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PRAGMATIC, ETHNOGRAPHIC AND AESTHETIC-POETIC

TRANSLATION
submitted in fulfillment of
Translation Studies

by

Nama : Muhammad Khoirul Fuadi


SRN

: 0203515063

Class : Friday at 4

ENGLISH EDUCATION
POSTGRADUATE PROGRAM
SEMARANG STATE UNIVERSITY
2016

Introduction
Translation has been defined in many ways by different writers in the field, depending on how
they view language and translation. According to Wills in Choliludin (2007: 3), translation is
a procedure which leads from a written source language text to an optimally equivalent target
language text and requires the syntactic, semantic, stylistic and text pragmatic comprehension
by the translator of the original text. Besides, Nida and Taber (1982: 12) say that translating
consists in the reproducing in the receptor language the closest natural equivalent of the
source language message, firstly in terms of meaning and secondly in terms of style. Both
definitions above imply that translation involves two languages: the source language (SL) and
the target or receptor language (TL or RL), and that an act of translating is an act of
reproducing the meaning of the SL text into that of the TL text.
Catford (1965: 20) states that translation may be defined as the replacement of textual
material in one language (SL) by equivalent textual material in another language (TL).
Similar definition is also mentioned by Larson (1984: 3). He says that translation consists of
translating the meaning of the source language into the receptor language. This is done by
going from the form of the first language to the form of a second language by way of
semantic structure. It is meaning which is being transferred and must be held constant, only
the form changes.
From the notions above it can be concluded that translating includes the act of transferring
message from the source text to the target text. The aim of translation is to find the equivalent
meaning of the source language expression in the target language. Thus, meaning is important
in translation and it must be held constant. Furthermore, translating a literary work into
another language is creating a new literary work in another language.
In this article, I will analyze the types of translation based on their purpose or goal of
translation. There are four types of them; pragmatic, ethnographic, aesthetic-poetic and

linguistic translation. However, in this article, I focus on pragmatic, ethnographic and


aesthetic-poetic translation.
They will be analyzed by concerning the techniques of translation used by translators. There
are several techniques of doing translation that can be used. Molina and Albir (2002:509)
categorize the translation techniques can be borrowing, calque, literal, transposition,
modulation, compensation, adaptation, description, generalization, and reduction.

Discussion
According to the purpose of translation, Brislin in Choliludin, 2007: 26-29 categorizes
translation into these following types.
Pragmatic translation
This type refers to the translation of a message with an interest in accuracy of the information
which was meant to be conveyed in the source language form. It is not concerned with other
aspects of the original language version. It means that the translated product focuses on the
true information of the message delivered in it.
Pragmatic translation is usually used in marketing products. The translator can use several
techniques in order to make his or her translation become good one. As stated before that
pragmatic translation tend to concern in accuracy of the information in the SL, the translator
must pay more attention to the message that will be delivered from the products.
Here is the example of pragmatic translation from English into Indonesian.
English

Indonesian

For printing photographs, illustrations, use of high Resolution Paper, Glossy


Photo Paper or High Photo Film is recommended. These media provide better
colour reproduction and brighter colours than plain paper
Untuk mencetak foto dan ilustrasi atau gambar, gunakan kertas dengan
resolusi tinggi, yaitu kertas foto glossy atau disarankan menggunakan kertas
film glossy yang memiliki resolusi tinggi. Media ini akan menghasilkan hasil
warna gambar yang lebih baik dan lebih jelas dari pada menggunakan kertas
biasa.

This translation product is done accurately by the translator. The translator uses several
techniques in that translation such as borrowing, literal and transposition. The readers can
easily understand the information of the message conveyed.
In borrowing technique, it takes words straight into another language. In this case, the
translator maintains the use of word glossy in the target language refer to the same form of
it in the source language. Another technique is literal. It is a direct transfer of the source
language text into a grammatically and idiomatically appropriate to the target language. it can
be found in photo paper. The translator directly translates it into kertas foto. In addition,
transposition technique can be found in this text. It involves replacing one word class with
another without changing the meaning of the message from SL to TL (singular to plural,
position of adjective, changing the word class or part of speech). From the text, the word
photographs in the source language (English) is in plural form. When the translator
translates it into Indonesian, it is not translated as foto-foto. The meaning of the message is
not changed although the grammatical change occurred.
Ethnographic translation
This type of translation is aimed to explicate the cultural context of the source language and
the target language version. Translator has to be sensitive in the way of using the proper
words and understand whether they fit into cultures. Here is the example of ethnographic
translation from English into Indonesian.
English
Set within tropical gardens near the golden sands of Lovina Beach, Puri Saron Hotel
Baruna Beach Lovina offers cottage-style and villa-style accommodation and dolphin
tour arrangements. The hotel features 3 outdoor pools.
The air-conditioned rooms at Puri Saron come with private balconies offering views
of the garden or sea. Each room has satellite TV and a fridge with minibar. En suite
bathrooms provide a hot and cold shower.
Guests can enjoy a relaxing massage or simply lounge on the sun deck by the pool.
The hotel provides laundry and dry cleaning services. Room service is also available.
Mawar Saron Restaurant serves a variety of dishes prepared with fresh ingredients.
Pool and sea views accompany meals at this beach-facing restaurant. Drinks are

available at the bar.


Located in Northern Bali, Puri Saron Baruna Beach is just a short drive from the
historical city of Singaraja.
Indonesian
Terletak di taman tropis dekat dengan pantai berpasir keemasan Pantai Lovina, Puri
Saron Hotel Baruna Beach Lovina menawarkan akomodasi bergaya pondok dan vila
serta pengaturan wisata lumba-lumba. Hotel ini memiliki 3 kolam renang outdoor.
Kamar yang ber-AC di Puri Saron dilengkapi dengan balkon pribadi dengan
pemandangan taman atau laut. Tiap kamar memiliki TV satelit dan lemari es
dengan minibar. Kamar mandi en-suite-nya menyediakan shower air panas dan
dingin.
Anda dapat menikmati pijat relaksasi atau sekadar bersantai di dek berjemur di tepi
kolam renang. Hotel ini menyediakan layanan binatu dan dry cleaning Layanan
kamar juga tersedia.
Mawar Saron Restaurant menyajikan aneka hidangan yang disiapkan dengan
bahan-bahan segar. Pemandangan kolam renang dan laut menemani acara santap
Anda di restoran yang menghadap ke pantai ini. Aneka minuman tersedia di bar.
Terletak di Bali Utara, Puri Saron Baruna Beach dapat dicapai dengan hanya
berkendara singkat dari kota bersejarah Singaraja.

Based on the translation product above, the translator uses several techniques such as literal,
borrowing, calque, transposition and modulation. Literal technique that is used by the
translator can be found in the word room service which translates into layanan kamar in
target language. It is also can be found in the translation of the words satellite TV into TV
satelit. While borrowing technique is used by the translator in the words shower, hotel,
villa, minibar and outdoor. Another technique is calque. It is a literal translation in
phrase level. It refers to the case where the translator imitates in his or her translation based
on the structure or manner of expression of the ST. We often see it in specialized such as dry
cleaning. In transposition technique, I found some words that refer to this technique. The
words gardens, balconies, arrangements, and rooms concern to plural form in the
source language which translate into singular one in the target language. Besides that, the
word bathroom that translated into kamar mandi refers to transposition technique of
translation. In addition, the modulation technique used by the translator in this text can be
found in the clause Pool and sea views accompany meals at this beach-facing

restaurant which translated into Pemandangan kolam renang dan laut menemani
acara santap Anda di restoran yang menghadap ke pantai ini. The use of word acara

santap refers to meal in the source language express the same phenomenon in different
way.
Aesthetic-poetic translation
This translation type refers to translation in which the translator takes into account the affect,
emotion, and feelings of an original agnate version, the aesthetic form used by the original
author, as well as any information in the message. The examples of aesthetic-poetic
translation can be sonnet, rhyme, heroic couplet, novel, etc.
Here is the example of translation of the song lyric All of me by John Legend into
Indonesian.
English (SL)
What would I do without your smart
mouth
Drawing me in, and you kicking me out
Got my head spinning, no kidding
I can't pin you down
What's going on in that beautiful mind
I'm on your magical mystery ride
And I'm so dizzy
Don't know what hit me
But I'll be alright
My head's underwater
But I'm breathing fine
You're crazy and I'm out of my mind
Cause all of me
Loves all of you
Love your curves and all your edges
All your perfect imperfections
Give your all to me
I'll give my all to you
You're my end and my beginning
Even when I lose I'm winning
Cause I give you all of me
And you give me all of you
Based on the translation above, it can be

Indonesian (TL)
Apa yang kan kulakukan tanpa kata-katamu
Menghelaku, dan kau mengusirku
Kau buat aku pening, sungguh
Aku tak bisa membuatmu diam
Apa yang sedang dalam rencana indahmu
Aku berada dalam alur misterimu
Aku sungguh bingung
Tak tahu yang terjadi padaku
Tapi aku kan baik-baik saja
Aku tertekan
Tapi aku tetap bertahan
Kau menggila dan aku tak bisa berbuat apa-apa
Karena sepenuh diriku
Mencintaimu sepenuhnya
Mencintai kelebihan dan kekuranganmu
Segala ketidaksempurnaanmu yang sempurna
Percayalah sepenuhnya padaku
Ku kan berikan segalanya untukmu
Kaulah mati dan hidupku
Meski saat hancur akupun senang
Karena ku berikan segalanya untukmu
Dan kau percayakan sepenuhnya padaku
categorized as aesthetic-poetic translation. The

translators have to use their understanding and feeling of the original lyric song before doing

translation on it. Literal translation cannot be used in aesthetic-poetic type. Many idiomatic
clauses that needed deeply understanding to the meaning of this lyric. For example in the
clause what would I do without your smart mouth. This clause is difficult to be translated
into Indonesian literally. The translator does not translate it into apa yang akan aku lakukan
tanpa mulut cerdasmu. If it is done, it will make no sense and the readers will hardly
understand the meaning of it. By his understanding and feeling, he translated that clause to
Apa yang kan kulakukan tanpa kata-katamu in Indonesian. Thus, to avoid the bias and
misunderstanding of the readers towards the translated text in this type, the translator should
not use literal technique in doing translation.

Conclusion
Pragmatic translation refers to the translation of a message with an interest in accuracy of the
information which was meant to be conveyed in the source language form. It is not concerned
with other aspects of the original language version. It means that the translated product
focuses on the true information of the message delivered in it.
Ethnographic translation is aimed to explicate the cultural context of the source language and
the target language version. Translator has to be sensitive in the way of using the proper
words and understand whether they fit into cultures.
Aesthetic-poetic translation refers to translation in which the translator takes into account the
affect, emotion, and feelings of an original agnate version, the aesthetic form used by the
original author, as well as any information in the message

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