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International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Technology (IJAERT) 286

Volume 4 Issue 9, September 2016, ISSN No.: 2348 – 8190


K Padmavathi*, K R Sudha**
*Research Scholar, JNTU, Kakinada, Andhra Pradesh, India
** Professor, Department of Electrical Engineering, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India

ABSTRACT maximum power point are constant voltage method,

Photovoltaic system exhibits nonlinear characteristics Open Circuit Voltage method (OCV), Short Circuit
and maximum power (MP) points that changes with Current method (SCC), Perturb and Observe method
solar insolation and cell’s temperature. The Photo (P&O), Incremental Conductance method (INC) [4].
Voltaic System can supply the maximum power to the Compared with conventional methods, Artificial
load at a particular operating point which is generally Intelligence (AI) techniques gives fast response under
called as maximum power point (MPP), at which the any operating conditions with accurate results [5]. This
entire system operates with maximum efficiency and paper presents the AI technique using Fuzzy Logic
produces its maximum power. The Maximum Power Controller (FLC) to implement MPPT in order to
Point Tracker control technique based on fuzzy improve energy conversion efficiency and also
controller is implemented to generate the optimal compared with P&O method.
voltage from the photovoltaic system by modulating the
duty cycle applied to the boost dc-dc converter. The II. PHOTO VOLTAIC SYSTEM
efficacy of fuzzy controller is compared with perturb and
observe method. 2.1 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
Keywords – Photo Voltaic System, Maximum Power The dispersion of Photo Voltaic (PV) is very fast
Point Tracking, Perturb & Observe method, Fuzzy because it generates electricity in a clean, quiet and
Controller, Boost Converter reliable manner. PV system is a static electricity
generator as it produces electricity when the photon of
I. INTRODUCTION the sunlight strikes the semiconductor materials in the
PV cell. Individual PV cells are interconnected in a
Renewable energy resources play a vital role in the sealed, weatherproof package which is known as a
generation of electricity. The sources of renewable module [6]. To increase the voltage modules are
energy are Solar, Wind, Hydro power, Biomass, connected in series and to increase the current they are
Geothermal, Hydrogen and Ocean. Solar energy is connected in parallel. The PV modules are connected in
directly converted into electrical energy by using series and parallel which is known as PV array to
Photovoltaic (PV) cells[1]. Because of no fuel cost, achieve the desired output. Fig. 1 shows the cells,
pollution free, little maintenance and emitting no noise, modules and array of photovoltaic System. PV systems
Photovoltaic (PV) is a good source of energy [2]. The can be easily expanded by adding more modules and
PV system exhibits a nonlinear V-I characteristics and manufactured to withstand the most rugged conditions.
its maximum power (MP) point fluctuate with the The benefits of using photovoltaic system are (i) operate
change in temperature and solar insolation. Most of the with little maintenance, (b) pollution free, (c) reduced
research work is going on in this area to track the production end wastes and emissions. The installation of
maximum power point. The Maximum Power Point photovoltaic system requires high initial capital cost, but
Tracking (MPPT) is applied to PV systems to extract the operating cost is low compared with obtainable
maximum available power from sun at all solar power technologies. The installation of photovoltaic
insolations. Many MPPT techniques have been system requires high initial capital cost, but the
proposed by implementing different control strategies operating cost is low compared with obtainable power
[3]. A DC to DC converter serves the purpose of technologies.
transferring maximum power from the PV system to the
load. Different types of conventional methods to obtain
International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Technology (IJAERT) 287
Volume 4 Issue 9, September 2016, ISSN No.: 2348 – 8190

The photovoltaic system can be modeled mathematically

as given in equations (1) - (4)

The module photo current Iph depends is given by

Where Iscr is short circuit current of PV module; Ki is
the short circuit temperature coefficient; T is the
operating temperature of module in Kelvin; Tr is the
reference temperature in Kelvin; G is the solar radiation
in watt/mt2.
The reverse saturation current of the module is

Where q is the electron charge; Voc is the open circuit

Figure 1 Cells, Modules and array of PV system voltage; Ns is number of series cells; k is Boltzmann’s
constant, A is fitting factor
The module saturation current depends on the cell
2.2 EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT AND temperature, which is given by Equation 3.

Photovoltaic cells consist of a silicon P-N junction Where Eg is the band gap energy of semiconductor.
that when exposed to light releases electrons around a
closed electrical circuit. From this premise the circuit The output current of PV module is given by
equivalent of a PV cell can be modeled through the
circuit shown in Fig. 2. Electrons from the cell are
excited to higher energy levels when a collision with a
photon occurs. These electrons are free to move across
the junction and create a current. This is modeled by the
light generated current source. The intrinsic P-N
junction characteristic is introduced as a diode in the
circuit equivalent. (4)

Where Np is the number of parallel cells; Rs & RP are

series and shunt resistances of the module respectively.
The output power of the photo voltaic array is given
Equation 5
Fill Factor(FF) is defined as the ratio of the maximum
obtainable power of the photo voltaic cell to the product
of open circuit voltage(Voc)and short circuit current (Isc)
[7]. Voc and Isc are the maximum values of the pv cell.
Figure 2 Equivalent circuit of PV cell Graphically, the FF is a measure of the "squareness" of
the solar cell and is also the area of the largest rectangle
The current source Iph represents the cell photocurrent. which will fit in the IV curve.
Rp and Rs are the intrinsic shunt and series resistances
of the cell, respectively. Rp is inversely related with (6)
shunt leakage current to the ground .The PV efficiency is
insensitive to variation in Rp but a small variation in Rs Where Vmp and Imp are the voltage and current at
will affect the PV output power . maximum power point. Voc is the open circuit voltage
International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Technology (IJAERT) 288
Volume 4 Issue 9, September 2016, ISSN No.: 2348 – 8190

and Isc is the short circuit current. Table 1 shows the

parameters of photovoltaic system.

Table1. Photovoltaic System Parameters

PV array parameters Symbol Values
Reference Temperature Tr 298K
Solar irradiance G 1000 watt/mt2
Temperature Ki 0.00023 A/K
Cell short-circuit Iscr 3.75A
current at Tr
Saturation current at Ior 0.000021A
reference temperature
Boltzmann’s constant K 1.38065e-23J/°K
Charge of an electron q 1.6022e-19C
Figure 3 I-V and P-V curves of Photo Voltaic System
Fitting factor A 1.3
No. of parallel cells Np 6
No. of series cells Ns 10

This is a technique used to obtain the Maximum

Possible Power (MPP) from a varying source. Perturb
TRACKING and Observe (P&O) method is implemented. In this
algorithm a small perturbation is introduced in the
PV system’s efficiency depends on Maximum system. Due to this perturbation, the power of the
Power Point Tracking (MPPT). Because of the module alters then the perturbation is carried in that
nonlinear characteristics of output voltage and direction. When the maximum power is achieved, the
current with change in solar radiation, operating power instant reduces and the perturbation reverses. Fig.
temperature and load current, the efficiency of PV 5 represents the flowchart of MPPT technique. The
system is less [8]. To overcome these problems, the drawback of P&O method is it oscillates around the
maximum power point is tracked. Fig. 3 shows the MPP in steady state operation and for rapidly
typical I-V and P-V curves of photovoltaic system. increasing or decreasing irradiance levels, it can
A PV Module produces its maximum current when there track in the wrong direction [9].
is no resistance in the circuit, i.e. a short circuit between
its Positive and Negative terminals. This maximum
current is known as the Short Circuit current (Isc).
The voltage in the circuit is zero when the PV
Module is shorted. The maximum voltage occurs
when there is a break in the circuit and is known as
Open Circuit voltage (Voc). Under this condition,
the resistance is infinitely high and there is no
current. The point on the knee of the I-V Curve
where the maximum power output is located is
called the Maximum Power Point (MPP). The
voltage and current at this Maximum Power Point
are designated as Vmp and Imp. In this paper MPPT
using perturb & observe method is compared with
MPPT using fuzzy logic controller. Figure 4 Perturb & Observe Algorithm
International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Technology (IJAERT) 289
Volume 4 Issue 9, September 2016, ISSN No.: 2348 – 8190


Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC) can be implemented PB NB NB NB ZE ZE
as a Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) controller
to achieve the maximum power from the photo voltaic IV. BOOST CONVERTER
system [10]. The input variables are PV current and Boost Converters are DC to DC converters used for
voltage and the output variable is duty cycle. Error (e) converting low voltage to high voltage. It consists of
and change of error (ce) are calculated using the inductor, capacitor and switches. DC-DC converters
following equations. play a role of charge controller, MPP trackers and PV
(7) interface with load. The converter consists of
(8) semiconductor switch, inductor and a capacitor. The
circuit diagram of a boost converter is shown in Fig. 6.
(9) When SW1 is switched on, input charges the inductor.
When SW1 is switched off, the source voltage and
(10) inductor together charges the capacitor to a higher value
Where Ipv and Vpv are photo voltaic current and voltage, greater than source voltage. Diode avoids the discharge
t and (t-1) are actual and previous states. The linguistic of capacitor when SW1 is in on state.
variables of both input and output membership functions
are NB(negative big), NM(negative medium),
NS(negative small),ZE(zero), PS(positive small),
PM(positive medium), PB(positive big) are represented
in Fig. 5.

Figure 6 DC-DC Boost converter


The analysis of Photo Voltaic system interfaced to boost

converter has been done using MATLAB software using
SIMULINK . The simulink was evaluated for SOLAREX
MSX-60 and the specifications are shown in Table 3.

Table 3 Parameter specification of SOLAREX MSX-60

Maximum Power(Pmax) 60W

Figure 5 Membership functions of input and output Voltage @ Pmax 17.1V
variables Current @ Pmax 3.5A
Guaranteed minimum Pmax 58W
The output variable, d is the pulse width modulation Short circuit current(Isc) 3.8A
signal to produce the switching pulses of the DC to DC
Open circuit voltage (Voc) 21.1V
converter. The fuzzy logic controller’s rule base used in
PV system is represented by Table 2
The comparative performance of Perturb & Observe
Table 2 Rule base of Fuzzy logic MPPT
MPPT and Fuzzy MPPT at a solar radiance of
e/ce NB NS ZE PS PB 1000watts/mt2 and at an operating temperature of 25°C
NB ZE ZE PB PB PB is presented in this paper. Fig. 7 shows results
NS ZE ZE PS PS PS comparing the output voltage of boost converter using
International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Technology (IJAERT) 290
Volume 4 Issue 9, September 2016, ISSN No.: 2348 – 8190

P&O and Fuzy MPPT controllers. The system with

Fuzzy controller settles faster than P&O technique.

Figure 9 P-V characteristics of PV module for varied

Figure 7 Comparison of DC voltage using P&O and
The system considered is also simulated for various
fuzzy MPPT controllers
solar irradiances with a constant temperature. The
observations are also undertaken for solar irradiance
The current-voltage (I-V) and power-voltage(P-V)
of 200W/mt2, 400W/mt2, 600W/mt2, 800W/mt2 and
characteristics depend on the variation of solar irradiance
200W/mt2 at a constant temperature. Fig. 10 & Fig.
and operating temperature. The observations are
11 shows the I-V and P-V characteristics for various
undertaken for an operating temperature of 25°C, 40°C,
solar irradiances.
50°C, 60°C and 80°C at a constant solar irradiance of
1000watts/mt2. Fig.8 and Fig. 9 represents the I-V and
P-V characteristics of the PV system at various
temperatures. It is observed that the current is maximum
and also having almost constant value at the lower
voltage range. From P-V characteristics it is observed
that voltage and power of the PV system reduces with
increase in operating temperature.

Figure 10 I-V characteristics of PV module for varied

solar irradiances

Figure 8 I-V characteristics of PV module for varied


Figure 11 P-V characteristics of PV module for varied

solar irradiances
International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Technology (IJAERT) 291
Volume 4 Issue 9, September 2016, ISSN No.: 2348 – 8190

The Fill Factor (FF) evaluates the performance of PV [5] Aurobinda Panda, M. K. Pathak, S. P. Srivastava,
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28 .
conditions. In this paper, MPPT controller using Fuzzy
is compared with Perturb & Observe method. The fuzzy
MPPT is better than the P&O method.


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