paradise."
Bretnee, or Brethnee, the Welsh, the old British

from hrech,

hrith, spotted

(Latin, the Picts).

Sasonee, or Saxonee, the English, the Anglo-Saxons.

Alhin, Nolbin, Albinee, Alpinee, the Scotch (Albania).


Erinee, the Irish.

Frangee, the French, Franks.


Keeil, a church

probably from

lerjll,

a grove

the Druids' grove being turned into

a Christian church.
Laa-Boayldyn or Baaltine, May-day, when the inhabitants burn fires on the mounfrom chenan, the sun, or chen or teinne
the day of Baal's fire, or of the sun,
tains
(Scotch), the fire of the sun, which our ancestors worshipped as the mediimi of
(See Kelly's Dictionary, Baaltine.)
adoration of the Supreme Being.

Bru'i,

a charmer, a druid.

Druiaghtagh, an enchanter.

Hence, Spvg, an oak.


(Jer. xxvii. 9.)

EDITOE

INTRODUCTION.

Cloagey-druiagh, a druidical cloak, supposed to confer on the person wearing

it

the power of healing, prophesying, and becoming invisible.


Malexv, the

name

honour of Lupus,

Man

of a parish in

from Moyl-Loup, or lIoyllcy-Lu]pus,

in

the church being dedicated to St. Lupus.

Ballalceeil-Woirrey the estate of Mary's Church.


,

S'moal, the

name

of the highest mountain in Man.

(^Cornish,

niull,

a cloud;

Scotch, neull, a cloud.)


(Latin, paier, ItaWan, padre, Cornish, X'adar, the Lord's Prayer

Padjer, prayer.

a going

to the Father.)

(Greek,

Agglish, the church.

Saggyrt, a priest.

K-KXj(7ia.)

(Latin, sacerdos.)

Corp as amvym, body and

(Latin, corpus et anirmis.)

soul.

Oirr ny marreij, the sea-coast.

(Latin, era maris.)

Airh as argid, gold and silver. (Latin, aurum


Ennym, a name. (Greek, ovojwa.)
Paitchey, a

'

(Greek,

child.

Keayrd, a trade.

(Greek, KtpSog, gain.)

MesMey, drunk.

(Greek, ixsarog,

Boca, a cow.

(Greek,

Fer, a man.

(Lat. vir.}

Sollys, light.

(Lat.

full.)

jSoau), to bellow.)

aro.,

to plough.)

(Lat. sol, the sun.)

(Lat. peccator, a sinner.)

Peccagli, a person.

Phadeyr, a prophet.
Booys, give me.

The

(Gr.

(pad),

to speak.)

(Gr. SoaiQ, a giving.)

liabits of the

may be

people

and peculiar expressions of


Staa, a baud of three

and one

argentum.)

(Lat. cohimha.)

Colmane, a drove.
Arroo, corn.

et

ttcu^.)

men making

tlieir

traced in

tongue

a hedge together

many

of

tlie

terms

two of them cutting the sod,

lifting.

Fer feayree, one above the number wanted

at

work, to cool while the others are

working.
Oie

mooie as

A night

oie

elley

out and night another

sthic.
in,

Oik son cabbil agh son kirree mie.

Bad

for horses

but for

Oashyryn-voynnee, stockings without

soles,

sheep good.

strapped under the foot, used without

shoes.
Cooillee, the

withdrawing-room

from

the great house (yn thie 7nooar) to which

cooill,
it is

a corner, as being but a corner of

joined.

Carrmie, a raw-hide sandal.


Chiollagh, the floor- hearth on which the turf or log was burned.

::

EDITOR

As

Mannanan
Mannanan,

mac

common

in

is

INTRODUCTION.

and Ireland, so in

in Scotland

patronymic

use

XI

Isle

tlie

of

Man, the

y Lheirr.

the son of Lheirr (an ancient necromancer).

Dich

Quayll

Vessey.

Dick, the son of Quayle the son of Bess (which Bess was no doubt a notable in her
day, as Dick

Men

is

in his).

are also designated from their


Veih-hen, to Ballacharnane

Ballacarnane

See,

Or from

their degree of society

Tan Bonaghey

domain

Wooo/r

the Great comes.

ny ghooinney

The Donaghey

ooasle

man

is

cheet-

Or from some quality pertaining

to

honourable.

them

Illiam Dlwne, Swarthy William.

Juan Gorrym, Purple John.

Among

the idiomatic forms which render the language de-

serving of attention

The

may be enumerated

article has a plural

the following

number

Yn Hoar. Ny lioaryn
The book. The books.

The

and shenn,

evil,

Yn dooimiey
man
The

The

noun

adjective follows the

except drogh,

(its

old,

natm-al and proper place),

which go before the noun


Ben

mie.

A woman

good.

aalin.
fair.

adjective has a plural form

Red

beg.

Reddyn

leggey.

A thing

little.

Things

Magher

glo.ss.

Magheryn

field green.

Fields

Nouns have an emphatic form


Bty ohhyr hene.
Thy work own.

little.

glassey.

green.

hene.
Dty olhyrs
Thy work (emphatic) own.

EDITOR

Xll:

INTRODUCTION.

Prouoiins liavc au empliatic form


Mee,

mish

I,

Oo,
(emphatic). Thou,

Golu

Eh,
He.

uss.

thou.

he.

Acknowledge him

Acknowledge him.

IMam ;

Orrym ;
Upon me upon thee withmc;
;

The

Ihiat

Dty

Life

Thy

long.

Nouns have

hv^geysyn.

final

(not dty thie).

hene).

number when the numeral daa

a dual

Daa

spelling of the

Manx

the

hie

house.

Aym pene (not


At my self

bea).

life.

Un hooil.
One eye.

when

Imggey

a word adapt themselves to the

Bea veayn (not bea heayn).

BiUy dy vea (not

1772,

ediey

preceding word, for euphony

Tree of

The

she.

with thee; with him; at him; to him; tohim(cmph.)

initial letters of

letters of the

lesh

ish.

(emphatic).

Pronouns are compounded with prepositions


ort

Ee,

She.

rishyn.

Goiv

risk.

esliyn.

Manx

Two

hooil.

eyes.

is

used

Three eyes.

tongue had remained unsettled

Bible was

Tree sooillyn.

first

printed.

till

That translation

has been since recognised as the standard of orthography. " The


Celtic language/' observes the writer of

an anonymous manu-

script among Dr. Kelly's papers, " everywhere losing ground,

had degenerated

in

Man

in a ratio proportionate to its

territory,

and the increased intercourse of

Britain.

In the

Manx

Anglicisms adopted,
lators

dialect

many

its

many terms were

lost,

many

The

trans-

corruptions introduced.

had now an opportunity

to apply the

narrow

inhabitants with

remedy.

By duo

attention to the orthography and structure of the language, the

connexion between roots and compounds might have been preserved,

and

its

original energy

and purity restored.

But the

translators did not consult the structure of the language.

By

EDITOR

INTRODUCTION.

^111

adjusting the ortliograpliy to pronunciation, roots are wholly-

...

lost.

must, however, be allowed, agreeably to the

It

argument of a learned friend of mine, who was one of the committee of correction and publication, that had not the words been

they are pronounced, the body of the people must

wi'itten as

The

have continued uninstructed.


have presented insurmountable
to the multitude an

The

unknown

translators, therefore,

regarded the

utility of their

the language

Irish orthography

difficulties

it

would

would have been

tongue.'^

adopted the wise alternative. They

work rather than the

elucidation of

and accordingly took the spoken sound as

their

rule of orthography.*

Upon

a review of these notices of the language,

the reader

who

is

capable of appreciating

its

it is

presumed

qualities will

be

disposed to concur in the following eulogy upon the language,

which

is

by the

quoted from the introduction to the

late

Archibald Cregeen, a native

sagacity and judgment


" In concluding
texture,
cases,

Manx

Dictionary,

Manxman

of great

my observations and remarks, I cannot but admire the constmction,

and beauty of the Manks language, and how the words initially change their

moods,

tenses, degrees, &c. It appears like a piece of exquisite network, inter-

woven together in a masterly manner, and framed by the hand of a most skilful workman, equal to the composition of the most learned, and not the production of chance.

* There is one marked peculiarity which distinguishes the grammar of the Manx
from that of other dialects of the Celtic language. The orthography or spelling of the
Irish and the Scottish Gaelic is constructed on the principle ofpreserving the derivation of the words and therefore the spelling often differs from the pronunciation.
The Manx spelling, on the other hand, is based on phonography. The words are
written as they are pronounced. The etymology of the words is often obscured and
;

hidden by
the

this

system of spelling

but the spoken sound

is

preserved. Consequently,

Manx orthography will hand down to posterity the sounds of the spoken

better than the Irish

and Scottish modes of

dialects will preserve the

future generations the

etymology

spelling.

while that of the

phonography of a Celtic

dialect.

language

The orthography of these


Manx will hand down to
Eev. W. Mackenzie.


XIV

EDITOR

The depth

INTRODUCTION.

of meaning that abounds in

many

of the words must be conspicuous to

every person versed in the language."

At

tlie

risk of exceeding

tlie

reasonable bounds of an Intro-

some notices of

duction^ the Editor ventures liere to introduce

Manx

literature

and of

Manx

tlie

people^ whicli

lie is

The Bible in Spain, &c.,

in his advertisement of a

posed to be published by him under the

title

glad to be

The author

able to quote from a living authority of note.

of

of

book pro-

Bayr

Jiargey,

containing the narrative of his wanderings in the Isle of Man,


in quest of
"

Manx

The Manx have

literature, thus writes

a literature,

has been frequently denied, but

a native vernacular Gaelic literature.

Manx had

Manx, and was

Manx

tongue,

now

it is

Some time ago a gentleman went


whether the

to

Man

with the express purpose of discovering

a literature or not.

He

possessed a slight knowledge of

tolerably well acquainted with the Irish

it

This fact

established beyond the possibility of doubt.

and Scotch Gaelic. The


and is closely connected

will be necessary to observe, is called Gailk,

with the vernacular speech of the Highlands, and also with that of Ireland,

bearing

a closer resemblance to theforraer than the latter. Ithas, however, certain peculiarities
amongst others, it has a dual number. The gentleman in question visited every
part of the island on foot, and was a great deal amongst the peasantry of the mountain
districts, whose confidence he contrived to win.
He was not slow in discovering
that they possessed a literature of their own, entirely manuscript.
consists of ballads on sacred subjects,

English word

who thought

carol. It

This literature

which are called carraJs, a corruption of the

was formerly the custom

in the Isle of

Man

for

young people

themselves endowed with the poetic gift to compose carols some time

before Christmas, and to recite

them

in the parish churches.

Those pieces which

were approved of by the clergy were subsequently chanted by their authors through
Many of
their immediate neighbourhoods, both before and after the holy festival.
Some of them
these songs have been handed down by writing to the present time.
possess considerable merit, and a printed collection of them
to the literature of Europe.

The

would be a curious addition

preserved in uncouth-looking,

carvals are

smoke-stained volumes, in low farm-houses and cottages situated in mountain

and

glens.

They

constitute the genuine literature of Elian Vannin.

gills

... Of

the

carval books the gentleman procured two, though not without considerable difficulty,
the peasantry not being at all willing in general to part withtheirvoluraes.

He

says

is not a more honest, more kindly race than the


Towards strangers they exercise unbounded hospitality, witliout

that in the whole world there

genuine Manx.

the slightest idea of receiving any compensation.

language

is

have ceased

falling fast into disuse;


to exist as a

and

spoken language.

...

It

seems that the

probable that within sixty years

it is
.

prove of great use to the antiquary and philologist

The Manx may

Manx
it

will

occasionally

some knowledge of it

pensable for understanding some of the inscriptions on the runic stones."

is

indis-

EDITORS INTRODUCTIOX.
In a letter from this author, the Editor

XV
favoured with the

is

following reroarks, which deserve to be appended to the fore-

going extracts
"

The

There

carvals are all in manuscript.

is,

however, a small, but not uninter-

though not easily procurable. First


ballad, in which the fortunes of the various races

esting, poetic ]\Ianx literature existing in print,

of

all,

and

there

there

is

the grand historic

is

families,

which have

at diffei-ent times

held the island, are narrated.

Then
Brown William, and the vengeance
progeny. Then there is the ballad of

the noble ballad concerning the death of

inflicted

bv God on his murderers and their

Molley Charane, the miser, a humorous and

and the one of a similar character, and very

satirical piece

of great poignancy

little inferior to it

in

any

respect, called

Kirree fo Sniaghtey ; or, the 8hee%) heneath the Snow.


These four are the most
remarkable compositions in the printed vernacular literature of Man though there
are other pieces of considerable merit,
for example, a little piece commencing with
" Ushag beg ruy," and two or three elegies on drowned seamen. Besides original,
:

the

Manx

language contains tianslated poetry.

There

is

the Phargys Caillit of a

Marown, who flourished about the commencement of the present century;


however, not a translation of the whole of Paradise Lost, as the name
would seem to imply, but consists of translations of particular parts of Paradise Lost
into Manx rhyme, neatly and smoothly done, but with very little ^dgour, and not
rector of

which

is,

much

fidelity.

Then

there

is

the Lioar

dij

Hymnyn,

or

Book

Wesley, Watts, and others, by George Killey, of Kirk Onchan

of

Hymns,

which

fi-om

done in
a manner which shews that the poor Methodist, who, singular enough, was parish
clerJc, possessed powers of versification of the very highest order."

The only other

topic to

of

is

which the Editor would now advert

Though he

the learning of the language.

recommend the study

Manx to

is

is

not prepared to

the general reader, on account

of the merits of the language, or for the stores of literature which


it

contains

he would yet strongly impress upon those whose

sphere of duty

lies,

or

is

to

lie,

among

the peasantry, the im-

portance of possessing a knowledge of the tongue with which


the country people are most conversant.

and candidates
perative

upon them to possess

with the people.

The younger clergy

for the ministry, especially, should feel

If a

it

im-

this qualification for intercourse

knowledge of the language

necessary for the ministrations of the Church,


ant for the efficient discharge of the

work

it is

is

no longer

very import-

of pastoral visitation.

EDITOR

"XVl

Much

time

INTRODUCTION.

spent iu learning two or three of the dead lan-

is

guages ; why may not some pains be taken to master a living


language, the knowledge of which would open to the minister a

more easy access

recommend him

to the understandings of

to the hearts of all

when upwards

Irish language

says his biographer,

'^

many

of his flock,

and

Bishop Bedell learned the

of sixty years of age,

'^

in order,"

that he might personally carry forward

the good work of conversion"

among his people

^'

and although

he did not converse in that tongue, he was able to read, write,

and translate

The

it.

first Irish

posed was written by him."

grammar

that ever

Bishop Hildesley also

is

was comrelated to

have been " very fond of the language of the Island over which
he presided ; and not only used to read part of the service, but
always dismissed the congregation with the Blessing in Manks.

He

frequently expressed a wish to be assisted in learning

this,'

says Dr. Kelly,

'

was

up a Manks Grammar, and

my

it, '

and

primary inducement for drawing

for

composing a Dictionary

that tongue, for the use of his Lordship

also of

and others / which was

in a great degree of forwardness at the time of his death."

Bishop Short, in later days, though decidedly opposed to the


continuance of the language, yet was so convinced of the importance of an acquaintance with

it,

for present purposes, that

he instituted prizes at King William's College

for proficiency in

Manx.
In learning the language, the Editor would by no means

recommend an

application to the

Grammar in

the

first

instance.

That would be found a perplexing and disheartening process.


Let the student rather betake himself to some living Manxspeaking native,

if

he is fortunate enough to have such an ad van-

editor's ixt^oduction.

xvii

tage within reach^ and learn the rudiments of the language, as


a child learns
also,

its first

vocables, from the living voice.

with the same assistance, read the

Manx

Bible side by side

with the English, or one of Bishop Wilson's books,


Principles
parallel
this

Let him

as, e.g., his

and Duties of Christianiti/ ,\^ith. Manx and English in

columns

and when he has acquired some knowledge in

way, then he

reducing what

w^ill

find the benefit of the

may have appeared

to

him

Grammar

words to method and order.

WILLIAM
October, 1859.

in

arbitrary changes of

GILL,

Vicar of Malew.

LIFE OF

TT

is

to

be lamented

who have
but

little is

DE.

that, in

common

raised themselves

known

KELLY.

with

many

to distinction

if it

some biographical notice of the learned author.

him

extant, collected with

Esq., of Douglas, a
tary of

The Manx

is

This

did not contain

The following

drawn up from such materials as are

much

zeal

and industry by Paul Bridson,

member of the

Council,

and Honorary Secre-

Society.

John Kelly, the author

of the

Manx Grammar, was

the son

of William Kelly, wine-cooper, and Alice Kewley, his wife.

was born

at Algare, or,

as he himself writes

it,

Grammar

first

He

Aal-caer, in

Baldwin, in the parish of Braddan, Isle of Man, in 1750.


receiving the

men

their works,

of the personal history of Dr. Kelly.

volume, however, would be very incomplete

brief account of

by

other

After

rudiments of his education in the Douglas

School, under the Rev. Philip Moore, chaplain and

schoolmaster, of Douglas, and afterwards rector of Kirk Bride,

he entered

St.

Johu^s College, Cambridge.

in the year 1776.

His

first

He took Holy

ministerial appointment

was

Orders
to the

charge of the Scotch Episcopal Church in the town of Ayr,

XX

LIFE OF DR. KELLY.

which he held

the Marquis of Huntley, last


the

In

for three years.

Duke of Gordon had been

779 he engaged as tutor to

Duke

In 1791 Mr. Kelly was appointed vicar of

with Mr. Kelly.

He

Ardleigh, near Colchester.


;

that time

Ayr with his regiment

way become acquainted

(Aberdeenshire Fencibles),andhadin this

in 1 799

At

of Gordon.

stationed at

proceeded LL.D, at Cambridge

and became rector of Copford, not

far

from Ardleigh,

in 1800.

Dr. Kelly

is

best

known as

and the reviser of the

Manx

the author of the

Manks Grammar,

He

translation of the Scriptures.

also published the life of his wife^s grandfather,

John Dollond,

F.R.S., the inventor of the achromatic telescope

mons

preached on public occasions, one of which

is

and two

ser-

printed here-

with as a specimen of his pulpit powers, and of the liberal and


enlightened views which led him to labour so earnestly for the

improvement of

his native country

and

its literature.

Grammar

While yet a student at the Douglas

School, the

aptitude which he displayed for learning, and his knowledge of

the vernacular language of the Isle of Man,

marked him out

for

important service in furthering the translation of the Holy


Scriptures into

Manx,

so large a share.

It

work in which

his

would appear that

worthy preceptor had

at the

age of sixteen he

entered on the arduous task of revision assigned to him

and for

the space of eight years was incessantly employed in that undertaking.

He

transcribed the whole version, from

Genesis to

Eevelation, superintended the impression, and corrected the


proof-sheets,
editions of the

as well as

New

examined and corrected subsequent

Testament.

In an autograph

letter of the

Rev. P. Moore's to the Christian Knowledge Society, in May,


XXI

LIFE OF DR. KELLY.

1772^ in the editor's possession, the following mention


of Mr. Kelly, in connection with an account of the

made

is

work

" I

have, by the blessing of God, finished the revisions of the last

tome

of our

Manx

two, literatim
critical

clergy

et

reviewer

I say revisions, because

Bible.

verbatim, with
first,

all

my

has had

the several portions as translated

by our

next, the fair copy for the press, collating and comparing

every sentence with all possible care and


of

it

the severity and attention of a

fidelity.

Since the death

learned friend and fellow-labourer, the Eev. Mr. Curphy,

the w^hole of this second volume has devolved on myself, with


the assistance of a very ingenious young man,
trained up to the work, and

haven with

now ready

to

my

amanuensis,

embark

for WTiite-

his fair transcript of the second tome, to attend the

printing and correct the press."

In Butler's Memoirs of Bishop Hilclesley (page 231) we have


the following record:

'^

In October, 1772, not many weeks

previous to Bishop Hildesley's decease, the Society (for Pro-

moting Christian Knowledge) read a

letter

from his lordship,

expressing the hope that some handsome gratuity might be

thought of for Mr. John Kelly, a young gentleman, native of


the Isle of

Man,

'

who has

most assiduous and useful

been,' says the

assistant to

fair the ivhole translation of the

good

prelate,

'

Mr. Moore, in transcribing

Manks

Bible for the press

of

which he had been likewise a most indefatigable corrector, and


for

which he has hitherto received no emolument.'

His lordship

further hoped that the Society would the rather consider Mr. Kelly
in

an especial manner, as Mr. Moore had generously declined to

accept anything for his pains.

much

The

Society,

upon

this,

very

to their honour, referred the business entirely to his lord-

XXll

LIFE OF DR. KELLY.

only requesting him to

sliip^

make Mr. Kelly a

suitable

acknow-

ledgment, and rather to exceed than fall short of a due liberality."

Out of

this

as appears

work

of revision the

Manx Grammar took

its rise,

by the following note in Dr. Kelly's handwriting, in

a rough draught of the Grammar

" N.B.

began to correct,

revise,

and transcribe the translation of the Manks Bible in June,

1766

and

this

began

at that time

Grammar

for

my

to collect

and form the rules of

assistance, having no printed or written

documents to instruct me, except the four Gospels,"

While the Manx Scriptures were

in preparation for the press,

a disaster occurred which threatened greatly to retard the good

work.
Life,

It is

thus relatedby Dr, Kelly himself (Bisliop Hildesley's

page 230)

press; and
printed,

we

"The

Pentateuch was nearly ready for the

arrived at WTiitehaven, where the

on the 13th of April, 1770.

On

work was

our next return from

the Island to Whitehaven, the 19th of March, 1771, charged

with another portion, from Deuteronomy to Job inclusive, we

were shipwrecked in a storm.

With no

small difficulty and

danger, the manuscript was preserved, by holding

water

for the space of five

article saved."
-'

hours

and

this

it

above the

was almost the only

" His lordship," says the Bishop's biographer,

and the Rev. Philip Moore, whenever the subject afterwards

came

into conversation, were jocularly pleased to

compare the

corrector to Caesar, who, during the sea-fight at Alexandria,


said to have saved his Commentaries by holding

and swimming with the

other.-'*

While thus engaged upon the Manx

Grammar, a work of a
Kelly,

viz..,

is

them in one hand,

still

translation

and the Manx

more arduous nature occurred

to Dr.

the composition of two copious Dictionaries

the


LIFE OF DR. KELLY.

Manx and

one,

and

Irish,

XXlll

English; the other, a triglot of Manx, Gaelic,

based upon English.

Nothing daunted

tude of the undertaking, he entered upon

sued

it

it

at the

magni-

with zeal, and pur-

with untiring perseverance to the end of his days. Both

these works are

lying in nianusci'ijjt, but complete, and

still

ready for the press.

The printing
actually
letter L,

of the Triglot,

commenced

when

in

more properly Polyglot, had

1807, and had proceeded as far as the

a fire broke out in the printing-office, that of

Red

Nichols and Son,

Lion-passage, Fleet-street, London, and

destroyed the whole impression, except one or two copies.

We of the

manuscript was happily preserved.

The

present day have

perhaps no cause to regret the accident, as it afforded opportunity


to the indefatigable author to

go on, as he did to the end of

his

enlarging and correcting his work, and leaving us his latest

life,

emendations.

A writer in the Mona's Herald,


"

the Triglot, says

The

first

contains the English

third, the Irish

of Feb. 2, 1859, speaking of

columns in each page.

It consists of four

word

the second, the

and the fourth, the Scottish

only attempt ever

and

the

for the

If another

column

Welsh, the dictionary would be more perfect

national, exhibiting atone view the four great living branches

of the language of the Gael or

of the British Isles.


this

It is the

made to publish a complete triglot comparison

of the three branches of the Celtic language.

were added

Manx

Gaelic.

ought to be encouraged.

island,

laws,

and the ancient

may be

Dictionary

Cwmry, the

The

Isle of

Man,

work

as

as the central

seat of Celtic religion, literature,

expected to take the lead

may be

original inhabitants

Surely, the publication of such a

and

and Dr. Kelly^s Manx

the basis of the work.

But, Irish, Gaelic,

LIFE OF DR. KELLY.

XXIV

and Welcli scholars ought


render each their

to unite in the undertaking,

own cokimn

and

as perfect as possible."

In the Manx Sun, of July 24, 1858, the following announce-

ment appeared, which deserves to be


as a tribute to the

transferred to this Memoir,

of Dr. Kelly, and at the

commemorating a generous

as
*'

memory

same time

act of his surviving relative

We have been informed that Mrs. Gordon Kelly, widow of

tlio

Gordon William Kelly, Esq., recorder of Colchester, only

late

son of the well-known Dr. Kelly, a native of

this Island, has

transmitted to the Venerable the Archdeacon of this diocese, the

sum

of 1000, for the purpose of founding at our Insular College

an exhibition
all

from that

to the Universities

competitors

institution,

open to

and another sum of 100, the interest of which

Mrs. Kelly wishes to be given annually as a

Manx

The

Prize.

Eev. Dr. Kelly was an old alumnus of the Douglas

Grammar

School, where he was a very favourite pupil of the Rev. Philip

Moore ; and afterwards took a large share

Manx

of the translation of the

Copy

in the general revision

Scriptures."

of inscription on a tablet lately set

church of Braddan, Isle of

Jn

Man

up

in the parish

d^Irmoru

of

THE REV. JOHN KELLY,

LL. D.,

OF ALGAEK, IN THIS PARISH,


VICAR OF ARDLEIGH, RECTOR OF COPFORD,

AND ONE OF HIS MAJESTY^S JUSTICES OP THE PEACE,


IN

THE COUNTY OP ESSEX; W^HO DIED 12tH


IN THE

60th year Of His AGE.

NOV.,

1809,

SXV

LIFE OF DR. KELLY.

LOUISA,
WIDOW OF

DR. KELLY, ELDEST

PETER DOLLOND, ESQ., OF


DIED 18tH OF APRIL,

ST.

1844,

IN

DAUGHTER OP

PAUL's CHURCHYARD, LONDON,

THE

SiTH YEAR OF

GORDON WILLIAM KELLY,


THEIR ONLY CHILD, DIED 4Tn APRIL, 1858,
IN THE 73rd

year OF HIS AGE.

HER AGE.

KELIGIOUS, MORAL,

AND POLITICAL ADVANTAGES OE

INSTEUCTING THE POOR.

SEEM ON,

PREACHED BEFORE THE GOVERNORS OF THE CHARITY SCHOOL,


On SUNDAY, 15th JULY,

IN

ST.

1798.

JAMESES CHURCH, COLCHESTER.

B Y THE REV. JOHN KELLY,


0/

St.

tUBLlSUliJJ AT

Johns

College,

LL.D.,

Camhridye, aiid Vicar of Ardleigh, Essex.

THE SEQUEST OF THE GOVERNORS, AND


TUB CHARITY,

I-OR

TUE BENEFIT OF

A SERMON.*

For

the poor shall never cease out of the land ; therefore,

I com-

mand thee, saying, Thou shaltopenthinehand wide unto thy brother


to

thy poor, and

to

thy needy in thy land.

Deut. xv.

11.

the
observer of the Divine lawSj
may appear
TO unaccountable
that the Almighty,
His intended partition
superficial

it

in

of the land of

Canaan among the twelve

tribes of Israel, should

not have adjusted the portion of each individual, and guarded


against the alienation and abuse of property in such a
as to have precluded the necessity of appealing to the

of

of

manner

humanity

man to remedy and supply the inadequacy of the benevolence


God but that, at the instant He was introducing them to a
;

" a land flowing with milk and honey,"t He should


pronounce the severe sentence, that " the poor should never cease

good land

out of the land."

A small degree

perfect state, or perfect men,

Deity.

in

the contemplation of the

will,

The above

is

for the

most

they placed before the children of Israel blessing

and cursing, good and

human

was not

To produce a

His laws under the Jewish economy were

part general

God and

of attention to the dispensations of

the nature of man, will remove this difficulty.

evil

they restrained not absolutely the

but in every instance

left

man

a moral agent.

the sermon referred to in the Biography, page xx.]

Exodus iii.

It
8,


XXX

A SERMON.

might

be demanded, Why the law, written by the


and promulgated from Mount Sinai " out of the

as reasonably

finger of God,

midst of the

fire,

of the cloud, and of the thick darkness,^^* did

not produce the efiect of restraining the people from the commission of SIN, as that the Divine partition of the land should long

" Thus

prevent individuals from becoming poor.


justified in
if

He

His ways, and clear when

God be

shall

And

judged.^^f

is

within the narrow limits of Judea, and under the Divine theo-

cracy, no particular rules were devised

sufiicient to

individuals their respective portions for ever,

receive these truths

general

secure to

we are prepared to

that the same law applies to mankind in

and
;
Almighty had " blessed the earth that it

that their wants are a condition of their being

that, although the

brought forth abundantly," J yet made

He no

certain provision

against particular instances of want and distress, whether they

should arise from natural or moral


But, notwithstanding
exist in the world, yet

for

we may

necessary
it is

evil.

He permits

both these kinds of

"can we not charge the Lord with

perceive that natural evil

to

rather incidental than

is

nowhere systematical, but produced ; that


of causes, which in themselves are generally good;

that

the efiect

evil

folly/^

and that moral

it is

evil arises principally

from the free-agency of

man, which, instead of constituting the excellence of his nature,

when perverted, misapplied, and abused, becomes its disgrace,


and enables him to choose the evil and to refuse the good. And
in like manner, although the benevolent Father of the universe

should sufier misery to obscure His works, and that " the poor

should never cease out of the land,^^ though He has made no


immediate, no appropriate provision for them, yet " left He not

Himself without witness in the world /'|| for


in the breast of

" the

cause of

man

He

has planted

a powerful advocate, to plead the cause

him who has no helper,"^ and formed his heart of


is engaged in communi-

such exquisite materials, that while he

cating happiness to others he most efibctually increases his own.


* Deut. V. 22.

I's- li- 4.

J Gen.

i.

Job i.

22.

\\

Acts xiv.

1 7.

Ps. Ixxii. 12.

A SERMON.

As

there

therefore no evil without its remedy,

is

quantity of happiness in

human

life

cover,

me

And

?^^*

thus

we

if

by the ultimate advantage

apparent and individual evil

There
firmity

is

is

who formed

as

the

of misery,

Why

it.

inquire further,

hast

we may dis-

resulting to society, that this

a real and general blessing.

no creature accompanied into

and so many

sum

exceeds the

" shall the thing formed say to him

thou made

XXXI

man

necessities as

becoming the inhabitant of every

with so

life

and this

climate.

much

Were

his existence,

one particular

like that of other creatures, confined to

in-

from his

arises

soil

and

sky, he too might " take no thought for the morrow, and neither

sow, nor reap, nor

toil,

nor spin.^'f

But, as an inhabitant of the

universe, every species of labour, art, and science, every exertion

of his reason, and every energy of his mind, are requisite to

obviate the evils of his condition

protection from the elements,

clothing for his body, and food to sustain

necessary to his existence.

But

life,

are absolutely

in the progress of acquiring

these he acquires not only the necessaries for his heing, but pro-

duces those articles which constitute his well-being and the dignity of his nature

for,

reasoning on his wants, he lays the very


and, having removed distress, he proceeds

foundation of society

to acquire comforts

having subdued the pressures of the body,

he cultivates the powers of his mind ; having overcome the


he studies the elegancies of

life

and,

by a

evils,

sure and certain

gradation, improves his condition, until, from the rudest begin-

nings, he rises to the

Thus, labour

is

summit of human

perfection.

coeval with the necessities of man,

and

like

them, to be considered rather as a condition of his being, than


an evil appendant to it; and the curse that " in the sweat of his
face
its

man

should eat his bread," J in this point of view loses all


is full of the goodness of the Lord,^'

malignity, '^for the earth

" as the waters cover the sea

He

turneth
* Rom.

all

"

;"
|1

He bringeth good out

of evil

things to good."^

ix. 20.

Ps. xxxiii.

5.

\ Matt. vi. 26, 28, 34.


11

Is. xi. 9.

Gen.

^ Rom.

iii.

19.

viii,

28.

A SERMON.

'XXXII

If labour

is

thus natui'al and necessaiy to man, and the origin

of all separate property, inequality of condition, arising from

moral or natural causes,


tion of every society

will necessarily take place in tlie forma-

and

" there

will

be

be high and low, rich


this

law of provi-

appear to be " a sore

sight,

first

will

And though

and poor, one with another/^*


dence may, at

man

necessities of one

tlie

greater than those of another

under

evil

the sun^'t to individuals, yet, from this principle, and from this

circumstance of the mutual convenience and reciprocal depend-

ence of the various denominations of

men

in society

upon one

another, are produced general good and universal happiness.

Under

this conviction, the

poor

man should be resigned

Heaven

to his

lot,

and, far from accusing

ties

he endures, should make the best use of those means with

which he

is

likewise,

''

endowed
the

to

for the hardships or difficul-

remove them.

man who

is

Under

this impression,

at ease in his possessions" should

contemplate his elevation

v/ith gratitude,

same hand which humbled

his

and

reflect that the

poor brother might have depressed

him also. They should consider well their respective situations,


and meet each other's expectations in such a manner that, in the
event of a change of places, they should only have to pray that,
''

as they

them." J

had done

to others, even so

And if ever this rule

it

should be done unto

of universal justice, with respect

to the inferior orders of society,

was attended

to,

at this period,

and

in this country,

ever the

if

condition of the poor was rendered capable of comfort,

it is

so

where the humane and mild

disposition of the law unites with the kind

the people, who, as they excel the rest of

and tender genius of

mankind

in every other

them yet more in the practice of that Divine charity


which was brought to light by the Gospel of Christ; for not
only a public and legal provision is established throughout the

virtue, excel

kingdom for the maintenance

of the poor, but the private

bounty

of individuals has instituted various means, in aid of the popular

establishments, to correct the inequalities and alleviate the dis Td. xlix.

2.

t Ecel. v. 13.

^^iitt. vii. 12.


XXXIH

A SERMON.
tY"esses wliich

extent,

may and must always

and to the prosperity

increase in proportion to the

also, of

every community

and, not

content to limit their attention to their corporeal wants, they

extend their care to their mental and spiritual concerns

" to

and knowledge

of the

the poor in spirit

Gospel

to the blind in the truth

to the ignorant,

and those who are gone out of the way

particular

is

the nature

recommend

to

And such
of that institution which I am now called

them the way, the

to teach

upon

and the

truth,

to your patronage

life.'^*

i]i

and protection, and

to

exhort you " not to faint in this labour of love, nor be weary
of well-doing/'t

known but one wretched

I have

tempted

philosopher J

who

ever at-

to prove that institutions for the instruction of the poor

were injurious to the community ; for that education (he reasoned)


rendered the poor, who were designed by nature to discharge the

meanest

man

offices,

superior to the duties of their situation.

could thus abuse his feelings

among

tions are

But

the blessed fruits of Christianity, and

to the world before its introduction,

enemy

to revelation

the utility of

its

and Christianity

best institutions.

How a

as charitable institu-

unknown

it is

no wonder that an

itself

should dare to deny

He might

as w^ell have

argued

that the poor should not be fed, because they might prove too

strong for the great to keep them in subjection, as that learning

would make them too wise

to labour.

no argument against the use of


learning

which

is

The abuse of a blessing

is

and experience shews that

a friend to industry, especially that useful learning

generally taught and usually acquired at charitv-

is

schools.

it

But, whatever objections

may be made

to the moi-e

public and greater hospitals and schools, they apply not to our

present charity.

The mode of education which you have chosen for these poor
and your manner of assisting their Vv^ants, must be con-

children,

sidered as an excellent auxiliary, at least, to those more public,

and extensive foundations, and,


*

Maf.v.

3.

Gal.

in
iii.

some

respects, attended with

13.

:^,Iai.(lcville.

advantages which are not to be found in them. There, the chikl


is

taken away from his parents and his friends, and fed, clothed,

and taught, without any


where

his

filial

have not their natural

affections

upon

objects to exercise themselves

the child

is

estranged from

and the parent deprived of all interest

his parent,

conduct of his child

own

care, thought, or industry of his

and domestic

in the acts

and

whereas, according to this excellent iu-

sweet sympathies of natural affection are daily

stitution, the

more

cherished, and the moral principle

certainly preserved

by the

child,

influence of imitation operates powerfully on his

mind

habits of industry are gradually acquired

and the
and as

he beholds, in the labour of his parents, the source and means of


their general subsistence,
to produce the

Such

is

same

he naturally applies to the samo cause

effect.

the advantage

of the children of the poor being

domesticated, and not altogether separated from their families.

And

the governors of this charity should not lament that they

can only instruct, clothe, and apprentice these poor


haps,

all

that

is left for

them

to do

it is

beneficial for the children to receive.


state of arts

it is,

is

per-

most

In the present improved

and manufactures, strength alone

for the artist, the manufacturer, or

what

certainly

is

not sufficient

even the peasant in the

fields;

a certain quantity of education furnishes them with the means of

accomplishing

many

objects, to

ance would be unequal.


observe the

we

men who

dom where
;

look into society, and

succeed best in their

find that they generally

lished

which mere strength and ignor-

And when we

sevei-al

occupations,

come from those parts

of the king-

institutions of this

kind have been the longest estab-

nay, manufactures themselves, and that ingenuity which

can invent or improve them, seem to be peculiar to them also,

where useful instruction

is

almost gratuitously imparted to the

body of the people.

From

the loom and the plough, I would turn your attention

to other essential points.

In the navy, the army, the connting

house, and the garden, wlio are

tlie

uk'h whose luunljle kibours

XXXV

A SEEMON.

ai'e

attended witli the greatest benefit to tliemselves, their em-

ployers^

and the

jDublic

ments of navigation
writer ;"*

who can

Those who have been taught the

those

who hold "

calculate

ele-

the pen of the ready-

and survey: and

all

these men will

be found, on inquiry, to derive their origin from the same country,

and owe

knowledge
picious,

and

same means.

their excellence to the

menial servant in a man's house

is

the

The most

more valuable

whereas an ignorant person

is

for a little

generally crafty, sus-

The very circumstance of not having been

idle.

subject to the restraints attending the

first

years of instruction

renders him restless and irksome under every degree of control


and, as a great modern divine and philosopher expresses himself,

To send an uneducated child into the world is injurious to the


mankind it is little better than to turn out a mad dog

''

rest of

or a wild beast into the streets."t

No

rich or poor, should ever be able to

remember a time when they

children, whether of the

have had nothing to do.


I have

advanced thus much in support of

this institution, so

male children ; but when I reflect that


are partakers of its benefits, " my heart glows wnthin

far as it concerns the

females also

me," and I am convinced that no man, who possesses those


qualities which render him estimable in society, will hesitate to
grant to the weaker sex every advantage possessed by the other,
and every protection which their defenceless state may require.

For

if

the cultivation of the moral principle,if a knowledge

of religious duty,

11,

if

instruction in useful learning, be necessary

They

they are surely so to them.

and exposed
provement of

to temptation

their

and a

by

minds can alone enable them

allurements to which they are subject

everything which

are,

is

nature,

weak

careful attention to the im-

to resist those

and, by resisting them,

dear to man, everything that unites and

preserves society together,

is

alone preserved. For the poor man

requires the same proofs of fidelity, the same security for his

honour and his property, with the greatest. These poor


Ps. xlv.

1.

I'^'l'-J-.

Moml
c

-1

girls will

Philosoihy.

XXXVl

A SERMON.

perform in the interesting situations of wives

liave tlieir duties to

and mothers, and upon

tlicir

conduct

tlie

happiness of

tlieir

re-

must depend by their virtuous lives, the virtue


of the community be preserved and from the decent behaviour
spective families

of this humble class of persons together, the very character of the

nation be deduced.

But if the advantage to be derived from communicating to


them wisdom, particularly that " wisdom which cometh from
above, and maketh them wase unto salvation,'"* may not be considered

by some

as

producing a good equal

to the expense, reflect

ye upon the innumerable evils which are by these means avoided,

and which would naturally flow from ignorance,


destroy

Let the good, therefore, to be acquired, and the

higher.

And

be avoided, determine your conduct.


life

It

would

evil to

stop not here, but in

up the good work which you have here begun ; and

follow

them such employments and such labour as

carefully reserve for

may be

which

the happiness of the lower orders, and corrupt the

all

suited to their sex.

has become, most unaccountably, the prevailing fashion to

employ the labour of men where women "would serve with more
propriety, w^ith

more

delicacy,

and more

effect.

There

is

scarcely

a province, either in trade or husbandry, where men, fitted for

more hardy employments, have not obtruded themselves.

It

rests with you, within

your respective

remedy these

prevent such a detrimental interference,

evils, to

circles,

and secure

for the helpless females constant

be assured

that,

and

sorr}^

am

sufficiently

the

field

next to ignorance, idleness

I to

for tliere

is

For
them;

are not

whereas, to glean, and not to eani

their only annual occupation,

their children's hearts


*

women

to

in the inexhausti1)]e labours of

tends to sow the seeds of corruption,

own and

most fatal

scarcely a part in husbandry in which they

are not capable of assisting


is

reform and

employment.

observe that in this county

employed, particularly

their bread,

is

to

James

iii.

if

and the

17:2 Tim.

an occupation that

not of dishonesty, in their

iii.

fatal
15.

consequence

is,

tliat tliey

become

husbands

when

esteem

will

bear some proportion to their respective

common

usefulness in promoting- their


of uesfulness

There

is

comfort

an equality

for,

the stronger cement of conjugal affection.

a gi'adation in the scale of society, from the barbarous

is

most refined and luxurious

state to the
is

theii'

and divide nearly their

they partake

they become more necessary to one another, and their

laboui\s,

affections and

tion

and minds of

of less value in the eyes

whereas,

influenced in

some measure by

and though

climate,

this grada-

we may

easily

women are not permitted to divide and


common labour, that this exemption proceeds, not

observe that wherever


partake of the

from tenderness or compassion

for their sex,

and the unworthy idea that they are sent

but from contempt

into the world to serve

only the pleasures and appetites of man.


If

now

the education which you enable these children of both

sexes to acquire tends to render them more useful servants and

more moral
which they

characters, infinitely superior are those advantages

shall derive

from

this

and similar

institutions in their

man

capacity of citizens and Christians; for

if

masters upon earth with more

because he

that " his and their Master

manded him
pleasers,

is

fidelity,

in heaven,

instructed

be obedient, and not with eye-service, as men-

to

the heart,^^* shall he not also,


ject to every ordinance of

as supreme,

is

and that He has com-

but as the servant of Christ, doing the

submit to

shall serve his

will of

when he is instructed

man

for the Lord's saJce

to

God from
be " sub-

to the king,

and to governors, as to those who are sent by Him,^^f

civil

subordination and respect the laws

And when we
desire of change

behold the convulsed state of Europe, and the

which has manifested

itself in several countries,

nay, even in our own, there appears to be no natural barrier

against this overflowing torrent, except in the mass of the people

possessing well-informed and enlightened minds, in understand-

ing the excellence of the constitution of their country, the value


of their liberties, and the goodness of their laws.
Eph.

V. 6.

Petuiii. 15.

There

will

be

A SERMON.

XXXVlll

no danger of an innovation while we can appeal


influenced by opinion

the good-

to

The great body of the people

sense of the people.


;

and

as that opinion

may

or

is

always

may

not be

the hands of designing men, bo

rights

an ignorant people

made

the instruments of irremediable mischief whereas the con-

will, in

stitution of our country challenges investigation,

we understand

and the more we examine

it,

excite our admiration, attachment,

can be

its

enemy

and

and the best guard

it,

and the better

the

more

it

must

Ignorance alone

zeal.

to our established govern-

ment, both in Church and State, and their true security, wall
arise

from instructing the poor, and from preventing those vices

and melancholy distresses which ignorance brings in


for " the destruction of the poor is their poverty.^^*

But

if

we add

to

all

more

particularly to be

this institution, the utility of

vincing light

it

will

for if ignorance

train

these considerations the advantages to bo

derived to individuals and the public, from the


instruction intended

its

mode

of religious

communicated by

be placed in the most con-

be an enemy to labour, to the

arts, and to regular government, this is but a temporary evil,


and of short duration, affecting only this world, and " the things

of the world

;'*

but that

evil

which

affects the soul,

and

is

of

demands our most serious attention; and, as


James has pronounced, " Let them know, that he who con-

eternal duration,
St.

verteth a sinner from the error of his way, shall save a soul

from death
equalities

:'*

and

and we then most effectually remedy those inwhich the Almighty permits to exist among

evils

mankind when we become

to the

poor as the providence of God

when we attend not only to their temporal wants, but administer


to them the spiritual manna when, like the Saviour of mankind,
*'
we go about doing good ',"-f far He divested himself of His
superior nature, and assumed the human ; He appeared upon
;

He might teach the poor


He came indeed to teach

earth in the garb of a servant, that

contentment, and the great humility.

His kingdom to the poor, and to hold out to them, in a more


* Pruv. X. 15.

Actsx.

38.

especial manner, the prospects of a future state, where the in-

should be remedied and to assm-e them


kingdom of heaven/'* But these are benefits which we cannot bestow upon them, unless we prepare their
minds by useful learning for the illiterate person is incapable of
understanding or receiving some of the most important truths of
equalities of this

life

that " theirs Avas the

Christianity

and in that very

essential point, the exercise of

mind being warmed by de-

public social-worship, instead of his

God by

votion and elevated to

a sympathetic union with the

body of the congregation in prayer, praise, and thanksgiving,


" he will be unto him that speaketh a barbarian, and he that
speaketh shall be a barbarian unto him.^f Let not the governors,
therefore, let not the contributors to this institution, " faint in
their work,

but proceed from strength to strength," J as in no

other possible

expense
this

manner can they do

much good at

so

so small an

by this plan and in


a sum which, by any other mode of application,

for eighty children are instructed

manner

for

would be scarcely

sufficient to educate ten.

Thus, every motive which can influence

which I

in aid of the application

behalf of these children

understanding,

let

no

human

comes

action

am now making

you

to

in

and having, I hope, con^anced your

selfish consideration

prevent your benevo-

Think how fortunate you are who have to give, and how
miserable they must be vdthout your aid ; think of the goodness
of that God who made them and made you think of the mercy

lence.

of that Christ

who shed His blood

redeem you

think of your respective conditions in the world,

and see the great demand there

is

to

redeem them

as well as to

upon your gratitude

If

contribution should deduct something from your property,

amply repay you by the

thi'illing

municate to your bosom.


pleasure

they

Mutt.

V. 3.

it,

it

tliey

will

com-

will

may indeed shew you

but they will not give

your heart ;

they will not satisfy


*

Other expenses

may promise

will not leave it in

pleasures which

your

it

may

it

they

satiate, indeed,

but

while inexhaustible and inexpressible ia


t

Cor. xiv. ll.

I's.

Ixxxiv.

7.

tliat deliglit wliicli arises

necessitous

from being the authors of good to the

Observe the simphcity of those children, and


your feelings

and

their innocence,

When

let

move

let pity

Observe their supplicating innocence

Oh, save

God-like charity melt your souls

behold the respectableness of this congreg*ation, and

that approving earnestness depicted on every countenance, I perceive the cause of the poor to have prevailed. "

and happiness

May much peace

upon the head and heart of every one of

as " the poor shall never cease out of your land, I

you !"* And,

command

rest

you, saying.

Ye shall open your hand wide unto your

brethren, to your poor, and to the needy in your land

;."

and rest

assured that, though you " cast your bread upon the waters, you
shall find it after

many days

,"-\

" you

shall eat the labour of

your hands, and see the goodness of the Lord in the land of the
Uving ;"\ but

if

not in the land of the living, doubtless you

shall hereafter; for I

have the authority of God himself to de-

clare that in that great

and solemn day, when you and

all

the

nations of the earth shall stand before the tribunal of Christ, to

give an account of the things done in the body, the charity

which you

and
you

it

bestow this day shall cover a multitude of sins,


" like the blood of Jesus," plead for you, until
hear from Him the joyful sound, " Inasmuch as you

shall

have done

done

it

shall

shall,

it

unto

unto one of the least of these

Me

well done,

good and

My brethren, you have

faithful servants, enter

into the joy of your Lord/'||

* iSterue.

t Eccl.

Teter

xi. 1.

iv. 7, 8.

X
||

Ps. cxxviii. 2; xxvii. 15.

Matt. xxv. 21, 40.

ye

THE DEDICATION.

TO THE MOST NOBLE

GEORGE, MARQUIS OF HUNTLEY,

"ji/TY LORD,

Popular favour,

from different causes


tliat

man who

ship's

in different countries, arises

and rare must be the

has acquired universal admiration.

humanity in Ireland, amidst the

recorded in history
plains of Lincelles,

felicity

of

Your Lord-

cruelties of civil war, is

the courage which you displayed on the

and the wounds which you received on the

sand-banks of Holland, have rendered you dear to England


whilst a sociable disposition, a love of your native country, an

attachment to your people, their customs, and their language,

have made you the pride and boast of Scotland.

An

author desirous of selecting a patron for the ancient Celtic,

whether distinguished by the appellation of Welsh, Scots,


or

Manks

man
it

in

for

Gaelic,

L-ish,

would certainly choose the most popular noble-

How

His Majesty's dominions.

me, restricted as

am

in

my

fortunate, therefore, is

choice, that such a

nobleman

should be your Lordship, over whose youth I have watched with


anxious solicitude, and whose mind

have endeavoured

to

adorn

THE DEDICATION.

xliv

with every good, every honourable principle


pride, therefore, I place this

With an honest

work under your Lordship's protec-

tion.

The present Grammar, and a Gaelic Dictionary, which has


been

for

many

years in the hands of his Grace the

Athollj were composed,

in the

that great

and pious

of Sodor

and Mann ; and were likewise intended

direct

my

prelate, the Rev. Dr. Hildesley,

Grammar has
its

of

Lord Bishop
to assist

and

fellow-labourers and myself in that arduous and im-

portant work, the translation of the

of

Duke

year 1766, for the instruction of

Manks

Bible.

Why

the

not been sent sooner to the press, and the occasion

appearance at this moment, are circumstances well

to your Lordship

and I hope the time

is

known

not far distant when

I shall again solicit your Lordship's favour for the Dictionary of

a people

who

alone in the great revolutions of ages have pre-

served the government, the laws, the monuments, and the lan-

guage of the ancient Druids.


In the meantime, I have the honour to be, with the most
sincere esteem and affection.

Your Lordship's most obhged

And faithful
Ardleigh, Nov. 22, 1803.

servant,

JOHN KELLY.

A GEAMMAE OF THE MAXKS LANGUAGE.

CHAPTER

I.

Of the Letters.
The GcqAtal

Ltttcrs.

ABCCH*r)EFGHIJKLMNOPPHQRSTUVWY.
Small

Letters.

abcclidefgliijklmnoppliqrstuvwy.
The Alphabet consists
sonantSj

of seventeen single

and seven vowels,

viz., a, e,

Of the consonants fourteen


h, ni,

p, ph,

q, s,

and two double con-

u,

tv,

are mutable, viz.,

Thej,

n,

I,

r,

which always retain

A-,

and

no Manks

q consonants are properly

we have no single characters


sounds, we have adopted those

of our
of the

own to
Roman

instead of di, according to the Irish, and

Welsh, we use^; as

Jee,

si,

their

sound

modern corruption oti

as,

letters

alphabet,

Godj Juan, John Ir. Dia, &c.

iustcud of tens, heat,

we

yet,

express their

and

according to the

* This letter does not orig;inally belon;^ to our alphabet

d,f, g,j,

alter not.

as

is

y.
h, c, cli,

t.

The immutables are


and

i, o,

i-ay

but, like the


chiass.

The
Welsh

A GRAMMAR OF

sound of
Jiione,

WO

a head.

often express

For cw

by h

in cwaiyl,

instead of cwve,

as,

we

use ^

as, quaiijl,

wo

rcKcl

a court.

The diphthongs, or union of two vowels, are twenty-three,


and the triphthongs fourteen.
Diphthongs.
Diphthongs.


THE MANKS LAXGUAGE.

CHAPTER

II.

Of the Peonuxciation of the Manks Letters.

is

ranked among the broad vowels

clagli* or

and

in ancient

goan or goun, scarce

doghf, a stone

Jjatins, for reus is

written for /arretts, &c.

English in man, pan, lad, bad

It is

as, sajJ, Jah,

cumflexed, as in dame, pale, ale


jB is

manu-

and u, are written indifferently one for the other ; as

scripts, a, o,

thus,

among the

pronounced as a

hab

and when

cir-

as mdroo.

a labial letter, and pronounced as b English

hare,

as,

hoayl.

preserves a strong sound in

cappan.

It

unaspirated state, equal to

its

the Greek Kappa, or the English

k,

or as c in can

never usurps the pronunciation of

^,

as,

cam, cab,

as in cistern,

city, cedar.

Ch has

a soft sound

like

ch in

and

as in cldngys, cJdass, chaglder

English, in cherry, charcoal.

D is

pronounced as d English

as doal, dowin.

are

found in ancient manuscripts written indifferently one for the


other; as y diumd, or y diunU, the profound.

Eh reckoned a small vowel


and thus answers

short,
it is

ren

acuted,

but

pronounced as

is

called a

force

weak consonant

sometimes long, sometimes

Greek Epsilon and Eta.


e

AYhen

English in men; as hen, shen,

circumflexed, as ea in fear; as

F is
all its

it is

to the

menu.

because when aspirated

it

loses

Sbsfer-ynsee, a teacher, e er-ynsee, his teacher.

corresponds in

many

cases with the Latin v

* Korthside pronunciation.

as/e?-,

It

a man, Lat.

f Souihsidc pronunciation.

A GT^AMMAR OP
v!r
is

fepyn,wme, Lat. vinum

fochle, a

word, Lat. vocal i^

and

pronounced as /English; asfaase,foays.


a heavy consonant

(r is

or as

and pronounced as the Greek Gamma,

English in gain, get, go

rj

as

gamman,

gocdll, garrish.

It

has no soft sound, as in the English gentle.

is

pronounced as h

would rather

English hand, hind. Note.

in the

an auxiliary than a

call this

letter,

only to aspirate the foregoing consonants


following vowels, as ha, he

and

in

as

because

cli,

as

nouns of the feminine gender


is

always

if

written

cddin, her face, pronounced as

serves
or the

loh, th,

beginning with a vowel, though not always written,


strongly expressed

Some

it

e heddin.

I is one
pin

of the small vowels, and pronounced as

Lisa

letter

which admits of no aspiration

a feminine noun
written single, as

N as

71

called

it

is

When

e laue,

her hand, pronounced

English.
light

pronounced as

It is

its soft v.

It

is

gone

And

oney.
is

Th

When

a broad vowel.
thus, cron, son

e niart,

nyn yannoo, our doings

is

thus

it

el

when

Heme.

is

often

laue or

m English.

is

often doubled, to give the

her strength,

is

is

pronounced

pronounced en

nyn nyannoo.

acuted,

it

is

pronounced as

circumflexed, as o in bone

o in

thus,

answers to the Greek Omicron and Omega.

a hard consonant, and pronounced as

as the

begins

never aspirated nor eclipsed; and

It is

consonant.

gn in seigneur thus,

niart

it

pronounced liquid and double, though

stronger sound. In nouns plural, and feminines, n

English in

naturally one of the strong consonants, but

is

changed into

like

as sldlUsh, shimmey, shid.

Greek Phi

English.

ov pit English, in philosophy, physic;

as phadeyr, pliaal.

P is a light consonant, and pronounced as r English


sarcy

but when an

Rho, as
I

and

11

as

if it

it

is

were written rlh, and

in feminine
.s"

initial,

in the

and

plui-al

as maroo.,

always aspirated as the Greek


is

pronounced double

frrj, like

nouns.

English savour, sense

rxf^snggi/rl, f^olhni

and

is

'

THE MANKS LANGUAGE.


called the queen of consonants, because
like the

Greek Sigma,

it is

suce ijotcstatls /i^era,

5
subject to no cliange,

except

it

by a vowel, or of the feminine gender, and then

be followed
it

suffers a

change, vid. Chap. III.

T is
(as

a hard consonant, naturally commutable with the letter d

has been already observed).

It

has been

much abused and

coiTupted in modern manuscripts, &c., and ch often substituted


in its place, entirely destroying the Celtic root

tongue, for teanga, Irish


multis

as chenrjey, a

chiarn, a lord, for tiearn, Irish

cum

aliis.

U is

one of the three broad vowels, and used indifferently for

a and a

as goll, or gall, or goul, a fork or ray.

V is not properly a radical consonant,

but only a secondary

mute ; however, we have some words which begin with


radical, therefore it is

admitted as such

v as a

as vaidyn, a while ago,

varrey mish, I warrant, voalley, a wall.

is

pronounced as

oo, as in

boot; ashwoaiU, wardoon, warj^,

tvarree.

Y is

pronounced as u in the English turn, hunt

bird, third
article y, it

as spyrryd, ymmyrcliagh.

has the sound of

or as

in

Alone, as forming the

in the English met.

;;

A ORAMMAR OF

CHAPTER

III.

CONCEENTNG THE "VARIATION OF INITIAL LETTERS IN MaNKS

OK

THE Pronunciation of Secondary Mutes.

Manks

In the

are no redundant consonants as in the Irish

these non-radicals are thought to clog the language, and render


it

disagreeable in use, and difficult to acquire a knowledge

Some

which may, therefore, be

The
(as

they are called)

is

only the aspirate

/i

is

in

the Manks,

in other languages, except the Irish,

added

from whence

culty of finding the etymology in ours,


vails,

mutes

so different from that of the primary or

they are expressed by different letters

commonly done

is

called secondary or auxiliary mutes.

force of the pronunciation of secondary or auxiliary

radical, that

as

of.

of these mutable consonants become other consonants,

and the reason why the

Irish

where

arises often the diffi-

where that usage pre-

language has been so well

preserved.

Such words
f} 9) j}

^'"j

''^^^j

as begin with mutable consonants, viz.,

Pi

I'^^i

^}

^} ii^

their primary use,

radical initial letters as occasion requires,


effect

Varro

primarily beginning with h have three initials,

as hea veayn, long

their

and according to the

which the words preceding have on them, as follows

Words
V,

&, c, ch, d,

change these their

life.
;

Birgilius, Virgilius

Words beginning with


carrcij,

life, e

vea, his

So the Greek Bharrhon

a friend;

is

life,

charrcy, his friend;

our, your,

by the Latins
Manks, hca or vea)

written

biote, vita (in

have three

nyn mca,

viz., h,

initials, viz., c, ch,

nyn

as

garvcy, our, your, or

tlieir friend.

Words beginning with

cli

have also three

initials, viz., ch, Ii,j

THE MANKS LANGUAGE.


as chiarn pooaral, a powerful lord

Idani, his lord

nyn jiarn,

our, &c., lord.

Words beginning

with d have two

dooinney mie, a good

man

Words beginning with/ have

d and gh

initials^ viz.,

ghooinney,

liis

as

man.

three initials, viz.,/,

v,

and the

vowel or consonant in the word, casting away or making


the/quiescent ; as foays, advantage e oays, his advantage ; nynfirst

voays, their, &c., advantage.

Words beginning with


good report ;

goo mie, a

g have two

Words beginning withy have two


Jee ooilley-niartal,

g and

initials, viz.,

as

gli ;

e ghoo, his report.

Almighty God;

Words beginning with

like

1:,

c,

g ; as Iciunid, aalin, a serene calm;


giunid, our, &c., calmness.

Words beginning with

initials, viz.,

chiunid, his calmness

have two

ra

moyrn vooaralagli, haughty pride

as

7i-,

c7?,

god.

have three
e

j and y

initials, viz.,

e yee, his

initials, viz.,

nyn

and v

as

voyrn vooaraJagh, his hanghty

pride.

Words beginning

with

p have

three initials,

viz.,27,_2i/!,

jiadjer jeean, earnest prayer; e phadjer, his prayer;

nyn

h; as

hadjer,

our, &c., prayer.

Words beginning with


the
or

p/i-

have three

initials, viz.,

ph,

and

v,

vowel or consonant of the wordj the loh being eclipsed

first

made

quiescent;

b.^

phreeney vooar, a large pin; ereeney,h\&

pin ; nyn vreeney, our pin phaal Jceyrragh, a sheep-pen ;


:

e aal,

his

pen; nyn vaal, our pen.

Words beginning with


heavy yoke;

lirome, a

Words beginning

q have three, viz., g, wh, g ; as guing


whing, his yoke; nyn guing, their yoke.

with

have three,

letter s

be followed by a vowel, or

gender

it

has two

as sooill vie, a

if

viz., s, h,

the

t ;

iS.

the

first

word be of the feminine

good eye ;

e hooill, his

eye

sUngan vooar, a big shoulder, y tlingan the


shoulder otherwise the initial remains unchanged ; as sporran, a

tooill,

the eye

purse

sporran, his purse.

Words beginning

-with

have three

initials

viz.,

D 2

/,

h,

dh

as

A GRAMMAR OF

8
friggloo ard,

Ligli

discourse;

haggJoo,

his

discourse;

nyn

dhaggloo, our discourse.

The

variation of the initial letters

labial letter is

is

always regular and con-

same organ of pronunciation

stant betwixt letters of the

for a

never changed to a dental, nor a dental to

&c.

labial,

Adverbs, being formed of adjectives, become such for the most


part by putting dy in apposition to the adjectives, without effect-

ing any change in their mutable


tive)

good;

dij

(adv.) poorly;

genual

(adj.)

Whereas the preposition

mood

initial

mie (adverb) well;

consonants ; as mie (adjec-

hoglit (adj.)

poor; dy bogJd

merry; dy gennal

(adv.) merrily.

dy, of; or dy, the sign of the infinitive

or dy, to, (a contraction of gys) always change the mut-

able initials

thus, in traagh, iwbhle, goaill, bailey

as rijbbag dy

hraagh, a wisp of hay ; earroo dy i^hobble, a multitude of people


ghoaill coyrle, to take counsel

dij

Initial

goll

dy

going home.

valley,

vowels are also capable of occasional changes, by taking

the aspirate h before

them

after the genitive article

diunid ny husMaghjn, in the depth of the waters.


pronunciation, the last consonant of the preceding
ferred to the following vowel

noo,

thus yn

oo,

as ayns

Besides, in

word

the egg ;

yn agh the horse, are pronounced


yn niarvagh, yn niagh.

the spring

yn

ny ;

y7i

is

trans-

arragh,

as if they

were


THE MANKS LANGUAGE.

CHAPTEE
The Parts

Manks tongue

of the

Article,

^-'-Noun,
iv^^1^^1-onoun,

Verb,

IT.
are nine.

Adverb,

Conjunction,

Vdeclined.

Preposition,

Interjection,

uudeclined.

Participle,

Of the Articles.
The

Articles* are two,

followino;

manner

Singular.

ij

and

ijn,

the,

and are declined

in the

10

A GRAMJfAE OF

used ; but

vowel ; as

tlie

is

cut off by apostrophe, because of

mie maynrey, the good

hee 'n doonniey

happy ;

ta 'n drogh-gJwonniey mollaghtagh, the

cursed

ta 'n cJienndeeaglit

ny

na 'n

screeney

tlie

preceding

man

be

shall

wicked man

aegid.

is

After other

words ending with a vowel, and the following word beginning


with a consonant, yn, not y,

is

always used ; as ayns

(not tide 'n ree) in the king^s house

gerjaghey 'n pobhlej , he comforts the people.


like cases, to apostrophize the

The

article

fers, in

yn before

ollagh, the cattle,

Ec

is

is

yn

ree,

In these and the

reckoned highly barbarous.

nouns begiuning with a vowel trans-

pronounced as

if

as

written yn nagli

yn
yn

pronounced yn noJlagh.

a participial article of the present tense, er of the preter,

er-chee of the future

written

is

pronunciation, the final n to the following vowel

agh, the horse, which

and

all

yn

thie

gerjaghey yn yobhle, (not

t'eli

cr-chee scrieu,

as, ec scrieu,

writing

about to write.

er scrieu,

having

THE MANKS= LANGUAGE.

CHAPTER

11

V.

Of the Noun.

And

of its Cases.

first,

In Manks

tliere are six Cases, tliougli originally

have used but three,

When

viz.,

we seem

the article y or yn

is

placed before a substantive of the

Nominative Case, beginning with a mutable consonant,

Noun be

to

the Nominative, Genitive, and Dative.

of the feminine gender, the initial consonant

either aspirated, mortified, or

changed into

its soft

if

the

must be

as hen, a

woman, yn ven ; Iceyrrey, a sheep, y)i cJteyrrey ; fc'dl, flesh, yn eilL


But if the Noun be of the masculine gender, the initial consonant
remains in its own nature; as yn dooinney, the man; yncoo, the
greyhound; ynfeiyr, the noise.

When
article is

the
is

yn

the article y or

with a consonant,

if

is

Noun beginning

placed before a

Noun be

the

of the feminine gender, the

changed into ny in the Genitive Case singular

Noun be

but

if

of the masculine gender, the mutable consonant

changed into

its soft

or asphated,

and the

article y

or

yn

remains; as
Masculine.

Nom.

Guilley, a boy.

Nom.

Coo, a greyhound.

Gen.

Yn

Gen.

Y)i cJioo.

ghuilley, of a boy.

Feminine.

Nom. Ben,

Nom. Booa, a cow.


woman,
of awoman. Gen. Ky haa.

Gen.

At/

Nom.

KiarJc, a hen,

Nom.

Cass, a foot,

Gon.

Ny

Gen.

Ny

Nouns

irie/i,

giarJi.

coshey.

of the feminine gender, beginning with a vowel, change


12

A GRAilMAE OF

7jn

into ny in

tlie

same case

iu the

genitive singular^ and reqnire ^ for their initial

Awin, a

as,

river,

Broogli ny licacln, the brink of the river.

Nom. Eanin,

a precipice,

Beinn ny heanin, the summit of the precipice.

As

to the Cases of the Plural

Number, there is but one termiby the

nation thi'oughout

articles set before

them, or in their construction, varying their

so that they are only distinguished

mutable, answerable to their dependence on the

initial letters, if

preceding words

as

Plural.

Nom. Ny

Voc.

Ny moghtyn, of the poor,


Da ny hoglityn, to the poor.
Ny hoghtyn, the poor,
y or voghtyn, O poor,

Abl.

Gyn

Gen.
Dat.

Ace.

The

initial

hoghtyn, the poor.

voghtyn, without poor.

of the Genitive Case plural suffers always,

the genitive article ny


in apposition, q.

is

used, as

if

the possessive

when

nyn were put

as

v. ;

Plural.

Nom. Ny

hoghtyn.

(Bannaght) ny moghtyn, the blessing of the poor.

Gen.

Nom. Ny

tliieyn,

the houses.

(FerJ ny dhicyn, a

Gen.

The vocative

article is

man

of the houses,

i.e.,

a beggar.

more frequently understood than ex-

pressed in both numbers, except the English thou be used in the


singular

as,

magh, y voddee, Out, thou dog ; and in the

plural,

except yc be expressed, which is generally translated by shiuish,


ye, yourselves

chaarjyn.

as,

ye friends, or friends, chaarjyn, or shiuish

;;
:

13

THE MANKS LANGUAGE.

CHAPTER

VI.

Of the Numbees.

Mawks nouns have


and the

ordinarihj but two

Numbers,

tlie

Singular

Plural.

We seem also to use the dual, when daa, two, or both, may be
compounded with a substantive as, daa ghooinney, two men
daa cliass, two feet; daa Me, two houses, cZaa ven, two women,
:

literally,

two woman, &c.

Substantives compounded, or put in apposition with numerals,


in the first

and second number of every

plural, use the singular


Iwoill,

two eyes;

eyes

^m

number

score, instead of

im

as,

hooill,

one eye

one-and-twenty eyes ; da-eed

the

daa

twenty

three sooillyn, three eyes; feed sooill,

hooill as feed,

sooill, forty

The word laa, a day,


three feed sooill, sixty eyes, &c.*
when put after a numeral, may be used throughout in the singuthus un laa, daa laa, three, hiare, queig, &c., laa.
lar number
Some substantives want the singular number as, cloan, chil-

eyes

dren
as,

maase, cattle

sleih,

people, &c.

arran, bread ; jough, drink

flesh

fuill,

blood

Others want the plural

sollan, salt

hainney, milk

eey^n, butter

nim-t, strength

feill,

fort, ability

kcayney, weeping; trimshey, sorrow; and the like.

And

the names of metals

as, airh,

brass; yiarn, iron; stainney, tin, &c.

gold
;

and

argid, silver
all

j)rash,

proper names.

* The Manks count by scores.


The score, yn feed has no plural terminationEvery noun numbered by the score is in the singular form ; as
a score man, tuv
score man, three score man.
Ed.


14

A GKAMMAR OP

CHAPTER
Op the Forming of Plueals

VII.

Noun

in a

Tlie Plurals of Substantives are

Substantive.

formed of their singulars in

three ways.
First,

singular

by adding only a
:

as,

syllable to the termination of the

awin, a river, plural awiny7i ; cassan, a foot-path,

plural cassanyn.

Secondly, by changing only the vowels or diphthongs of monosyllables into other vowels or diphthongs

mec;

fcr, a

pi. nieir; or

man,

ipl.

jir

teeaZ,

a mouth,

a church,

Thirdly,

and adding

pi.

mair, a finger,

into other vowels or diphthongs

pi. Idaultcenyii.

by changing the vowel


to the termination too

raanteenyn ; claddagh, a lake,

But here

mac, a son,

by changing the vowels and diphthongs of the ultima

and penultima of polysyllables


as, heeill,

as,

pi. heill;

it is

necessary to

pi.

or diphthongs of the singular


as,

raantagh, a bondsman,

claddeeyn ;

know

pi.

hlein, pi. hleeantyn.

the various syllables usually

added to, or diphthongs changed in, the singulars of substantives,


to render

Yn
pi.

is

them

plurals

the most

which are these that follow

common

glioonyn; laue, a hand,

termination of
pi.

laueyn;

all

cass,

as, glioon,

a foot,

pi.

The singular termination agh is always changed into


man, pi. herchee ; Icimmagh, a criminal,

hcrchagh, a rich

mee ; daasagh, a harp,


*

The old English or Saxon

eyen; shoe, shoon.

Hence

women; children, Eu.

a knee,

cassyn.^
as,

ee ;
pi.

kim-

pi. clnasce.

plural

ended in en as

also, soivcn,

now

sivine

Jiouse,
;

housen

co^ven,

now

hose, Iwsen

Tcine;

eye,

oxen; men;

THE MANKS LANGUAGE.

Nouns, wliose singular number ends in

by changing
mination;

ey into agh,

as, chengey,

aghyn ;

a tongue,

pi.

as,

pooar, power,

-pi.

pi.

make

monosyllables ending in r

eij,

make

particle

their plural

yn

to the ter-

chengaghyn ; caggey, a war,

except dooinney, a man,

pi. caggaglvyyi ;

Some

and adding the

IS

deiney.*

their plurals

pooaraghyn ;

by taking

gloyr, glory, pi.

gloyraghyn.

A in monosyllables
mac, a son,

pi.

bull, pi. terroo

as

is

changed

mec ; mair, a

for the

finger, pi.

marroo, the dead,

pi.

most part
meir

into e

as,

so also tarroo, a

merroo ; not

terriu,

merrm,

some eiToneously hold.

E is

changed into

i ;

as, fer,

a man,

pi. fir.

O in monosyllables is changed into the diphthongs \d; as, molt,


a mutton,

pi.

huicJc ; 2^oyU,

a knot,

muilt; bolg, a belly,

a puddle, pl.jpuill;

huilg

hock, a horse, pi.

a stool,

pi. stu'dl ; cront,

pi. cruiiit.

Other exceptions are

hunney, a sheaf,
l^aitcliyn.

pi.

stoyl,

Ed.

pi.

halley,

bunneeyn ;

a town,

ca/rrey,

pi.

haljyn; Ulley, a

friend, pi. caarjyii

tree,

pi.

biljyyi

x'aitchey, a chikl, pi,

;;

A GRAMMAR OF

16

CHAPTER VIIL
The Genders

and proper use of genders be only

Altliougli the primitive


distinguisli

or Substantives.

one sex from another, yet the Manks,

to

like the

Greeks, Latins, French, Irish, &c., observe that distinction even


in inanimate things,

among which

female

is

so that there

there

not one noun in

either masculine, feminine, or

neither male nor

is

Manks but what

is

common.*

There are twof ways to know the gender of a noun.


The first, by its signification.
The second, by its termination.
The proper names of men, winds, months also qualities, good
or bad
metals and the infinite mood of verbs, when used
substantively, are known by their signification to be of the mas;

culine gender.

Words ending

in oo, ey,

eel,

er,

are masculine

by

their termi-

nation; asjamioo, an action jj'aZZoo, an image; goo, a report


ncy, milk

a thing

phreeney, a pin ; eggey, a


hred,

a prick ; gred, a heat

eeasyder, a borrower; ynseyder,

Words ending
nations

There

As there

is

a star

by becoming
initials

diinvcr, a

hurdoge, a shrimp

are no determined rules to

down

man

hain;

red,

murderer

an instructor.

know

by their termi-

cidnniag, a mull.

Cregeen.

no such anomaly as a neuter gender.

I have been very exact in setting


for adjectives

doolnncy, a

in age, age, or ag, are feminines

as, railage,

web ;

the genders of substantives inanimate,

the gender of every noun in

my

Dictionary

being to express the quality of the substantives, follow their genders,


either masculine or feminine;

of the adjectives.

which

is

effected

by a change in the

THE MANKS LANGUAGE.

The names of wonieii; countries, rivers, cities, also appellaand stones ; are of the feminine gender ; so are

tives of trees

nouns ending in

joined to an adjective feminine, wliether of

ee

singular or plural

tlie

miserable sinners

number

moddee yoogh, feminine

i^eccee hreih,

so are the singulars crce,

Words that are common


ger

as, lyeccee, sinners

moddeij joogh, a greedy dog, masculine,

sJiarvacmt, a servant

pi.

&c.

sliec,

to both sexes, as, chagJtter, a messen-

paitchey, a child, are of the

common

or two genders.

When
with

the article y or yn

eclipsed

is

placed before a noun beginning

be substitiited in the place of

s, if t

and loseth

its

sound

s,

then that noun

so that the s be
is

of the feminine

gender; as
Sooill,

Yn

Yn

an eye.

Yn

Sauin, Hallowing-tide.

But

if

tauin.

Soalt, a barn.

tooiU, the eye.

the noun admits not of

then

f,

it

toaJt,
is

the barn.

of the masculine

gender.

When

the article yn

is

placed before a noun beginning with a

consonant, and the said article


case singular, that

noun

is

changed into ny

in the genitive

of the feminine gender ; but

is

when

the article yn remains in the genitive singular, then the noun

is

of the masculine gender; as

Nom. Yn fer, the man,


Gen. Yn er, of the man.
But

Nom. Yn

ver, the

woman.
woman.

N'y mrieh, of the

Gen.

in finding out the proper gender of the substantive given,

provided the substantive begin with one or other of the mutable


consonants, the most certain rule

A word beginning with


upon putting the

article

is

any of the mutable consonants,


y or yn before

doth naturally change into

its soft

its initial

it,

as, cooish, a cause,

if,

consonant

yn

chooisk,

the cause; grian, the sun, yn ghrian, the sun; moyrn, pride,

y)i

voyrn, the pride; miljid, sweetness, yn viljid: the sweetness: such

words are

infallibly of the

feminine gender.

consonant change not thereupon, we

may

But

if

the initial

justly conclude such

18

words

A GRAMMAR OP
to

be of the masculine gender;

fame; keayn,

body ; cappan, a cup,

^jn cajypan,

fame, y goo, the


body, yn coiy, the

as, goo,

sea, ijn heayn, the sea; corp, a

the cup.

THE MANKS LANGUAGE.

CHAPTER

19

IX.

Or THE Declensions.
There are Five Declensions.
FIRST DECLENSION.

Nouns

of

the particle yn to the tei'minatiou of the nominative

by adding
singular

First Declension are sucli as form their plural

tlie

as

Of the Feminine Gender


Singular.

Plural.

Nom.

SooUI, an eye, or y

Gen.

Ny

too'dl,

N.

Ny

sooilhjn, the eyes,

the eye.
of an eye,

G.

to the eye,

D.

sooilley,

Dat.* Da'n

tooill,

Ny sooillyn, of the eyes,


Ba ny sooillyn, to the eyes.
Ny sooillyn, the eyes,

Ace.

Y71 tooill, the eye,

A.

Voc.

Y or

V.

Abl.

(?//u/i00i7?,

Nom.

Cass, a foot,

N. Cassyn,

Gen.

Ny

G.

Dat.

Ba'n

Ace.

Yn

liooill,

eye,

without an eye. A.

Y or

Singular.

Plural.
feet.

chass, to the foot,

D.

the foot,

A.
V.

Y cliassyn,

cliass,

Y chass, O

Abl.

Gyn

eyes,

without eyes.

Ny gassyn, of the feet,


Da ny cassyn, to the feet.
Ny cassyn, the feet,

coshey, of the foot,

Voc.

foot,

chass, without a foot.

The Dative

position

liooillyn,

(rz/w sooi7??/?i,

A. Gyn

cliassyn,

feet,

without

feet.

is the same as the Accusative, with the premight therefore be expunged; and the word in the Dative

case of all nouns

da prefixed.

It

be said to be in the Accusative, governed by the preposition da.

have a distinct Dative.

Ed.

The Pronouns

20

Of

tlic

GRAMMAR OF
jNIasculinc

Gender.

21

THE MANKS LANGUAGE.

And

toin,

gen. ny toaneij

tnuir, the sea, gen.

crosli,

an accident, gen. ny groshey

ny marrey ; muc, a

ny muigey, &c.

pig, gen.

SECOND DECLENSION.

Nouns of the Second Declension are such as admit of no change


number and the plural is
formed by adding aghyn to the final consonant and, if the noun
in the termination of the singular

ends in a vowel, the vowel


lable,

is

cast away, except

and then the vowel remains:

it

be a monosyl-

as

Singular.

Plural.

Nom. Caggey (masc.) war,


N. Caggagliyn, wars,
Gen. Yn chaggey, of the war, G. Ny gaggaghyn, of the wars,
A.

Bany caggaghyn,toth.e\ydiXS,y
Ny caggaghyn, the wars,

V.

Y chaggaghyn,

Dat.

Da* 71 caggey, to the war, D.

Ace.

Yn

Voc.

Y chaggey,

Abl.

Gyn chaggey, yfithont, &c. A. GynchaggaghynjVfithout,&c.

caggey, the war.

war,

Singular.

wars,

Plural.

Nom.

Gloyr (fem.), glory,

N. Gloyraghyn,

Gen.

Ny

Dat.

Da'n ghloyr, to the

Ace.

Yn

Ny gloyraghyn, of, &c.


D. Ba ny gloyraghyn, to, &c.
A. Ny gloyraghyv , the glories,

glory,

ghloyr, the glory,

Voc.

Y ghloyr, O

Abl.

Gyn

V.

glory,

ghloyr, without, &c. A.

Y gloyraghyn,
Gyn

Cruinney, a globe,

Gen.

Ny

ohhyr,

Plural.

N. Cruinnaghyn, globes,

cruinney, of a globe. G.

Of this declension
coi'rreT/,

work

Ny

gruinnaghyn,

are the following nouns

a furnace

glories,

gloyraghyn, &c.

Singular.

Nom.

a king;

glories,

ghloyr, of the glory, G.

cree,

of,

&c.

a heart

rcc,

chengey, a tongue; pooar, power;

jjeccah, sin, &c.

THIRD DECLENSION.

The Third Declension contaiueth nouns changeable

in

the cases

of the singular number, and which form their plurals as the

second declension.

A GRAMMAR OF

22
Singular.

Nom. Yn
Gen. Yn

sourey,

summer,

touree, of

summer,

Plural.

N. Souraghijn, summers,
G. Nij souraghyn, of summers,

Dat.

Da'n tourey, to the, &c. D. JDa ny souraghyn,

Ace.

Yn

tourey, tlie

Voc.

Y houree,

Abl.

Gyn

summer, A.

summer,

V.

hourey, without, &c. A.

Ny

Y houragliyn,

Moir, a mother,

Gen.

Ny

Dat.

Ba'n

Ace.

Yn

Voc.

y ^-oiV,

Abl.

Gyn. voir, without, &c.

Of

voir, the

N. Moiraghyn, mothers.

A.

Ny moiraghyn, of, &c.


Ba ny moiraghyn, to, &c.
Ny moiraghyn, the, &c.

V.

Y voiraghyn, 0,

mother, D.

mother.

mother,

&c.

A. Gyn voiraghyn, without, &c.

this declension are

Singular.

Nom. Braar,
Gen.

without, &c.

Plural.

mayrey, of a mother, G,
voir, to the

&c.

&c.

0, &c.

Gyn souraghyn,

Singular.

Nom.

to,

sov.rafjhjn, the,

Plural.

a brother,

Y i/Taa7-e7/,

N. Braaraghyn, brothers.

of a brother, G.

Ny

mraaraghyn,

Singular,

o^,

he.

Plural.

Nom.

Shiiyr, a sister,

N. Shuyraghyn,

Gen.

Ny

G.

shayrey, of a sister.

Ny

sisters.

shuyraghyn, of

sisters.

In the same manner are declined geurey, winter, gen. y gheuree,


of winter ; cheer, a country, gen. ny cheerey, of a country, &c.

Of this declension are nouns wanting the singular number,


nouns of multitude singular, and are regularly declined
Singular.

Nom.
Gen.

Ny foaUey,
Ba'n

Ace.

Yn

Voc.
Abl.

eill,

eill,

eill,

Gyn

eill,

Plural.

of the flesh,

to the flesh,

V.

flesh,

without

G.

Ny

glienncy, of children,

D. Ba'n chloan, to the children^

A. Yn chloan, the children,

the flesh,

Note here that

also

as

N. Chan, children,

FeiU, flesh,

Dat.

flesh.

Y chloan,

cloan, maase, sleih [vide

VI.), which apparently

children,

A. Gyn chloan, without, &c.

Of the Numbers, Chap.

seem plural nouns, are only nouns of

23

THE MANKS LANGUAGE.


multitude singular, and declined with a singular article;

never say ta ny maase

cheet,

but ta'n maase

cheet, tlie cattle

ta'n sleih chaglym, tlie people assembles, not

for,

we

comes j

tany sleihcliaylym.

THE FOURTH DECLENSION.


of this declension ending in agh in the singular change

Nouns
agh into

ee in

the plural, and add the particle yn,

Nom.

Cagliagh, a boundary,

Gen.

Yn chagliagh,

of the, &c.

G.

Dat.

Da'ncagliag]i,to the, &c.

D.

Acc

Yn

A.

Voc.

Yc/ia^Zia(//t.,0

cagliagh, the, &c.

Ny gagleeyn, of the, &c.


Da ny cagleeyn, to the, &c.
Ny cagleeyn, the, &c.

Y chagleeyn,

boundary, V.

Gyn

0, &c.

cagleeyn, without, &c.

this declension are claddagli, &c.

Some nouns
consonant n

of this declension, to avoid the hiatus, receive the


as

Singular.

Nom. Raantagh, a bail,


Gen. Yn raantagh^ of a

Some nouns
lar

as

N. Cagleeyn, boundaries.

Abl. G-ynchagliagh, witho'at,&c. A.

Of

Plural.

Singular.

Plural.

N. Baanteenyn,
bail.

G.

Ny

bails,

raanteenyn, of the bails.

of this declension, ending in vowels in the singu-

number, form their plural by adding nyn

to the termination

as

Singular.

Plural.

Nom.

Cliwc, a sword,

N. CUwemjn, swords.

Gen.

Yn

G.

cliliive,

of a sword.

Ny

gliwenyn, of the, &c.

So are jaghee, tythe ; hriw, a judge, &c., declined.

Some nouns of this


tive singular,

declension form their plurals from the geni-

and transpose the

final

consonant ; as

Singular.

Nom. Annym,
Gen.

Nom.

Ny

Plural.

N. Anmeemjn,

a soul,

hanmey, of the

son\.

G.

A^

souls.

/i(Yn7/ie67i?/?i,

of the souls.

A GRAMMAR OF

24

And

some, instead of n, admit of

a turbary

Iheeanee, a

meadow

in their plural

hle'in,

Ble'in,

Gen.

Ny

as^

moainee,

Plural.

Singular.

Norn.

&c.

N. Bleeantyn, years.

a year,

hleeaney, of a year.

G.

Ny

mlceantyn, of the years.

FIFTH DECLENSION.

A,

0,

u, being broad vowels, are used promiscuously in general,

but in monosyllable nouns the plural number follows the genitive


singular, as

Singular.

Nom.

Plural.

Z)oar?2,afistorhand(shut), N. Duirn, hands.

Gen.

Ny

Dat.

Da'n doarn,

Ace.

Yn

Voc.

y ^/loaru,

Abl.

Gyn

duirn, of a

A.

Ny gJmirn, of hands,
By ny duirn, to the hands,
Ny duirn, the hands,

V.

Y ^/uaV7i,

G.

fist,

to the hand,

doarn, the hand,

hand,

doarn, without, &c.

D.

Singular.

Nom.

Y chruin,

Dat.

Ba'n

of the mast,

citron, to

Ace.

Yn

Voc.

Y chron,

Abl.

Plural.

A.

Ny cruin, masts.
Ny gruin, of the masts,
By ny cruin, to the masts,
Ny cruin, the masts,

V.

Y chruin,

N.

Cron, a mast,

Gen.

G.

the mast, D.

chron, the mast,

mast,

Gyn chron, without a

mast. V.

Gyn

Singular.

Kione, a head,

N.

Gen.

Y ching,

G.

of a head.

Ny king, heady.
Ny ging, of the heads.

Singular.

Gen.

Ny

tive,

Plural.

N.

a cow,

haa, of the cow.

Some monosyllables

G.

Ny haa, cows.
Ny maa, of the

cows.

of this declension follow not their geni-

but change a into

as

Singular.

Nom. Mac, a son,


Gen. Yn vac, of a

masts,

cruin, without, &c.

Plural.

Nom.

Nom. Booa,

hands,

A. Gyn duirn, without hands.

Plural.

N.
son.

G.

Ny
Ny

mec, sons.
mcc, of the sons.

25

THE MANKS LANGUAGE.

Some change

into

i,

as
Plural.

Singular.

Nom.

Fer, a

man,

Gen.

Yn

of the man.

er,

N. Fir, men,

0, in monosyllables,

Nom.

N.

Gen.

Yn

G.

In

this

Some

Ny

G.

vir,

of the men.

changed into the diphthong

is

JBohj, a belly,

volg, of a belly.

manner

Ny
Ny

ui,

as

huilg, bellies.

muilg, of bellies.

are declined violt, stoyl, cront, &c., &c.

polysyllable nouns also form the plural from the genitive

case singular, and are of the

fifth

declension

as.

Plural.

Singular.

Ace.

Ny kellee, cocks,
Y cJiellee, of the cock, G. Ny gellee, of the cocks,
JDa'n hellagh, to the cock, D. Da ny hellee, to the cocks.
Yn kellagh, the cock,
A. Ny kellee, the cocks,

Voc.

Nom.
Gen.
Dat.

N.

Kellagh, a cock,

chcllagh,

Abl. G-yn

V.

cock,

chellagJi,wit\io\it,

&c. A.

Y chellee,
Gyn

Ny

Gen.

G.

guoee, of a goose.

N.

a dog,

Y voddee,

without cocks.

Plural.

N.

a goose,

Nom. Moddey,

cocks,

kellee,

Singular.

Nom. Guiy,
Gen.

G.

of a dog.

Ny
Ny

guoee, the geese.


gliuoee, of the geese.

Ny moddee, dogs.
Ny moddee, of dogs.

Keyrrey, a sheep, &c., are of this declension, and thus declined


Plural.

Singular.

Nom.

Keyrrey, a sheep,

Gen.

Ny

N.

geyrragh, of a sheep, G.

Dat. Da'n cheyrrey, tothe sheep, D.

Ace.

Yn

Voc.

Y cheyrrey, O

Abl.

cheyrrey, the sheep,

A.

sheep,

V.

Gyn cheyrrey, Vfithont,

&c. A.

Ny kirree, sheep.
Ny girree, of the sheep,
Da ny kirree, to, &c.
Ny kirree, the sheep,

Y chirree,
Gyn

sheep,

kirree, without, &c.

Adjectives sometimes become substantives, and are of this


declension
jf)cragh,

as,

herchagh, a rich

a sinner, &c.

PI. berchce,

man

kimmagh, a criminal

kimmec,

peccce.

26

A GKAMMAE OF

CHAPTER

X.

Op a Noun Adjective.

An

Adjective

is

word joined

to a substantive, to express its

quality. Therefore, Adjectives very properly follow their substantives in the

Manks.

Adjectives

may be formed from the

they derive from


geurey,

genitive case of the nouns

summer, G. y

touree, of

G. y gheuree, of winter. Thus,


weather ; earish glwuree, winter weather.

Vf inter,

summer
The

as, sourey,

variation of Adjectives

is

two-fold

summer

eomA

of the gender

liouree,

and of

the number.

The

of the gender

variation

become feminines

and

is

that

this is effected

radical or initial consonant

(if

by which masculines
by changing only the

mutable) into

its soft

or secondary

mutej as the following scheme will clearly elucidate.


Masculine.

Bing,

Feminine.

f Ving,

shrill,

Creeney, wise,

Chreeney,

Dunnal, brave,

Ghunnal,

Oennal, merry,

Ghennal,

Dooinney. j Jesh, proper,

Ben. { Yesh,
Chiart,

Kiart, just,

[_

The

MoyrnagU, proud,

Voyrnagh,

Paagh,

Phaagh,

thirsty,

Quaagli, strange.

plurals of Adjectives are

1^

Wliaagh.

formed of singular masculines,

without any change in their radical

initials

as,

inncen

vie,

THE MANKS LANGUAGE.

good girl,
PI.

27

inneemju mie; eddin gJicnnal, a merry countenance,

PI.

eddimjn gennal.

When

the substantive

is

not expressed but understood, the

Adjectives often change their plural termination, or, in

become substantives
First,

addition

by adding only
generally ee

is

iiiartallee,

fact,

as

to

the singular termination, which

a strong man, PI. vy

as, fer niartal,

the strong (men).

Secondly, by changing the singular termination


as, herchagh, rich, PI.

Or, thirdly,

ny

aglt into eo ;

herckee, the rich

by adding another vowel

the singular without any addition

to the ultimate

vowel of

PL ny

as, doal, blind,

doail,

the blind.

Sometimes the vowel a of the singular number is


changed

into

Yet here
several of

e ;

to the received opinion of

countrymen, whose judgment I much value and

we have

plural adjectives

adjectives

number, that are distinguished from singulars by


tion.

in the plural

marroo, dead, PI. ny mcrvoo, the dead.

must observe, contrary

my

esteem, that

as,

The following examples

of the plural

their termina-

will prove the best

argument.

Adjectives, whose singulars terminate in agh, in their plurals

change agh into

ee

as

Singular.

Nom. Fcr

ynsagh, a teacher, or

Plural.

N.

Ny fir ynsee, teachers,

[teaching man,

Gen. Yn.er-ynsagh, of Sk teacher, &c. G.


Dat. Da'n,fer-ynsagh^

D.

Ace. Yn fer-ynsagh,

A.
V.

&c.

Ny vir-ynsee,
Da ny fir-ynsee,
Ny fir-ynsee,
ir-ynsee,

A. Gyn fir-ynsee.
Plural.

Singular.

Fer Ida] g agh, a crafty man.


Gen.

Yu

Dat.

Da' n fer kialgagh,

er kialgagh,

&c.

or

[teaching men.

G.

D.

Fir

cliiahjee.

Ny
Da

cir cJiiidgee,
ivj fir chialgee^.

&c..

A GRAMMAR OP

28
Thie jaajhagh, a

smoky

Ny

liouse^

Gen. &c.

G. Nij

thieyn jaaghee.
clJiieyn

jaaghee,

&c.

is

The most general termination

of plural adjectives

added

as

to the final consonant

Singular.

is ey,

wliidi

Plural.

Nom. Dooinney mooar, a great man, N. Bciney mooarey,


Gen. Yn dooinney mooar, of a, &c. G. Ny gheiney mooarey, &c.
Nom. Ben

Ny

Gen.

seyr, a rich

mrieh

Nom. Magher glass,


Gen.

G.

a green

Many
such

G.

vane.

adjectives

aalin, fair

Ny magheryn,
Ny

pure

&c.

girree vaney.

want the plural number

glen,

seyrey.

N. Kirree vaney.

vane, a white sheep,

Ny geyragh

Gen.

Ny mraane

N. Magheryn glassey,

field,

y^iia^/ier^/^ass^of the green, &C.G.

Nom. Keyrrey

bad

N. Mraane seyrey,

woman,

seyr, of a rich, &c.

crauee, holy

as, mie,

good ;

cam, crooked

ale,

and

like.

Cardinal numbers have no plural

when put

in apposition or

composition with their substantives, though their substantives


at the

three

thieyn
as

we

five,

same time may be


Jciare, four,

nor

when

&c.

either singulars or plurals

and

thie,

an house

set alone, or substantively,

say, ta'n chiare, the four, not ta

not ta ny queig.

Ordinals have no plural number.

as, troor,

three thieyn, kiare

have they plurals

ny kiare ;

ta'n wheig, the

29

THE MANK3 LANGUAGE.

CHAPTER

XI.

The Compaeison of Adjectives.


In the

Manks

tlie positive,

degree

tliere are

superlative

The

is

s' graney,

yn fer graney, the


But in this

the ugliest man.

included the English comparative degree also

may be

Englished, fairer; and

superlative

traction of the

formed of

is

its

word smoo, more,

singular masculines

SiSjjJOoaral,

vis.,

and the superlative, or highest

as, aalin, fair, s'aalin, fairest; pos.

ugly man; sup. yn fer

s'aalin

but two degrees of comparison,

or low degree

s' graney,

positive

as,

uglier.

by adding

s'

(a

con-

or most,) to the initial of its

powerful

sup. s'j^ooaral, more,

or most powerful.

Between the comparatives, or words or persons compared, is


commonly placed the comparative conjunction 7ia, answering to
the ante-comparative conjunction ny ; as, tamoddey hio ny share
na lion marroo, a live dog is better than a dead lion.

As

the positive degree

is

a weak adjective,

it

undergoes those

changes of gender that adjectives are subject to; but the superlative alters not,
as,

but

is

always expressed in

yn ven ghennaJ, the merry woman

merriest

its

singular masculine;

sup. yn ven s'gennal, the

woman.

Monosyllables that begin and end with a consonant have

always the syllable ey added to them in the superlative degree


as, pos. hoght,

poor; sup.

s'bogJitey, poorest.

Polysyllables ending in agh

commonly change agh

pos. agglagh, horrid, sup. s'agglee, most horrid


careful, sup. s'hiaralee,

most

careful.

into ee

as,

pos. kiaralagh,

A GKAMMAK OF

30

uud

Positives having ua
sup.

feeble,

iu

them

cliaiige

most feeble;

s'mellei/,

pos.

into

as,

e ;

clilon,

nwal,

tight,

sup.

s'clienney, tightest

Having
heaviest

Having
liattyr,

and ia make

i;

as,

tromc, heavy, sup.

gial, white, sup. s'<jiUey,

make

aw,

i'lt

as

voauyr,

sHrimmey,

whitest
sup. s'riurcy, fattest;

fat,

long, sup. s'liurey, longest.

These following are anomalous, or irregular comparisons

Mie, good.

Share, better, or best.

Oik, bad,

Smessey, worse, or worst.

Beg, or heggan,

little,

Sloo, less, or least.

Mooar, great,

S'moo, greater, or greatest.

Ymmodee, many,

S'lhee,

Faggys, near,

S'niessey, nearer, or nearest.

more, or most.

Lhean, broad,

S'lhea, broader, or broadest.

Aeg, young,

S'aa, younger, or youngest.

Foddey,

S'odjey, farther, or farthest.

Which

far, distant.

variations run through all the

depending on the Celtic

Mr. Louth imagines.

Comp. and Sup.

Positive.

European languages, as

and not from the caprice of custom, as

(See Eng. Gr. p. 26.)

The Manks language, besides the degrees of comparison already


mentioned, has a sort of comparison which imports sometimes
equality,

by

sometimes admiration, and may be explained in English

as, so,

how

shen dyjarroo

how
is

as,

cha aalin as eshyn, as

how pleasing is it to me

prolific is msaa.

s'mooar Ihiam eh

fair as

he ; s'mic Ihiavi

s'banglaneagh y peccagJi t

how

begrudge

it

It

formed of the positive, by prefixing the contraction s\ accord-

ing to the rules of the superlative degree

31

THE MANKS LANGUAGE.

CHAPTER

XII.

Op the Pronouns.

Of the Pronouns, some are Personal


thou

00,

emphasis
for

shlu, ye
is

he or

eJi,

it

mish for

expressed

ee,

she

as,

mee^ I;

ad, they

we;
when any

sJihi,

or

uss for oo. eslvjn for ch, ish

77iee,

ee.

Some are Demonstratives

as, shoh, this

shen, that

sltid,

that

there, or yonder.

Some are Relatives as, quoi, who ere, or cpie, what.


Some are Possessives as, my, mine dty, thine e, his or hers.
Some are Interrogatives as, quoi, who ere, or que, what
;

(kys, or quis,

Some

how)

are Derivatives

as,

misk, meehene

uss, oohene; ish,

eehene.

Pronouns are compounded with prepositions

me

ort,

thee

upon thee

lesk,

er,

with him

upon him
&c., &c.*

Ihiam, with

as, orrijm,

me;

Ihiat,

upon
with

These are peculiar to our

language, and are called pronominal participles

by the

assist-

ance of which, and the auxiliary verb ta mee, to be, annexed to


the substantive,

all

possessive parts of speech are expressed. (See

Construction of Prepositions.)
* The ingenious and learned aiithor of the Essay on the Antiquity of the Irish
Language, treating of these pronouns, has these words: "The Orientalist will find

a suprising

affinity

ollort, lionnj &c.,

between these cognoniina and the Hebrew

li,

lo,

lah, &c. olli,

the Persian avyra, &c.; and they are certainly of the

same

root."


A GRAMMAR OF

32
1.

OF

THE PERSONAL PRONOUNS AND THEIR DERIVATIVES.

Personal Pronouns are three


ce,

she

and are thus declined

iiiee,

1; oo, tliou; eh, he; and

Mee,

I.

Singular.

Nom.

Mec,

Plural.

N. Shin, maiii, or mayd, we.

1,

Gen.

My, or aym,

Dat.

Dou, hym, rltym, to me,

D. Dooin,hooin,rooin, to ns.

Ace.

Mee, me,

A. Shin,

of me,

G. Ain, of us, or our,

us,

V.

Voc.

(caret)

Abl.

Voyni, from me.

A. Vom, from us.


Oo, thou.

Singular.

Plural.

Nom.

Oo, thou,

Gen.

Dty, or ayd, of thee, or thine, G. Eu, of you, or your,

N. Shiu, you, or

Dat.

Dhyt, rhyt, hood, to thee,

D. Biu,

Ace.

Oo, thee,

A. Shiu, you,

Voc. 'Oo, thou,

V. Shiu, you,

Abl.

Void, from thee,

ye.

hiu, riu, to you.

A.

Fezte,

N.

^t?, they.

from you.

Eh, he.
Singular.

Nom. Eh,

he, or

Plural.

it,

Gen.

E, or ec^ey, of him or

Dat.

Da, rish, huggey, to him or

Ace.

Eh, him, or

Voc.

(caret)

Abl,

Voish, ovveih, from

G. Oc, of them,

it,
it,

D. Dmie,

too, hue, to

A. Ad, them,

it,

V.

him

or

it.

(caret)

A, Voue, from them.

Ee, she.
Singular.

Ee, she,

Gen.

E, or

Dat,

J'ee, r'ec, huic, to her.

ecA-,

Plural.

N. Ad^ &e,,

Nom.

of her, or hers,

Ace. Ee, her,

Voc.

(caret)

Abl.

Voee, from her.

like

Eh.

them^

THE MANKS LAXGUAGE.


Hene,

added

or alone, expressing emphasis or apposition,

self,

pronouns personal

to the

so throughout, except

and then h

33

is

when it

is

changed into p,

Ishin the feminine, and

may be

thus, mee-hene, I myself;

added

to

and

aym, hym, rhym, voyvt,

as aymjyene, hympene, &c.

esJiyn in the masculine, are

pronouns, and used in composition

emphatical

eclsh, hers; echeysyn,

as,

or of him.

his,

Mish, shiny n
&c.;

shiuish

liss,

aym's, ainyn
;

dooys, hytn's; dooinyn, liooinyn,

ayd's, euisJi

dhyt's, rhyfs, &c.

echeysyn, ecksh ; dasyn, jeeish, &c., are used

esJiyn,ish;

when particular per-

sons or thiugs are set in opposition to one another, or

property

is

signified

echi ysyn, this

give

it

my

is

book, not his ; cur dooys

to me, not to him. Otherwise

ere

shoh

what^s this

cre^

&c.

ere

shen

all

of the third

what's that

ere shid ?

3.

Quoi, who,

eh,

DEMONSTEATIVES,

what's yonder, or there

cha nee dasyn,

eh,

would be, cur don

it

Shoh, shen, shld are common, undeclinable, and

person

when

shoh yn Hoar ayms, cha nee yn Hoar

as,

RELATIVES.

what, are common.

Relatives are generally

understood, and not expressed, in Manks,


4,

My
is

cast

my

TEE POSSESSIVE PRONOUXS.

My, mine or my.


and, when it comes before a vowel, y
away, and m' only expressed as, m'annym, my soul, for

is

of both genders

-a.nnym.

Diy, thine or thy,

Dty

is

of both genders

and by apostrophe

dt'

as, dt'ennaJ,

thy breath, for dty ennal.


E,

his, her,

or

its.

The gender of the possessive pronoun

e is

determined only by

the initial letter of the following substantive j a.spirated after

34

A GRAMMAR OP

masc,

as

c gJioo,

his word,

e hooil,

but remaining un-

his eye;

altered after e fern., as e goo, her word, e sooil, her eye.

doubles in expression the

when

it

same

rule holds in the Spanish,

Nyn,

It also

consonant of the following noun,

initial

comes before substantives beginning with


Welsh, and

our, your, their, of ail genders,

I,

n, r.

and the plural number,

used indiscriminately with substantives of both numbers


nijn

dliie,

our house,

pi.

nyn

The

Irish.

as

dhieyn.

INTEEEOGATIVES.
what man or person.
whatwhat thing.
5.

Quoi,
Cre,

who

They

are of

They

are not always interrogatives, but are sometimes in-

all

genders and numbers.

definites, especially

when attended with

nee shoh, whosoever doth this


it

cree-erheo

te^

or rather

erhee,

any as quoi-erhee
:

quoi-erhee nee eh, whosoever doth

t'eh,

whatever

it

be.


35

THE MANKS LANGrAGE,

CHAPTER Xin.
Op a Yeeb.
Tliere are four sorts of Verbs, viz.,

tlie

Active, and Passive,

the Auxiliary, and Impersonal.

The Manks Verbs are

most part formed of substantives


them as, ynsagh, learning, t'eh

for the

of the same signification with

gy%saghy he learns; coayly

loss,

t'eli

coayl,

he

loses.

They have properly but three Tenses the Present, Past, and
Future the rest are formed by the help of auxiliaries.
;

THE FORMING OE A KEGULAE VERB ACTIVE.

The

Indicative

Mood, present

participle of the present tense

And indeed

all

tense, is always

formed of the

and the auxiliary verb

ta mee, to be^

the other tenses are frequently used in the parti-

ciples only^ particularly in discourse, joined with the auxiliary ta

mee

as

REGULAR VERBS.

INDICATIVE MOOD.
Present Tense.
Singular.

Ta mee

Plural-.

am

T'ou coayl,thou losest, or artlosing,

Ta slim coayl, we lose, or, &;c.


Ta shiu coayl, ye lose, or, &c.

T'eh coayl, he loseth, or

T'ad coayl, they

coayl, I lose, or

is

losing,

losing,

lose,

&Ci

A GRAMMAR OF

36

Freterimiierfecl.

Singular.

Chain mee, I did


Chain

thou

00,

Chaill eh,

Plural.
C/n7?s/a'?i,welost,or did lose,

lose,

Chaill shiu,jG lost, or did lose,

lost, or didst lose,

Chaill ad, they lost, &c.

lie lost.

Or:

Va mee coayl, I lost,

or was losing,

Va shin

coayl,

we were

losing,

F'owcoai/Z,thoulost,orwastlosing, Vashiu coayl, ye were losing,

V'eh coayl, he was losing.

may be

This tense

V'ad

coayl, they

were losing.

conjugated, by the help of the verb ren,

from the irregular verb jannoo, to do, as


Singular.

Plural.

Ren mee coayl, I lost, or did lose,


Men 00 coayl, thou didst lose,
Ren eh coayl, he lost.

Ben shin coayl, we lost, &c.


Ren shiu coayl, ye lost, &c.
Ren ad coayl, they lost, &c.

Preteri^erfect.

Singular.

Ta mee

Plural.

have

er choayl, I

lost,

T'ou er choayl, thou hast


T'eh er choayl, he hath

lost,

Ta shiner c/ioa?/?, we have lost,


Ta shi^i er choayl, je have lost,
T'ad

lost.

er choayl, they

have lost.

Preterijhij^erfect.

Va mee

er choayl, I

had

lost,

Vou

er choayl, thou hadst lost,

V'eh

er choayl,

he had

Va shin er cAoa;/?, wehadlost,


Va shiu er choayl, ye had lost,
V'ad er choayl, they had

lost.

lost.

Future Tense.
Cailleeym, I shall or will lose,

Caillee

mayd, or shin, we, &c.

Caillee oo, thou shalt or wilt lose, Caillee shiu, ye, &c.

Caillee eh,

When

he

shall or will lose.

a relative

is

Caillee ad, they, &c.

either expressed or understood, the persons

of the future tense terminate in ys, and the nominative case

always set before the verb


will

as,

mish loayrys

rish, I

am

is

he that

speak to him ; uss screeuys huggcy, thou art he that shall

write to

him

eshin chaillys, he

who

shall lose.

If the verb begin with a mutable consonant, then shall it

always be aspirated

as,

ynfcr

chaillys, the

man

that shall lose

THE MANKS LANGUAGE.

37

yn veil vlieaunys,&c.,ny deiny gJminnys,t'\iem.eni'h.Sit sliall wound.

Which termination

is

common

to both numbers.

IMPERATIVE MOOD.
Caill, lose thou.

The

Caill-jee, lose ye.

Mood

third person of the Imperative

might, perhaps, be

supplied from the future tense of the indicative


Caillee eh, let

him

Caillee ad, let

lose.

them

lose.

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.

The Subjunctive Mood may be formed

of auxiliaries and the

verb compound foddym, to be able, without any change in the


verb

as

Present Tense.
Singular.

Plural.

Foddym coayl, I may lose,

FoddeesJiin, ovmaydcoayl,-we, &c.

Foddeeoocoayl,th.o\ima,jest,&c,Foddee

Foddee eh

But

coayl,

he may

lose.

manner of formation

this

present tense of the Subjunctive


the adverbs dy and ny, that and

is

coayl,

they

periphrastic

Mood

if,

ye

sTiiu coayl,

Foddee ad

is

like the

may
may

lose,
lose.

and, as the

never used but after

French

que, that, the

following seems to be the original and truest mode of formation


Singular.

Dy gaillyn,
Dy gaill oo,
Dy gaill eh,

Plural.

that I lose,

Dygailhnayd,OTshin,tliia:twe,&c.

that thou lose,

Dy
Dy

that he lose.

ye

gaill shiu, that


gaill ad, that

lose,

they lose.

Preterimperfect.

Singular.

Plural.

Chaillin, I might, should, would, or Chaillagh

s/im,wemight,&c.

could lose,
Chaillagh oo, thou mightest, &c.

Chaillagh shiu, ye might, &c.

Chaillagh eh, he might, &c.

Chaillagh ad,thej-ni{gh.t,&c.

Periphrastical Formation.

Yinnyn

coayl, I

might, &c., lose,

Yinnagh shin

coayl,

we, &c.

Yinnaghoocoayl,tho\iiaxig}itest,&c.Yinnagh shiu coayl, ye, &c.

Yinnagh eh

coayl,

he might, &c.

Yinnagh ad

coayl, they, &c.


A GRAMMAR OF

38
This tense

may be declined with

oddin, I might, in the

Ihisin, I

should or ought^ and

same manner.

Preterperfed and Preterplujperfcd.


Singular.

Veign er choayl, I had

have

Plural.

ormight Veagli shin er

lost,

clwayl, we, &c.

lost,

VeagJi oo erc/ioai/?,thouhadstlost,&c. Veagh sJiiu er choayl, ye, &c.

Veagh eh

er choayl,

he had

&c. Veagh ad er choayl,t'hej,&c.

lost,

Future Tense.
This tense

is

formed as the present tense regular of the sub-

junctive mood.
INFINITIVE MOOD.

The
its

Infinitive

Mood is known commonly by the

following another verb in the

nominative case between


as to

itself,

yet doth

it

sign to, or by
same sentence without any

and, though the verb stand unvaried

admit of three tenses,

the preter, and preterpluperfect tenses

By choayl, to
T'ou gohhal

Present.
Preter.

have

viz.,

the present,

as

lose.

dij vel

lost

mee

er choayl eh,

thou deniest that I

it.

Preterplu/perfed.

Doh oo dy row mee

er

choayl, thou deniedst

that I had lost.


PARTICIPLES.

Participle Present.

The

Participles of the preter

prefixing the particle


to the future.

er, after,

Coayl,

losing.

and future tenses are formed by


to the preter,

Er
Er-chee
Supine.

and

er-chee, about,

choayl, having lost.

Participle Preter.

Future.

coayl,

about to

lose.

Caillit, lost.

The supines end

in

or

it,

which form the participle of the

passive voice, and which, with the auxiliary verb ta mee, to be,

go through
mee caillit

all

the tenses

(passive), I

am

as, ta

lost.

mee coayl

(active),

I lose; /a


>

THE MANKS LANGUAGE.

89

In the conjugation of verbs^ a negative mucli alters

tlie initials

and, therefore, to every verb liere conjugated the afl&rmatives and

negatives follow.

The negative to the indicative and subjunctive moods is cJia,


and to the imperative, ny, not as, cJia gaillytn, I will not
;

not

lose

ny

caill, lose

thou not

Interrogative.

clia gaillin,

Chaill oo

Nagli chaill oo
Affirmative.

did you not lose

Chaill mee, I did lose.

Cha

Negative.

I would not lose*

did you lose

Ny

chaill mee, I did

caill,

not lose.

lose not.

Screen, to write, or writing.

Prater.

PluraL

Singular.

Screen shin,

Screeu-mee, I wrote,

Screen

thou didst write.

oo,

we

wrote.

Screen shiu, ye wrote*

Screen eh, he wrote.

Screen ad, they wrote.


Future.

Screeu-ym, 1 shall or will write, S'creeitees/im, we shall, &c., write,


/Screez/eeoo, thoushaltj&c, write,

/Scree^ees/uXye shall, &c., write,

Screeuee eh, he shall, &c., write.

S'c?'eeMee acZ, they shall,

&c., write.

IMPERATIVE MOOD.
Screeu-jee, write ye.

Screen, write thou.

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.
Preter.

Screeuln, I

might or could write, Screeuagh

Screeuagh

oo,

Screeuagh

eh,

shin,

we might, &c.

thou mightest, &c. Screeuagh shiuj ye might, &c.

he might, &c.

Screeuagh ad, they might, &c.

INFINITIVE

Present. By

Supine

MOOD.

screen, to write.

Screeut, written.
F 2


A GEAMMAR OF

40

PARTICIPLES.

Present. Screen,
Preter. Er-screeu,
Future. Er-chee

VTriting.

after writing,

screen,

Screen oo

Interrogative.

having written.

about to write.

did you write

Nagh screen oo huggey ? did you not wi'ite


Affirmative.

toliim?

Screen mee, I did write.

Screeuym, I will write.


Clia screen me, I did not write.

Negative.

Nij screen, do not write.

Giu, to drink, or drinking.


Preter.

Plural.

Singular.

Biu mee,

Biu
Biu

Bin shin, we drank,


Diu shiu, ye drank,
Biu ad, they drank.

I drank.

00,

thou drankest,

ell,

he di^ank.

Futu re.
luee mayd, or shin,

lu-ym, I shall or will drink,

we

shall,

luee 00, thou shalt or wilt drink, Inee shin, ye shall, &c.

Inee eh, he shall or will drink.

Inee ad, they shall, &c.

IMPERATIVE MOOD.
In, drink thou.

lu-jee,

drink ye.

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOT).
Preter.
luiyi, I

might or could drink,

luagh

shin,

we might,

&c.

Inagh

oo,

thou mightest, &c.

luagh shiu, ye might, &c.

luagh

eh,

he might, &c.

luagh ad, they might, &c.


INFINITIVE MOOD.

By to drink.
drunk.

Present.

Supine.

in,

lut,

&c.

41

THE MANKS LANGUAGE.


PARTICIPLES.

Giu, drinking.
Er m, having drunk.
Future. Er-chee
about to drink.
Present.
Preter.

n'

giu,

Diu

Interrogative.

oo ? did

Nagh

you drink

diu oo

did you not drink

Cre iuys oo ? what will you drink

D'iu mee, I drank.

Afl&rmative.

lu-ym, I will drink.

Cha diu mee, I did not drink,


Cha n^ iu-y 771, I will not drink.

Negative.

Ny

drink not.

iu,

Ginsh, to

tell

or, telling.

Prete7\

Singular.

Plural.

Dinsh mee, I told


iJinsJi 00,

thou toldest

Dinsh

he

eh,

Dinsh

shin,

we

Dinsh

shiu,

ye told

Dinsh ad, they

told.

told

told.

Future.

Inshym, I

shall, or, will tell

Jr^s/iee 00, thoushalt, or,

Inshee mayd,

we

shall, or,

&c.

wilt tell J Inshee shiu, ye shall, &c.

Inshee eh, he shall, or, will

tell,

hisliee ad, they,

&c.

IMPERATIVE MOOD.
Insh, tell thou.

Insh-jee, tell ye.

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.
Preter.
Inshiii, I

might,

or,

could tell ; Inshagh shin,

we might, &c.

Inshagh oo, thou mightest, &c. Inshagh shiu, ye, &c.


Inshagh

eh,

he might,

or,

&c.

Inshagh ad, they, &c.

42

A GRAMMAR OF
INFINITIVE MOOD.

Dy

Present.

Supine.

insh, to tell.

Inshit, told.

PARTICIPLES.

Er
Future. Er-chee
Present.

G-insli, telling.

Preter.

Interrogative.

n' insh,

Quoi dinsh

Nagh
Affirmative.

having

n' insh,

told.

about to

clhijt ?

who

dinsh eh dhjt

tell.

told thee

did he not

tell

thee

Dinsh Jiian dou, John told me.

Cha dinsh eh dhyt, he did not tell thee.


Cha n' insJiym dhyt, I will not tell thee.

Negative.

Gimmeeaght, to go

or^

going to depart.

Singular.

Dinimee mee, I went,

Plural.

or,

Bimmee shin, we went


Dimmee shin, ye went;
Dimmee ad, they went.

did go

Dimmee oo, thou wentest;


Dimmee eh, he went.

Future.

Immeeym,

shall;, or,

will

Imme mayd, we

go

Immee oo, thou shalt, &c.


Immee eh, he shall, &c.

shall, or,

Lmnee

shiu, ye shall, &c.

Immee

ad, they shall, &c,

&c.

IMPERATIVE MOOD.
Immee-je, go ye.

Immee, go.

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.
Prcter.

Immeein, I might,

Immagh
Immagh

oo, thou,

eh,

or,

could go

&c.

he might, &c.

ImviagJisJiin, we might, or,&o.

Iinniagh shiu, ye might, &c.

Immagh

ad, they might, &c.


4S

THE MANKS LANGUAGE.


INFINITIVE MOOD.

Dy immeeaght,
Immit, gone.

Present.

Supine.

to go.

PARTICIPLES.

Gimmeeaght, going.
Er n'immeeaght, having gone.
Future. Er-chee gimmeeaglit, about
go.
Present.
Prater.

to

Vel oo gimmeeaght

luteiTOgative.

Affirmative.

Cha

Negative.

are

you going

Nagh u'lmmeo oo ? will you not go


Ta mee gimmeeagJi, I am going.
n'

immeeym, I

will

Clia n'

immayd, we

will not go.

Kionnaghey , to buy;

or^

not go.

buying.

Preter.

Singular.

Plural.

Chionnee mee, I bouglit^ or did buy; Chionnee shin,

we bought^ &c.

Chionnee

oo,

tbou bougbtestj &c. Chionnee shin, ye bouglit, &c.

Chionnee

eh,

he bought, &c.

Chionnee ad, they bought, &c.


Future.

Kionnee-ym, I

Kionnee

oo,

Kionnee

eh,

shall,

thou

he

or did

shalt,

buy ;

&c.

shall, or will,

&c.

Kionnee mayd, we

shall,

&c.

Kionnee shiu, ye

shall,

&c.

Kionnee ad, they

shall,

&c.

IMPERATIVE MOOD.

Kionnee, buy.

Kionnce-jee,

buy ye.

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.
Preter.

Chionneein I might, or could buy ; Chionnagh shin,we might, &c<.

Chionnagh

oo,

Chionnagh

eh, he,

thou mightest, &c. Chionnee shiu, ye, &c.


&c.

Chionnagh ad, they, &c

;;

44

A GEAMMAE OF
INFINITIVE MOOD.

Dij cldonnagliey,
Klonnit, bouglit.

Present.

Supine.

to buy.

PAETICIPLES.

Kionnaghey buying.
Er chionnaghey having
Future. Er-chee kionnaghey, about

Present.

Preter.

bouglit.
to buy.

Gymmyr'key, to bear, or carry, or behave.


Preter.

Singular.

DymmyrJc mee,

I bore

Plural.

Dymmyrh

sltin,

we bore
ye bore

Dymmyrli

oo,

thou borest

Dymmyr'k

shut,

Dymmyrh

eh,

he bore.

Dymmyrh

ad, they bore.

Future.

Ymmyrk-ym,IshaM, orwill bear; Ymmyrheemayd, or shin,we,&G.


Ymmyrhee oo, thou shalt, &c.
Ymmyrhee shiu, they shall, &c.
Ymmyrhee eh, he shall, &c.
Ymmyrhee ad, they shall, &c.
IMPEEATIVE MOOD.

Ymmyrh,

Ymmyrk-jee, bear ye.

bear.

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.
Preter.

ymmj/r/um, I might, or could bear; Ymmyrkagh shin,wemigh.t,&c.

Ymmyrkagh,

Ymmyrkagh

oo, thou,

eh, he,

&c.

&c.

Ymmyrkagh shiu, ye might, &c.


Ymmyrkagh ad, they, &c.

INFINITIVE MOOD.

Present. Dy ymmyrkcy, to bear.


Ymmyrkit, borne.

Snjiine,

45

THE JIANKS LANGUAGE.


PARTICIPLES.

Present.

OymmyrJcey, bearing.

Er ymmyrJcey, having borne.


Future. Er-chee gymmyrJcey, about
bear.
n'

Preter.

to

GoaiU, to take

taking.

or,

Preter.

Singular.

Plural.

Ghow mee, I took, or did take


Ghow 00, tkou didst take
Ghow eh, he did take.

Gliow

sJiin,

we took

Ghoiu shiu, ye took

Ghoiv ad, tliey took.

Future.

Gow-yrn or goyni, I

or,&c.;

sliall,

(?oi','ee'ma;/c?, wesliall^or-^-ill,

&c.

(raweeoo^tliouslialt, or wilt take; Goicee shiu, ye skall, &c.

Gowee

eh,

he

sliall,

or will take

Goiuee ad, thej, &c.

IMPEEATIYE MOOD.

Gow, take.

Gou'-jee,

take ye.

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.
Preter.
Ghoiii, I might; or could take;

Ghoghe mayd, or shin, we, &c.

Ghoghe

oo,

thou mightest, &c.

Ghoghe shiu, ye might, &c.

Ghoghe

eh,

he might, &c.

Ghoghe ad, they might, &c.

IXFINITIVE MOOD.

Present.

Dy

Supine.

Gait, taken.

ghoaill, to take.

PARTICIPLES.

GoaiU, taking.
Er
having taken.
about to
Future. Er-chee

Present.
Preter.

ghoaill,

goaill,

take.

46

A GRAMMAE OP

Many

nouns, betokening the passions of the mind and body,

are conjugated with the verb substantive ta mee,


have, as the verb

sum

put for

to he,

for Jiaheo in Latin.

EXAMPLES.
Fijs,

knowledge.

Pyescnt.

Singular.

Tafys aym, I know, or

Plural.

thou knowest,

Tafijs

aijd,

Tafys

echey,

know

have knowledge ; Tafijs ain, we


or,

&c.

he knows, &c.

Tafys

eu, ye,

Tafys

oc,

&c.

they, &c.

Preter.

Vafys aym,

Va fys
Vafys

knew, &c.

ayd, thou knewest, &c.


echey,

he knew, &c.

Vafys
Va fys
Va fys

ain, we, &c.

knew

eu,

ye

oc,

they knew, &c.

Future.
fys

aym, I

will

know

Bee fys a ?, we shall, or will, &c.

Bee fys ayd, thou wilt know


Bee fys

echey,

he

will

know.

Bee fys

eu,

ye

Bee fys

oc,

they

shall,

&c.

shall,

&c.

In like manner.
GraiJi, love.

Present.

aym

Ta
Ta
Ta

graih

Va
Va
Va

graih aym, I loved

(er), I

love (him)

graih ayd, thou lovest

graih eck, or echey, she or he loveth.

Ta cjraih
Ta graih
Ta graih

ain,

we

love;

eu,

ye love

oc,

they love.

Preter.

graih ayd, thou lovedst

Va graih ain, we loved;


Va graih eu, ye lo"ved

graih echey, he loved.

Va graih

oc,

they loved.

THE MANKS LANGUAGE.

4/

Future.
Singular.

Bee

aym, I

graili

Bee graih ayd,


Bee graih

Plural.

Bee graih aym, we

will love.

Bee graih ayd, ye

tliou wilt love,

Bee graih

echey, lie will love.

This takes two participial pronouns

him

The adverb
be

ta mee, to

ersooyl,

they will love.

oc,

as, ta

graih

aym er, I love

he loves me.

ta graih echey orrym,

will love.

will love.

away,

is

used as a verb with the auxiliary

as
Preter.

Va mee

ersooyl, I went, or

Va shyn ersooyl, we,&c.

was gone ;

V'ou ersooyl, thou wentest, or wast gone; Va shiu

V'ad

V'eh ersooyl, he went, or was gone.

ersooyl, ye,

&c.

ersooyl, they, &c.

Future.

Bee 'm

ersooyl, I will

Bee 00

ersooyl,

Bee eh

ersooyl,

be gone

thou wilt

be'

Bee mayd

gone ; Bee shiu

Be ad

he will be gone.

ersooyl,

we, &c.

ersooyl, ye, &c.

ersooyl, they,

&c.

IMPERATIVE MOOD.
Ersooyl, away, begone.

Ersooyl-jee,

be ye gone.

Op Eecipeocal Veebs.
Reciprocal or Reflecting Verbs are
as to the

Hebrew, French,

pronouns when the sense


to be

is

Irish, &c.,

common

to this language

and require two personal

turned by the auxiliary verb ta mee,

which is the most elegant and pointed expression. Never-

theless, the simple verb

examples

may be used

alone, as in the following

Cadley, to sleep

or, sleeping.

Present.

Singular.

Ta mee my
mee

chadley, I sleep, or do sleep, or

cadley.

am

sleeping; or, ta


48

A GRAMMAPw OF

T'ou

dtij chadleij,

thou sleepest, or art sleeping ;

T'eJi nij chadleij, lie sleepeth,

or sleeps

or,

fou cadley.

or, t'eh cadley.

Plural.

Ta
Ta

shin

nyn

shiu

nyn gadley, or

gadley, or ta shin cadley, or


ta shiu cadley, or

ny chadley, we
ny chadley, ye

T'ad nyn gadley, or Vad eadley, or ny chadley,

tliey sleep.

Preter.

Va mee my
V'ou

dty,

chadley, I

was

sleeping, or I slept

or,

chaddil mee.

or,

cadlym.

&c.
Fuhtre.

JBee^m

my

chadley, I will sleep, or be sleeping

Bee 00 dty chadley,


Bee eh ny chadley,

or, cadlee oo,

he

or, cadlee eh,

Row

Interrogative.

thou

sbalt, or wilt sleep.

shall, or will sleep.

oo dty chadley ? were

you asleep

Vel 00 dty chadley ? are you asleep


Affirmative.

Negative.

Va mee my chadley, or chaddil


Ta cadley oi-rym, I am sleepy.

mee, I slept.

Cha vel mee my chadley, I am not


Cha chaddil mee, I did not sleep.
Cha gadlym, I will not sleep.

asleep.

Shassoo, to stand ; or, be standing.

Ta mee my

mee shassoo,

hassoo, or ta

jPow dty hassoo, or


T'eh ny hassoo, or

t'eh shassoo,

I stand, or

am

standing.

thou standest, or art standing.

t'ou shassoo,

he standeth, or

is

standing.

Plural.

Ta

shin

nyn

shassoo, or

ny hassoo, or

ta shin shassoo,

we

standing, or do stand.

Ta

shiu

nyn

shassoo, or

ny hassoo, or

T'ad nyn shassoo, or ny hassoo, or

sJtassoo,

sJiassuo,

ye stand, &c.

they stand.

are


49

THE MANKS LANGUAGE.


Preter.

Singular.

Va mee my

Jiassoo,

or

liass

V'ou dty hassoo, or hass

mee, I stood, or was standing".

oo,

thou stoodest, &c.

Veil ny hassoo, or hass

eh,

Va

ny hassoo, or hass shin, &c.

he stood, &c.
Plural.

shin

nyn

shassoo, or

Future.
Singular.

my

Bee'm

hassoo, or shassym, I will stand, &c.

Bee 00 dty hassoo, or shassee

oo,

thou wilt stand.

Bee eh ny hassoo, or shassee

eh,

he

will stand.

Plural.

Bee mayd nyn shassoo, or shassee mayd, we

will stand.

Bee shiu nyn shassoo, or shassee shiu, ye will stand.

Bee ad nyn shassoo, or shassee ad, they

Row

Interrogative.

oo dty hassoo ?

Vel eh
Affirmative.

Negative.

ny hassoo

shall or will stand, &c.

Were you

standing

Is he standing

Va mee my hassoo, I was standing.


T^eh ny hassoo, he is standing.
Cha row mee my hassoo, I was not standing.
Cha vel eh ny hassoo, he is not standing.
Cha shassym, 1 will not stand.

Ny

shass, stand not.

MGEE EXAMPLES.

Ta mee my
Interrogative.
Affirmative.

Negative.

Vel oo dty hole

hole, I sit.

Do you

sit ?

Ta mee my hoie, I sit.


Cha vel mee my hoie, I do not
Ta mee

er

my

ghoostey, 1

am

sit.

awake.


60

A GRAMMAR OF

Interrogative.

Vel oo cr

city

ghoostey ? Art tliou

awake

[&c.

Va mee er my ghoostey, or ghooisld ??iee,I was awake.

Affirmative.

Clia hee'm er my ghoostey, or cha dooishtym, I will not,

Negative.

Ny

hee er city ghoostey, or

Ta mee

my

er

ny do oisJit, don't awake. [&c.

chosh, I

am

on

foot.

Vel oo er dty chosh ? Are you on foot ?


Ta mee er my chosh, I am on foot.
Cha vel mee er my chosh, I am not on foot.

Interrogative.

Affirmative.

Negative.

Ny

hee er dty chosh,

be not on

Of a Verb
In Manks there
it is

be,

it

is

Passive.

no Passive Voice ; but in

elegantly and expressively formed

and

tlie

foot.

parts of speecli

all

by tke verb

ta me, to

supine active, or participle passive.

The tenses are formed by the participle, which always ends in


t, and serves throughout all the persons of both numbers

or

with the verb substantive ta mse, to be.


INDICATIVE MOOD.

Present Tense.
Singular.

Ta mee
T'ou

caiUit, I

caillit,

T'cli caillit,

am

thou art

he

Plural.

lost,

lost,

Tct shin caillit,

we

Ta

ye are

shiu

T'ad

is lost.

caillit,

are lost,

they are

caillit,

lost,
lost.

Freterim2Jerfect.

Va mee

caillit,

was

Va shin caillit, we were lost,


Va shiu caillit, ye were lost.

lost,

V'ou

caillit,

thou wast

Veil

caillit,

he was

lost,

V'ad

lost.

caillit,

they were

lost.

Preterjyerfect.

Ta mee

er ve

cxiillit,

I have been lost,

Ta shin

er ve caillit,

T'ouerve caillit, thou hast been, &c. Ta shin erve


T'ch er ve

caillit,

he has been

lost.

T'ad

caillit,

we, &c.
je, &c.

cr ve caillit, they,

&c.

THE MANKS LANGUAGE.

51

Pretei'plu2')crfect.

Va meeerve

caillit,

had been

lost,

Va

sJdn erve caiUit,\Ye had

been
F^oiieryeca/ZZi'i^,

Veil er ve

thou hadstbeen

he had been

caillit,

lost,

lost,

Vashiu
V'ad

lost,

er ve caillit, je, &c.

er ve caillit, they, &c.

Future.

Bce'm

caillit,

I shall or will be lost,

Bee mayd

Bee 00

caillit,

thou

Bee shiu

Bee eh

caillit,

he

shalt, &c.

Bee ad

&c.

shall,

caillit,

we, &c.

caillit, ye,

caillit,

&c.

they, &c.

IMPEKATIVE MOOD.

Bee

caillit,

be thou

Bee-jee caillit,

lost.

be ye

lost.

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.
Present Tense.

By

hee'm

caillit,

that I be (or

may By hee mayd caillit, that we, &c.

or can be) lost.

By hee oo caillit, that thou be lost. By


By hee eh caillit, that he be lost. By

hee shiu caillit, that ye, &c.


hee

ad caillit, that they, &c.

Preter.

Veign er ve

caillit,

had been, or Veagh shin

er ve ca{llit,we,

&c.

I might have been lost,

Veagh

oo er ve caillit, thou, &c.

Veagh eh

er ve caillit, he, &c.

Veagh sliiu

er ve caillit, ye, &c.

Veagh ad er ve

caillit,

they, &c.

INFINITIVE MOOD.

Present.

By ve

Participle.

caillit, to

be

lost.

Caillit, lost.

The preter and future tenses of the

indicative

mood

very elegantly formed by the help of the irregular

are often

goll, to

go

A GRAMMAR OP

52

Plural.

Singular.

Hie mee

er coayl, I

was

lost.

Hie 00

er coayl,

thou wast

Hie eh

er coayl,

he was

lost,

Hie shin

er coayl,vre werelost,

Hie shiu

er coayl,

ye were

lost,

Hie ad er coayl, they were lost.

lost.

Future.

Hem,

er coayl, I will

Heu

er coayl,

Hed

be

hem may d er coayl, we, &c.


Hed shiu er coayl, ye, &c.
Hed ad er coayl, they, &c.
Heeljor

lost,

thou wilt be

lost,

eh er coayl, he will be lost.

Impersonals are such as have no persons, except the third


as, keearagh, to

person singular only:


it

grew night

heeree eh, it will

grow

grow night;

cheeree eh,

night.

Op the Auxiliary Verbs.


There are no Auxiliary or Helping Verbs in the dead tongues
viz., the Greek, the Hebrew, and the Latin ; but in all the

living tongues there are

viz.,

the French, the Spanish, the

Italian, the German, the Irish, &c., &c.,

The
is

principal auxiliary verb

used on

all

except in the Portuguese.

mee, to be, or, I am, which

is ta

occasions, as the verb S2im in Latin, as the verb

French, and as taim in Irish

etre or sCds in

all

of the

hke

signi-

fication.

auxiliaries are vel mee,

The other

am

saillym, I
is often

willing

am

foddym, 1

which are personals.

She

able

which

substituted for ta mee, and sheign (must), are used

impersonally, and always joined to a substantive


t'ayn,

am

(it is),

it is

as, she

sheign dhyt loayrt thou must speak.

mish

Vel mee

is

used in asking or denying as, Vel mee er ghra eh, as nagh vel
mee er chooiUeeney eh? Have I said it, and have I not per:

formed

it ?

Cha vel, you have not.


is an auxiliary, and generally used in the past time,

Bow, was,

either to ask a question

one want
as

Cha

me ?

rovj,

or,

as.

Row fer erhee dy my


me ?

was anybody wanting

there did not, or

was

not.

laccal ?

or

Did any

else denies

Sometimes

it is

added

;;

THE MANKS LANGUAGE.


as an auxiliary to

man

there was a

tlie

auxiliary ta mee, as

that was.

peace be with us

Ya

doolnneij dy row,

It is also elegantly used^ in suppli-

cating or wishing^ for the future tense

May

53

dy row mdrin

Sliee

Veeb Substantive^ or Auxiliary Verb.

Ta

mee, I am.

INDICATIVE MOOD.

Present Tense.

Ta

Singular.

he or

it is

Ta

Plural.

mee, I

am

fee, she

shin,

we

t'ou,

or ta oo, thou art

t'eh,

or ta eh,

is.

are; ta shin, ye are; t'ad, they are.


Preterim2)erfect.

Va

Singular.

mee, I was;

v'oii,

thou wast; v'eh he was;

v'ee,

she was.

Va

Plural.

shin,

we were va
;

je were; v'ad, they were.

shin,

Preterjyerfect.

Ta mee

Singular.

er ve, I

have been

he has been ; fee

t'eh er ve,

Plural.

Ta

fad

er ve,

shin er ve,

t'ou er ve,

thou hast been

she has been.

er ve,

we have been

ta shiu er ve,

ye have been

they have been.


Preterjyluperfect.

Va mee er ve,

Singular.
v'eh er ve,

Va

Plural.

v'ad er

had been

vou

er ve,

thou hadst been

he had been.
shin er ve,

ve,

we had been

va shiu er

ve,

ye had been

they had been.


Futiire.

Bee'm, I shall or will be

Singular.

be

Plural.

be

hee eh,

he shall or

Bee mayd, we
hee

oaI,

will

be ; hee

shall or will

they shall or will be.

hee oo, thou shalt or wilt


ee,

be

she shall or will be.


hee shiu,

ye

shall or will


54

A GRAMMAR OF
IMPERATIVE MOOD.
Bee, be thou.

Bee-jee,

be ye.

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.

My

Singular.
eh, if

if

3Iy vees mayd,

Plural.

ad,

vee'm,

be

my

vees oo, if thou

my

be;

vees

he be.

if

if

we be my
;

vees sldu, if

ye be;

my vees

they be.
Preter imperfect.
Veign, I might or could be; veagli oo, thou mightest

Singular.

or couldst be

veagh eh, he might or could be.

Veagh shin, we might or could be ; veagh

Plural.

or could be

shiu,

ye might

veagh ad, they might or could be.

Freter and Preterijhiijerfect.


Singular.

Veign er

ve,

might have been^ or had been

00 er ve, thou mightest

veagh

have been, &c.; veagh eh

er ve, lie

we might have been veagh

shito er ve,

might have been, &c.


Plural.

Veagh shin

er ve,

ye might have been

vcagJi

ad

er ve,

they might have been.

INEINITIVE MOOD.
Present. By

having been.

ve,

to be.

Future.

Pari.

Er-chce

2yr.

ve,

Caret.

Preter.

Er

ve,

about to be.

EXAMPLES.

Ta mee Manninagh dooie, I am a true-born Manksman.


Kys fou, or hjs myr t'ou ? How do you do ?
Ta mee er ve Jeer vie, I have been very well.
RULE.

When
in Latin

ta
is

mee

is

put for the English verb have

(as

when sum

put for hahco), the pronoun must be put in the geni-

tive case, as


THE

CJia vel Hoar aijm, I have

Ta

65

:m:anks la^'guage.

no book.

argid ayd, you have money.

AUXILIARY VEEBS.

Foddym,

am

able.

Present Tense.
Singular.

Foddym,

am

Plural.

may, Foddee mayd, we are

able, or I

Foddee oo, thou art able, or

Foddee

siiiii,

able, or

may,

ye are able, or may,

mayest,

Foddee

he may, or

eh,

is

able.

Foddee ad, they are able, or may.

Prefer.

Oddin, I might, or was able,

Oddagh

oo,

Oddagh

we were

shin,

able, &c.

thou mightest, or Oddagh shiu, ye were able,

wast able,

Oddagh

eh,

he might,

The future tense


is

is

or,

&c. Oddagh ad, they were able, &c.

formed as the present

except when my,

if,

expressed, or the relative understood, as

My
My

oddym,
oddys

if I

oo, if

can, or will be able.

thou canst, or wilt

My oddys mayd, if we can,&c.


My oddys shiu, if ye can, &c.

be able,
3Iy oddys

e/i,if

he can,orwillbeable.

My

oddys ad,

if

they can, &c.

INFINITIVE MOOD.

Dy

vod, to

be

able.

AUXILIARY VEEBS.
Sailhjm, or Bailhjm, I

am

willing.

Present.

Saillym, I
Sailt,

am wilhng,

or have a mind, Saill mayd,

thou art wilhng, &c.

SailUsh, he

is

willing, &c.

Sailliu,

we are willing,

ye are willing,

Sailleu, they are willing.

G 2

56

OF

GRAiillAi:

Or,

Singular.

Baillym, I

am

Plural.

willing, or wisli,

Baill mai)

Bailt, tliou art willing, or wisliest,

he

Bailllsli,

is

Bailliii,

ye are willing,

Bailleu, they are willing.

willing, or wishes.

Freter,

BailUn, I was willing, or could wish, BaUIhicn,


Bailt, thou wast willing, &c.

God

Baillin, I could wish, or, w^ould to

by the
noun
:

were willing,

Bailleu, they were willing.

he was willing, &c.

Ba'llish,

we were willing,

Bailliu, ye

that, is also expressed

superlative adjective share, best, and the participial pro-

Bare

as.

llLiaiii

nagh heagh caggey

erhee, I

wish there was

no war.
Sheeu,

it is

argid, it is

worth,

an auxiliary impersonal

is

worth money

clia been

eh veg,

Sloys, to dare, is also an impersonal,


as, Sloys dliyt goll ?

Dare you go

as,

good

Sheeu eh

for nothing.

and governs a dative

Cha

S'lhiass, it needs, or, it must, is

governs a dative

it is

hloys, I dare not.

an impersonal auxiliary, and

as, S'lhiass doit goll ?

Need

go

Cha

Ihiass

dhyt, thou needest not.

EULE.

When

an auxiliaiy verb

pronoun go through

all

is

joined to another, the anxiliary and

the variation of person and number; but

the verb continues invariably in the third person.

Of Irregular Verbs.
These IiTCgulars are by
language
of

them

very

far the

most

difficult

part of the

but that they are neither so many, nor the knowledge

so difficult to be attained, as

little

''J'hese

is

generally represented, a

attention to the following pages will sufficiently evince.

irregular verbs are

Goll, to go.

Jannoo, to do.

Cheef, to come.

Geddyn, to get.

Coyrf, to give, to bear, or carry.

Clashfyn, to hear.

57

THE MANKS LANGUAGE.

Gm,

Fcikin, to see.

to say.

Goaill, to take.

Imperf. Eainh, arrived.

Quere. Rosldijn, to reach, arrive.

Of the
The

same manner

after the

participle present

mee

vei'b Goll, to

mood

indicative

goll,

go

as the regular vei'bs active

and the verb substantive

fou

or, going.

go }

present tense of the irregulars

goJl,

is

formed

viz.,

ta mee, to

be

by the
:

as, ta

&c.
Preter.

Plural.

Singular.

Hie

we went,

Sie

mee, I went,

Hie

00,

thou wentest.

Hie shin, ye went,

Hie

eh,

he went.

Hie ad, they went.

shin,

Future.

Hechjm,orhem,

Hed
Hed

mayd, or hemmayd, we, &c.

I shall or will go, Heel

00,

thou shalt or wilt go,

eh,

he shall or will go.

Hed
Hed

shiu,

ye shall or

will go,

ad, they shall or will go.

lilPERATIVE MOOD.

Gow, go.

Hooin,

let

us go,

Gow-jee, go ye.

This
first

is

we can

the only verb

recollect that has in itself the

person plural of the imperative mood.


SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.
Treter imperfect.

Raghin, I

might or could go,

E(7(//(oo,thoumightestorcouldst go,

Ragh

eh,

he might or could go.


Preter

Dy jagh mee,
Dyjagh

Dy jagh

that I

oo, that

and

Preterpliiyerfect.

went or had gone, Dy jagh shin, that we, &c.

thou wentest, &c.

eh, that

Bagh shin, we might, &c.


Ragh shin, ye might, &c.
Ragh ad, they might, &c.

he went, &c.

Dy jagh shiu, that ye, &c.


Dy jagh ad, that they, &c.

58

A GRAMMAR or
Future.

Dif jem, or

cly

Dj/jed mayd, ovjemmayd,

jechjm, tliat I go,

we

Dy jed
Dy jed

Dijje'oo, or dyjed 00, thattlaougo,

Dyjed

eh, that

he go, or

shall go.

tliafc

gOj
shin, tliat ye go,

ad, that they go,

INFINITIVE MOOD.

Present.

Dy

gholl, to go.

Subline (wanting).
PARTICIPLES.

going.
Er-n'
having gone.
Future. Er-chee
about
go.
Present.

Goll,

Preter.

gholl,

to

goll,

Cheet, to

come,

Preterimj)e7'fect.

Singular.

Plural,

we came,

Hainlc mee, I came,

Hainh

shin.,

Hainh

oo,

thou earnest,

Hainh

shiu, je

Haink

eh,

he came.

Hainlc ad, they came.

came,

Preterperfect.

Ta shin

er jeet,

we have come,

T'ou er jeet, thou hast come,

Ta shiu

er jeet,

ye have comO;,

T'eh er jeet, he hath come.

T'ad

Ta mee

er jeet, I

have come,

er jeet,

they have come.

Preter]pluferfect.

Va mee

er jeet, I

Va

had come,

shin er jeet,

we had come,

&c.

V'ou, &c.
Futu7'e.

Hig mayd, we

Higym,

I shall or will

Hig

00,

thou shalt or wilt come, Hig shiu, ye shall or will come,

Hig

eh,

he

shall or will

come,

come.

Hig ad, they

shall or will

shall or will

come,

come.

THE MANKS LANGUAGE.

69

IMPERATIVE MOOD.
Singular.

Tar,

come

Plural.

thou.

Tar-jee,

come

ye.

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.
Preter.

Harrin, I might or could come, Harragh shin,

we might,

&c.

Harragh

oo,

thou mightest, &c. Harragh shiu, ye might, &c.

Harragh

eh,

he might, &c.

Harragh ad, they might, &c.

INFINITIVE MOOD.
Present.

Supine,

Cheei,

Dijheef, to

come.

come.

PARTICIPLES.

Present.
Preter.

Gheet,

Er

Future.

jeet,

coming.

having come.

Er-chee

cheet,

about to come.

Jannoo, to do.
Preterimperfed.

Ren
Men
Ren

Pen mayd, we did.


Ren shiu, ye did,
Red ad, they did.

mee, I did.
00,

thou didst,

eh,

he did.

Preterperfed.

Ta mee er n'yannoo, I have done,

Tashinern'yannoo,weh.B.redoiie,

Tou ern'yannoo, thou hast done,

Tashiuer n'ya7inoo,jeh.SLvedoiie,

T'eh er n'yannoo, he hath done. T'ad erR'^/anuoo, they have done.


Preterpluperfed.

Va mee

er

V'ou, &c.

n'yannoo, I had done. Fas/tin ern'yannoo,


&c.

we had done,


A GRAMMAR OF

60

F^lture.

Plural.

Singular.

Nee'm, I shall or will do.

Nee mayd, we

Nee

00,

thou shalt or wilt do.

Nee

Nee

eh,

he shall or will do.

Nee ad, they

shut-

ye

shall or will do.

shall or will do.


shall or will do.

IMPERATIVE MOOD.
Jean, do thou.

Jean-jee,

do ye.

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.
Prefer.

Yinnin, I might or could do,

17j?ar///s/ini,

wemightorcoulddo,

Yinnagh oo, thou mightest,&c. Yinnagh sJiiu,je might or coulddo,

Yinnagh

The future tense


is

Jean-ym

Yinnagh ad, they might

he might, &c.

eh,

of the indicative,

Will I do

when

a question

or,
is

&c.

asked,

"Which is always answered by Nee'm,

I will do.

Jean-ym?

will I

do?

Jean oo

? wilt

thou do

Jean eh

? will

he do

Jean

Jean ad

But if the negative cha,


Cha jeanym, I will not

And

will

we do
do

? will

they do

not, be added,

it

asketh no question

do.

as,

before

mayd?

Jea7i shiu ? will ye,

the future tense of the subjunctive, having the adverb dy


it,

asketh no question, and

Dy jean-ym, that I will,

or may, or

is

thus conjugated

Dy jean mayd,

that we, &c.

can do,

Dy jean
Dy jean

oo,

that thou wilt do,

eJi,

that he will do.

Dy jean shiu, that ye, &c.


Dy jean ad, that they, &c.

INFINITIVE MOOD.

Dy yannoo,
Jeant, done.

Present.
Stcpine.

to do.

61

THE 5IAXKS LANGUAGE.


PARTICIPLES.

Jannoo, doing.
n'yannoo, having done.
Future. Er-chee jannoo, about
Present.

Preter.

Ei-

to do.

Interrogative.

Cre nee'm

what

Cre yinnagh

sliall

Jean oo screen huggey

Cha ren mee


Cha jean-ym

Negative.

Chajinnin
AflBrmative.

Nee'm

I do

? will

eh, I

did not do

eh, I

won^t do

eh, I will

Ta mee mnnoo

do

eh,

you wi'iteto him

it.

it.

would not do

eh, I

what would you do

iiss ?

it.

it.

doing-

it.

Feddyn, or Gedclyn, to get.


Preter.

Singular.

Hooar mee, I

Plural.

got,

Hooar

oo,

thou didst get,

Hooar

eh,

he got.

Hooar

shin,

we

Hooar

shiu,

ye got,

Hooar

ad, they got.

got,

Fuh
Yiow-ym, or yioym, I

Yiow

shall or will get,

thou shalt or wilt get,

00,

Yioiv

mayd, we

Yiow

shiu,

ye

Yiow ad, they

Yioiv eh, he shall or will get.

shall,

shall,
shall,

&c.

&c.
&c.

IMPEEATIVE MOOD.

Fow,

Foiv-jee, get ye.

get.

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.

might or could get, Y/o^ A sAm, we might, &c.

Yio'in,

or

yioii'in,

Yiogh

00,

thou mightest, &c., get,

Yiogh

eh,

he might or could get.

With

dy, that,

it is

formed thus

Yiogh shiu, je might, &c.


Yiogh ad, they might, &c.
:

A GRAMMAR OF

G2
Singular.

By

Pliinil.

vo'm,ov chj nowin, thatlcouldDij vogh, or nogh via yd, that

we

could get,

get,

Dy vogh, or nogh oo, that tliou_, &c. Dy vogh,ovnogh shiu,i]xQA> je, &c.
Dy vogh, or nogh eh, that he, &c. Dy vogh,oTnoghad,thsbtth.ej,&c.
Future.

Dy

voym, or dy noy7n,thsbt I can get,

Dyvow 00,

that thou may est, wilt get,

Dy vow eh, that he may

get.

Dy voiv mayd, that we, &c.


Dy vow shin, that ye, &c.
Dy vow ad, that they, &c.

INFINITIVE MOOD.

Dy gheddyn, to
Fed dy go n

Present.

Supine

get.

nit,

t te

PARTICIPLES.
Present. Geddyn, getting.
Er glieddyn, having gotten.
Future. Er-chee geddyn, about to
Preter.

get.

Dooar

Interrogative.

oo ? did

you get

S get

Now-yet eh

shall

Vogh ad eh

would they get

it ?
it ?

Negative.

Cha dooar mee

Affirmative.

Cha now eh, thou shalt not get it.


Hooar mee eh, I got it,
Ta mee er n^gheddyn eh, I have got it.

eJi,

I did

not get

it.

Cur, or Coyrt, to bear, carry, or bring.

This verb
into a

is

pronoun

formed with the preposition


but,

out the pronoun

as

when
is

it

lesh,

with^ changed

signifies to give, it is

formed with-

also cur-myner, to behold.


Preter.

Hug mee Jhiam, I carried, or brought, Hug shin lhien,we carried,


Hug shiu Ihiu, ye carried.
Hug 00 Ihiat, thou carriedst, &c.
Hug eh lesh, he carried or brought. Hug ad Ihieu, they cai-ried.

THE MAXKS LANGUAGE.

63

Fuhire.
Singular.

Ver-ym

lliiam, I will

Veroo

Z7iiaf,thoTiwilt

Ver eh

lesh, lie will

Plural.

mayd

bringor carry, Ver

bring or cany, Ver shin

Jliien,

Ihiu,

we will,

ye

will,

Ver ad Ihieu, they

carry or bring.

&c.

&c.

will,

&c.

IMPEEATR'E MOOD.

Cur

Ihiat,

bring, or caiTy.

Cur-jee

Ihiii,

bring, or carry, ye.

SUBjnNrCTIVE MOOD.
Preter.
Verriii IJiiam, I

might or could bring, Verragh shin

Verragh oo

Ihiat,

thou migbtest, &c.

Verragh shiu

Verragh eh

lesh,

he might, &c.

Verragh ad

With

Dy

dy, that, or chn, not,

it is

derrinlhiam, that I might or

Ihien,

we, &c.

llmi, ye,

&c.

Ihieu, they, &c.

formed

Dy

derragh shin, that we, &c.

could bring',

Dy derragh oo IJii a
Or,

jannoo, to do, as

Yinnin

f,

that thou, &c.

may be formed

it

lliiam, I

Yi?i)iar//i

would bring

00 ?/(ia/, thou wouldst bring,

Yinnagh eh

lesh,

&c.

of the preter tense of the irregular verb

he would bring.

Yinnagh shin

Ihien,

Yinnagh shiu

lliiu,

Yinnagh ad

we, &c.
ye, &c.

Ihieu, they,

Future.

By derym Ihiam, that I bring,


Dy d.er oo Ihiat, that thou bring.
IXFINITIVE MOOD,

Dy
to
SujAne. Coyrt, given.

Present.

choyrt,

give.

Dy

choyrt lesh, to carry.

Currit lesh, brought.

PAETICIPLES.

Coyrt, or
Er
or
Future. Fr-chee
Present.

Preter.

cur, giving.

choyrt,

er chur,

coyrt, or cur,

having given.
about to give.

&c.

A GRAMMAR OF

64
Interrogative.

Negative.

Dug

oo

Der

00 Ihiat eh ? will

llilat ijn

Hoar? did you bring

you bring

tlie

book

it ?

Cha der-ym Ihiam eh, I won^t bring it.


Cha derragh eh lesh eh, lie would not bring

it.

Gra, to say.
Preter.

Plural.

Singular.

we

Booijrt mee, I said,

Dooijrt shin,

Dooijrt 00, thou saidst,

JDooyrt shiu, ye said,

Dooyrt

eh,

he

said,

Dooyrt ad, they said.

said.

Futm e.
mayd, we

shall or will say,

Jir-ym, I shall or will say,

Jir

Jir 00, thou shalt or wilt say,

Jer shin, ye shall or will say,

Jir eh, he shall or will say.

Jir ad, they shall or

w^ill

say.

IMPERATIVE MOOD.
Ahhyr-jee, speak ye.

Ahhyr, speak.

Ahhyr was

among

in general use

the ancients as a regular

some MSS., and the now only cant word,


'Nahhyr oo ? Did you speak ? for Anabhyr oo ? And here let me
lament the loss our language sustains by the want of this interverb, as appears from

rogative article an

mark

hearer,
it

for, in

discourse or writing (except

of interrogation, indeed),

by order

we cannot

by a

give the reader or the

of the words, any idea of our request, whether

be a question or a positive assertion


Ver 00 Ihiat eh
Ver 00 Ihiat

? will

eh,

you

as, for instance,

you bring

will

bring

it ?

it

whereas with the particle an, whether, your meaning would immediately appear

An

and then

ver oo

lliiat

it

would run thus

eh ? will

you bring

it ?


THE MAXKS LANGUAGE.

65

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.
Preter.

Singular.

Plural.

Yiarragh shin, we, &c.

Yiarrin,! might, could^ or -would say,

Yiarragh

oo, tliou miglitestj

Yiarragh

eh,

Yiarragh

&c.

sliiu,

je, &c.

Yiarragh ad, they, &c.

he might, &c., say.


INFINITIVE MOOD.

Present.

Bij ghra, to say.

Supine.

Grait, spoken.

PARTICIPLES.

Gra, saying.
Er ghra, having

Present.
Preter.

Future.
Interrogative.

Erchee

Cre'nahhyr oo

what did you say

Dooijrt 00 y Iheid ? did

Negative.

Cha
Cha

said.

gra, about to say.

you say the

like

dooyrt mee y Iheid, I did not say the hke.


n'yiarrin eh, I

would not say

it.

Goaill, to take.

Preter.

Ghow
Ghow

Ghow
Ghow

mee, I took,
00,

thou tookest,

Ghoiv eh, he took.

shin,

we

shiu,

ye took,

took,

Ghoio ad, they took.


Future.

Gow ym, or goym, I shall

or will take,

Gowee mayd, we

shall,

&c.

Gowee

oo,

thou shalt or wait take,

Gowee shiu, ye

shall,

&c.

Gowee

eh,

he shall or will take,

Gowee ad, they

shall,

&c.

IMPERATIVE MOOD.

Gow, take thou.

Gow-jcr, take ye.


A GRAMMAR OF

66

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.
Preter.

Singular.
Glioin, or ghoivin,!

Ghogh

00,

Plural.

might or could take, Glwgh


Ghogh

thou mightest, &c., take,

Glioglt eh, lie

might or could take.

shin, we, &c.


shiu, je, &c.

Ghogh ad, they, &c.

Future.

My ghoym, or ghou)-ym, if I take,


My ghoys mayd, if we take.
My ghoys, or ghowys oo, if thou take. My ghoys shiu, if ye take.
My ghoys eh, if he take, or will take. My ghoys ad, if they take.
INFINITIVE MOOD.

Dy ghoaiU, to take.
or
taken.

Present.

Supine.

Golf,

goivit,

PARTICIPLES.

Present.
Preter.

Goaill, taking.

Er

Future.
Interrogative.

Negative.

n'ghoaill,

Er-chee

having taken.

goaill,

about to take.

Gogh

oo eh ?

Gow

00 shell ? will

would you take

Cha

gain eh, I would not take

Clca

goym

eh, I will

it ?

you take that

not take

it.

it.

Clashtyn, to hear.
Preter.

Cheayll shin,

Cheayll mee, I hearyiCheayll

oo,

thou didst hear,

we

heard,

Cheayll shiu, ye heard,

Cheayll eh, he did hear.

Cheayll ad, they heard.


Or,

Chluin mee, I heard,

Chluin shin,

we

heard,

Chluin

00,

thou heardest,

Chluin shiu, ye heard,

Chluin

eh,

he heard.

Chluin ad, they heard.

67

THE MANKS LANGUAGE.


Future.

Plural

Singular.

we

&c.

Cluinym, I shall or will hear,

Cluinee maycl,

Cluinee oo, thou shalt or wilt hear,

Cluinee shm, ye shall, &c.

Cluinee eh, he shall or

Cluinee ad, they shall, &c.

Avill

hear.

shall,

IlIPEEATIVE MOOD.
Clasht, or cluin, hear thou.

Clasld-jee, hear ye.

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.
Prefer.
CJiluinin, I

might or could

Chhiinagh

oo,

Chluinagh

eh,

Chluinagh shin, we, &c.

hear,

thoumight^st, &c., hear, Chluinagh shiu, ye, &c.

he might or could hear.

Chluinagh ad, they, &c.

INFINITIVE MOOD.
Present.

Supine.

Dy chlashtyn, to hear.

Cluinit, heard.

PARTICIPLES.

Clashtyn, hearing.
Er
having heard.

Present.
Preter.

Future.

clashtyn,

Fr-chee clashtyn, about to hear.

Interrogative.

Cheayll oo

Xagh geayll
ISTegative.'

did you hear


oo ? did

you not hear ?

Chluin 00 ? did you hear ?


Cha geayll, I heard not.
Cha ghluinyyyi, I won''t hear.
Cha gluinagh oo, you would not

FaMn,

hear.

to see.

Preter.

Honnick mee, I saw,

Honnick

shin,

we

saw,

Honnick

oo,

thou sawest or didst see, Honnick shiu, ye saw,

Honnick

eh,

he saw.

Honnick ad, they saw.

A GRAMMAP. OF
Future.
Singular.

Plural.

Hceym,

I sliall or will see,

Hee mayd, we

Hee

00,

thou

Hee

Hee

eh,

he

slialt

or wilt see,

je

sliiu,

Hee ad, they

shall or will see.

sliall

sliall

or will see,

or will see,

shall or will see.

IMPERATIVE MOOD.
Fail; see thou.

Fall:-jpe, see ye.

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.

Heem, I might, could, would, or should


Heeagh oo, thou mightest, &c., see,
Heeagh

eh,

he might, &c.,

see,

Heeagli shin, we, &c.

Heeagh

shiu, ye, &c.

Heeagh ad, they, &c.

see.

Or,
Hij r a /A" /, that I would, Sec, see, Dij vaiTiagh shin, that we, &c.

Fy
Fy

vaikagh

oo, that

vaikagh

eh, that he,

Fy
Fy

thou, &c.

&c.

vaihagh shiu, that ye, &c.


vaikagh ad, that they, &c.

IXFIXITIVE MOOD.

Fy
Fakinit,

Present.

Supine.

akin, to see.

seen, Qu.

PARTICIPLES.

Fakin, seeing.
vakin, having

Present.
Freter.

Future.
Interrogative.

E7'

Vaik 00 eh
N'aikin eh

Negative.

seen.

Fr-chee fakin, about to


?
?

see.

did you see

it ?

could I see

it ?

Cha vaik viee eh, I did not see it.


Cha vaikagh 00 eh, thou couldst not
Cha vaik-ym

eh, I shall

not see

it.

see

it.

69

THE MANKS LANGUAGE.

CHAPTER

XIV.

Of the Adverb.

Some Adverbs
^

are expressed in one word, as nish, now,

then ; some consist of a preposition and a nomi, as dy-mie,

well, er-y-gherrit, lately

and

all

nouns adjective may be made

adverbs by prefixing the articles dy and er


er-chea, in flight,

when

dy

olJc, ill,

the particle er

is

dy

hieaii,

er-cooijl,

behind,
Also,

put before substantives

answers the English word

/oi-,

Adverbs are of several


1.

ADVERBS

Nish, now.

sometimes

penny

and

er-aggle, lest, er-niart,

sorts.

OF TIME.

Kinjagh, always.

Chelleeragh, immediately, pre-

Dy

hragh, for ever.

Mennick, often.

sently.

Er-y-chooyl, in a

it

as er-yhing, for a

sometimes changes them into adverbs, as


forcibly.

as

quickly, &c., &c.

moment,

rectly.

di- An-vennicic,

seldom.

Jiu, to-day.

Jusnish^hje-omd-bjo, just now. Jea, yesterday.


Roish, before.
Er-y-gherrit, lately.

Vaidjyn, a while ago.

Arroo-y-jea, or cha row eh jea,

the day before yesterday.

Noght, to-night.

Tammylt, a while.

Biyr, last night.

Er-dy-henney, since.

Arroo-y-riyr, or

Lurg,

after.

Lurg

shoh, hereafter.

cJia roiv

eh riyr,

the night before last night.

Moghrey jea, yesterday morn.

Jeih shoh, henceforth.

Mairagh, to-morrow.

Veih shoh, hence.

Ntiyr, the day after to-morrow.

A GRAMMAR OF
Rdic, bcforo, or fo]:morl3'.

Cuin, when.

Foddcy,

Keayrt

far.

Foddcij er-dy-lienneii, long since,


anciently.
Aijns-polt, in a second, instant.

and

Diujh-laa, daily.

how

'Si/traafayn, in

Fr-rjiyn,
W-giyn,

late.

Fo-anmagli, too

h-veish,

then.

\ after.
)

Keayrt dy row, once upon a time.

late.

Dy-traa, betimes.

Keayrt ny

Mofjliey, early.

Tra, when.

gliaa,

many

a time.

Arraghf any more.

Leah, early, soon.


Ro-voriJieij,

now and

reesht,

mcanwliile. Fr-dy, since.

Foast, yet.

Anmarjh,

for ever

Eisht, then.

long.
tlie

another time.

ever.

Nish as

Choud, while.
Cre-choud,

elley,

By heayn, perpetually.
By hragli, eternally.
By hragh as dy ImgJi,

Bican, ever.

too early.

(Past.)

lio-lcah, too soon.

Fieau er-dy-ltcnncy, ever

Heci^ht, again.

Fy-yerrey, at

jUs-y-noa, again, of a new.

Choice, never.

2.

ADVERBS

OF PLACE.

Shoh, here.

Seose, up.

Shen, there.

Frsliyn, above, over.

Shid, yonder.

Va

shid

Myr

lo

since.

last.

Hcese, below.

yonder

Sheese,

shoh, this way.

down.

Neese, from below.

Cheu-sthie, within.

Harrish, over.

Cheu-mooie, without.

Harrish y raad, opposite, over,

C'raad, where.

Fo, under.

up and down.

Neose

seose,

Faad

ennagh, somewhere.

Ooilleymi/rieai/rt,}
JJ
J
J

Roish, before.

Chen echooyl, or
,

Ground about.

Runt mygeayrf,

[against.

cooyJ,

behind.

Fr-cooyl,ov er-gooyi, behind, last.


Cheu-icass, or veealJoo, before.

Heose, up, above.

Cre-voish, or veih,

Neosey down.

Veili

sit oh,

from whence.

from hence.

THE MANKS LANGUAGE.

Neealloo, towards the surface or

Vcih shid, from tlience.

Faggys, er-gerrey, near^ liard by.

face

Foddey,

yn

far.

Veihfoddey, from

Foddey jeh,

as

Myr

urley neealloo

an eagle towards

aer, as

heaven.

far.

Er-jerrey, behind.

far off.

Mooie, without, and magJi.


StJde, within,

71

and

Lurg, after.

stlagli.

ADVERBS OP QUANTITY.

6.

how much.
much (used in coraposi-

Cre-woac?,how much, how many. Cre wheesh,


Dy-liooar, enough.

Ro, too

Bour, too much, too many.

Faggys, almost.

Lane,

Feer faggys, very near.

,,

^
,

immodee, >

''

"

Palchey,

Ny
Ny

Much.many.agreat ^

JJy

Dy

^*

heg,

very

Buimys, almost.

little.

much.

Monney, much.
4.

Wliilleen Jceayrt, so

ADVERBS

many

OF NUMBER.

times. Cre-woad

ghaa,

many
O.

times.

Iccayrt,

how

Shimmey

ADVERBS

Jceayrt,

many

OP ORDER.

Ayns ordyr, in order.


Ayns focMe, in a word.

HoshiagJit, first.

Beesht, again.

'8y nah ynnyd, secondly.

LJdattee ry Ihiattee, side

Ersl-yn ooilley, above

CooidjagJi, together.

Lurg

all.

ooilley, after all.

Ooilley dy lieragli, altogether, in

order.

many

times.

Uncheayrt,o-nce,daacJieayrt,&c.

ayd ny

slane, wholly, entirely.

8'coan, scarce.

little.

Wlieesh, so

by pieces.

Shimmey, many.

sloo, less.

Beggan

Whilleen, so many.

smoo, more.

JBeggan,

]}eesnyn,

[tion).

by

side.

i?Mv///c/i<?i7/f?^,

one after another.

Ry
Dy

one another,

cheillcy, to

cJteiUey, together.

A GRAMMAR OP

72
6.

ADVERBS

OF AFFIRMATION.

Ta, yes, aye.

Lioar

ta,

book

yes indeed (by the

Gyn-dooyt, undoubtedly.

surely.

She, yes.

Clia, not.

-^

I.

thus.

slien chj row,2im.Qn,^o\ie\t.

ADVERBS OF NEGATION, OR DENIAL.

7.

Narjli,

slien, so,

Di/ _/a?TOO, indeed.

it is).

Dy shiclcyr, indeed,
By feer, in truth.

Ny,

Myr
Myr

S'cummey, no matter.

not, nor.

Nar, J
8.

ADVERBS

OF DOUBT.

Foddee, perhaps.

Foaftt, yet, nevertheless.

Foddee y ve, it may be.


Feer liMy, very likely.

Ny-yolh, yet, nevertheless, however.

Er-aggle, lest.

-4f//i,

Trooid taghyrt, accidentally.

My

9.

ADVERBS

but.

ta,

though, however.

OF INTERROGATION.

An, whether.

Cre veih, whence.

Ore 'n-fa, why, wherefore.

^H^, how.

Cre 'n-fa

narjli,

why

not.

Quol, who.

Cre'n oyr, wherefore.


Cre-theihll,

Cre, what.

what

in the world,

whatsoever.

how many.

Cre'd, for cre red, what.

Cre-icoad,

Gammah, why.
CaifZ, how long.
Cre choud, how far.

Crc-ivoad share,

10.

what

better.

C'raad, where.

ADVERBS

TO GIVE REASON.

Er-y-fa, er-yn-oyr, cr-y-choontey, son-y-fa, shen-y-fa, hec&nse.

73

THE MANKS LANGUAGE.


11.

Myr,

Myr

ADVEEBS

Smoo, more.

as, like.
sJioh, thus.

SIoo, less.

Na, than.

Myrgedclin, likewise.

Myrchaagh, in
(7Aa, equally

as

good

like

as

manner.
mie

clia

Cur-my-ner
!

lo

Ass-towse, exceedingly.

risliyn,

as he.
12.

Jeeagli

OP COMPARISON.

behold

ADVEEBS

Va sliid ! or vaik sJi'id


Va shoh ! see here

13.

OF SHEWING.

ADVEEBS

see yon-

[der

OF CONFUSION.

Bun-ry-skyn, topsy-turvey.

Fud-y-cheilley, in confusion.

Er 7nooin-y-clieilhy

Er-sliaghryn, astray.

pell-mell.

14.

ADVEEBS OF SEPAEATION.

Veih-my-cheilley, asunder.

Er-sooyl, away.

Uy-lliiattee, aside.

15.

ADVEEBS OF QUALITY.

Adverbs of quality are made of adjectives and


putting the preposition dy,

By mie, well.
Dy creeney, wisely.
Dy hwaagh, prettily.
And

the like.

of,

before

Dy
Dy
Dy

them in

oik,

participles,

apposition, as

badly.

liastey, idly.
viitcJiooragJi,

roguishly.

by

!!

A GRAMMAR OF

74

CHAPTER XV.
Of the

Interjection.

Interjections are so called because tliey are thrown in between

the parts of a sentence without

making any

alteration in

and

it,

serve to express the sudden motions and transports of the soul.

There are several sorts of interjections, such as


1.

OF

Ah !

oh

Oh !

ere'n spcyrt

Biiy

JOY.

ho

oh

the sport

brave

6.

OF

OF

Cur-my-ner
!

oh

Ogh-cha-nee

woe*s

Bastagh

Smerg

woe

3.

Jeeagh

me

see there

of aversion.

7.

forward

4.

TO

Cugh

nasty

Br ogh

come on

ort

fie

out upon you


!

deuce take you

8.

OF

laughter.

WARN.
Hall, hah,

Ass dt'aash

softly

er dty hivoaie
!

Va shid, or vaih shid

Er-dty-hoshiaght

Snioar

behold

see

Sut, hut

Bee

ADMIRATION.

pity

TO encourage.

Erlongs

or

GRIEF AND PAIN.

Ogh, or ugh

or ya
Sir

Ouwatta
2,

you Sir!

la!

and la
woman
man or fellow

hah

ah, ah, ah

have a care

9.

of silence.

hold

Bee dty host


5.

TO

WJmsh ! hush
Viiddce ya

you woman

silence

Cumdtyhengcy!\nAi\yo\XY\){ii\CQ\

call.


THE MANKS LANGUAGE.

CHAPTER

XVI.

Op the Conjunction.

A Conjunction is

a part of speech which serves to join and

connect the several parts of a discourse.


Conjunctions are divided into several orders^ of which are
1.

As, and

(for

CONJUNCTIONS COPULATIVE, OE TO JOIN.

which a single

's

with Foast, yet,

still.

an apostrophe is used, especially

Nij, not, nor.

in poetry).

ilf^rc/taa^/ /(,likewise,moreover.

Myrgeddin^

2.

Ny,

Ny-sodjey, furthermore.

also.

DISJUNCTIVE,

OR TO SEPARATE.

Chamoo, neither.

or.

Na, than.

Ga, though, although.

Edyr, whether.

My

3.

ADVERSATIVE,

ta,

though.

OR SHEWING CONTRARIETY.

Agli, but.

Aghfuirrec

Ny-yeih, nevertheless.

Lurg

Foast, yet.
4.

My,

art, yet,

but

still.

ooiZZey, after all.

CONDITIONAL.
Mannagh, except, unless, ifnot.

if.

5.

CAUSAL, OR GIVING REASON OF

WHAT

IS

SAID.

Er-y-fa, because.

Er-yn-oyr, because.

Ayns, or son wheesJi as, for as


FaJiln dy, seeing that.

much
[as.

6.

Son,

Dy,

for.

that, in order that.

INTERKOGATIVES.

Vide of Adverbs.

A GRAMMAR OF

CHAPTER

XVII.

Op the Preposition.

A Preposition
some

is

set before other parts of speech, to explain

particular circumstance,

thammag, behind the bush

either in apposition, as cooyl y

or else in composition, as cooyl-chas-

sey, to slander.

THE PREPOSITIONS USED IN APPOSITION ARE THESE:


Gys,

,
Cour, or),
[ towards.
Gour,
)

to.

Lurg,

after.

Boish, before.

Mygcmjrt, about.

Marish, with.

Cheu-mooie, except.

Rish, to.

Et, upon.

Ecy at.

Bentyn, touching.

Noi, against, towards.

Tcssyn, across.

Liorish, by.

Magh, out

Ayns,

Stiagh, in, into.

in, or into.

Voish,

K from

'

Veih,

Erlongs, along.

Foddey,

Cooyl, behind.

of.

far.

Er-gerrey, near.

Fo, under.

Faggys, near, nigh

Ershyn, above.

Cho'ud's,

Son,

as

for.

till,

to,

to.

even to, as long

or choud as, as far as.

G^jn, without.

Er-coontey, because

Fegooish, without.

Ersooyl, from, away.

Fiid,

among.

By and

gy, of gys, to.

Mastey, amidst.

Ass, out

Cordail, according to, pursuant.

Dy,

Eddyr,hetween, or betwixt.

Jch,

Da,

Some

of

them become adverbs.

of.

of.

of.
of,

to.

or concerning.

,;

THE MANKS LANGUAGE.

/ /

OF PREPOSITIONS USED IN COMPOSITION.

There
cles,

are, besides real prepositions, certain consignifi cant parti-

which are tm-ned into prepositions, and prefixed to words in

such manner as to coalesce, and to become a part of them, as

Aa

generally implies a repeated action, as the Latin

as aa-chroo,

to create again

aa-vioghey , to revive

re,

again

aa-lMeeney

to replenish; aa-sriiooinaglityn,Tec6\\.eciioii.

An

and has the force of the English

signifies privation, or not,

un, or in Latin

famy;

as an-chasherick, unholy, impious

an-chreestee,

infidel;

an-ghoo, in-

partiality in law;

an-leigh,

an-

shickyr, unstable; an-vennick, seldom.

Co has the force of the Latin con and


an assembly
co-eternal

co-eirey, a coheir

co

as

co-chndnnaght,

co-ard, equally high

co-heayn,

co-trome, equally poised.

half as

Lieh,

Cooyl, behind

Lesh, with

lielt-varroo,

as

half-dead; lieh-valloo, half-dumb.

cooyl-chlea,

an ambush.

as lesh-y-clieilley, together with (and is

com-

pounded with pronouns).


Fo, under
tain (and

Er, upon,
force of

woman

as fo-halloo,

/o-/i>az^,underamoun-

is

joined to nouns substantive, and gives them the

as hen er-finnue, a mad or passionate


woman upon passion, or having passion)
trembhng man (literally, a man upon trembling),

nouns adjective
(literally,

fer er-creau, a

&c.

underground

compounded with pronouns)

is

and

is

compounded with pronouns.

Gyn, without, denotes privation, or not


merciful ; gyn-vioys, without

Neu

life

as gyn-vygkin, un-

&c.

signifies privation, or not, in like

manner, and

is

joined

to nouns, verbs, or participles as neu-glilen, unclean; &c., &c.

Am, bad
Mee

as inam-vlass, a bad

taste.

also a privative preposition,

is

and used in composition

as mee-arrys, impenitence; mee-ooashley, dishonour.


^1,

not

X>/-0(//;,

as asJaynt, sickness.

bad

as drogh-ourys,

suspicion; drogh-yannoo,

evil.

A GRAMMAR OF

78

Myn,
little

little

as my n

Feer, very

Lane,

Dy,

full

tlie

of,

&sfeer-vie, very well.

as

lane-vie, well, middling.

or to, joined to nouns adjective,

adverbs of quality

are

myn-voolujer,

-jag]lee, small tythes;

ones of a family.

as

dy-itiie,

well

-,

makes them become

&c.

Boish, against,

Ayns,

Rish,

Voish, from, or veih,

to,

in,

Marish, witb,

Ershyn, above,

Liorish, by,

Fegooish, without,

Mastey, among.

Da,

Jeh, of.

Ass, out

to,
of,

compounded with pronouns.


OF THE POSTFIXES.

Ey, postfixed to the nominative case of the primitive noun,


forms a kind of adjective called a derivative
cosliey,

belonging to a foot

as

a foot,

cass,

hann{sJi,a wedding, hanshcy, belong-

ing to a wedding.
Oil, like, postfixed to the

parative adjective

termination of nouns, forms a com-

as from shawl; a hawk, shawlxnl, hawk-like

cay gey, war, caggoil, warlike

ayr, ay roil, like a father.

Een, postfixed, forms a diminutive noun

as durn, a

fist

or

hand, durnccn.
J.Z

forms an augmentativeadjective

strong;

i^ooar,

as

iwftj-f,

strength, niartal,

power, fooaral, powerful.

Agh, postfixed, forms

also

poison, nieuagh, poisonous

an augmentative adjective

toyrt)

as

gift, toyrtagJi, liberal

nieu,
kialg,

deceit, hialgagh, deceitful.

These compound adjectives, again, are formed into nouns


toyrtagh, liberal, toyrtyssagh,

adonor ; s]urve'isli,ser\ice,

as

sldrccish-

agh, serviceable, or a server.

The

postfixes

ce, ci; eyr,

ag, oor,

form

artificial

nouns

us,

THE IIANKS LANGUAGE.


Cass, a foot, coshee, a footman.

Fee, vfeaying, feeder, a weaver.


Shelg,h.vintmg,s]ieIgei/r,&h.unteT.

Greas, industry, greasag, an economist.

79

Cadleij, sleep, cadlag, a slug-

gard.
Preac/iei7,topreach,p3-eac7ioo>',

a preacher,

A GRAMMAR OP

80

CHAPTER

XVIII.

THE SYNTAX.
The Coksteuction

When

op Substantives.

two substantives come together belonging to divers


if it be masculine, and the article y or yn pre-

things, the latter,

cede

shall

it,

change

hair of the head

beginning with

change

to this

the

When

its initial into its soft

as folt y ching, the

duillag y vUley, the leaf of the tree

d, j,

woman

God

of the house.

two substantives come together,


is

if

the latter be of the

used in the genitive,

and the mutable consonant remains unaspirated as


:

cJiass,

eye,

yn

the foot, hoyn ny

tooill,

cosliey,

If the latter substantive be the proper

initial into its soft

Yee, the son of

God;

thie

sooill,

an

as

its

radical

Mann

viae

determined by

latter is

(fem.) slat lioost

(fem.) feill vuc, swine's flesh

cloan (fem.) ghooinney,

{masc.) dooinney, a

of a country,

changeth

OJiavid, the house of David.

Both substantives being common, the

swine's snout

name

article, the latter

as Elian Vannin, the Island of

the gender of the former


;

a foot,

cass,

the heel of the foot

the eye, clagli ny sooilley, the apple of the eye.

town, or place, without an

wylUn

mac y

hen y dooinney, the man's wife; hen y

feminine gender, the article ny, not yn,

yn

but words

of the mutable consonants, are not subject

t,

as hione y jaJloo, the head of the image

son of the

Jee, the
tide,

a,

(fem

strain (masc.)

clagh

muc, a

man's children; mac

man's son; hen ghnilley

machen.

But

if

the former substantive be of the plural number, then the latter


is

immediately subjoined with

flails;

claghyn

niicillin,

its

radical initial

mill-stones.

as slaltyn soost,

81

THE MANKS LANGUAGE.

CHAPTER

XIX.

The Consteuction op Substantives and Adjectives.


The substantive and

adjective agree generally in gender, and

sometimes too in number ; but an adjective singular


quently joined to a substantive plural

is

most

fre-

as Jeiney herckagli, rich

men.

The
tive:

place of the adjective in construction


dooinneij mie, a

as,

mac ammyssagh, a
Except

drogli

and

good man; hen

is

after its substan-

woman;

aalin, a fair

dutiful son ; inneen ghraiJiagh, a lovely nymph.

Glare and

sJienn.

placed before their substantives

are also sometimes

lliag

yn

yn Ihag-

glilare-veinn,

ghooinney.

When

an adjective comes after a substantive singular of the

masculine gender,
report

thie

it

retains its radical initial

mooar, a large house

as goo mie, a

good

tarroo puttagh, a pushing bull;

dooinney huiUagh, a quarrelsome man.

The

adjective, after a substantive singular of the feminine

gender, changeth

its

radical initial into its soft

woman

cause

eddin ghennal, a merry countenance.

inneen waagh, a pretty girl

hen

vie,

a good

cooish chluicagh, a crafty

AVhen an adjective is placed before its substantive, the mutable


initial of the

substantive

is

changed into its

must be of the masculine gender


drogh-yannoo, a bad action

soft,

and the adjective

as drogh-gliooinncy , a

bad man;

shenn ven, an old woman.

All substantives plural, of what gender soever they be, will

have adjectives after them beginning with their radical

and most frequently of the singular number


slcecallyn mie,

initials,

good
good women; eddinyn gennal, merry faces;
good news; deiney herchagh, rich men, not deiney

men; inneenyn

inie,

as deiney mie,

A GEAMMAE OF

82

Except

hcrclice.

ates

tlie initial

in tlie vocative case plural^ wliich always aspir-

of

tlie

following adjective

as chaarjijn ghraiagh.

Adjectives of the superlative (or Englisli comparative) degree


are always set after their substantives
fiedj
it

and make no change of the

be masculine or feminine

7/w

laue

s'lajei',

sheshey, the

before
as

its

is his

is

is

hand

yn eddin

s'giUey, the fairest face

how clean

much,

ny

as ta'n ven

used to express admiration,

s'tJwIlee ta'n

Txouyr, too

when comparison is signiof the substantive whether

s'thoUee

vcn

is
!

the face
stout

is

the

usually placed

woman

its

in the initials

s'lajer e laue

ever placed before

is

it is

making any change

na

But when

stronger than her husband.

substantive without

yn eddin

s^r/ial

as

the strongest hand

woman

the superlative

initial

strong

substantive,

and

makes no change of the initial: foil goaill rouyr hea, rouyrjannoo


ort, you take too much trouble or plague upon yourself. And so
is dy cliooilley, every, ever placed before its substantive, and
always makes the radical
soft or

secondary mute

(7^ cliooilley

ven, every

initial

of

its

substantive change into

as dy cliooilley gkooinney, every

its

man;

woman.
their substantives, and make no
un dooinney, one man, three deiney,

Numerals are placed before


change
Jiiare,

in their initials

as

qucig, &c.

Except cZaa, two, whichmakes the substantive following change


its radical initial intoits soft orsecondary mute as daa gliooinncy,
:

two men

cZa ^tji,

two women; daa

pliaitchey,

two

children.

So un, one, before a feminine substantive as iin ven, one woman;


un gliodee, a girl, or wench.
ii vooa, one cow ;
Ordinals are placed before their substantives, and change their
:

initials into their soft

qhooinney, the second


cliiarroo,

which

as

yn ivlieiggoo, &c.

suffer

yn chied

ven, the first

man yn trass
;

first

man; yn

the

first

drink.

Except words beginning with

no change when joined to

the

woman yn nah

ghooinney, the third man,

cliicd

yn

d, j,

t,

as yii chied dooinney,

chied toxvse, the first measure

yn

cliicd jongh,


THE MANKS lAXGUAGE.

CHAPTER XX.
The Construction

op Peonouns.

The pronoun relative is generally understood in Manks, as


mee coraa nagh hoig mee, I heard a voice (that) I under-

chcayll

stood not

ayns y vrnvnys t'ou

er liarey, in the

judgment (which)

thou hast commanded.

The pronouns
and

possessive, aym's, mine, ayd's, thine, echey, his,

their plurals, are ever placed after their substantives

articles y or T/n

aym's,

my

being put before their substantives, as yn

house

yn cahhyl

ayd's, thy horse

yn

the
tliie

tide echey, ain,

eu, eck, oc.

All the other possessive pronouns are placed before their respective substantives, the radical initial letter of their substantives being

changed into its

soft

as

my

ven,

city

ven, e ven.

Nyn,

our, your, their, is always placed before its substantives, and before

the verbs with which

nyn

livrey,

we were

it is

used in a reflective sense

ye were (yourselves) delivered.

But

consonants in a manner peculiar to


I shall give

it

B alley,

in

all its

variations

a town,

Cashtal, a castle.

as

as va shin er

nyn livrey,
nyn changes the mutable

(ourselves) delivered

va shut

itself, viz.,

er

into their liquids,

A GRAMMAR OF

84

Pronouns are compounded with prepositions^ thus:


Singular.

upon thee;

ort,

and
Ba,

upon him;

cr,

upon

urree,

Bou, to

to.

Plural.

Orrym, upon me;

Er, upon.

OnT,uponus; erriu, upon you;

upon them.

orroo,

her.

me

dliyt,

to

thee; da, to him; and dee,

Dooin, to us;

fZi?!,

to you; daiie,

to them.

ov jee, to her.

Rhym,

Eish, to.
to thee;

to

me

rhyt,

him;

rish, to

ree,

Rooin, to us

ri'?/,

to

you ;

roo,

to them.

to her.

Marish,

me

with.

you

mcriu, with

maroo, with them.

with him.

rish,

Earrish, over.

me

Marym, with Marin, with us

mayrt, with thee ; ma-

Harrym, over

harry d, over thee

/iar-

Harrin, over us; harry stiu, over

you ; harrystoo, over them.

over him ; harree, over

ris/t,

her.

void,

him

Voym, from me

from.

Fois/i,

tJoee,

Fo, under.

foee,

Liorish, by.
liort,

by

t'e?/e,

from yon;

from them.

yoMe,

from her.

Foym, under me;

foyd, under thee

him

Fo/w, from us;

from thee ; voish, from

fo,

under

Foin, under us; f'eue,

you

under

foue, under them.

under her.
Liorym, by
thee;

liorish,

me

by

him ; lioree, by her.


Ayns,m.Aynym,mTae;aynyd,
in thee; ay?i, in

him ;

aynjce,

Liorin,

by us ;

lioroo,

lieriu,

by you

by them.

Aynin, in us

ayndiu, in you

ayndoo, by them.

in her.

Xes^, with.
Z/a'aij

him.

Lliiam, with

with thee;

IcsJt,

me

Avith

Lliicn,

with us;

Ihieu,

//in/j

with them.

with you;

THE MANKS LANGUAGE.


Plural.

Singular.

Boym, before

Eoish, before.

me; ro}jd,hefore thee;


before him;

roe^^^

Mastey, among.

masfayd ;
masfech
Jeh,of.

roisli,

masfecJiey

jeh, of

Boin, before us

you ;

before

rene,

roue, before tliem.

before her.

Masteymee;

and

Jee'm)Ofjne;jeed,o^

thee

85

him ; and fee,

among us mast'eu,
among you mast'oe, among

Mast'ain,

them.
J' in, of us; j'iu, of

you;

j'eiL,

of them.

of her.
Ass, out oL

ylss^mjOutofme;

assyd, outof thee; ass, outof

him ;

assjee,

Ershyn,ahoye.

bove me ;
thee

of you

o\xt
;

of us

assdiu, owt

assad, out of them.

out of her.

ErmysJcyn,a-

er dty shyn,

er e skyn,

Ass shin,

Fegooish,'withovit.

above

Er-nyn shjn, above

us,

you,

them

above him.

M'egooish,

withoutme; dt'egooish,ny'gooish.

These pronouns are contracted thus

and

my

yt,

from

dty, thy,

as harry d, over thee, &c.


00,

from

The

7'oo,

Ytn, from

and sometimes

in,

from shin, we

is

mee or my, I

changed into

iu,

from

sldu,

d,

ye

them.

interrogative and

voish hainJc eh? from

its

answer

shall

whom did he come?

agree in case

as Quoi

Voym's, from me.

A GRAMMAR OP

86

CHAPTER

XXI.

Of the Construction of
These

articles restrain or

are put before to

some

finite article the in

the English a
the

as

man came

The

determine the sense of the word they

same manner

particular^ in the

English

but we have no

dooinney, a

liaiiik

man came^

TiainTi.

answers

y dooinney,

ny

is

used in construction for the English

and before nouns of the masculine gender

changes their radical

initials into their soft or

ny ghooinney mie, he

a good

is

man

it

always

secondary mutes

but nouns of the feminine gender retain their radical


fell

as the de-

article that

yet.

reflective article

article a,

Articles.

initials

fee ny hen vie, she

as

is

good woman.

When words of the masculine gender have


them, their radical

letters are

man; yn giiilley,t')ie'boj.
are changed into their soft

not changed

an article set before


:

as y dooinney, the

But if they be feminines, their initials


as yn vcn, the woman
yn vooa, the

cow.

Proper names have not the

articles set before

them, because

they do of themselves, individually or particularly, distinguish


the things or persons of which one speaks.

of countries,

cities, rivers, &c.,

except these four

Raue,

and

Rome

Yn

Sjoainey, Spain

y7i thalloo

N'aljyin, Scotland,

having no
;

So likewise the names


article set before

them,

yn Rani; Franoe

Bretnagh, Wales

yn

also, N'erin, Ireland,

have the adventitious

n, or article yn, be-

fore them.

An

article is

not put before the former of two substantives

when they betoken

divers things.

87

THE MANKS LANGUAGE.

CHAPTER XXn.
The Construction op Verbs.
The nominative

cases of verbs, whetlier placed before or after

their verbs, preserve their radical initials

man

said

Nouns come
with

after verbs of filling

as t'eh Ihieeney

as clooyrt dooinney, a

she dooinney dooyrt rhym, 'twas a

yn

man

told

me.

with the preposition

thie lesh boirey,

he

filleth

lesh,

the house with

contention.

Verbs of abounding have ayns

growing in wisdom; hishagh ayns

as gaase ayns creenaght,

cooid,

abounding with goods.

Of agreeing and speaking to, have 7'ish, to, or with


mee rish, I agreed with him ; dooyrt mee rish, I said

Of accusing, have

son, for

as choard

to him.

as feh jplaiynt er son dunverys, he

accuseth him of murder.

Of arraying, have

lesh,

with silver; coamrit lesh

Of asking and

with

as coodagh lesh argid, covering

'puri?le,

clothed in purple.

intreating, have jeh, of,

my

and

Mr mee

veih'n dooinney

right

denee mee jeh'n dooinney, a-e'n naight

what news

Of

from

man

for

I asked the

as

my

man,

Of buying, have
chan, I

veigh,

chair, I entreated the

am buying

calling upon,

veih

as ta

mee hionnaghey

cooid veih'n mar-

goods from the merchant.


have

er,

upon

as

de'ie

mee

er cooney, I called

for help.

Of communicating, have
or gys

my

da, to, or gys, to

nahoo, I signified to

my

neighbour.

as hoilshee

mee da,

A GRAMMAR OF

88

Of defending and
veih

me

olJi,

deliver

delivering^ have velh, or voish

me

from

as livrey

coadee mee voish y noid,

mee

protect

evil

to

as duirree mee risk sheshaght, I

from the enemy.

Of waiting, have

risk,

waited for company.

Of hearkening, have risk


him as long as I

as deaisht

listened to

mee

risk clioud's oddin, I

could.

Of loading, have Jesh as Ihieen ym eli lesh feeyn, I will fill


him with wine ; laad mee eh lesh argid, I loaded him with silver.
Of receiving, have voish, or veih : as hooar mee eh voish Lunnin,
:

I received

it

from London.

Of separating, have

my wife.
When a
made by

question

as scarr mee rish

affirmatively

no, or I

home

by

am

my ven, I divorced

asked in the present tense, the answer

same verb

the same tense of the

are you going

vel,

is

rish

Ta mee

ta, yes,

or I

and negatively by cha

not, thou art not, he, &c.,

is

if affirmative,

by

ren, or

va

if

nel,

or

answer

is

not.

If the question be in the preterperfect tense, the

made,

is

as Vel oo goll thie?

Or the answer may be made

goll.

am

negative,

by cha

ren, or

by repeating the verb, if an affirmative answer;


by repeating the verb, and putting c/^a before it,

roiv; or otherwise

but
as

if

negative,

Nagh

dooyrt y dooinney slien

did not the

man

say so

Dooyrt, or, negatively, cha dooyrt.

When a

question

made by the same


Jed 00

thie ? will

is

asked in the future tense, the answer

tense, or

by the

you go home

future, nee'm, I will

Hed-ym,

do

I will go, or nee'm.

is

as

THE MANKS LANGUAGE.

CHAPTER

80

XXIII.

Of the Construction op Adverbs.


Feer, very, ro, too, or too

much, are

set in apposition with

nouns adjective, and change their radical consonants into their


soft

as dooinney feer vie, a very

heavy a burden.

good man

crrey ro hrome, too

But words beginning with

mutables, change not after the adverb feer

very laborious ; feer jollyssagh, very greedy

and

d, j,

t,

of the

as feer doccaragJi,

feer tastagh, very

observant.

By,

Dy

that,

governs a subjunctive mood.

changes the mutable

clwoilley, every,

nouns substantive, to which


clwoilley gliooinney,

is

it

initial

consonant of

joined in apposition, as dy

every man, &c.

All the other adverbs, whether before verbs, substantives, or


adjectives, suffer

them

to retain their radical initials.

CHAPTER XXIV.
Op the
All the interjections

Interjections.

make

the nouns following

their initials into their soft or secondary

God

ghooinney

man

they retain their radical

mute

them change
as

But when verbs come

initial

as

cleiy

fo

Yee

them
supplant him
after

90

A GRAMMAE OF

CHAPTER XXV.
Op the Construction of
Edyr,

wlietlier, or either, is

dooinney ny hen, whether


As, andj

ere,

it

Conjunctions.'

answered by ny, or

be

what, myr, also,

man

or

as cdyr eh ve

woman.

&c., effect

no change in the

initials.

Ny

is

often set before nouns adjective of the English compara-

tive degree,

that

is,

in

Manks, when two subjects are im-

mediately compared the one to the other, and is answered by na,

than

as ta'n airh

than the

ny strimmey na'n

argid, the gold is heavier

silver.

CHAPTER XXVI.
Op the Construction op

Prepositions.

OP prepositions used in apposition.


Prepositions used in apposition have always a radical initial
after

them

as marish dooinney, with

man

lesh scfeeuyn,

with a

letter.

When

the articles y or yn, the^ are joined to prepositions, the

radical initials of the

nouns which follow them are changed into

THE MANKS LANGUAGE.


their secondary mutes^ or softs

boy ;

risk y

veil,

to the

woman

91

as marish y ghuilley, witli the


y ghrian, towards the sun.

lesh

But nouns whose initials are the consonants

d, j,

and

no

suffer

t,

marish y dooinney, with the man ; cooyl y dorrys, behind


the door ; lesh y jalloo, with the image ; gys y thie, to the house.

change

Dy,

or to^ always aspirates^ or changes into the secondary

of,

mute, the

initial

of the following mutable consonant

going home

valley,

hione dy lihrash,

as goU dy

ahead of brass ; dy

ghoaill

leagh, to take a fee.

Prepositions are
heose,

from above

compounded with adverbs


veih-heese,

pounded with pronouns.

of place

from beneath. They are

as veih-

also

com-

(See the construction of pronouns.)

OF PEEPOSITIOXS USED IN COMPOSITION.

Aa

is

compounded with nouns,

changes their mutable

and

verbs,

as aa-chroo eh dooinney, he re-created

man

participles,

and

secondary mutes

initials into their soft or

aa-vioghee eh, he

shall revive; aa-chooinaghtyn, recollection.

An is joined either to nouns, verbs,

or participles, and changes

their mutable initials into their secondary

an-chasherich, the house

is

impure

mutes

as

fan

thie

feh laadit lesh anghoo, he

is

loaded with infamy.

Co and
its soft

cooyl, before the

mutable

as co-chorrym, equal

taineth the radical initial

co-eternal; co-Jee, equally

initial

c,

doth change

co-chiart, even.

it

Otherwise

into

it

re-

as co-trome, equally heavy; co-heayn,

God;

cooyl-chlea,

an ambush; cooyl-

dorrys, behind the door.

Fo, before

mute
tain

sls

and

fo-halloo,

th, is

used with the aspirate or secondary

under the ground ;/o-ZieaK, under the moun-

instead of/o thalloo

and/o

Er is used with radical initials


brimming er-finnue, passionate.

English /o?*, as
It is also

er-jphing, for

slieau.

as er-cannoo, wanton

Except when

it is

er-gliee,

put for the

a penny, where the aspirate

is

used.

used in composition with pronouns, as orrym, &c. (See

the construction of pronouns.)

A GRAMMAR OF THE MANKS LANGUAGE.

92

Orrym and

its

most commonly used to betoken

derivatives are

tlie

passions of the body

am

sleepy ; ta ;paays orrym, I

am

or

dry.

Lieh changes the radical initials of the words

with into their secondary mutes

it is

compounded

as ta'n dooinney lieh-varroo,

man is half dead yn ven lieh-valloo,


woman moddey Ueh-ghooghys, a mongrel.
the

am asleep,

as ta'n chadley orrym, I

the slow-speaking

Neu and mee

signify privation, or not,

consonant change into

its

and make the following

secondary mute or aspirate

as neu-

ghlen, unclean; mee-viallagh, disobedient.

Cryn

and

is

lifeless

gyn

a privative article, or article of the ablative case,

is also

sometimes joined to a
;

secondary mute: as gyn vioys,

When we say

hioys, gyn myghin, and the like, gyn is set by itself, and

hioys, &c,, are

Da,

put absolutely

to, rish, to,

under,

liorish,

among,
are

soft or

gyn-vygh in, merciless or without mercy.

all

q.d., gy7i, hioys ;

marish, with, harrish, over, voish, from, fo,

by, ayns, in, lesh, with,

jeh, of, ass, out of,

ershjn,

compounded with pronouns.

7'oish,

before,

(See the construction of

LOSDON

NORMAX AND

SON, PKINTF.RS,

MAIDHN

mastey,

above, fegooish, without,

pronouns.)

G.

myghin,

gyn, myghin.

LAN'E,

COVENT GARDES.