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Hierarchy of the Government

A Hierarchy is an organizational structure in which items are ranked according to levels


of importance. Most governments, corporations and organized religions are
hierarchical. The word hierarchy comes from the Greek hieros, meaning sacred,
and archein, meaning to rule.
A Central Government is the government of a nation-state and is a characteristic of a
unitary state. This is the same thing as a federal government which may have distinct
powers at various levels authorized or delegated to it by its member states, though the
adjective 'central' is sometimes used to describe it.
A State Government or provincial government is the government of a country
subdivision in a federal form of government, which shares political power with the
federal or national government. A state government may have some level of political
autonomy, or be subject to the direct control of the federal government.
A District (Zil) is an administrative division of an Indian state or territory. In some
cases districts are further subdivided into sub-divisions, and in others directly
into tehsils or talukas. As of 2016 there are a total of 687 districts,up from the 640 in
the 2011 Census of India[2]and the 593 recorded in the 2001 Census of India.[3]

Municipal Corporation
In India, a Municipal Corporation is an administering local government body, generally
for cities of population 300,000 or more. This standard varies from state to state,
according to laws passed by state legislatures (Vidhan Sabha). Established by an act of
a Vidhan Sabha a Municipal Corporation can be established independently, or a
Municipality (Nagar Palika) can be elevated to the Corporation level when it reaches the
deignated population level.
The Corporation of Chennai was the first Municipal Corporation in India. It was
established on 29 September 1688 by the British East India Company, via a Royal
Charter of King James II of England.
The second was Hyderabad Municipal Corporation established in 1869 by the Nizam
rulers of Hyderabad State.

The third was the Calcutta Municipal Corporation(later Kolkata Municipal Corporation),
established in 1876.
The Bombay Municipal Corporation was established in 1888 by the Bombay Municipal
Corporation Act.
The Delhi Municipal Council was established in 1911 during the Delhi Durbar when New
Delhi was proclaimed to be the new Capital of India, replacing Calcutta. It was elevated
to Municipal Corporation level on 7 April 1958 by an Act of Parliament which established
the Municipal Corporation of Delhi.[citation needed]
In different states of India a Municipal Corporation is called by different names, all of
which are translated to "Municipal Corporation" in English. These names include Nagar
Nigam in Delhi, Uttar
Pradesh, Bihar, Rajasthan,
and Haryana; Mahanagar
Palika in Maharashtra, Goa, and Karnataka; Pouro Nigom in West Bengal; Pur Porishod
in Tripura; and Nagar Palika Nigam in Madhya Pradesh.
The detailed structure of these urban bodies varies from state to state, as per the laws
passed by he state legislature (Vidhan Sabha) but the basic structure and function is
almost the same.

Municipality
A municipality is usually an urban administrative divisionhaving corporate status and
powers of self-government or jurisdiction. The term municipality is also used to mean
the governing, ruling body of a municipality.[1] A municipality is a general-purpose
administrative subdivision, as opposed to a special-purpose district. The term is derived
from French"municipalit" and Latin"municipalis".[2]
The English word
"Municipality"
derives
from
the
Latin social
contract municipium (derived from a word meaning duty holders), referring to the Latin
communities that supplied Rome with troops in exchange for their own incorporation
into the Roman state (granting Roman citizenship to the inhabitants) while permitting
the communities to retain their own local governments (a limited autonomy).

City Council or Nagar Panchayat


Each nagar panchayat has a committee consisting of a chairman/mayor along with ward
members. Membership consists of a minimum of ten elected ward members and three
nominated members. NAC members of the nagar panchayat are elected from the
several wards of the nagar panchayat on the basis of adult franchise for a term of five
years. There are seats reserved for scheduled castes, scheduled tribes, backward

classes and women. The councillors or ward members chosen by direct election from
electoral wards in the nagar panchayat.
Administration
The Chairman is the head of the Notified Area Committee. The Executive Officer is the
official in charge of the Notified Area Council. Executive Officers monitor the
implementation of all the programs related to planning and development of the Notified
Area Council with the coordination of the NAC Chairman and all ward members.
Functions
Provide essential services and facilities to the urban area.
Sanitation programme in township.
Street lighting and providing roads in every wards and main roads of town.
Set up and run schools in urban area. Execute programme for adult literacy and
run city libraries.
Water supplying to every ward of the urban area.
Drainage system to clear the solid and liquid wastes from town.
Build culvert for underground drainage system.
Records of births and deaths.
Ward
A ward is a local authority area, typically used for electoral purposes. Wards are usually
named
after neighbourhoods, thoroughfares, parishes, landmarks,
geographical
features and in some cases historical figures connected to the area. It is common in
the United States for wards to simply be numbered.
In Swahili/Kiswahili Local Ward is called Kata.
In Australia, Canada, Monaco, New Zealand, South Africa, the United Kingdom, and
the United States, they are an electoral district within a district or municipality, used
in local government elections. In the United States, wards are usually subdivided
into precincts for polling purposes.
In the Republic of Ireland, urban Wards and rural District Electoral Divisions were
renamed Electoral Divisions in 1994.[1] The electoral districts for local authorities are

often popularly called "wards". These consist of multiple electoral divisions, and are
officially called "local electoral areas".[2]
In the case of a municipal amalgamation, the former cities and towns that make up the
new metropolis may be referred to as wards.
In certain cities of India, like Mumbai and Delhi, a ward is an administrative unit
of the city region, a city area is divided into Zones, which in turn contains
numerous wards.[3][4]
Blocks
The Administrative divisions of India are Indian subnational administrative units; they
compose a nested hierarchy of country ... The smaller subdivisions (villages and blocks)
exist only in rural areas.

Villages
A village is a clustered human settlement or community, larger than a hamlet but
smaller than a town, with a population ranging from a few hundred to a few thousand.
Though often located in rural areas, the term urban village is also applied to certain
urban neighbourhoods. Villages are normally permanent, with fixed dwellings; however,
transient villages can occur. Further, the dwellings of a village are fairly close to one
another, not scattered broadly over the landscape, as a dispersed settlement.
In the past, villages were a usual form of community for societies that
practise subsistence agriculture, and also for some non-agricultural societies. In Great
Britain, a hamlet earned the right to be called a village when it built a church.[1] In many
cultures, towns and cities were few, with only a small proportion of the population living
in them. The Industrial Revolution attracted people in larger numbers to work in mills
and factories; the concentration of people caused many villages to grow into towns and
cities. This also enabled specialization of labor and crafts, and development of many
trades. The trend of urbanization continues, though not always in connection with
industrialization.
Although many patterns of village life have existed, the typical village was small,
consisting of perhaps 5 to 30 families. Homes were situated together for sociability and
defence, and land surrounding the living quarters was farmed. Traditional fishing
villages were based on artisan fishing and located adjacent to fishing grounds.