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PSN COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

(AUTONOMOUS)
MELATHEDIYOOR- 627152
DEPARTMENT OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING
MODEL QUESTION SET I
Subject: 022001 APPLIED MATHEMATICS FOR CRYOGENIC ENGINEERS

Year/ Sem: I / I

Branch : I M.E (CRYOGENIC ENGINEERING)

Marks: 100
TIME : 3hours

Answer all questions


PART A

(10X2=10 MARKS)

1. Define Fourier integral Theorem


2. Define one dimensional heat equation.
x

F ( x, y , y , y
1

11

3. State the condition for a functional I=


stationary value.

dx to take on a
x

F ( x, y, z, y , z )dx
1

4. State the condition for a functional V( y(x),z(x) ) =


to take
on a stationary value.
5. If f(x) = kx2; 0<x<3 is a pdf of X, find the value of k.
6. If X and Y are independent random variables with variance 2 and 3 . find
the variance of 3X + 4Y .
7. Customers arrive at the first class ticket counter of a theatre at a rate of 12
per hour. There is one clerk servicing the customers at the rate of 30 per
hour, what is the probability that there is no customer at the counter.
8. Define Poisson process.
9. Write Bender Schmidt Formula.
10.
State Diagonal five point formula.

PART B
11.

(a )

(5X16=80 MARKS)

Solve the equation u/t = 2u/x2 , x>0,y>0 subject to the


conditions
(i)
u = 0 when x = 0 , t > 0,
(ii)
u = 1 ; 0<x<1

(b)

0 ; x 1 when t = 0,
(iii)
u(x, t) is bounded.
(16)
(OR)
If the initial temperature of an infinite bar is given by (x) = 0 for |
x| <a, 0 for |x|>a Determine the temperature at any instant x and
at any instant t.
(16)
x

(16 y
12.

y 11 x 2 )dx

(a) (i) Find the external of the functional V[y(x)] =


.
(8)
(ii) Find the path on which a particle in the absence of friction will slide
from one point to another in the shortest time under the action of
gravity.
(8)
(OR)
(b)(i) Show that the straight line is the shortest distance between two points
in a plane.
(8)
(ii) A curve C joining the points (x1,y1) and (x2,y2) is revolved about the x
axis. Find the shape of the curve so that the surface thus generated
is a minimum.
(8)

13. (a) (i)

6 dice are thrown 729 times. How many times do you expect at least
three dice to show a five or six ?
(8)
(ii) The density function of a random variable X is given by f(x)= K x (2-x),

0x2

(b) (i)

,Find K , mean , variance and rth moment.

(8)

(OR)
The probability distribution function of a random variable X is

2 x
f(x)=

,0 x 1
,1 x 2
,x 2
.

Find the cumulative distribution function.

(8)

(ii)

A random variable X has the probability density function f(x)=

,0 x 1

2x

, otherwise

find (i)

P X
2

1
1
x
2
4

(ii ) P

3
1

(iii ) P X / X
4
2

(8)

14. (a) (i) A one man barber shop has a total of 10 seats. Inter arrival times are
exponentially distributed and an average of 20 prospective customers
arrive each hour at the shop, those customers who find the shop full
do not enter. The barber takes an average of 12 minutes to cut each
customers hair. Haircut times are exponentially distributed. (i) On
the average, how much time will be spent in the shop by a customer
who enters?

(8)

(ii) On the average, how many haircuts per hour will the barber
complete?

(8)
(OR)

(b)

Consider two servers. An average of 8 customers per hour arrive from


outside at server 1 , and an average of 17 customers per hour arrive
from outside at server 2. Interarrival times are exponential. Server 1
can serve at an exponential rate of 20 customers per hour, and server
2 can serve at an exponential rate of 30 customers per hour. After
completing service at server 1 , half of the customers leave the
system , and half go to server 2. After completing service at server 2,
of the customers complete service and return to server 1.
(i)
(ii)
(iii)

What fraction of the time is server 1 idle?


Find the expected number of customers at each server.
Find the average time a customer spends in the system.

(16)

Solve the poisson equation Uxx + Uyy = -10( x2+y2+10 ) over the square

15. (a)

mesh with sides

x = 0, y = 0, x = 3, y = 3 and u = 0

on the

boundary .Assume mesh length h =1 unit.

(16)

(OR)

u u

t x 2
2

(b) (i) Solve the equation

u( 0, t ) = u(5, t ) = 0 and

subject to the conditions


u(x,0) = x 2(25 x2). taking h = 1, k =

.Tabulate the values of u up to t = 4sec.

(8)

u 1 u

t 16 x 2
2

(ii)

Solve by Crank Nicholoson method

0 < x < 1 , t >0, given that u ( x, 0) = 100 sinx,


u( 0, t ) = u(1, t ) = 0. Compute u for one time step, take h= .

(8)

PSN COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY


(AUTONOMOUS)
MELATHEDIYOOR- 627152
DEPARTMENT OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING
MODEL QUESTION SET II
Subject: 022001 APPLIED MATHEMATICS FOR CRYOGENIC ENGINEERS

Year/ Sem: I / I

Branch : I M.E (CRYOGENIC ENGINEERING)

Marks: 100

Answer all questions


PART A

1. Define Laplace Equation.


2. Define Laplace wquation.

(10X2=10 MARKS)

F ( x, y , y , y
1

11

3. State the condition for a functional I=


stationary value.

dx to take on a
x

F ( x, y, z, y , z )dx
1

4. State the condition for a functional V( y(x),z(x) ) =


on a stationary value.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

to take

Define Binomial distribution.


State Bayes theorem
What is meant by Queue discipline ? Name Some Queue discipline .
What are the characteristics of Kendalls Notation for a Queue system?
Write Crank Nicholson Formula.

10.

Write Poisson Formula.


PART B

11.

(a )

(5X16=80 MARKS)

Solve the equation u/t = 2u/x2 , x>0,y>0 subject to the


conditions
(i)
u = 0 when x = 0 , t > 0,
(ii)
u=1 ;0<x<1
0 ; x 1
when t = 0, (iii) u(x, t) is bounded.
(16)
(OR)

(b)

12.

If the initial temperature of an infinite bar is given by (x) = 0 for |


x|
<a,
0 for |x|>a Determine the temperature at any instant x and at any
instant t. (16)

(a) (i) Derive the solution of Eulers equation.


(ii) Find the path on which a particle in the absence of friction will slide
from one point to another in the shortest time under the action of
gravity.
(16)
(OR)

(b) (i) Show that straight line is the shortest distance between two points in
a plane.
(8)

(ii) Find the extremals of functional V[y(x)] =

(y2 +y2 -2ysinx)dx.

13. (a) (i) Sate and prove memoryless property of Geometric distribution.
(ii)

(8)
(8)

In a company the monthly break down of machine is a random

variable with poisson distribution with an average 1.8. Find the


Probability that the machine will function for a month.

Without break down

With exactly one break down

With at least one break down.

(8)

(OR)
(b) (i) The density function of a random variable X is given by f(x)=

k x (2 x) 2 for 0 x 2

Otherwise
Find (i) K (ii) Mean and variance of the distribution.

(ii) Derive MGF of Binomial distribution.


14. (a)

(8)
(8)

Arrivals at a telephone booth are considered to be Poisson with an


average time of 9minutes between one arrival and the next. The
length of a phone call is assumed to be distributed exponentially with
mean 3 minutes.
(i) What is the probability that a person arriving at the booth will
have to wait?
(ii) What is the average length of the queue that forms from time to
time?

(iii) The telephone department will install a second booth when


convinced that an arrival would expect to have to wait at least three
minutes for the phone. By how much must the flow of arrivals be
increased in order to justify second booth?
(iv) What is probability that an arrival will have to wait for more than
10 minutes before the phone is free?
(v) what is the probability that an arrival will have to wait for more
than 10 mins before the phone is available and the call is also
completed?

(16)
(OR)

(b)

A one man barber shop has a total of 10 seats. Inter arrival times are
exponentially distributed and an average of 20 prospective customers
arrive each hour at the shop, those customers who find the shop full
do not enter. The barber takes an average of 12 minutes to cut each
customers hair. Haircut times are exponentially distributed. (i) On
the average, how much time will be spent in the shop by a customer
who enters?

15. (a)

Solve

tPoisson

(16)

equation

2u 2u

81xy,0 x 1,0 y 1
x 2 y 2

and

u(0,y)=u(x,0)=0, u(x,1)=u(1,y) =100 with square meshes, each of


length h = 1/3.
(b)

(16)

(OR)
Solve the laplace equation 2u = 0 inside the square region bounded
by the lines x = 0, x = 4, y = 0, y = 4 given that u = x 2y2 on the
boundary.

(16)

PSN COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY


(AUTONOMOUS)
MELATHEDIYOOR- 627152
DEPARTMENT OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING
MODEL QUESTION SET I
Subject: 022002 ELEMENTS OF CRYOGENIC ENGINEERING

Year/ Sem: I / I

Branch : I M.E (CRYOGENIC ENGINEERING)

Marks: 100
TIME: 3HRS

Answer all questions


PART A

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Define Cryogenics.
State the applications of Helium 4.
What is seebeck effect?
Write down the difference between pure metal and non metal sensor?
What is the need for insulation?
List down the types of insulation?
Write a note about physical hazard.
Write a note about Oxygen hazard.
State the space application of Cryogenics.
State the uses of Cryosurgery.
PART B
(16X5= 80 MARKS)

11. (a) (i)

(10X2=10 MARKS)

Differentiate between the Ortho and Para Hydrogen.

(8)

(ii) Discuss the various properties of the following cryogenic fluids:


Liquid Oxygen
Liquid Argon
(4+4)
(OR)
(b)

12.

(a)

Explain the properties at cryogenic temperature.

(16)

Discuss the working principle of the following Pressure measurement


techniques:

(i)
(ii)

McLeod Gauge
Diaphragm Gauge

(8+8)
(OR)

(b)

13. (a)

Discuss the working principle of the following Pressure measurement


techniques:
(i)
Electric resistance gauge
(ii)
Capacitance liquid gauge
(8+8)
What is multilayer
application?

insulation?

Write

down

their

types

and
(16)

(OR)

14.

(b)

Explain in detail evacuated powder and fibrous insulation.


(16)

(a)

Explain about the Oxygen hazard in detail.

(16)

(OR)
(b)
15.

(a)

Explain about the metal embrittlement in detail.


Write short notes on the following:
(i)
Space applications
(ii)
Mechanical applications

(16)

(8+8)

(OR)
(b)

Write short notes on the following:


(i)
Gas industry applications
(ii)
Medical applications

(8+8)

PSN COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY


(AUTONOMOUS)
MELATHEDIYOOR- 627152
DEPARTMENT OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING
MODEL QUESTION SET II
Subject: 022002 ELEMENTS OF CRYOGENIC ENGINEERING

Year/ Sem: I / I

Branch : I M.E (CRYOGENIC ENGINEERING)

Marks: 100
TIME: 3HRS

Answer all questions


PART A

(10X2=20 MARKS)

1. Define Yield stress.


2. List down the properties of Liquid Helium.
3. State the advantages of Hydrostatic gauge?
4. List down the gauges used to measure the liquid level?
5. State the applications of multilayer insulation?
6. Define Accommodation factor.
7. List down the types of Hazards?
8. Write a note about Oxygen hazard.
9. What is meant by Cryogenic recycling?
10.
State the superconductivity application of cryogenics.
PART B

(5X16=80 MARKS)

11. (a) (i) Discuss the various properties of the following cryogenic fluid:
Liquid air
Neon
(4+4)
(ii) Draw and explain the Phase diagram for super fluid Helium.
(8)
(OR)
(b)

12. (a)

Explain the thermal properties at Cryogenic temperature.

Discuss the working principle of the following Pressure


measurement techniques:
(i)
Thermal conductivity Gauge

(16)

(ii)

Thermo couple Gauge

(8+8)

(OR)
(b)

13. (a)

Discuss the working principle of the following Pressure


measurementtechniques:
(i)

Thermodynamic liquid level

(ii)

Superconductivity LHe level Gauge

(8+8)

Explain in detail Gas filled powder & fibrous insulation? Write down
their advantages and disadvantages?
(16)
(OR)

14.

(b)

Discuss in detail about Opacified powder insulation.

(16)

(a)

Discuss in detail Fire hazard and Explosion.

(16)

(OR)
(b)

15. (a)

Discuss in detail Bursting Disc of cylinder and Protection from


hazard.
(16)
Write short notes on the following:
(i)
(ii)

Superconductivity applications
High energy physics applications

(8+8)

(OR)
(b)

Write short notes on the following:


(i)
(ii)

Space applications
Mechanical applications

(8+8)

PSN COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY


(AUTONOMOUS)
MELATHEDIYOOR- 627152
DEPARTMENT OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING
MODEL QUESTION SET I
Subject: 022003 ADVANCED HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER

Year/ Sem: I / I

Branch : I M.E (CRYOGENIC ENGINEERING)

Marks: 100

TIME: 3HRS
(USE OF HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER DATA BOOK & STEAM TABLE IS PERMITTED)

Answer all questions


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

PART A
State Fouriers Law of conduction.
Define Fin effectiveness.
State Newtons law of cooling or convection law.
Define Reynolds number (Re) & Prandtl number (Pr).
Give the applications of boiling and condensation.
What is meant by Film wise and Drop wise condensation?
What is meant by Indirect contact heat exchanger?
What is meant by Recuperater?
State Ficks law of diffusion.
What is free convective mass transfer?
PART B

(10X2=20 MARKS)

(5X16=80 MARKS)

11(a) A wall is constructed of several layers. The first layer consists of masonry
brick 20cm. thick of thermal conductivity 0.66W/mK, the second layer
consists of 3cm thick mortar of thermal conductivity 0.6W/mK, the third
layer consists of 8cm thick lime stone of thermal conductivity 0.58W/mK
and the outer layer consists of 1.2cm thick plaster of thermal conductivity
0.6W/mK. The heat transfer coefficient on the interior and exterior of the
wall are 5.6W/m2K and 11W/m2K respectively. Interior room temperature
is 22C and outside air temperature is -5C. Calculate
(i)
Overall heat transfer coefficient
(ii)
Overall thermal resistance
(iii)
The rate of heat transfer
(iv)
The temperature at the junction between the mortar and the
limestone.
(16)

(OR)
(b) A furnace wall made up of 7.5cm of fire plate and 0.65cm of mild steel
plate. Inside surface exposed to hot gas at 650C and outside air
temperature 27C. The convective heat transfer co-efficient for inner side is
60 W/m2K. The convective heat transfer co-efficient for outer side is
8W/m2K. Calculate the heat lost per square meter area of the furnace wall
and also find outside surface temperature.
(16)
12. (a) Air at 20C at atmospheric pressure flows over a flat plate at a velocity of
3m/s. if the plate is 1m wide and 80C, calculate the following at x
=300mm
(i)
Hydrodynamic boundary layer thickness
(ii)
Thermal boundary layer thickness
(iii)
Local friction coefficient
(iv)
Average friction coefficient
(v)
Local heat transfer coefficient
(vi)
Average heat transfer coefficient
(vii) Heat transfer.
(16)
(OR)
(b) Air at 30C flows over a flat plate at a velocity of 2 m/s. The plate is 2m
long and 1.5m wide. Calculate the following
(i)
Boundary layer thickness at the trailing edge of the plate
(ii)
Total drag force
(iii)
Total mass flow rate through boundary layer between x =40cm and
x=85cm.
(16)

13. (a) A nickel wire carrying electric current of 1.5mm diameter and 50cm long,
is submerged in a water bath which is open to atmospheric pressure.
Calculate the voltage at the burn out point, if at this point the wire carries
a current of 200A.(16)
(OR)
(b) Water is boiling on a horizontal tube whose wall temperature is
maintained ct 15C above the saturation temperature of water. Calculate
the nucleate boiling heat transfer coefficient. Assume the water to be at a
pressure of 20atm. And also find the change in value of heat transfer
coefficient when
(i)
The temperature difference is increased to 30C at a pressure of
10atm

(ii)

The pressure is raised to 20atm at T=15C.

(16)

14. (a) (i) Derive an expression for logarithmic mean temperature difference of the
parallel flow heat exchanger.
(ii) Hot oil is used to heat water, flowing at the rate of 0.1kg/s, from 40C
to 80C in a counter flow double-pipe beat exchanger. For an overall heat
transfer coefficient of 300W/m2 OK find the heat transfer area, if the oil
enters at 105C and leaves at 70C.
(16)
(OR)
(b) (i) Define overall heat transfer coefficient? Write down the expression of
overall heat transfer coefficient by including all the resistance involved
in case of heat transfer through the tubes of an exchanger.
(8)
(ii) Derive an expression for log mean temperature difference for a counter
current flow double pipe heat exchanger.
(8)

15. (a) Hydrogen gases at 3bar and 1bar are separated by a plastic membrane
having thickness 0.25mm. the binary diffusion coefficient of hydrogen in
the plastic is 9.110-3m2/s. The solubility of hydrogen in the membrane is
2.110-3 kg-mol/m3-bar. An uniform temperature condition of 20 is
assumed.
(16)
(OR)
(b) An open pan 210mm in diameter and 75mm deep contains water at 25C
and is exposed to dry atmospheric air. Calculate the diffusion coefficient of
water in air. Take the rate of diffusion of water vapor is 8.5210-4kg/h. (16)

PSN COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY


(AUTONOMOUS)
MELATHEDIYOOR- 627152
DEPARTMENT OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING
MODEL QUESTION SET II
Subject: 022003 ADVANCED HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER

Year/ Sem: I / I

Branch : I M.E (CRYOGENIC ENGINEERING)

Marks: 100

TIME: 3HRS
(USE OF HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER DATA BOOK & STEAM TABLE IS PERMITTED)

Answer all questions


PART A
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

(10X2=20 MARKS)

Define thermal conductivity.


State the applications of fins.
Define Grashof number (Gr) & Stanton number (St).
What is the form of equation used to calculate heat transfer for flow through
cylindrical pipes?
What is meant by pool boiling?
Give the merits of drop wise condensation?
What is meant by Fouling factor?
What is meant by LMTD?
Define Transpiration Cooling?
Define Schmidt Number.
PART B

(5X16=80 MARKS)

11. (a) A wire of 6mm diameter with 2mm thick insulation (K=0.11W/mK). If the
convective heat transfer co-efficient between the insulating surface and air
is 25W/m2L, find the critical thickness of insulation. And also find the
percentage of change in the heat transfer rate if the critical radius is used.
(16)
(OR)
(b) Alloy steel ball of 2mm diameter heated to 800C is quenched in a bath at
100C. The material properties of the ball are K = 205kJ/m-h-K,
=7860kg/m3, C= 0.45 kJ/kgK, h=150 KJ/ h-m2K. Determine
(i) Temperature of ball after 10 second and
(ii) Time for ball to cool to 400C.
(16)

12. (a) Air at 290C flows over a flat plate at a velocity of 6m/s. The plate is 1m
long and 0.5m wide. The pressure of the air is 6kN/m2. If the plate is
maintained at a temperature of 70C, estimate the rate of heat removed
from the plate.
(16)
(OR)
(b) A thin 100cm long and 10cm wide horizontal plate is maintained at a
uniform temperature of 150C in a large tank full of water at 75C.
Estimate the rate of heat to be supplied to the plate to maintain constant
plate temperature as heat is dissipated from either side of plate.
(16)
13. (a) Water is boiled at the rate of 24kg/h in a polished copper pan, 300mm in
diameter, at atmospheric pressure. Assuming nucleate boiling conditions
calculate the temperature of the bottom surface of the pan.
(16)
(OR)
(b) A black body at 3000K emits radiation. Calculate the following
(i)
Monochromatic emissive power at 7m wave length
(ii)
Wave length at which emission is maximum
(iii)
Maximum emissive power
(iv)
Total emissive power
(v)
Calculate the total emissive of the furnace if it is assumed as a real
surface having emissivity equal to 0.85.
(16)
14. (a) (i) Define heat exchanger effectiveness.
(ii) A shell and tube heat exchanger is to be constructed with 2.54 cm LD
tube. The cold fluid is flowing through the tubes at the rate of 18,000
Kg/hr. the inlet temperature is 35c while outlet temperature of cold
water is 65C. The hot water flows outside the tube at the rate of 12,800
kg/hr and entering at 100C. The average velocity of the cold water
through the tube is 0.3 m/s and overall heat transfer coefficient is 1600
w/m2 DC. Specific heat for both the water is 4.18 KJ/Kg oC. Determine
the number of tubes and required length of the tubes for shell and tube
heat exchanger. Given: Density of water at 50C = 988 kg /m 3, Surface
area/unit length = 0.0798 m2/m per tube, Cross sectional area =
0.0003098 m2 per tube.
(16)
(OR)
(b) (i) Draw the temperature distribution curve of the fluids in the single pass
parallel flow heat exchanger and single pass counter flow heat
exchanger.
(8)

(ii) The overall temperature rise of the cold fluid in a cross flow beat
exchanger is 20C and overall temperature drop of hot fluid is 30C. The
effectiveness of heat exchanger is 0.6. The heat exchanger area is1
m2 and overall heat transfer coefficient is 60 W/m 2-0C. Find out the rate
of heat transfer. Assume both fluids are unmixed.
(8)
15. (a) Oxygen at 25C and pressure of 2bar is flowing through a rubber pipe of
inside diameter 25mm and wall thickness 2.5mm. The diffusivity of O 2
through rubber is 0.2110-9 m2/s and the solubility of O2 in rubber is
3.1210-3kg-mol/m3-bar. Find the loss of O2 by diffusion per meter length
of pipe.
(16)
(OR)
(b) Air at 10C with a velocity of 3m/s flows over a flat plate. The plate is 0.3m
long. Calculate the mass transfer coefficient.
(16)

PSN COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY


(AUTONOMOUS)
MELATHEDIYOOR- 627152
DEPARTMENT OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING
MODEL QUESTION SET I
Subject: 022004 VACUUM ENGINEERING

Year/ Sem: I / I

Branch : I M.E (CRYOGENIC ENGINEERING)

Marks: 100
TIME: 3HRS

Answer all questions


PART A

(10X2=20 MARKS)

1. State the need for vacuum2.


2. State Boyles law and Charles law.
3. Define Knudson number.
4. Define adsorption.
5. List down the basic requirements of vacuum materials.
6. Give examples for vacuum seals.
7. Classify vacuum pumps.
8. What is getter pump?
9. State the applications of mass spectrometer.
10. What is meant by leak hunting?
PART B

(5X16=80 MARKS)

11. (a) (i) Derive an expression for mean free path from the kinetic theory of
gases.
(8)
(ii) Enlist various equations of state for real gases. Explain all constants
and variables involved in the equations.
(8)
(OR)
(b)(i)Obtain expressions for average velocity, most probable velocity and
root-mean-square velocity from statistical mechanics.
(10)

(10)

(ii) Consider a gas molecules can move only along x-axis, let

be the
v
has

magnitude and direction of the molecules velocity so that


range - <v < .
Calculate the average velocity along x-axis.
(6)

(6)
12. (a) Derive Hagen-Poisseuille equation correlating pressure drop to mass flow
rate. Also, arrive at formulae for conductance of continuum, free
molecular and mixed flow regimes.
(16)
(OR)
(b) Consider a vacuum vessel of 1m 3 with an initial pressure of 1atm at
300K. It is connected to a vacuum pump via a connecting pipe as
shown below (Left side tube of 40mm diameter and right side tube of
30mm diameter. Both tubes are of length 400mm). The ultimate
pressure of the system is 0.1mPa. Determine the system vessel
pumping speed, if required vacuum in the cavity is 1kPa in 1h.
(16)

13.

(a)
(i)
(ii)

Explain working principle of following positive displacement pumps.


rotary vane pump
roots pump
(8+8)
(OR)

14.

(b)

Explain principle, construction and operation of sorption pump.(16)

(a)

Describe with sketches various valves used in vacuum systems. (16)


(OR)

(b)

15.

Explain factors influencing the correct selection of vacuum pumps for


various applications.
(16)

(a)
Discuss the working principle of the following vacuum pressure
measurement gauges.
(i)
McLeod gauge
(ii)
Thermocouple gauge
(8+8)
(OR)
(b)

Discuss in detail various leak detection methods.

(16)

PSN COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY


(AUTONOMOUS)
MELATHEDIYOOR- 627152
DEPARTMENT OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING
MODEL QUESTION SET II
Subject: 022004 VACUUM ENGINEERING

Year/ Sem: I / I

Branch : I M.E (CRYOGENIC ENGINEERING)

Marks: 100
TIME: 3HRS

Answer all questions


PART A

(10X2=20 MARKS)

1. Classify vacuum levels.


2. Find RMS speed of hydrogen and oxygen molecules at 27C.
3. Define conductance.
4. Write equation for density assuming gas to be ideal.
5. Classify vacuum pumps based on levels of vacuum.
6. What are called cryogens?
7. What is fire vacuum cylinder?
8. Give example for a typical valve used in vacuum.
9. Distinguish between pressure gauge and vacuum gauge.
10.
List down the gauges used to measure ultra high vacuum.
PART B
11. (a)

(5X16=80 MARKS)

(i) Derive an equation for the pressure of gas from the kinetic theory of
gases.
(8)
(ii) Arrive at an expression for volume occupied by a gas molecule using
the kinetic theory.
(8)
(OR)

(b)

Consider an ideal gas as a set of N independent molecules in a cubic


box of volume and the energy of the molecule is
1
2
2
2
H ( p , q )=
p x + p y + pz ) +V(x,y,z)
(
2m
and the fraction of molecules is

dN
=
N

H ( p ,q )
kT

dpdq

H ( p ,q )
kT

dpdq

p q

If the number of states with momenta and position coordinates in


the range p and p+dp and q and q+dq, show that the partition
function is
3
2

Z=

( 2 mkT )

h3
and the probability of finding the molecule with velocity
canonical ensemble is
m
f ( v )=4 v
2 kT
2

12.

(a)

3
2

)e

m v
2 kT

in

dv

Derive isotherms for adsorption of gases on solid surfaces.

(16)

(16)

(OR)
(b)

13. (a)

Conductance of the pipe assembly shown above. The pressure on


the right end of the 40mm tube is 150mPa, while the pressure on
the left end of 30mm pipe is 10mPa. The ambient temperature is
300K. The molecular weight and viscosity of air are 28.95g/mol and
18.47Pa-s.
(16)

Explain the working principle of the following kinetic vacuum


pumps.
(i)
diffusion pump
(ii)
turbo molecular pump.
(8+8)
(OR)

(b)

Explain principle, construction and operation of cryopump.

(16)

14. (a)

Discuss in detail various materials used in vacuum.

(16)

(OR)
(b)

15.

(a)

(b)

Enumerate the applications of vacuum, with special attention to


various systems for space simulation chamber.
(16)
Explain the working principle of the following vacuum pressure
measurement gauges.
(i)
Pirani gauge
(ii)
Ionisation gauge
(8+8)
(OR)
Discuss in details working principle of mass spectrometer.

(16)

PSN COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY


(AUTONOMOUS)
MELATHEDIYOOR- 627152
DEPARTMENT OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING
MODEL QUESTION SET I
Subject: 022005 ADVANCED REFRIGERATION

Year/ Sem: I / I

Branch : I M.E (CRYOGENIC ENGINEERING)

Marks: 100
TIME: 3HRS

(USE OF STEAM TABLES IS PERMITTED)

Answer all questions


PART A

(10X2=20 MARKS)

1. Define coefficient of performance.


2. What is meant by cascade?
3. What are called secondary refrigerants?
4. Define the term azeotrope.
5. Define absorption refrigeration.
6. Write equation of heat balancing in absorption refrigeration.
7. Give examples for thermoelectric materials.
8. Define figure of merit.
9. Define heat pump.
10.
Give distinct uses for solar heater and heat pump.
PART B

(5X16=80 MARKS)

11. (a) (i) Explain the working of an evaporative condenser.


(8)
(ii) Give the comparison of flooded evaporators and dry evaporators. (8)
(OR)
(b)

12. (a)

Explain the working principle of vapor power compression system


with neat sketch.
(16)
What are the properties of refrigerants? Explain in detail.
(OR)

(16)

(b)(i) Explain about some typical CFCs (freons) and other hydrocarbons
refrigerants.
(8)
(ii) Explain the properties of refrigeration oils.
(8)
13. (a) (i) Discuss the working of ammonia vapor absorption system.
(8)
(ii) List out various types of compressors used in refrigeration and
explain in detail the working of a reciprocating compressor.
(8)
(OR)
(b) (i) Discuss the working of rotary screw compressor.
(8)
(ii) Compare COP of vapor absorption refrigeration system with vapor
compression system.
(8)

14.

(a)

The following efficiencies must be assumed. Isoentropic efficiency of


turbine =90%. Steam jet refrigeration efficiency=90%. Entrainment
efficiency=65%.
Thermo-compressor efficiency=65%. The steam
enters the thermo-compressor at 0.01bar and with dryness fraction
of 0.94, make up water enters the flash chamber at 18C, determine
(using Mollier diagram)
(i)
State of steam at all salient points
(ii)
Quantity of steam leaving the flash chamber
(iii)
Quantity of steam generated in the boiler
(iv)
COP of the steam jet refrigeration system based on the heat
input of the motive steam.
Assume the same condenser for power turbine and steam jet
refrigeration.
(16)
(OR)

(b)
15.

With neat sketch, explain thermoelectric refrigeration.

(a) (i) Explain with neat sketch the working of room air conditioner.
(ii) Explain in detail different heat pump circuits with sketches.

(16)
(8)
(8)

(OR)
(b)

Explain importance and typical cases for industrial refrigeration.(16)

PSN COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY


(AUTONOMOUS)
MELATHEDIYOOR- 627152
DEPARTMENT OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING
MODEL QUESTION SET II
Subject: 022005 ADVANCED REFRIGERATION

Year/ Sem: I / I

Branch : I M.E (CRYOGENIC ENGINEERING)

Marks: 100
TIME: 3HRS

(USE OF STEAM TABLES IS PERMITTED)

Answer all questions


PART A

(10X2=20 MARKS)

1. Define one tonne of refrigeration.


2. Explain the principle of bootstrap refrigeration.
3. State the purpose of oils in refrigeration.
4. List down a few important eco-friendly refrigerants.
5. State the advantages of ammonia as refrigerant.
6. Give the advantages of lithium bromide over ammonia system.
7. List down the advantages of air cycle refrigeration.
8. Define thermoelectric effect.
9. Define COP of heat pump.
10.
What are called walk-in coolers?
PART B

(5X16=80 MARKS)

11. (a) (i) Sketch and explain the salient points of P-H and T-S charts.
(8)
(ii) Explain with the help of neat sketches, factors affecting the
performance of a simple vapor compression system.
(8)
(OR)
(b)

With T-S diagram, explain sub-cooling and super-heating in vapor


power compression system. What is its significance?
(16)

12. (a) (i) Briefly explain the selection criteria of refrigerants.


(8)
(ii) Discuss carbon-di-oxide as refrigerant. How is solid carbon-di-oxide
produced?
(8)

(OR)
(b)

What are called cryogenic refrigerants? Tabulate properties of


cryogenic refrigerants. Explain how the cryogenic refrigeration is
done.
(16)

13. (a) (i)

Derive an expression for volumetric efficiency in reciprocating


compressor.
(8)
(ii) Sketch and explain the working of centrifugal compressor.
(8)
(OR)

(b) (i)

(ii)

14.

(a)

Distinguish between vapor absorption refrigeration system and vapor


compression system and what is the distinct advantage of vapor
absorption over compression.
(8)
Explain lithium bromide water system with H-X chart.
(8)

The compressor of an air refrigeration system working on BellColeman cycle sucks air at 5C and 1 bar pressure, the air leaves
from the compressor at 6bar pressure and from the condenser at
22C. Estimate the COP of the system and refrigeration effect for
1kg/s mass flow rate of air by assuming compression and expansion
are iso-entropic.
(16)
(OR)

(b) (i)
(ii)

15.

(a)

Draw neatly schematic arrangement of regenerative air-refrigeration


system with T-S diagram.
(8)
Describe the working of a simple air cycle cooling system used for
air-crafts.
(8)
A cold storage plant is required to store 25tonnes of fish. The
temperature of fish when supplied=25C. Storage temperature of fish
required=-8C. Specific heat of fish above freezing point=2.9kJ/kgC.
Specific heat of fish below freezing point=1.25kJ/kgC. Freezing
point of fish=-3C. Latent heat of fish=232kJ/kg. If the cooling is
achieved within 9h, find out
(i)
capacity of the refrigeration plant

(ii)
Carnot cycle COP between this temperature range
(iii)
If the actual COP is 1/3 of the Carnot COP, find out the power
required to run the plant.
(16)
(OR)
(b)

Discuss all three modes of heat transfer with suitable derivations


and equations.
(16)
PSN COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY
(AUTONOMOUS)
MELATHEDIYOOR- 627152
DEPARTMENT OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING
MODEL QUESTION SET I

Subject: 022205- STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS

Year/ Sem: I / I

Branch : I M.E (CRYOGENIC ENGINEERING)

Marks: 100
TIME: 3HRS

Answer all questions


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

PART A
(10X2=20 MARKS)
Fivefold axis of symmetry cannot exist in the periodic lattice. Justify?
Differentiate covalent and ionic crystals
Write down the factors affecting the mechanical properties of materials.
Differentiate ductile fracture and brittle fracture.
Prove that =1 ; where and are dielectric constant and

susceptibility of a given material respectively.


6. What is meant by dielectric loss?
7. What is Curie temperature?
8. Define domain theory in ferromagnetic materials?
9. What are liquid crystals?
10.
Distinguish between LED and LCD.
PART B
11.

(a)

(5X16=80 MARKS)

Explain the term packing factor? Prove that the packing fraction of
HCP is 26% void.

(4+12)
(OR)

(b) (i) Copper has fcc structure and its atomic radius is 1.273. Find the
lattice parameter and density of copper.
(10)
(ii) Determine spacing between (100) plane in NaCl crystal having a
lattice constant a=5.64
12.

(a)

(6)

(i) Describe briefly about the Ficks law of diffusion and explain any
two applications of Ficks second law.

(10)

(ii) A sample of glass has a crack of half length 2m. The youngs
modulus of the glass is 70 GN m-2 and the specific surface energy is

(b) (i)

1Jm-2. Estimate its fracture strength.


(6)
(OR)
write about various methods to improve the fatigue strength of the

materials
(8)
(ii) Explain Griffith theory. Why is it not suitable for ductile materials.(8)
13. (a)

Explain

the

dielectrics.

different

Briefly

types

explain

of

the

polarization
various

mechanisms.

mechanisms

dielectric

in

breakdown
(8+8)

(OR)
(b) (i) What is called local electric field at an atom and deduce the Lorentz
relation.
(10)
(ii) Prove that the square of the refractive index is equal to the dielectric
constant of a material.

(6)

14. (a) (i) Discuss in detail about the classification of dia, para and ferro
magnetic materials with suitable examples.

(10)

(ii) Give the short notes on magnetic bubble domains and its
applications.

(OR)

(b) (i) Differentiate soft and hard magnetic materials.


(ii) Describe in detail Langevin and weiss theory.
15. (a)

(6)

(8)
(8)

Discuss in detail about optical absorption in semiconductors and


metals.

(16)
(OR)

(b)

Define photoconductivity. Write down the structure and properties


of liquid crystal displays.

(16)

PSN COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY


(AUTONOMOUS)
MELATHEDIYOOR- 627152
DEPARTMENT OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING
MODEL QUESTION SET II
Subject: 022205- STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS

Year/ Sem: I / I

Branch : I M.E (CRYOGENIC ENGINEERING)

Marks: 100
TIME: 3HRS

Answer all questions


PART A

(10X2=20 MARKS)

PART B

(5X16=80 MARKS)

1. Name seven crystal systems?


2. Explicate are miller indices?
3. Differentiate ductile and brittle fracture.
4. State Ficks law
5. Formulate the relation between the dielectric constant and susceptibility
6. What are ferro electric materials?
7. Define energy product and give its importance?
8. What is called Bohr magneton?
9. Criticize the optical absorption in insulators
10.
Categorize luminescent materials

11.

12.

(a)

Give brief explanation about hexagonal and diamond structures


with neat diagram.

(16)

(b)

(OR)
Explain the various types of bonding in solids.

(16)

(a)

Discuss briefly about the Ficks law of diffusion and explain any
two applications of Ficks second law.

(OR)
Analyze various parameters while conducting mechanical tests on

(b)

materials.
13.

(16)

(a)

(16)

Appraise about
(i)
(ii )
(b)

14.

(a)
(b)

15.

(a)

Piezoelectric materials
Pyroelectric materials
(8+8)
(OR)
What is meant by local field in a dielectric and also derive an

expression for it.

(16)

Classify and explain the various types of magnetic materials.

(16)

(OR)
Illustrate
(i)
GMR materials
(ii)
Dilute magnetic semiconductor materials

Explain the properties, structure and working of liquid crystal


displays.

(b)

(8+8)

(16)

(OR)
Describe about optical absorption in insulators, semiconductors
and metals.

(16)