Structural use of glass in buildings (Second edition)   February 2014

Glass has, in relatively recent times, undergone significant increase in its
use within our built environment, especially as a structural material. This
Guide updates and revises the Institution of Structural Engineers’ well
renowned and respected text Structural use of glass in buildings.
This Guide is not intended to be a code of practice, but rather a principal
source of information and reference for those interested in the structural
use of glass. It also provides general guidance sourced from all over the
world that is based on existing good practice as a starting point from
which designers can carry out further studies and research according to
circumstances.
It is intended that this Guide be used by experienced structural
engineers and construction industry professionals. It assumes varying
degrees of prior knowledge of the structural use of glass, in order to
provide an insight into design methodology, specification, materials and
techniques in the design and construction of glass structures.
Like the first edition, worked examples are given throughout the Guide
for the simple design of glass elements such as floor plates, beams and
columns. Connection design is also considered, as connections play a
significant role in the design of glass elements. Unique to this edition is
the inclusion of advice on the modelling of glass structures within
structural analysis computer applications to reflect the contemporary
working practices with the increased reliance of such tools. This Guide
also addresses some of the other issues that may influence structural
behaviour, or place constraints on what can be achieved, such as
extreme loading conditions and fire protection.

Structural use of glass
in buildings
(Second edition)
February 2014

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Institution
Structural
Engineers

Structural use of glass
in buildings
(Second edition)
February 2014

Technical author
C O’Regan BEng(Hons) CEng MIStructE (The Institution of Structural Engineers)
Membership of the steering group
M Byatt CEng MIStructE (PINNACLE Consulting Engineers) Chairman
B Barton BSc(Hons) CEng FIStructE FICE FConsE GradDiplBldgCons AA (Barton Engineers)
J Colvin MA(Cantab) (JCGC Limited)
S Ledbetter BSc PhD CEng FICE FSFE (Centre for Window and Cladding Technology,
University of Bath)
P Lenk Bc(Eng) Ing(Struct) PhD CEng MIStructE SSM SAS (Eckersley O’Callaghan)
T Macfarlane CEng MIStructE RDI (Glass Light and Special Structures)
J O’Callaghan BEng CEng MIStructE MHKIE (Eckersley O’Callaghan)
M Otlet BSc(Hons) D.Eng CEng FIStructE FSFE (Atkins)
M Overend BE&A(Hons) MSc PhD A&CE CEng MIStructE MICE (University of Cambridge)
D Pask BSc(Hons) CEng MIStructE (Atkins)
P Ryan BSc PhD CEng MIStructE FSFE (Patrick Ryan Associates)
J Sakula MA CEng FIStructE FICE (Buro Happold)
W Sharman BSc(Eng) (Cantifix Limited)
G Vasilchenko CEng MIStructE (Malishev Wilson Engineers)
F Wellershoff Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. IWE/EWE/SFI (HafenCity Universita¨t Hamburg)
Secretary to the steering group
L Allan MEng(Hons) (The Institution of Structural Engineers) (until July 2012)
L Kirk MEng(Hons) (The Institution of Structural Engineers) (from September 2012)
Acknowledgements
Fusion Glass – Figure 1.1, 1.2 and 8.8
Mel Yates – Figure 6.3, 6.7, 8.1 and 9.2
Dennis Gilbert – Figure 8.7
FA Firman – Figure 8.11
Gennady Vasilchenko-Malishev – Figure 8.16
Mariinsky stair, A Belov (Project Russia Magazine) – Figure 3.1
Eckersley O’Callaghan – Figure 1.3, 2.13, 2.16, 2.23, 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4, 4.5, 4.6, 4.7,
4.8, 4.9, 4.10, 4.11a, 4.11b, 4.11c, 4.12, 4.13a, 4.13b, 4.13c, 4.14, 4.15, 4.16, 8.2,
8.9, 8.17
William Murphy, Dublin – Figure 1.7
Jens Henrik Nielsen – Figure 2.8
DuPont – Figure 2.11 and Table 2.2 – DuPontTM and SentryGlassw are registered
trademarks or trademarks of DuPont or its affiliates
Siu Lai Chan – Figure 2.14
IGA Institute for Glass Application, Witten, Germany – Figure 2.24
The Exeter Daily, Marc Astley – Figure 3.1
Novum Structures – Figure 5.1, 5.3, 7.2 and 8.18
Cantifix and the work to Rodic´ Davidson Architects – Figure 7.1
South China Morning Post – Figure 14.4
Elsevier – Figure D1, D2, D3, D4, D5, D6, D7, D8, D9, D10, D11, D12, D13, D14
# Raimond Spekking/CC-BY-SA-3.0 (via Wikimedia Commons) – Figure 11.2
Conservation and restoration of glass by Sandra Davison, Taylor & Francis,
2nd Edition, 2003, Chapter 3, page 127, Figure 3.43 – Figure 1.9
Centre for Window and Cladding Technology – Figure 2.25
Permission to reproduce extracts from British Standards is granted by BSI Standards
Limited (BSI). No other use of this material is permitted. British Standards can be
obtained in PDF or hard copy formats from the BSI online shop: www.bsigroup.com/
Shop or by contacting BSI Customer Services for hard copies only: Tel: +44 (0)20
8996 9001, Email: cservices@bsigroup.com – Figure 7.3, 7.4, 7.5 and 7.6
Published by The Institution of Structural Engineers
International HQ, 11 Upper Belgrave Street, London SW1X 8BH
Telephone: +44 (0)20 7235 4535 Fax: +44 (0)20 7235 4294
Email: mail@istructe.org Website: www.istructe.org
First published 2014
ISBN 978-1-906335-25-0
# 2014 The Institution of Structural Engineers

The Institution of Structural Engineers and those individuals who contributed to this Guide have
endeavored to ensure the accuracy of its contents. However, the guidance and recommendations
given in the Guide should always be reviewed by those using the Guide in the light of the facts of
their particular case and specialist advice obtained as necessary. No liability for negligence or
otherwise in relation to this Guide and its contents is accepted by the Institution, the technical
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should pay particular attention to the provisions of this Condition.
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6.4 2.6.4 Transport and installation 16 Post-failure behaviour 16 2.8 7.7 Environment 23 3.7 6.3 Non-linear analysis 29 Design examples 29 4.1 3.7 7.3 Clamp fixings 13 2.2 Continuous linear supports 13 2.7 2.2 Simple global model 27 4.2 Advanced analysis techniques 30 Interrogation of model and results 31 4.2 Design criteria for fire protection 20 3.4.3 Design principles 5 Glass material properties 5 Behaviour of glass as a structural material 5 Glass types 6 2.6 2.1.1 6.1 Interpretation 31 4.5.9 Testing methodology 24 3.3 7.6 6.3 1.3 27 8.5 2.2 Material choice 36 5.1 4.2 4.1 Description 29 4.3 Redundancy and post-failure behaviour of glass 17 Application of limit state theory 17 References 17 2.5.2.2 6.3 Design principles 35 5.4 4.2 Linear elastic analysis 29 4.2 Annealed glass 6 2.2.5.7 Laminated glass 10 2.3.3.3 Design principles 37 5.5 Serviceability 35 5.1 Element design 49 Glass floor plate design 49 8.2 Post-failure behaviour of glass at height 23 3.8 Connection design 38 Introduction 38 Continuous linear support connections Clamp connections 38 Friction connections 38 Bolted connections 39 Adhesive based connections 40 Worked example 41 References 41 7 7.1 Localised stress 13 2.3 Verification of results 32 References 33 5.8 1 4.1 Introduction 15 2.5 Design criteria 19 Introduction 19 Stress limits 19 Support movements 20 Serviceability limits 20 Fire protection and extreme loading conditions 20 3.4.3.2.5 Serviceability 37 References 37 6 6.9 Glass balustrades 42 Introduction 42 Design principles 42 Material selection 43 Methods of connection 43 Serviceability 44 Initial sizing 45 Design criteria 45 Worked example for balustrade design References 48 8 8.6.6 Initial sizing 36 Design of insulating glazed units 36 5.2.1 1.3 Detailed local models 28 4.3 Manufacture 16 2.11 References 26 4 4.2 7.4 Thermally toughened glass 8 2.3.1 Introduction 23 3.2 Initial model checks 32 4.4 Design criteria for seismic loading 22 3.5.8 Testing 24 3.3.6 Heat soaking 9 2.6 Location 23 3.1 7.2.1.5.1 Description 36 5.1.4 Glass in the building envelope 34 Introduction 34 Design of glass panes within cladding units 5.3.5 Serviceability 51 8.5.1 Introduction 20 3.2 Inherent properties 16 2.4 Methods of support 37 5.3.3.5.3 Foreword vii 1 1.1 5.Contents List of tables Notation v vi 4.4.5.3.5 Structural use of glass Introduction 1 History of glass 2 Scope 4 Status 4 References 4 2 2.1 Post-failure behaviour of monolithic glass 16 2.1 Parameters 34 5.4 3.3 Material selection 50 8.2.3.2 Post-failure behaviour of laminated glass 17 2.4 Methods of connection 50 8.6 7.5 3 3.4 Methods of connection 35 5.8 Glass coatings 12 2.2.6.2.2.1.4 1.2 Design principles 49 8.4 6.10 Codified approach to testing 24 3.1 The four variants 6 2.7 Worked example for floor plate design Glass wall design 56 8.1 Introduction 56 5.3.1.5.2 Material choice 35 5.3 Design criteria for blast loading 21 3.2.3.4.5 6.4.6 5 5.1 Linear vs.3.3.4 Bolted fixings 14 2.6 Initial sizing 51 8.5 Chemically toughened glass 8 2. non-linear 29 4.2 2.3.5.9 Material properties of glass 12 Connections in glass 13 2.1 Methodology 27 4.5 7.1 Introduction 49 8.2 Analysis of glass structures Introduction 27 Modelling techniques 27 4.4 7.6.2 34 38 46 52 The Institution of Structural Engineers Structural use of glass in buildings (Second edition) iii .4.5 Adhesives 15 Limitations of material 15 2.3 3.2 3.3.2.3 6.4.4 Detailed global model 28 Analysis types 29 4.3 Heat-strengthened glass 7 2.1.3.2 1.1.5.1 2.

3 9.3.6 Initial sizing 68 8.1 Introduction 66 8.3.3.2.7 Worked example for glass column design 70 References 71 8.4.6 Initial sizing 58 8.4 8.6 Initial sizing 64 8.4 14.4 11. construction.1 Introduction 61 8.4.4 Methods of connection 57 8.5 14.4.5 References 76 11 11.3 14.2 Special application of structural glass Introduction 73 Prestressed glass structures 73 9.2.1 Introduction 85 iv 85 The Institution of Structural Engineers Structural use of glass in buildings (Second edition) 14.2.3 Material selection 63 8.2 Material choice 73 9.4.3 Specification 83 Introduction 83 Specification for glass cladding 83 Specification for glass structures 83 12.5 Serviceability 73 Adhesive based glass structures 73 9.2 14.2 13.3 Design principles 73 9.7 Worked example for glass beam design 65 Glass column design 66 8.3.4.4 Methods of connection 68 8.6 Procurement.4 Methods of connection 63 8.3.3.4.2 Design principles 74 Reference 74 9.3 Material selection 57 8.2.1 9.7 Worked example for glass wall design Glass beam design 61 8.2.2.2 Material choice 66 8.3 8.2.3 11.2.1 Principles of design 73 9.6 12 Designing glass structures for extreme loading conditions 77 Accidental loads 77 Designing for blast loads 77 Ballistic loading 78 Intruder resistance 79 Designing for seismic loads 79 References 79 12.2 11.2 Design principles 62 8.2 12.2 Design principles 56 8.2.6 14.3 10.7 Degradation of connections 85 Cracking due to thermal shock 85 Cracking due to instability 85 Cracking due to surface imperfections Cracking due to impact 85 Nickel sulphide imperfections 86 Appendix A Bibliography 85 87 Appendix B Regulatory framework 88 Appendix C Design data for structural glass 89 Appendix D Material properties charts 91 Appendix E Glossary of terms 99 .1 13.1 11. and maintenance of glass structures 80 Introduction 80 Procurement 80 Quality control 80 Construction methods 80 Replacement strategy and maintenance regimes of glass structures 81 References 82 13 13.4 12.3.2.1 10.4 Methods of connection 73 9.4 Fire protection of glass structures 75 Introduction 75 Material changes to glass for fire protection 75 Positive fire protection to glass structures 76 Impact of fire protection to the design of structural glass elements 76 10.5 Serviceability 68 8.1 12.8.3.5 9 9.3 12.2 10.5 Serviceability 63 8.5 Serviceability 58 8.4.2.5 11.1 Introduction 73 9.3.4 59 73 10 10.5 14 Inspection of glass structures 14.3 Design principles 66 8.

2 Table 2.3 Table 3. Young’s modulus of ionoplast interlayer 11 Characteristic strength of all types of glass 13 Values of characteristic strength for prestressed glass 19 Values of edge factor ke 20 Thermal shock temperature limits for glass 21 General Services Administration (GSA) categories for blast loads 22 Approximate thicknesses of free-standing toughened glass balustrades 45 Coefficient of slenderness g1 63 Coefficient of slenderness g2 and g3 63 Deterioration of PVB interlayer vs.List of tables Table 2.1 Table 8.2 Table 10.4 Table 7.1 Table 2.9 Typical composition of soda–lime–silica glass 6 Temperature and load duration vs.1 Table Table Table Table Table Table C.1 Table 8.3 C.4 C.1 C.2 Table 3. temperature rise 76 Material properties 89 Material partial factors 89 Variable action partial factor gQ 89 Glass surface profile factor ksp 89 Action duration factor kmod 89 Characteristic bending strength for prestressed glass fb.1 Table 3.6 Table C.k 90 Strengthening factor kv 90 Edge stress factor ke 90 Coefficient of shear transfer v 90 The Institution of Structural Engineers Structural use of glass in buildings (Second edition) v .3 Table 3.8 Table C.2 C.5 C.7 Table C.

k distance between middle of ply and middle of laminated glass pane ke edge factor for glass factor for load duration kmod ksp factor for glass profile prestressing factor kv t glass thickness teff effective thickness of laminated glass column thickness of ply in a laminated glass column ti tint thickness of the interlayer in a laminated glass column factor for imperfections in glass columns w0 y0 distance between restraint and the neutral axis of a glass beam yh distance from the neutral axis of the loading point in a glass beam vi The Institution of Structural Engineers Structural use of glass in buildings (Second edition) Greek lower case letters coefficient for area of concentrated point load material partial factor for basic annealed glass material partial factor for prestressed glass deflection and inter-storey drift coefficient of friction in a bolt fixing Poisson’s ratio density stress coefficient of shear transfer in laminated glass b gM:A gM:v d d m n r s v Note: The glossary of terms is contained in Appendix E.d applied stress F tension in bolt due to torque G shear modulus Gint shear modulus of the interlayer in laminated glass columns G(t. .T) interlayer shear modulus GJ effective torsional rigidity H height of glazing panel I second moment of area Ii second moment of area in plies of a laminated glass column Is second moment of area of a laminated glass column J torsional constant L span of element when considering deflection limits distance between points of effective rigid rotational Lay restraint LCR unrestrained length of glass column M applied design bending moment MCR critical elastic bending moment N applied design axial force NCR axial design load capacity of glass column design stress limit Rd W elastic modulus Zi distance between centre of ply and centre of laminated glass column section Latin lower case letters b distance from centre of bolt to the centre of the bolt group and width of glazing c clearance between glass cladding element and frame supports d depth of beam and mid-span deflection of a simply supported beam e eccentricity of load onto column fb.k characteristic strength of prestressed glass design strength of glass at its edge feg.Notation Latin upper case letters A cross sectional area of a glass column E Young’s modulus EIy effective rigidity for bending about the minor axis EULS.w hef.s effective thickness of laminated glass for stress thickness of ply in laminated glass hk hm.k g1 coefficient of slenderness for glass beams slenderness factor for applied load to glass beams g2 g3 slenderness factor for support conditions to glass beams h height of glazing/cladding effective thickness of laminated glass for deflection hef.d fg.d design strength of glass characteristic strength of basic annealed glass fg.

Throughout the process he has been open and accommodating when receiving and incorporating comments from the steering group on the numerous drafts throughout the authoring process. In 1999 the Institution of Structural Engineers published The structural use of glass in buildings. I would personally wish to thank Chris O’Regan of the Institution for his determination. specification. in relatively recent times. sustainability. Worked examples are given throughout the Guide for the simple design of various glass elements ranging from balustrades to floors. This second edition updates and expands upon the original publication but also re-formats the Guide to create an interesting. Matthew Byatt Steering Group Chairman The Institution of Structural Engineers Structural use of glass in buildings (Second edition) vii . environmental considerations and architecture are pushing forward the boundaries of its use and. with varying degrees of prior knowledge of the structural use of glass. but rather a principal source of information and reference for those interested in the structural use of glass. I would like to thank all members of the steering group who have brought their knowledge to our meetings and have freely given their help. drafting and preparing the final text of the document. to fill a clear void in the published information available on this topic. It is intended that the Guide be used by structural engineers and construction industry professionals. followed by vessels and much later for incorporation within windows of buildings. In 2012 a steering group was brought together by the Institution with a brief to review. update and revise this well renowned and respected guidance document and to create The structural use of glass in buildings (Second edition). with its unique optical and aesthetic properties. in order to provide an insight into design methodology. considerable expertise and valued contributions in producing this document. the Guide will provide a detailed source of reference and knowledge for those engineers and designers already experienced in the structural design and use of glass.Foreword For thousands of years humans have manufactured glass. Originally used as beads within jewellery. In particular. are driving forward the understanding and further development of glass as a structural material. as well as reference and guidance for those wishing to further advance their knowledge and understanding. materials and techniques. glass has. undergone significant increase in its use within our built environment. This Guide is not intended to be a code of practice. It is hard to envisage any modern building where glass does not play an important part within the design. in doing so. highly informative reference document combined with a wholly useable design guide. In addition. We are now at a pivotal point in the use of glass within buildings where technology. hard work and enthusiasm in researching.

.

It is this fact more than any other that has prompted the creation of this second edition.1 Introduction This Guide deals with the design of structural glass in buildings. The use of glass as a structural material within buildings has become increasingly common over the past 25 years. far more so than for traditional building materials. Knowing that continuing research is being carried out in this field. columns and beams. The methods of design and construction of glass structures described in this Guide are contemporary to the time of its publication. as they play a significant role in the design of elements. Chapters 5 to 8 describe how various structural glass elements are designed. floor plates.2) and the need to create well lit and spacious areas within buildings becomes more prominent. notably the use unique structural solutions such as the application of post tensioning. The remainder of the Guide refers back to the principles laid down within these chapters. silicone or adhesives within glass structures. It is for this reason that such research has not been included in this edition. Figure 1. Florida Figure 1. but is inexperienced in designing structural elements in glass. However. it is not exhaustive and the reader is encouraged to seek further guidance from other texts.2 Glass walkway.3 Glass staircase and balastrade The Institution of Structural Engineers Structural use of glass in buildings (Second edition) 1 . This Guide is aimed at the structural engineer who is well versed in the design of building structures using more traditional materials such as steel and reinforced concrete. be it bolted. As architecture becomes more adventurous (see Figure 1. construct and inspect a glass structure.1 and 1.1 Glass water feature in Pompano Park. such as a beam or column. There is also an emphasis placed on the design of connections in all of their forms. of connection design cannot be understated with respect to structural glass elements. The structure of this Guide is set out in such a way as to provide as many tools as possible to carry out the design of structural glass elements. London.3 as evidence of this. elements subject to thermal effects and those that support imposed loads/variable actions. walls. the reader is alerted to the fact that the use of glass as a structural element is still benefiting from continued advancements and that there is much in the way of cutting edge technology that is being developed but not yet proven. It also covers glass elements that resist only wind load. Examples include balustrades. UK Since the first edition of this Guide was published in 1999. so the reader is encouraged to become fully versed with them before delving any further. the reliance on the use of glass as a structural material has increased. The Guide is split into 14 chapters and has been set out in such a way as to aid the structural engineer to design. This includes structural elements that carry load directly. These could vary from balustrades to enclosures that are to be constructed entirely from glass. Chapters 2 to 4 explain design principles and criteria as well as expand on appropriate methods of computer modelling. Chapter 9 covers the special application of glass structures.1 Structural use of glass 1. The importance Figure 1. a significant amount of technological advancement has occurred within the realm of use of structural glass elements – see Figure 1. Cheapside. their own weight.

5) in large enough quantities that would allow them to use it as glazing. Figure 1.5 Roman clear glass vessels Chapter 14 explains what needs to be considered when carrying out inspections of glass structures and will assist the reader in knowing what to look for when carrying out such inspections. 1. It explains the key performance criteria structural glass must meet and how this is traditionally communicated to the contractor. Chapter 13 expands on how structural glass elements are to be specified within design documents. which eventually declined in the middle of the 19th century. Venetians and subsequently by the French. that recovered the heat from waste gases.6) for manufacturing glass was first developed in the 14th century in France.6 Crown glass manufacturing . such as those generated during seismic events and explosions. The 19th century invention of the Siemens-Martin firing method. Glass making was further developed by the Romans. Syrians. such was the complexity to create and install them. History of glass The oldest finds of glass date from around 3500 BC in Egypt. It was the variation in thickness of glass panes made by this method that gave rise to the myth of glass ‘flowing’ even when cold. North East England. The method they used consisted of casting the glass onto a table and then pulling it into shape while it was still relatively workable.75m. There was a glass industry in Britain as early as 680 AD around Jarrow. The first American glass making innovation was a glass-pressing machine that was patented in 1825. likely causes of cracking and established safe methods of construction. Initially large windows existed in cathedrals and churches. but they were usually smaller. who were the first to create clear glass (see Figure 1. It was coloured and was typically used as either jewellery or for vessels to store liquids (see Figure 1.1.2 Structural use of glass Chapters 10 and 11 explain the impact that fire protection has on the design of structural glass and how extreme loading conditions. In the crown method glassmakers blew a large bubble of glass. It covers aspects of cleaning. This method was adopted by the The ‘crown’ process (see Figure 1. Chapter 12 concerns the procurement. Tyne and Wear. which they then spun rapidly while the glass was still soft. Eventually developments in structural engineering made increasingly larger window openings possible for all types of buildings.4). are considered.5m  0. made possible the higher temperatures needed for better quality glass. The crown method could produce panes of up to 0. Notable examples include: Figure 1. thus stimulating demand for bigger and better panes of glass. construction. This process was the only way of making flat glass panes. This lead to the creation of the great iron and glasshouses that were built in the first half of the 19th century and were described by Woods and Warren1.4 Egyptian glass vessel 2 The Institution of Structural Engineers Structural use of glass in buildings (Second edition) Figure 1. producing a disc of glass that was then cooled gently.2 Lead glass was invented by George Ravenscroft in the 1670s and the British Plate Glass Company was founded in 1773. Germans and English.1 as a time of glass roofs and graceful curves. maintenance and inspection of existing glass structures. It was considered to be prestigious if a property owner had glass in their windows.

A mechanical cylinder drawing machine was first introduced in 1910. This involved blowing a bubble of glass.5 inch) wrought iron bars provided out-of plane stiffness (see Figure 1. In essence. The cylinder process (also known as the broad process) provided glass of more uniform thickness up to 1.0m  1. Seiden. then swinging it into a cylindrical shape. notably the Belgian Fourcault and the American Colburn Processes. which used 84000 square metres (900000 square feet) of sheet glass in its patented ridge and furrow construction. The glass provided in-plane shear stiffness and 50mm (2 inch)  12mm (0.2 . the drop would disintegrate. which was first made in 1898. it is the surface compression that gives toughened glass strength. – Lady Diana Beaumont’s 18.Structural use of glass Moulding the cylinder Cut line Opening out Figure 1. – The Palm House at Kew by Decimus Burton and Richard Turner. The rolling process (first produced by the Chance Brothers in 1870) is used for the manufacture of patterned flat and wired glass. and then ground and polished. Figure 1. then flattened and cooled it by pulling it between asbestos rollers into panes up to 1. In 1900 the patent for toughened glass was filed by Austrian chemist. c.7). In Egypt they developed a system of making pots from toughened glass via moulds made from sand. This was costly and incurred wastage of 20%. The patent described the process of cooling the surface of the annealed glass at a faster rate than the centre thus creating a material that was stronger than basic annealed glass. – The Curvilinear Range at the National Botanic Garden in Dublin by William Clancey and Richard Turner.9 Cylinder process – A cast-iron framed glass house at Chiselhampton. In 1871 William Pilkington invented a machine which automated the production of plate glass made using the cylinder process. it was slit longitudinally and it was then reheated and opened out into a flat sheet. Rudolph A. A continuous stream of molten glass is poured between water-cooled rollers. Bailey in 1827. The Bicheroux process for casting. In the mid-20th century Pilkington developed the float glass process. which is described in Chapter 2. 1851.8). The Institution of Structural Engineers Structural use of glass in buildings (Second edition) 3 1. – Paxton’s Crystal Palace. The ends of the cylinder were cut off. In 1600 BC vases made from toughened glass appeared in Mesopotamia. the glass industry has responded to concerns regarding the energy efficiency of glass by developing new coatings to tune the performance of glass to reduce energy consumption in use.9m wide. This is due to the built in compression of the glass being removed after the tail had been broken. completed in 1848 (see Figure 1. In the 17th century Prince Rupert of the Rhine discovered that if small drops of molten glass were cooled in a bucket of water. This is explained in greater detail in Chapter 2. These drew molten glass from the furnace in a thin stream.7 Bretton Hall glass dome Figure 1.8 The Curvilinear Range at the National Botanic Garden. built by W. Oxfordshire. the resulting drop of glass could withstand the impact of a hammer. The beginning of the 20th century saw the development of various drawn flat sheet processes. where glass beads were made that had the same characteristics as toughened glass.9). This was due to the built in coupling of compression and tension stress within the glass.1800 (architect unknown). Dublin Since its invention. grinding and polishing plate glass dates from 1918. Plate glass is the name given to glass rolled from the furnace into a ribbon.3m (60ft) tall circular dome at Bretton in Yorkshire. also completed in 1848. Patterned glass is made in a single pass process and wired glass by a double pass process. Toughened glass (also known as tempered glass) dates as far back as 3000 BC in Syria. The Romans then shared the making of toughened glass throughout its empire that saw it spread to North West Europe.3m (see Figure 1. and D. Float glass combines the brilliant surfaces of sheet glass and the flat parallel surfaces of polished plate. If the ‘tail’ of the drop was struck however.

A. 4 The Institution of Structural Engineers Structural use of glass in buildings (Second edition) Scope Status This Guide has limitations. This creates a highly impact resistant sheet of glass. It is not intended to define the responsibilities of any parties.4 Thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) has also been used as an interlayer within laminated glass and it is installed using a similar process to PVB. which is especially useful if it fails. The basis of it was to create a multilayered pane of glass that would exhibit better postbreakage behaviour than a single pane. This Guide will not provide any definitive approaches to a given situation. Twenty years later polyvinyl butyral (PVB) interlayers were developed whose arrival brought about a resurgence in the use of laminated glass. London: Aurum Press. but was dropped because of durability issues in the 1930s. but it is also more expensive. However.3 Structural use of glass In the early 20th century A. In 1910 the concept of laminated glass was introduced. The Institution of Structural Engineers has produced this text as a design guide. which allow for the installation of light-emitting diodes (LED) within the glass. with diameters measured in microns. This is due to the PVB laminates’ resistance to moisture attack and hence is a more durable material.3 This Guide is principally aimed at structural engineers. M. The product was called ‘SentryGlas Plus’ and it is an ionoplast material that is stiffer and stronger than any other interlayer material. In order for the process to work. Its purpose is to provide general guidance based on existing good practice as a starting point from which designers can carry out further studies and research according to circumstances. These early laminated glass panes were based on celluloid plastic bonding materials that had a poor resistance to moisture and were biodegradable. He found that as they got thinner. the Guide will be of use in clarifying design responsibilities amongst the design team. A. it does try to list where such advice can be obtained and to outline the effects such coatings and other processes may have on structural behaviour. The technology found its way into the automotive industry. Continuous glass fibre is a strand made up of a large number of individual filaments of glass and finds widespread application in glass fibre reinforced polymers and high performance architectural fabrics. 1. the panes of glass had to be created using the plate glass method.1 Woods. silica glass filaments. 1. However. Like PVB. In 1998 DuPont introduced a new interlayer for laminated glass. This technology remained exclusive to the automotive industry for a further 20 years until the construction industry adopted it in cladding elements in the 1970s. orangeries and conservatories. Its major advantage over PVB is that it can be used to attach a ply of polycarbonate to glass.1.5 References 1. Today. It has the capacity to provide an increased element of redundancy over and above other interlayers within laminated glass. exhibit strengths of up to 14000N/mm2. This has been adopted by lighting engineers and architects to dramatic effect. in a given contract. Glass houses: a history of greenhouses. up-to-the-minute data on what coatings and other treatments to enhance environmental control are available from which manufacturers. or place constraints on what can be achieved. Glass is a material that is the subject of research all over the world and is a continually developing field of study. and Warren.S. This Guide will make reference to new developments but will stop short of going beyond what is currently considered to be good practice at the time of publication. or to relieve them. for example. Its scope is therefore largely but not entirely limited to those issues of most concern to structural engineers: – strength – stability – stiffness – durability – robustness – buildability – safety – sustainability. In doing so it does not seek to provide. It is much stiffer and stronger than PVB. Structures do not exist in isolation from the buildings they serve. they became stronger. which is why it is used in trains and aircraft. it does have a reduced loading resistance capacity over time. only its deterioration is less pronounced. The earliest form of laminated glass included a plastic sheet that bonded panes of glass together. 1. Griffith carried out pioneering experiments in which he drew thinner and thinner glass fibres and measured their tensile strengths. In 2004 polyester (PET) interlayers were introduced. This Guide therefore also addresses some of the other issues that may influence structural behaviour. Ethyl vinyl acetate (EVA) is a form of laminate that does not need to be cured in an autoclave. as in all circumstances the party best placed to decide on the appropriate course of action will be the designer undertaking the particular project. 1990 . the glass fabricator and the glass installer. By listing issues that need to be considered when designing structural glass. It should be noted that this team might well include the glass manufacturer. it cannot be used to affix polycarbonate sheets to glass. much like all other interlayers.

2. This theory is similar to applying PD effects and as such they can be applied when determining stresses in glass elements. 6mm thick The Institution of Structural Engineers Structural use of glass in buildings (Second edition) 5 .2 Stress/strain curves for steel and float glass Glass behaves in a crucially different way from other. Quoted design stresses for use with small deflection theory will be larger than realistic design stresses used with large deflection theory. These principles are based on contemporary texts and knowledge at the time of writing.1 shows the test results of the failure of 6mm thick basic annealed glass. Figure 2. and hence localised yielding is rarely considered during design of steel elements. This takes designers into the realm of large deflection theory (see Figure 2. The tests were carried out in accordance with EN 1288-22. designers cannot ignore stress concentrations and lack of fit when designing structural glass elements. It does not yield and hence it is a brittle material.1 Test results of failed annealed glass panes. samples were from nine European factories 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 Breakage stress N/mm2 Figure 2. using ad hoc methods. Additionally the coefficient of variation of strength for basic annealed glass is around 25% higher than for other more common structural materials.Design principles 2.2).1 Glass material properties This chapter sets out to define the guiding principles used when designing structural glass elements. leading to the correct thickness. then structural engineers have Number of results Results of 740 tests on 6mm annealed glass using EN 1288-2 test method. Historically stresses in glass have erroneously been expressed as if small deflection theory were valid.1 and show how stochastic (i. Structural engineers designing steel structures have typically concentrated their attention on limiting stresses at places of maximum bending and shear. unpredictable) in nature the results are for glass. It is for this reason that the Weibull probability density function is applied as proposed in EN 12600:20022. due typically to lack of fit.3) which is unfamiliar territory for most structural engineers. It is for this reason that connection design is a core component when designing structures made from glass (see Figure 2. Conversely.2 Steel Stress 2 Behaviour of glass as a structural material Glass Brittle failure Strain Figure 2. This gave rise to the use of unrealistic allowable stresses and typically led to the oversizing of glass elements by making them thicker than they needed to be. This is because steel can yield when it is subjected to localised areas of concentrated stress. It fractures and its failure is difficult to predict. Glass panes can deflect by more than their own thickness.e. more familiar structural materials such as steel or aluminium. Once the limitations of glass as a structural material are understood.1 does not align with any probability distribution. 2. It should be noted that the distribution of glass failure that is shown on Figure 2. To illustrate this further.

It can then be heat-treated or Raw materials 1500ºC Melting furnace 1600ºC Glass types 2. Laminated glass will also be covered in this section in the context of it being layers of glass panes acting partially or fully compositely with one another. in ascending order of strength: – annealed (or basic annealed glass) – heat-strengthened (or semi-tempered) – toughened (also referred to as heat toughened.3. The molten glass is fed onto the top of a molten tin bath. Design pressure 2. are blended with cullet (recycled broken glass) and heated in a furnace to about 15008C to form molten glass. 2. Composition varies between manufacturers but is generally as shown in Table 2. All of them differ in their bending stress capacity which is altered by an outside agent. Throughout this Guide images of glass structures are provided to both inform and inspire the reader to work with glass as a structural material. 30 20 Large deflection theory ‘Real’ design stress 10 0 1000 Uniform pressure (N/m2) 2000 Figure 2. Float glass (see Section 2. This Guide is only concerned with non-metallic glasses.2.1 Description Annealed glass (typically prefixed with the term ‘basic’) is today usually made by the float process. forming a flat ribbon of uniform thickness (see Figure 2. All of these terms are used in this Guide. Clear glass for glazing is typically of the soda-lime-silica type and its general physical and mechanical properties are described in EN 5721:20042.1 The four variants It should be noted that prestressed glass is a term used to cover both heat-strengthened and toughened when appropriate. fully toughened and fully tempered) – chemically toughened (also referred to as chemically tempered). soda ash.Design principles Table 2.2) can be clear. controlled heating permits the glass to flow. While on the tin bath.3 There are four base material types of glass. It can then be further printed. These types are.4).1.3.3. laminated and assembled into insulated glazing units (IGUs).4 The float glass process 6 2. Float bath 1100ºC Molten glass Figure 2. Many processes are possible to produce glass with the right combination of properties to meet a particular need. It is hoped that this will assist with the creation of ambitious and complex building structures using glass as a structural material. which include silica sand. This Guide will show the varied ways in which glass can be used as a material for primary and secondary structural elements.3 The Institution of Structural Engineers Structural use of glass in buildings (Second edition) Annealing lehr 600ºC Molten tin Cutting section 200ºC .3 Comparison between small and large deflection theory another material resource to exploit for their designs. limestone and salt cake.3.3.1 Stress (N/mm2) Simple deflection theory 60 50 ‘Quoted’ design stress Typical composition of soda–lime–silica glass Material Formula % composition Silica SiO2 69-74% Lime CaO 5-14% Soda Na2O 10-16% Magnesia MgO 0-6% Alumina AL2O3 0-3% 40 bent. The following sections explain the process of each glass type’s creation and their properties.2 Annealed glass 2. tinted or coated. The chemical ingredients.

3 Patterned glass Patterned glass (see BS EN 572-52. There is no creep (glass does not ‘flow’) and there is no fatigue in the metallurgical sense.3. If.6). With regard to thermal effects. they do provide greater post-breakage strength as the wires prevent the glass from falling from its supports. It is not only impact damage that causes brittle fracture of basic annealed glass.3. draft methodology text prEN 166122.9 ) is also known as partially toughened or semi-tempered. thermal stresses and imposed strains all cause elastic deformation that could also lead to fracture. This is especially important as humidity encourages crack growth in glass. the stressed surface area and the duration of the load.7) can be designed to 75% of the same stresses as basic annealed glass.3 Heat-strengthened glass Heat-strengthened glass (as defined in EN 18632.3 . Due to the weakening effect the cast-in wire has on glass. Then it is fed off the molten tin into the annealing lehr (or oven) for further controlled gradual cooling.9 states that the surface precompression stress for heat-strengthened glass ranges from 24N/mm2 to 52N/mm2. The flaws in the glass may be inherent or may be due to cutting. EN 18632. into large shards (see Figure 2. Unfortunately the opposite is true as the wires act as crack inducers that weaken the glass. advises a factor of 0. due to internal stresses in the glass. It is then re-heated to the same temperature and quenched by jets of cooled air. All structural glass behaves perfectly elastically until the moment it fractures into large shards. For more details on this mode of failure see Section 2. designers to assume that wired glass is half as strong in bending as basic annealed glass of the same thickness.7 of this Guide. the minimum thickness at any section is known and the quality of the glass itself is of a reasonable standard. This is due to the varying thickness of patterned glass panes as well as sandblasting and causes of other flaws that tend to be found in the material.6 Wired glass pane At the end of the tin bath the glass is slowly cooled. as well as from the environment the glass has been exposed to. Temperature differences across the surface of the glass resulting from shading and shielding cause thermal stresses that may exceed the strength of the glass. 2.20-M89 Structural design of glass for buildings2. No warning is given of this failure. due to the fact that humidity reduces its strength. it does so in a similar fashion to basic annealed glass. Heat-strengthened (and toughened) glass has better resistance to thermal shock than basic annealed glass. the stress level. Bending stresses.2 Wired glass Wired glass (see BS EN 572-32.8. More information can be found on this methodology in Section 2.e. and as such basic annealed glass panes that are thicker than 12mm cannot be subjected to heat-strengthening treatment. The Institution of Structural Engineers Structural use of glass in buildings (Second edition) 7 2.75 to stress limits be applied for this type of glass. It starts its life as basic annealed glass which is then heated to approximately 6208C. Figure 2. However.5 shows a sheet of broken basic annealed glass. 2.3. however. unless limiting deflections are the governing criterion. Cut edges of basic annealed glass are often weaker than its surface. Finally the glass edges are trimmed to give a constant width to the emerging sheet. This has the effect of cooling and solidifying the surface first. This is where cracking.3. It is very difficult to ascertain the base thickness of patterned glass and as such when determining the strength of glass.Design principles Figure 2. which is then cut into jumbo sheets that are normally 3m  6m in size.5 Broken pane of annealed glass Figure 2. As it does so the tension stress within it increases and in response to this the surface of the glass becomes compressed. This fact leads to basic annealed glass beams being designed to lower stress limits than for glass plates.2. can arise due to temperature differences across the pane.6 advises 2.5) is sometimes thought of as stronger than basic annealed glass because the wires are thought to act as a form of reinforcement (see Figure 2. When the heat-strengthened glass fails.6.4 and BS EN 572-62. basic annealed glass is susceptible to thermal shock.5). It should be noted that heat-strengthened glass is significantly less susceptible to failure than toughened glass due to the presence of nickel sulphide impurities. i. As the interior cools it tries to shrink. Whether or not fracture will occur depends on the presence of flaws in the glass.2. Changing the speed at which the glass ribbon moves into the annealing lehr will vary the thickness of flat glass. grinding or drilling of the glass. The cooling process is slower than for toughened glass. the Canadian Code CAN/CGSB-12. then it can be used as a base against which the full stress capacity can be applied. Basic annealed glass may fail as a result of thermal shock.

Secondly. It should be noted. Toughened glass will also shatter if the surface is deeply enough scratched (around 20% of depth) for the crack to penetrate the tensile zone of the glass.5 Chemically toughened glass A different pattern of stresses can be achieved by chemical toughening in which the composition of the surface of the glass is altered. In the United States of America. Toughened glass fractures into small dice. although it must be borne in mind that the strength range is different depending on the terms adopted. This is done by dipping the panes into electrolysis baths in which the sodium ions on the surface of the glass are exchanged for potassium ions. drilling and grinding of the glass must be carried out before the glass undergoes the toughening process. The maximum size of pane that can be toughened will be limited by the size of the processor’s oven. The number and size of nickel sulphide inclusions need to be so great as to present this mode of failure raised from unlikely to probable. In the case of toughened glass. but fragment count alone cannot be used as a measure of surface stress for design purposes. . Its creation follows a similar process to that for heat-strengthened glass. causes it to shatter without warning. however. Figure 2. as any variant can result in failure. which are 30% bigger (see Figure 2.4 Thermally toughened glass Thermally toughened glass is described and defined in EN 121502. with the major difference being that it is cooled more rapidly than heatstrengthened glass. It has been found that bolt holes do not cause large changes in surface stress.7 Clumps of broken toughened glass 8 The Institution of Structural Engineers Structural use of glass in buildings (Second edition) This creates an external layer under pressure.12. This is particularly true for very large sheets of glass. Previously the vertical process in which the glass is hung on tongues was more common.10. Firstly. This has the effect of cooling and solidifying the surface first and. Glass is normally toughened in a horizontal process where it is transported on rollers through the toughening oven. The likelihood of this occurring is extremely low. This creates a tensile central layer within the glass and the surface of the glass becomes compressed. Glass contains inclusions and impurities. The selection of very large panes will limit the number of suppliers and may lead to long delivery times.6.9). This causes the glass to be less flat. The term fully tempered glass is also used. but these usually initially fall as large clumps and only separate upon impact. it shrinks. When the glass breaks the number of fragments in a standard area is counted (see Figure 2. This expansion in size.2. All cutting. 2. the glass is stronger in bending because both the thermally induced compressive stress and the inherent strength of the basic annealed glass have to be overcome before failure occurs.3 Design principles 2. In Europe there is a requirement that the surface compressive stress of toughened glass be at least 75N/mm2 (10875psi). Costs may also be higher due to large distances from manufacturer to site.7). As the surface stress increases so does the number of fragments. Any penetration of the compressive surface layer will lead to an imbalance of stresses and fragmentation of the glass. however. which is also referred to as fully tempered glass. a feature known as roller wave. repeatedly bifurcating and causing complete fragmentation. as the interlayer cools.11 specifies that the surface compressive stress for toughened glass. as long as their diameter is at least equal to the thickness of the glass. This confers two benefits.3. sometime after the glass has been fabricated. that it cannot be used for glass that has a highly reflective surface. the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard C1048-852. This typically occurs during the first five to ten years of the life of the glass. There is a treatment known as heat soaking that reduces the risk of this failure occurring and is described in detail in Section 2. The surface compression can be deduced from the number of fragments. One approach is to use the fragmentation test defined in Clause 10 of EN 14179 Part 1: 20052. Inclusions of nickel sulphide undergo a phase change and expand in size when heated over a long period of time. such impurities and some inclusions can cause the glass to suddenly shatter. They measure the twist of polarised light from the thin surface of the glass and this can be converted to a surface stress. This technique is known as differential stress refractometry (DSR) and is used as part of the quality control procedure during manufacturing. There are tests that can indirectly measure the surface compressive stress. A more precise approach is to use optical instruments. The measurement of the built-in prestress of toughened glass is an important parameter to check. If the glass is basic annealed then these inclusions do not usually cause any adverse effects to the glass. This enables cooling air to pass readily through the holes so that they cool at a similar rate to the rest of the glass (see Figure 2. In this test a pane of glass is struck in a controlled manner. cracking on failure releases the thermally induced stresses such that the crack progresses rapidly. In Europe.8). the surface compressive stress ranges of thermally toughened glass are usually between 80 and 150N/mm2 (11600 and 21750psi).3.3. be a minimum of 69N/mm2 (10000psi).

9e+05 –1.1e+07 +6.10 shows the different types of glass compared to their characteristic strength and particle size when they fail.7e+06 +2. +8.6e+07 +1.1e+06 –5.2e+08 –1.2e+07 –2.7e+06 –1.2e+06 +1.4e+06 +6.6e+07 –4. This significantly reduces the risk of glass failing when installed.4 the issue of nickel sulphide crystal expansion is cited as a cause for the failure of toughened glass panes.9 Section through toughened glass showing comparison between the stresses in thermal and chemical processes 69N/mm2 85N/mm2 Heat-strengthened Semi-tempered Increasing particle size Toughened Fully tempered Decreasing particle size Figure 2.9e+06 –7.7e+07 +2.6e+06 –9.3e+06 –7.3e+06 –5.2e+07 –3. as most glass panes with nickel sulphide impurities within them are discovered during the manufacturing process.1e+06 +5.1e+07 z +7. which is likely to be less robust than the thicker layer produced by thermal toughening. The disadvantage is a much thinner surface compressive layer.8e+06 –1.0e+07 +2.3e+07 –1.6 Heat soaking In Section 2.6e+06 +1.3. a method of accelerating this failure mechanism has been developed called heat soaking.7e+07 –3.4e+07 +3.0e+06 –1.1e+06 –2.4e+07 –3.3e+08 z θ θ r r (d) t → ∞ (c) t ≈ 100s Figure 2.3e+06 +3.10 Chart of glass types comparing their strength and particle size following failure The Institution of Structural Engineers Structural use of glass in buildings (Second edition) 9 . 2.2e+07 –1.1e+07 +5.3e+07 –1.9e+07 z θ θ r r (a) t ≈ 20s (b) t ≈ 50s σθ σθ +1.8e+07 –6.6e+07 –8.2e+06 –8.1e+07 –4.1e+07 z Max. Tension 50N/mm2 Compression Thermally strengthened Chemically strengthened Figure 2.4e+06 –9.6e+05 –3. The heat soaking process prematurely induces the nickel sulphide crystals to expand and thus cause the glass pane to fail.8 The different stages of the toughening process of a square panel of glass with a hole in the middle The two key advantages of this process over thermal toughening are that there is minimal deformation during the toughening process and thinner sheets of glass can be toughened. It is also significantly more expensive than thermal toughening.7e+06 –4.0e+08 –1.1e+06 +4.4e+07 –1.7e+07 –1.7e+07 –2. To overcome this.8e+06 +5.3 σθ +8. Figure 2.3.5e+06 –3.4e+06 –8.Design principles σθ 2.0e+06 –1.9e+06 +3.

with the loads being shared by each laminate in proportion to their relative stiffnesses. EVA or a sheet of ionoplast. reproduced by permission of DuPont). Laminated glass 2. When all the air has been displaced. although their strength is diminished somewhat. This. Not all toughened glass is heat soaked. The ‘sandwich’ is then passed through an oven that heats it to approximately 708C. layered action. Curing is via a chemical reaction or ultra violet (UV) light. polyurethane and polyester.7. as can bent glass. This is due to the stiffness of the ionoplast interlayer decreasing over time. Other materials such as polycarbonates can be included.1 Composite glass Laminating is a process in which two or more pieces of glass are bonded by means of a viscoelastic interlayer.2. short-term out-of-plane loads can be resisted by both laminates acting compositely. The shear transfer coefficient depends on: – the interlayer shear modulus G(t. the likelihood of a pane falling from its supports if failure occurs and the resulting consequences. however. Increasing temperature softens the interlayer and reduces composite behaviour. shear modulus of PVB (Butacite) and ionoplast (SentryGlas) interlayers 2.13.7. Laminates can incorporate many thicknesses and combinations of glass types to give a range of products with the required range of mechanical and optical properties. Generally for the PVB and resin interlayer materials. The effective thickness of a laminate is the thickness of an equivalent monolithic sheet.12).11 Load duration vs. as shown in Figure 2.11. is not the case with laminated glass that has an ionoplast interlayer. Resin laminating The three main resins used are acrylic. the level of composite action between the glass layers can be calculated (see Figure 2. from which it passes between rollers that squeeze out any excess air and form the initial bond.T ) – the thickness of the interlayer relative to the thickness of the glass sheets – the span length of the panel. 2.7 Temperature also has an impact on the shear stiffness of the interlayer. With this value. The sheets of glass are brought together and held a certain distance apart by doublesided tape around their perimeter. Resin is then poured between the two sheets. The sheets of glass are assembled with an extruded sheet of interlayer between them.3.38mm to 6mm thick and usually comes in multiples of 0. For vertical glass. A risk analysis will show the need for heat soaking based on the probability of occurrence of nickel sulphide. A value of one represents total composite action and a value of zero represents non-composite.2 Structural behaviour of laminated glass The structural behaviour of laminated glass depends on the type(s) of glass used and on the properties of the interlayer. Basic annealed. PVB 10 The Institution of Structural Engineers Structural use of glass in buildings (Second edition) With knowledge of the geometric and material properties of a laminated panel. an ‘effective thickness for stress’ and an ‘effective thickness for deflection’ can be calculated. The relationship between the shear transfer coefficient. smaller panes are less likely to fall from their supports and so may not be heat soaked. Size is limited by the ability of the fabricator or by the size of the panes available.3 Design principles is the most common sheet interlayer material. Figure 2. The processes of laminating are described below. This is less of an issue for ionoplast in that it softens at slightly higher temperatures (see Table 2. which can act as solar collectors. Though two layers of glass is the most common arrangement.2. PVB/ PET/PVB sandwich. more than 25 layers have been successfully bonded in an assembly over 100mm thick. Due to creep in the interlayer long-term out-of-plane loads are generally considered to act noncompositely. The ASTM and Eurocode approach is to establish a ‘shear transfer coefficient’ value for the laminate. Sheet laminating The sheet interlayers can be PVB polyurethane. This can be significant in double glazed units.38mm for PVB.3. Such panels exhibit some composite action even during long-term loading conditions. The six materials that are used for the interlayer are: – poly vinyl butyral (PVB) – thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) – ethyl vinyl acetate (EVA) – polyester (PET) – resins such as acrylic – ionoplast. heat-strengthened and toughened glass can all be laminated. . the open edge is sealed and the laminate stored horizontally while the resin cures and solidifies.3. The interlayer can be from 0. The laminate then moves to an autoclave where it is heated to approximately 1408C under a pressure of about 800kN/m2 (120psi) in a vacuum bag. the interlayer shear modulus and the span length of the panel is illustrated in Figure 2.

The resulting variation in composite action is plotted.6 (1972) 9.3) 3.87 (561.12 Section through laminated glass indicating bending stress within plies for short-term and long-term conditions Figure 2.91 (422) 708C (1588F) 11.5 (3553) 10.0 (21460) 34.0 (98745) 651.1) 0.54 (948.86 (1430) 8.78 (1273) 5.9 (1581) 5. this is particularly true for glass that is not mounted vertically.2) 2.8 (11426) 33.8) 2.7 (5032) 15.0 (60320) 327.0 (25810) 148.4 Γ1 Γ2 Γ5 Γ10 Long-term load duration 0.0 (46980) 178. It should be noted that a softer interlayer in a longer element can provide the same level of composite action as a stiffer interlayer in a shorter element.5) 681. This minimises the likelihood of serious cuts or injuries caused by falling glass and/or falling against glass.0 (47415) 217.8 (4031) 13. Safety If one or both layers of glass in a laminated panel break. The shear modulus of the interlayer for each of these beams varies.96 (139. giving protection to damage from a sledgehammer attack. Readers are encouraged therefore to investigate this topic further in order to gain a greater understanding of how to design laminated glass elements.0 (94395) 597. For further information on this refer to Chapter 10. there is a risk that the broken panel may fall from the frame. Security The use of thicker interlayers increases the penetration resistance of the panel.8 0. as described below.45 (1225) 6.8 (4901) 12.0 (37120) 248C (758F) 581. This issue can be alleviated by using heat-strengthened glass for one or both layers.00 (870) 608C (1408F) 35.Design principles Table 2. Intumescent resin interlayers react to heat in such a way that during a fire they turn into foam.0 (84245) 561. This is Short-term load duration Composite factor Composite action of laminated panel 1 0.0 (73225) 416. from right to left).96 (574.3 (1639) 8.0 (64090) 413.3) 6.3) Temperature Each curve represents a simply supported beam of a different length (1m.0 (72355) 448.6 (13282) 27.0 (64960) 208C (688F) 628.0 (27115) 91.2 2. for laminated glass panels that use all toughened glass. Young’s modulus of ionoplast interlayer Young’s Modulus E (MPa (psi)) Load duration 1s 3s 1min 1h 1 day 1 month 10 years 108C (508F) 692.0 (88740) 567. Laminated glass offers a number of performance benefits over monolithic glass panes.0 (33060) 187.5) 3.52 (365.3 (5119) 24. the broken pieces of glass will generally remain bonded to the interlayer.8) 0.44 (208.6 0.4) 0.0 (15660) 78.2) 3.8) 808C (1768F) 4.2 0 1 × 103 1 × 104 1 × 105 1 × 106 1 × 107 1 × 108 1 × 109 G Shear modulus of interlayer G (Pa) Figure 2.0 (1.0 (18705) 308C (868F) 442.3 Temperature and load duration vs.77 (256.0 (31465) 129.2) 0.65 (674.7) 1. 5m and 10m respectively. However. 2m.63 (91.00 E + 0.4) 1.24 (469.75 (108.0 (91060) 612.0 (82215) 493.6 (1827) 8.49 (361. Laminated glass commonly remains in its support frame after it has failed.54 (78.8) 2.0 (59885) 324.64 (817.9 (2306) 408C (1048F) 228. This change not only resists the passage of fire but also reduces the conduction and the radiation of heat through the glass.35 (195.0 (71485) 428.84 (1282) 508C (1228F) 108.0 (62060) 330.13 Chart showing the relationship between shear transfer and interlayer shear modulus The Institution of Structural Engineers Structural use of glass in buildings (Second edition) 11 . There are various analytical/numerical and semiempirical calculation methods that exist beyond what is described in this Guide.8) 1.0 (86565) 553.10 (739. This protects people who may need to pass it on their way out of the building.0 (47850) 256.0 (81345) 505.0 (80185) 499.

3.1 Type and application The visual appearance. it is possible to have an interlayer that blocks 99% of UV light which can be used to protect materials that are sensitive to UV. light and heat transmitting properties of the glass can be modified by applying metallic coatings to the glass. This is especially the case with soft resin interlayers as opposed to the more commonly used PVB. if properly held at their edges.3 Defects in laminated glass It is possible. also improve safety from extreme loading conditions such as explosions. This is discussed further in Chapter 10.8. These sunbursts do not begin to appear until after they have left the factory. This can in some circumstances result in the requirement for artificial lighting.8. They do. translucent. The coating may be applied by dipping or by a vacuum deposition process. The outer extremities of laminated glass are where the bonding is at its weakest and will tend to be the origin of delamination. There are even interlayers which. sealant installation/type and exposure to moisture can cause the edges of the glass to become delaminated. while the glass is in the lehr and is still fluid. although rare. when examined minutely. Glass coatings can also be used to trap heat within a building and thus make it more energy efficient.2. careful attention needs to be paid to the edges of the glass during the manufacturing process. Furthermore. They may be applied to jumbo sheets or after the glass has been cut to shape. high altitude summer sun while admitting low altitude winter sun. 2. however.22 .3. the better the acoustic properties of the panel. Surface coatings affect the way certain wavelengths of visible and non-visible light are reflected and/or transmitted. come in a smaller variety of colours. show themselves to be louvered in the manner of Venetian blinds. These coatings act in conjunction with the gas-filled cavities on IGU to further increase the insulating properties of the building envelope. for defects to occur within laminated glass panes. These coatings may be applied either on-line or off-line.3 Design principles referred to as anti-bandit protection. On-line coating On-line coating occurs during the annealing process. Poor cutting. as the stresses between the plies of the laminated glass are released.2 Glass coating impact on solar gain and heat transfer One major benefit of the application of glass coatings is their ability to reduce solar transmission and thus reduce the effect of solar gain. Multi-laminates including polycarbonate layers provide increased resistance to damage and are used in bullet-resistant laminate panels. Vibration control Laminated glass panes perform well when subjected to dynamic loads.8 2. which are as follows: – Density r ¼ 2500kg/m3 – Young’s modulus E ¼ 70000N/mm2 – Poisson’s ratio m ¼ 0. This typically takes the form of delamination between each of the plies (see Figure 2. opaque and patterned interlayers are available which modify the passage of solar radiation. and may have to be applied to the cavity facing surfaces of the glass. for example. They are then protected within the glazing cavity. Sunburst forms typically occur during the manufacturing process where the method of clamping the plies together has led to the development of a localised area of delamination that starts to spread. They can be used in conjunction with double and triple glazed panels to further increase the insulating properties of the building. To counter this. known as Surfaces 2 and 3. By controlling these factors. therefore the thicker the laminated panel. These can be used to exclude. 2. 2.14).3.3.14 Edge defect in laminated glass 12 The Institution of Structural Engineers Structural use of glass in buildings (Second edition) Glass coatings Material properties of glass The material properties of all types of glass are defined in draft document prEN 166122.7. 2. Laminated panes can. The flatness of the plies being bound together need to be such that they will not pry apart due to residual stresses within the plies of the laminated glass. thus negating some of the energy saving benefits.3. a coating can reduce the amount of solar energy passing through the glass or reflect heat energy back inside the building. When used with insulated glazing units (IGU) off-line coatings are less durable than their on-line counter-parts. These coatings tend to form a stronger bond to the glass and are therefore more durable than on-line coatings. Holes through laminated glass can also be a point at which delamination can occur.8. The mass of the glass panel has the greatest effect on the sound attenuation. This is one of the reasons why they tend to be used for floor plates and treads for staircases.9 Figure 2. Off-line coating Off-line coatings are applied as part of secondary processing. Coatings may reduce the transmission of light passing through the glass. Sound control Laminated panels are better than monolithic glass at absorbing sound. Solar control Tinted. as they are similar to edges and are therefore prone to comparable issues. They come in two forms: sunburst and edge. again due to damping effect of the interlayer. because of the damping effect of the interlayer. hence the ‘edge’ form of defect.

steel. but all are based on the concept of limiting localised stresses. whereas the in-plane load is transmitted through setting blocks. The out-of-plane load from the panes is transmitted through gaskets or structural sealant. however. This also addresses the effect of local imperfections in the glass that have an impact of developing connections within glass. EPDM rubber or similar material The following section of the Guide describes the different methods of connections and is intended to act as an aid to the design engineer when they are attempting to select the most appropriate method of connection within a glass structure. Borosilicate glass has a coefficient of 3–5  106K1 and purer silicone dioxide glass (i. which is usually made from aluminium.4. These fixings consist of a small metal clamp with a layer of neoprene. follows this principle. Recent developments in adhesives have led to glass being bonded directly to glass.16). or both out-of-plane and in-plane loads. this makes it useful in the construction of cooking surfaces such as ceramic hobs. 2.16 Conservatory with continuous linear supports The Institution of Structural Engineers Structural use of glass in buildings (Second edition) 13 2.4 . 2.2 Continuous linear supports Continuous linear supports are the simplest and most widespread method of supporting a glass pane. With the frame being slightly larger than the pane it supports.3 Characteristic strength of all types of glass Glass type Characteristic strength (N/mm2) Basic annealed 45 Heat-strengthened 70 Toughened 120 Table 2.4. It is also possible for continuous linear supports to transmit loads generated by diaphragm action. issues surrounding the durability of adhesives in lieu of mechanical fixings.3 gives a suggested characteristic strength for each of the glass types described previously. Figure 2. Connections vary in complexity. thus eliminating the issue of placing an intermediate material between supporting elements. 2. rubber and wood. which must be understood and accounted for in the design.15 and 2. ethylene propylene diene monomer (M-class) (EPDM) rubber.1 Localised stress Historically the development of connections within glass structures has been based on isolating hard materials from the glass via the use of softer ones such as plastic. There is also the key issue of the stress distribution not being constant along the line of support.3 Clamp fixings Rather than use continuous linear supports. The coefficient of thermal expansion of glass depends on its chemical composition. In basic annealed glass additives such as alkalines can vary the coefficient from 8-9  106K1. all of which redistribute applied forces evenly. plastic or timber. They form the basis of most cladding systems that rely on a frame. the corners of the pane being isolated from the in-plane forces and the effect of thermal movement of the supporting frame and the glass it is supporting. To do this requires close attention to be paid to the method of fixing between the glass and the frame.4 Connections in glass 2. Such clamps are designed to carry either out-ofplane loads only.e. There are. through to bolted connections that place a hard-plastic bush against the glass. fused silica or quartz glass) has lower values around 5  107K1. Everything from simple continuous clamps with silicone spacers being placed in direct contact with the glass. This is done in cladding systems where there is a desire to create a more visually pleasing glazed surface by placing the supporting frame behind the glass panes it supports. it is possible to instead provide isolated clamps which are then fixed onto a sub-frame support structure. as well as their reinstatement should the adhesive fail. Consideration must be given to the machining of the pane’s edge.4. based on a single pane of glass. silicone or similar gaskets are used to transmit lateral loads that Figure 2. The frame provides support to the edges of the glass panes.15 Section through a continuous frame supporting a glass pane are applied to the glass pane into its supporting frame (see Figures 2.Design principles Table 2.

the smaller contact surface to the glass induces higher local stresses.22 shows a typical arrangement of bolt fixings. Figure 2. Clamp Figure 2.17). again with a low modulus intermediate material being placed between the bolt head and the glass pane (see Figure 2. Common to all bolt fixings is the risk of loosening due to vibration. less rigid material than the clamp is inserted between the clamp and the glass.2. plastics and resins. Other aspects of detailing that affect the design of bolted connections include edge distances. by including materials that have a low modulus of elasticity between the glass and the bolt itself (see Figure 2. However due to their form. Only one bolt resists both vertical and horizontal in-plane . Similar to continuous linear supports.4 Aluminium pad Prestressed bolt Figure 2. It is therefore recommended that any bolt connection solution within a cladding system must make allowance for the risk of vibration. As forces are applied to the glass pane it expands and/or deflects non-uniformly. Two of the four bolts resist the vertical in-plane load.20 Articulated bolted connection 14 The Institution of Structural Engineers Structural use of glass in buildings (Second edition) Bolted connections may be countersunk. the isolating material between bolt and glass.19) or by articulating the connections (see Figure 2. It is for this reason that toughened glass is used. Typically a ‘high friction’ connection consists of steel plates that are clamped together with a bolt that passes through the glass pane. This can be overcome by placing a reliance on the bolt yielding locally. Any fixing solution that is adopted to counter vibration effects must also take into consideration the localised stress generation issues described previously.18). which are referred to as ‘bushes’. This distributes the clamping force evenly and develops the necessary friction against the glass and the clamp (see Figure 2. The stress pattern around a bolt fixing is rarely uniform. This can take the form of adopting spring washers or lock-nuts that are resistant to the effects of vibration. The bolt hole is Bolted fixings Bolted fixings are a popular method of connection for glass elements as their discreet size improves the appearance of the structure. Figure 2.4 Design principles Bushing material EPDM rubber Setting block Figure 2. as this performs far better than basic annealed glass against such effects.17 Section through a clamp fixing 2. Around the bolthole a pad made from a weaker.20). This is especially true for fixings into cladding elements as rapid change in direction of loads due to wind can induce significant vibrations within cladding support structures. glass panes that are subjected to some form of diaphragm action also need to be carefully considered when it comes to isolated clamp supports. thickness of the glass pane. leading to localised stresses within bolted connections.21). and the closeness of fit of the bolt itself. The fixings may need to be friction grip connections that allow the transfer of the in-plane loading from the pane to the clamp.18 Section through a high friction clamp fixing being inserted between the metal to distribute the loads evenly. A setting block is installed to transfer inplane loads and thus provide vertical support to the glass pane (see Figure 2. Consequently the stresses around the bolt fixing vary considerably. Bolted fixings may provide in-plane restraint or allow in-plane movement. Common bush materials within bolted connections include soft aluminium.19 Through-bolted connection oversized to prevent any contact between the bolt and the glass.4.

soft adhesives are usually designed to withstand only short-term loads such as wind. but are not as good at resisting shear loads or peeling actions. while the former has poor shear resistance. however. such as Germany. This is especially true of glass structures that are constructed using adhesive-based connections. The Institution of Structural Engineers Structural use of glass in buildings (Second edition) 15 .4. Stainless steel back fitting Glass Fibre gasket Bracket support Silicone rubber washers Stainless steel cap Adhesives There are two types of adhesives used in glass structures: soft elastic (such as structural silicone) and stiff (such as epoxy adhesives and polyester resins). This is less of an issue with stiff adhesives as they are affected less by creep. Like all structures made from more traditional materials. The Institution’s Guide to the structural use of adhesives2. This will require the designer to consider alternative load paths to the point where a secondary support structure may need to be designed. The curing time of the adhesives should be considered as part of the design process. When translucent structural silicone is used. whereas a stiff adhesive cannot. Most adhesives exhibit some form of creep as they are visco-elastic materials. A disadvantage to the use of countersunk fixings is that the tolerances are greatly reduced and consideration needs to be given to accuracy. their redundancy must be considered during their design. with the sole purpose of preventing the collapse of the glass structure. The use of stiff adhesives is relatively unproven technology in the field of structural glass. The failure of a connection must not result in a disproportionate collapse of the structure. Outof-plane movement of the supports may cause the glass to bend. quite prevalent in the automotive and aeronautical industries and has begun to appear in glass structures. It is often the case that a structure 2. Stiff adhesive joints will resist thermal movement more than a soft adhesive joint and should be designed to carry thermally induced stresses. with the former setting in contact with the air while the latter cures as a result of a reaction between the two components. As such. However. Stiff adhesives should also have no voids against the glass substrate as these can cause major stress concentrations.Design principles loads. Such secondary systems are normally mechanically based and in some countries. hence the likelihood of high local stresses is reduced. All of the bolts are designed to resist out-of-plane movement. A major difference between soft and stiff adhesives is that the latter can achieve composite action. Structural silicone is used to bond glass panes to supporting frames as well to other pieces of glass. therefore some recognition of what effect a broken element will have on the structure needs to be addressed. The glass preparation for countersunk fixings is considerably more complex and therefore cost must also be considered.22 In-plane restraints at bolted connections Silicone-based adhesives perform well under uniform tension. as the bond is normally stronger than the base material. Stuttgart. The issues to consider when designing connections based on stiff adhesives are related to the surface area over which they can be applied. This is because the connection between each element is homogeneous as there are no holes and notches.13 provides advice on the application of partial safety factors that should be applied to adhesives. the temperature required for the adhesive to set and the time it takes to cure. They come in two varieties: one-part and two-part components. it should be noted that this table does not follow the principles of Eurocodes. Spigot through hole in bracket to prevent fitting gripping bracket Figure 2. Variations in thickness of stiff adhesive joints can generate unwanted stress concentrations. 2. It is for this reason that sharp edges must be removed from glass panes by edge finishing. They are also less resilient when exposed to long-term loading. are mandatory in glass structures. Germany. An example of a glass structure that consists entirely of adhesive based connections is Lucio Blandini’s Glass Dome. slow curing adhesives may require temporary initial restraint. which is relatively easy to repair or replace as it can be cut out.5 Countersunk bolt Nylon bush The advantage adhesive bonds have over the mechanical fixings so far described is that they spread the load more evenly along the significant lengths of the glass panes they are connecting. Failure of stiff adhesive normally manifests as plucking of the glass surface.4 bonded with a stiff adhesive would need to be replaced in its entirety. this creates a visually appealing connection. The recommended values of partial safety factors are stated in Table 6 of the above referenced report. The pane is then free to expand and contract as a result of temperature change or accommodate in-plane movement of the supports. It is.21 Section through a countersunk point support connection Note Horizontal restraint Vertictal restraint Free horizontally and vertically Figure 2. Unlike structural silicone.

As with any material. These modifications normally consist of the use of guides. The use of any adhesive in this kind of construction requires careful quality control and on-going testing to ensure that the bond is satisfactory. This creates sheets of glass that vary in thickness from 0. An important point to note is the degree of ease with which glass elements can be replaced should they fail. 2. transportation and installation. Glass that is thicker than 12mm is not as readily available due to modifications of the manufacturing process required to be instigated in order to achieve thicker panes.23. An example of such a structure is shown in Figure 2. When glass is cut. If the supporting structure is significantly out of tolerance. It is important to recognise these limitations during the design process of a glass structure so that they can be taken into account. Typically float glass comes in 6m  3. just like many other materials.1 Introduction As with any other material. In addition to these measures. radii to internal corners can also be introduced in order to reduce stress concentrations.3 One final point to note on the subject of drilling holes is that it is not possible to do so in toughened glass or heat-strengthened glass.5mm to 25mm. Manufacture The primary method of manufacturing glass is the float glass process.5. 6m is the optimum length for this reason. 2. To go beyond this requires special plant. known as fenders.2. e. It can only be done prior to the toughening/heating process. there may be a need to treat the edge to remove any flaws so that stress concentrations are reduced. Where quantities are very large.2 Inherent properties As has been explained previously. the mid-span of a glass floor panel. glass is a brittle material that can fail unpredictably. then there is a likelihood that secondary forces the glass has not been designed for will become critical. the size of the plant used to manufacture the glass governs the size of panes that can be manufactured. However.5. Tolerance is a key issue with regards to installation.5. manufacture. more so than the conventional peak stresses considered in design. Beijing . This is a limitation that must be understood prior to carrying out any design of a glass structure. It is not only the thickness of glass that is affected by the manufacturing process.4 Transport and installation Glass.5 Limitations of material 2. glass has limitations that are set by a combination of its inherent properties. This is because the outer layers of the glass are under compression and any disturbance of that continuity will result in the glass shattering/breaking. to create the thicker glass. although 8m is not unheard of.g. This is expanded upon in Section 3. This is a key differentiator between glass and other materials used within building structures.23 Apple store entrance.5. it is imperative that the designer of a structure allows for the efficient and safe replacement of elements within it. 2. is limited by the length of vehicles used to transport it. glass is very sensitive to local stresses that can occur due to imperfections within the supporting structure. Anything beyond that requires non-standard vehicles to deliver the glass to site. typically glass used for building projects lies in the range of 4mm to 19mm. In many instances they can become the governing factor in design. Its inability to yield means that local stresses at points of support more often than not govern the design of glass elements. glass panes can be provided in custom thicknesses to suit a particular project. 16 The Institution of Structural Engineers Structural use of glass in buildings (Second edition) Figure 2. with some projects requiring unique installations in factories in order for the glass to be made. It is for this reason that so much effort is placed upon the assessment and modelling of supports to glass elements during the design process.21m panes. It is for this reason that structures which directly support glass elements have a much tighter tolerance threshold than for other materials.5 Design principles 2. While this is rarely a significant issue for other materials. This usually consists of creating chamfered arrisses where the glass has been cut. This is especially important when cutting holes in the glass to receive fixings as they are typically the location of highest stress within a glass pane post-installation.2 and in more detail in Chapter 4.

Furthermore. This is due to the viscoelastic interlayer that exists between each ply of glass. however.25 Laminated glass floor plate that has one ply failed yet can still support pedestrian load while the other is toughened. laminated glass is favoured for glass panes that are at risk of falling from height. The broken elements of the pane of glass need to either fall with acceptable risk or should remain in place until replacement can be undertaken safely. 2. therefore its use must be carefully considered.24 and Figure 2.25). Engineering judgement is required when adopting such a solution. as described in Section 2. however. that the post-failure condition assumes one of the plies is ineffective and hence ignored.24 Laminated glass pan with one ply failed and partial delamination A series of partial factors are applied to the characteristic glass strength (which depends on the glass type) to establish the design strength. for laminated toughened glass with PVB interlayers. resulting in a significant amount of tension being taken by the PVB interlayer. These The Institution of Structural Engineers Structural use of glass in buildings (Second edition) 17 2. the glass type.6 Post-failure behaviour 2. This only occurs if all of the plies in the laminated glass have failed.2.6.6.7 Application of limit state theory prEN 166122. the residual out-of-plane stiffness of the panel is significantly reduced. This is not always the case. This does mean. There are two ways to overcome this issue. monolithic glass lacks the redundancy of laminated glass and is more likely to fall from its support structure once it has failed. 2. Glass is more likely to fall if it is sloping or horizontal. it does not eliminate it. It should be noted that the use of the ionoplast only reduces the risk of tearing. Specifically. the pane size. it is possible for the interlayer to tear as the fragments of glass cut into it. Toughened glass may fall even if it is vertical. The interlayer goes into tension and keeps the glass in place (see Figure 2. By doing so one of the plies can fail yet remain in place as the other ply remains intact. The panel may fall as excessive deflections cause it to pull from a rebate or detach from its fixings. These have a greater tensile capacity than PVB interlayers and as such are less likely to tear if all the plies in a laminated glass pane have failed.2 Post-failure behaviour of laminated glass Laminated glass tends to remain in place for some time after it has failed. if all panes of a laminated toughened glass panel fail.1 Post-failure behaviour of monolithic glass When glass breaks. This load must be allowed for when designing glass balustrades that have a handrail and rely on this type of load sharing post-breakage. One way is to make one of the plies of glass in the laminated pane either basic annealed or heat-strengthened Figure 2. the broken glass may remain in place or it may fall from its fixings. Therefore. It has been created on the basis of adopting limit state theory for the design of structural glass elements. the fixing method.3 Redundancy and post-failure behaviour of glass Once a glass element has failed in a structure the load it was supporting will be transferred to neighbouring elements of the structure.6 . A typical example of this is the inclusion of a continuous rail at the top of glass balustrades which allows panes within it to fail. These elements must be designed to withstand loads that can arise due to the failure of neighbouring elements. It is for this reason that its use must be considered carefully as its post-failure state lacks the redundancy of laminated glass.8 is the draft methodology for determining the load resistance to glass panes. which has been developed with a view to making it the basis of a European wide code of practice. 2. Figure 2. depending on the number of cracks/fragments. The second option is to use an ionoplast-based interlayer. The resulting barrier load the balustrade was designed to withstand is then spread to neighbouring panes from the failed one.6. This will affect the design of both the glass type and the supporting structure.Design principles 2.6. the glazing slope and the cause of the breakage.

5 BS EN 572-6: 2012: Glass in building – Basic soda lime silicate glass products – Part 6: Wired patterned glass.8 References 2.10 BS EN 12150-1: 2000: Glass in building – Thermally toughened soda lime silicate safety glass. 2002 . London: BSI. 2005 2. Any reduction to these partial factors is done at the designer’s risk and must be supported by evidence that demonstrates the veracity of altering any partial factors. West Conshohocken. London: BSI.1 BS EN 1288-2: 2000: Glass in building – Determination of the bending strength of glass – Part 2: Coaxial double ring test on flat specimens with large test surface areas. London: BSI.12 BS EN 14179-1: 2005: Glass in building – Heatsoaked thermally-toughened soda lime silicate safety glass – Part 1: Definition and description.20-M89: Structural design of glass for buildings. Part 1: Definition and description. London: BSI. the nature of the load that it is being designed to withstand. London: IStructE. 2013 2. London: BSI. London: BSI. London: BSI.14 BS EN 1990: 2002+A1:2005: Eurocode – Basis of structural design.9 BS EN 1863-1: 2011: Glass in building – Heat strengthened soda lime silicate glass – Part 1: Definition and description. London: BSI. 2012 2. imposed loads for buildings. 2012 2. 1999 2. There is an argument that due to the geometric uniformity of glass the partial factor for permanent actions can be reduced from the typical value of 1. London: BSI. London: BSI. Ottowa: Canadian General Standards Board. 2012 2. PA: ASTM. which is very important when designing glass elements.35. 2.4 BS EN 572-3: 2012: Glass in building – Basic soda lime silicate glass products – Part 3: Polished wired glass.8 Draft for comment 13/30281354 DC: BS EN 16612: Glass in Building – Determination of the load resistance of glass panes by calculation and testing. self-weight. 2000 18 The Institution of Structural Engineers Structural use of glass in buildings (Second edition) 2.14 and EN 19912. 2000 2. The applied stress is derived using standard methods of analysis and is based on loads multiplied by partial factors as defined in EN 19902. The design stress definition is based on the material partial factor of the glass itself and other partial factors that relate to the glass geometry and type of load that is being applied to it.11 ASTM C1048-12: Standard specification for heatstrengthened and fully tempered flat glass. and its duration.13 Institution of Structural Engineers.8 Design principles factors take into account the surface texture of the glass element. 2012 2. Guide to the structural use of adhesives. 2010 2. Furthermore.15.3 BS EN 572-1: 2012: Glass in building – Basic soda lime silicate glass products – Part 1: Definitions and general physical and mechanical properties.15 BS EN 1991-1-1: 2002: Eurocode 1: Actions on structures – Part 1-1: General actions – Densities. London: BSI.7 BS EN 572-5: 2012: Glass in building – Basic soda lime silicate glass products – Part 5: Patterned glass. It is possible to create designs that would be considered to be conservative if the standard partial factors are used. 1989 2. 2003 2. 2012 2. London: BSI.2 BS EN 12600: 2002: Glass in building – Pendulum test – Impact test method and classification for flat glass. 2012 2.2. the ultimate limit state of the glass pane describes the comparison between the applied stress and the design stress.6 CAN/CGSB-12.

6) and will be subjected to 5 second gust wind action (kmod = 1.d ¼ k mod k sp f g.k . This is defined in prEN 166123.0). The design strength of that pane according to prEN 166123.6 be used for the material partial factor for basic annealed glass. consider a 4mm thick basic annealed glass pane ( fg. .1 Staircase designed using limit-state theory Values of fb. heat-strengthened and toughened) the characteristic strength of glass panes fb. the reader is directed to Chapters 4 to 8.k is taken from Table 3.d is defined in Equation 3. An example of a structure that has been designed using this method is shown in Figure 3. Partial material factors can be found in Appendix C. There are various approaches to the derivation of these design criteria.8. For information on how to evaluate the design criteria discussed herein.1.A where: fg. Equation 3:1 The material partial factor of 1. The design characteristic strength for basic annealed glass fg. which address the methods of design for various structural glass elements. just like any other structure made from other materials.1 Values of characteristic strength for prestressed glass Base type Figure 3.2 gM. f g.1. This is because once a formal European code of practice is adopted a UK National Annex will likely be created alongside it that will recommend a value of 1.1 Introduction where: Rd EULS.d Glass structures must comply with a set of design criteria.7 with regards to the application of limit state theory in the design of structural glass elements. These values are Table 3.k of prestressed glass (N/mm2) Thermally toughened Heatstrengthened Chemically toughened Sheet float 120 70 150 Patterned 90 55 100 Enamelled float 75 45 Enamelled patterned 75 45 The Institution of Structural Engineers Structural use of glass in buildings (Second edition) 19 . 3. Equation 3.6) Stress limits Stress limits have already been examined in Section 2. . .k = 45N/mm2) that is sandblasted (ksp = 0.k is the characteristic strength of basic annealed glass (45N/mm2 ) kmod is the factor for load duration is the factor for glass surface profile ksp gM. Specifically the stress within the glass pane must not exceed the design stress limit. as defined in Equation 3. This Guide summarises a method that is based on limit-state design theory.1 and reflected in this Guide. For all other regions the default value is 1.2 is the design strength limit is the applied stress The calculation of the design strength limit Rd is based on the design value of strength of the glass. The characteristic strength of glass types other than basic annealed glass is given in Table 3. . By way of example.A is the material partial factor for basic annealed glass (1.6 stated above does not correlate with that given in Table 2 of prEN 166123.1 would be: 1:0  0:6  45N=mm2 ¼ 16:9N=mm2 1:6 For prestressed surface glass (e.1. which indicates a value of 1.1.1.2.3 Design criteria 3.g. E ULS.8 unless advised otherwise by respective national annexes.d  Rd .

whichever is the lesser value.8 Notes a Arrissed or ground edges by machined or hand where the abrasive action is across the edge. For balustrades.2 Values of edge factor ke Glass type 3.4 where: is the factor for the strength of the edge ke depending on the type of edge work (from Table 3. though the temperature gain of the glass may be higher.8 0.8 0.2) By way of illustration. foundation settlement etc.3 gM. arrissed. creep.4 applies 3.v is the material partial factor for surface prestressed glass (1.3.1 at the time of writing. While it is true that indeterminate structures have more redundancy. This is especially important when jumbo glass panels are installed. Support movements For the sake of robustness it is preferable to ensure a glass structure is statically determinate.3 Design criteria contract. and g M.1 Introduction Edge strength factor.0). More detailed explanations are provided in Chapters 9 and 10 of this Guide. 3.d . these are offered as guidance only and engineering judgement needs to be exercised in order to ascertain whether or not deflections and movements of structures are within acceptable limits on a case by case basis.4.v where: kmod.2 kv is the factor derived from the method of strengthening of the glass fb. the fittings/structural system should allow for any movement that may occur during the design life of the building.k  f g.8 0.A .k is the characteristic bending strength of prestressed glass from Table 3. 2 Further studies have shown that it is possible to consider the extreme edge of glass elements.A are as per Equation 3. . This is on the basis that . b Arrissed or ground edges by machine or hand where the abrasive action is along the length of the edge. which can generate high localised stresses that lead to failure.3.3 Differential deflections of the supported structure can be generated by installation/manufacturing errors. As with all such limits. ke As-cut. prEN 166123. With regard to cable stayed fac¸ades the typical deflection criterion is impractical to achieve due to the nature of the structural system.1 g M. If this is underestimated in a glass structure. 3. 20 Further advice on how this is achieved can be found in Chapter 4. L/60 is therefore regarded as a more appropriate deflection criterion for such structures.k f g.2 recommends that the maximum deflection of a barrier at any point can be no greater than 25mm. Equation 3.8 0. Its design stress limit would be defined thus:   2 2 1:0  0:6  45N=mm2 1:0 120N=mm  45N=mm þ 1:6 1:2 ¼ 79:4N=mm f eg. . The few limits that have been expressed are stated in relation to certain types of elements. The Institution of Structural Engineers Structural use of glass in buildings (Second edition) This section of the Guide introduces the concepts of fire protection and extreme loading conditions with respect to glass structures. When considering the design strength (feg. although there is no absolute limit.8 Wired patterned 0. It is therefore required of the designer to make a judgement as to what deflection limits should be.2 or Appendix C). Additionally many framing materials have a greater coefficient of thermal expansion than glass. or ground edgesa Seamed edgesb Polished edges Float or sheet 0.   k mod k sp f g. Clause 6. which differ from its main body.5. they are reliant on the relative stiffness of each element within them. ksp.k k v f b. This is especially apparent when thermal effects cause the glass to expand and Table 3.d ¼ þ gM. thermal movement. constraints established during the design that originate from these estimations can lead to serious problems.1 recommends that a limit of span/65 or 50mm. It only concerns the base criteria against which glass structures are designed to for extreme events. be adopted as a deflection limit. It should be noted that this advice does not form part of the draft of prEN 166123.9 1.d) at the edge of a glass pane Equation 3. .d ¼ k e f g. Furthermore. For deflections of other elements. Equation 3.8 Polished wired 0.5. .2 Design criteria for fire protection Many may assume that it is not possible to protect glass from the effects of fire. take the same glass pane used above and manufacture it from thermally toughened glass (kv = 1.8 0.5 Fire protection and extreme loading conditions 3.8 0. Glass structures should be designed to accommodate some degree of misalignment of the structure.0 Patterned 0.4 Serviceability limits There are few prescribed limits to deflection of glass elements when placed under load. then applied to Equation 3.8 0.1 of BS 61803.

These parameters need to be derived in conjunction with the client’s security consultant. even if it has cracked. This tends to result in it becoming a conduit of heat transfer between parts of the building and thus aids the spread of the fire.4). based on plastic hinges being formed. and the distance away (‘stand-off’). Blast resistant design of glazing systems involves time-dependent loading.3 Thermal shock temperature limits for glass Type of glass Temperature limits (8C) Toughened 200a Heat-strengthened Basic annealed place after it has cracked and therefore maintains the integrity of the pane.5 . One of the means to make glass more resistant to fire is to address its chemical make-up.3. Glass. During a fire the temperature will reach a transition point (around 5008C) at which the glass starts to soften and lose its stiffness. it does keep the glass in It is unlikely that glass will remain unscathed following an explosion.4. When designing glass elements that must withstand blast loads. as it is possible to have an interlayer material that is intumescent in nature. then its coefficient of thermal expansion drops from 9  106K1 to between 3. usually given as TNT equivalent. the laminate material holds the glass together even if it has become permanently deformed. All of these elements need to be assessed in turn. 3. This has the effect of increasing the temperature difference at which the glass will crack and also increases its softening temperature. does have a lower coefficient of thermal expansion (9  106K1) when compared to adjoining materials.5. even after failure. stainless steel: 17  106K1 and aluminium: 23  106K1. The Institution of Structural Engineers Structural use of glass in buildings (Second edition) 21 3. Ultimately when the temperature becomes high enough the glass will melt.Design criteria Table 3. With respect to the glass. While it weakens the glass due to its crack inducing properties. When the glass cracks. b As per BS EN 1863-13. the temperature difference limits for glass before it suffers thermal shock are as shown in Table 3. and can be of the order of span/15. This places an emphasis on both the glass itself and the method by which it is supported. However. The subject of extreme loading conditions. For example steel: 12  106K1.3. Due to the low resistance of glass to thermal shock. depending on how far fragments fall inside the building after a blast is applied outside a standard test chamber. In areas that could be susceptible to a blast load. Appropriate specialist advice should be sought. as the combination of having a low tensile capacity and a high coefficient of thermal expansion causes glass to fail when exposed to high temperatures. the inner pane is typically laminated basic annealed or heat-strengthened glass. In addition there is the issue of thermal gain from glass as it is very well suited to transmitting heat from one space to another. positive and negative pressures must be considered. what is controllable is whether or not it will become part of the shrapnel after a blast has occurred. glass will shatter easily. The threat can be defined in terms of charge size. As a rough guide. Glass shatters very easily when exposed to fire. glass should be designed to remain in place. Finally the introduction of wire mesh into basic annealed or heat-strengthened glass is deemed to be a valid method. Glass is not a combustible element and therefore does not fuel fires. It is usual to provide continuous support solutions for glass that could be exposed to blast loads. Blast design depends on both the assessed threat and on the allowable damage and injury criteria. Failure strength of the glazing system will depend on a combination of: – the strength of the glass – the strength of the interlayer in laminated glass – any clamps or structural silicone bonding the glass pane to the framing – the stiffness and strength of the framing itself – the strength of the brackets and fixings. Allowable framing deflections under blast loading are typically much higher than those for wind. is also discussed in Chapter 11. Damage levels to glazing can be defined with reference to ISO 169333. its resistance to excessively high temperatures is low and as such is commonly regarded as a sacrificial element of building structures during a fire.5. If the glass fails then the fire has a greater chance of spreading. One of the key design criteria for glass when considering its fire resistance is its integrity. These categories correspond roughly to General Services Administration (GSA) categories 1 to 5 in the USA (see Table 3.1 and 6  106K1. non-linear material properties and geometry. but remain in place. with these latter categories commonly used in commercially available software. which rates performance of windows into six hazard levels A to F.3 Design criteria for blast loading b 100 40 Notes a As per BS EN 12150-13. This is because the force from the blast is so great that point connections become impractical due to the high local stresses that occur. which blast loads are a form of. More discussion is given in Chapter 11. It is because of this that some effort has been put into maintaining the integrity of the glass during a fire at the design and manufacture stages. This creates a sacrificial ply in a two-ply laminated glass pane as the ply that is exposed to the fire fails and the interlayer expands into a foam in response to the heat from the fire. This acts as an insulator from the effects of the fire for the other ply that has not failed. If 7–15% boron oxide is introduced into the glass. however. In order to dissipate energy the glass needs to be allowed to crack and then deform. Another way to increase fire resistance is to use laminated glass.

No visible damage to glazing or frame No break The glazing is observed not to fracture. Provided the designer allows for this movement.4-09 and AAMA 501. there are three or less pinhole perforations and no fragment indents anywhere in a vertical witness panel located 3m (120in) from the interior face of the specimen. and there are fragments with a sum total united dimension of 25mm (1. Fragments enter space impacting a vertical witness panel at a distance of no more than 10ft from the window at a height greater than 2ft above the floor 3. or there are one or more perforations in the same witness panel area with a fragment penetration into the second layer of the witness panel Design criteria for seismic loading Glass structures must be designed to resist racking movement if they are to be subjected to seismic forces.3ft from the window Minimal hazard 3b Glazing cracks.5 Design criteria Table 3. the preferred method of fixing is via silicone bonding as that is proved to be flexible enough to allow racking movement to occur without forcing the panel from its supports. Damping systems are also installed within the connection interface between the glass and the primary structure. and there are fragments with a sum total united dimension of 25mm (1. Fragments enter space and land on floor and impact a vertical witness panel at a distance of no more than 10ft from the window at a height no greater than 2ft above the floor 5 Glazing cracks and window system fails catastrophically. It has been found that basic annealed panes that are laminated are less likely to fall from their frames than single pane sheets.5m (20in) and none of the perforations penetrate through the first layer of the witness panel High hazard Glazing is observed to fracture. In addition.5m (20in) or less above the floor of a vertical witness panel located 3m (120in) from the interior face of the specimen. and there is no visible damage to the glazing system 2 Glazing cracks but is retained by the frame.0in) or less on the floor between 1m (40in) and 3m (120in) from the interior face of the specimen. Fragments enter space and land on floor no further than 3. Glazing dust and slivers are not accounted for in the rating Low hazard The glazing is observed to fracture.3.4 Very low hazard The glazing is observed to fracture. Dusting or very small fragments near sill or on floor acceptable No hazard The glazing is observed to fracture but is fully retained in the facility test frame or glazing system frame. This is due to the fact that silicone joints allow for the dissipation of impact 22 The glazing is observed to fracture.5. Additional horizontal and vertical inertia loads acting on glass structures should be applied concurrently with other conventional loads. In curtain wall cladding systems appropriate clear distance between glass panels and frame structure is to be specified to allow for movement during seismic events. Glazing dust and slivers are not accounted for in the rating The Institution of Structural Engineers Structural use of glass in buildings (Second edition) energy. and the total length of tears in the glazing plus the total length of pullout from the edge of the frame is less than 20% of the glazing sight perimeter. and there are more than ten perforations in the area of a vertical witness panel located 3m (120in) from the interior face of the specimen and higher than 0. then any seismic events will not have a significantly adverse effect on the glass.0in) or less on the floor between 1m (40in) and 3m (120in) from the interior face of the specimen. there are ten or fewer perforations in the area of a vertical witness panel located 3m (120in) from the interior face of the specimen and higher than 0. An example is to support a glass structure with an isolated base support. and the rear surface (the surface opposite the airblast loaded side of the specimen) is intact 3a Glazing cracks.5m (20in) above the floor. Also. which is one of the most important characteristics for dynamic loads.6.6-093. These are typically considered in a static load combination with relevant safety factors applied. there are less than 3 pinhole perforations and no fragment indents anywhere in a vertical witness panel located 3m (120in) from the interior face of the specimen. full scale static and dynamic testing is recommended according to AAMA 501. Also. This tests the performance of the curtain wall and is evaluated while being subjected to the specific static and/or racking horizontal displacement.4 GSA condition General Services Administration (GSA) categories for blast loads GSA description ASTM rating ASTM description 1 Glazing does not break. In parts of North America where significant seismic events are likely. but glazing fragments generally fall between 1m (40in) of the interior face of the specimen and 0. In high-risk seismic zones extra measures are required to mitigate seismic load. Also. Fragments enter space and land on floor no further than 10ft from the window 4 Glazing cracks. and is located within 1m (40in) of the original location. .

6 Location 3. With the invention of artificial light these design skills fell away for a while. Glass can also be manufactured with a lower iron content (called low iron glass) which will reduce the green tint and allow more visible light to pass through the pane. The benefits of natural daylight over artificial lighting have been proven to be significant for the occupants’ wellbeing and comfort. then measures must be taken to prevent it from happening. Consequently. heat loss through the glass and the structure that supports it can increase the level of heating required to maintain internal temperatures during a cold spell.2). It is therefore important that some consideration is given to this aspect of structural glass within a structure.3. 3. Once the failure mode has been established. it is also required that a failed element should be able to support the traffic of people over a certain period of time in order to allow for a safe escape from the building. Clear glass has around 0. This type of glass can be heat treated in exactly the same way as standard glass.2 Post-failure behaviour of glass at height In order to design out the risk of injury due to falling glass. If glass is placed in an elevated position for example. the lower level of luminosity is achieved within the building.1% of iron oxide within it which absorbs the colour red from the spectrum of natural light.6. the effect glass has on the passage of natural light within a building has become increasingly important. The glass should remain in place or fail safely. In many respects the precautions a designer should take when considering glazing at height are similar to those for blast loading. They can be categorised into three aspects: lighting. but is significantly more expensive to produce.5.2 Broken glass pane within canopy Conversely. This led to a reappearance of natural light and has become a significant element of lighting design. This can be altered by applying obscuration effects. would cause harm to those beneath it. what are the consequences if it does so? If the answer to these questions is ‘yes’ and ‘harmful’ respectively. as described in Section 3.6. The level of opacity also has an effect on the way in which natural light is dispersed within a building. The loads that are considered in the post-failure condition are usually self-weight and a fraction of the imposed load over a short-term period (e.6 . The forms of structure that are susceptible to the risks of falling glass include: – fac¸ades – roofs – canopies – barriers to drops – walkways/bridges – staircases. CIRIA has produced a guide on glazing at height: C632 Guidance on glazing at height3. hours to days). should it fail. The Institution of Structural Engineers Structural use of glass in buildings (Second edition) 23 3. and therefore its method of support must allow for this. then it can be taken into account during the design process. either to the glass surface or to the glass itself via patterns. then it has a risk of falling and injuring someone. temperature and acoustics. Transparency describes the amount of light that is let in through glass as well as how it is dispersed. Lighting Historically windows were the primary source of light in buildings.g.1 Introduction The location of glass elements within a building affects the safety of its occupants. If not properly controlled it can create an uncomfortable environment to live and work in due to over-heating. or create additional requirements for cooling. The more opaque the glass is.Design criteria 3. The questions that have to be asked are: can a glass element fall. The clarity and colour of glass has a direct impact on the natural light transmittance. This forced architects to devise different ways to exploit sunlight as much as possible to ensure it flooded a building. In the case of glass floor plates. It is for this reason that clear glass has a green tint to it. and if so. an understanding of what occurs to a glass element after it has failed is required (see Figure 3. until the late 20th century when buildings began to feature large expanses of glass.7 provides designers and contractors with advice on what needs to be taken into consideration when placing any glazing in a location that. 3. Thermal Solar gain is a phenomenon that has become increasingly important as more expanses of glass are installed into structures. Figure 3.7 Environment The environment in which a glass structure is to be placed has an influence on the design criteria. which is more pronounced around the edges of the pane.

constructed. single panes are laminated to increase the thickness of the glass and the properties of the laminating interlayer further enhance the acoustic performance. Additionally. To overcome this. Figure 3. Europe BS EN 12600: 2002: Glass in building – Pendulum test – Impact test method and classification for flat glass.8 is the UK code of practice for sound insulation and offers some guidance on limits of sound transmission. For the purpose of sound insulation there are ‘acoustic’ PVB interlayers. London: BSI.8 Design criteria To overcome these problems a mixture of shading. Elements that are tested are based on computational and theoretical analysis. which causes beneficial acoustic interference. London: BSI. 2000 3. 2003 BS EN 1288-1: 2000: Glass in building – Determination of the bending strength of glass – Part 1: Fundamentals of testing glass. thanks to the bespoke nature of their design and the lack of a codified approach to them. 2000 BS EN 1288-5: 2000: Glass in building – Determination of the bending strength of glass. Testing can be both non-destructive and destructive and is often bespoke depending on the structure that is being tested. protective coatings and multi-chambered glazing. The methodology can be gleaned from codes of practice.3 shows a staircase that is undergoing a load test. 2000 BS EN 1288-4: 2000: Glass in building – Determination of the bending strength of glass – Part 4: Testing of channel shaped glass. 3. The choice of single and multiple glazing has an impact on the degree of sound insulation. Strength testing concerns the integrity of the glass structure. The choice of frame and the type of fixings to this frame will also play a part in the overall acoustic performance of the element. London: BSI. visual and verification. EN 1990: 20023. Acoustics Sound insulation protects the building from undesirable noise pollution. which are softer than their non-acoustic counterparts. London: BSI. along with the actual glass specifications. 2000 BS EN 13124-1: 2001: Windows. and the designer must be mindful of this when making reference to it. is employed to create the optimum environment within the building’s enclosure. then the sound insulation is improved as the two panels resonate at different frequencies. most of which are listed in section 3. With single glazing it is the base resonance of the glass pane that impacts its ability to transmit sound. The thinner the glass the higher its resonance and hence the likelihood of it generating sound due to it vibrating. This list is not exhaustive and is also subject to change. Due to the lack of a unified methodology for the design of structural glass elements there is a need to carry out extensive testing to verify that they are safe. there is still a need in many instances to carry out testing of key elements within glass structures.8 Testing Chapter 4 goes into some depth concerning the creation of models within computer simulation of glass structures. while visual testing relates to the aesthetics of glass assemblies. With glass there is a relationship between sound transmission and the mass of the glass. Alternatively it is possible to use simple cast resin as an interlayer. If one of the panes is thicker than the other. Although the level of computing technology continues to advance at a significant pace. Part 5: Coaxial double ring test on flat specimens with small test surface areas.10. Testing can be split into four categories: developmental. then either the analysis is checked or the 24 The Institution of Structural Engineers Structural use of glass in buildings (Second edition) BS EN 1288-2: 2000: Glass in building – Determination of the bending strength of glass – Part 2: Coaxial double ring test on flat specimens with large test surface areas. doors and shutters – Explosion resistance – Test method – Part 1: Shock tube. If they are significantly divergent. The results of the test are then compared against what the theoretical model predicted. Glass should attenuate any noise so that is does not annoy occupants. Verification tests are used to establish the validity of what has already been designed and. London: BSI.10 Codified approach to testing For multiple glazing panels there is an interaction between individual panels of glass that make up the unit.9 provides general guidelines to carrying out design that is assisted by testing. London: BSI. In many instances some territories require all glass structures to be tested in some form in order to comply with building standards.9 Testing methodology There is a long tradition of extensively testing glass structures. all of which are contemporary to this Guide. test sample is reviewed. 3. strength. 2000 BS EN 1288-3: 2000: Glass in building – Determination of the bending strength of glass – Part 3: Test with specimen supported at two points (four point bending). Developmental testing is carried out during the design process. which is known to have equivalent acoustic properties to the softer acoustic PVB material. BS 8233: 19993. in some cases. However this code of practice has not been created with glass in mind. the thinner the glass the lower its ability to insulate against sound from external sources. 2001 . The following is a list of the codes of practice for the testing of glass structures. London: BSI.3.

London: BSI.5-2007: Test method for thermal cycling of exterior walls. 2009 AAMA 501. 1985 North America AAMA 501. IL: American Architectural Manufacturers Association.6-09: Recommended dynamic test method for determining the seismic drift causing glass fallout from a wall system. 2000 DIN 52338: 1985: Methods of testing flat glass for use in buildings. PA: ASTM. and doors under the influence of uniform static loads by destructive methods. doors and shutters – Explosion resistance – Test method – Part 2: Range test. 2004 BS EN 356: 2000: Glass in building – Security glazing – Testing and classification of resistance against manual attack. ball drop test on laminated glass. IL: American Architectural Manufacturers Association. London: BSI. 2012 The Institution of Structural Engineers Structural use of glass in buildings (Second edition) 25 3. West Conshohocken. Schaumburg. 2009 ASTM E997-12: Standard test method for structural performance of glass in exterior windows.10 .3 Staircase undergoing load test BS EN 13124-2: 2004: Windows. Schaumburg. Berlin: Beuth Verlag.4-09: Recommended static test method for evaluating curtain wall and storefront systems subjected to seismic and wind induced interstory drifts and AAMA 501.Design criteria Figure 3. curtain walls.

London: CIRIA. London: BSI. Part 1: Definition and description. A.8 BS 8233: 1999: Sound insulation and noise reduction for buildings – Code of practice.4-09: Recommended static test method for evaluating curtain wall and storefront systems subjected to seismic and wind induced interstory drifts and AAMA 501. and fully tempered flat glass. Chapter 6 – Safety specification for human body impact 3.4 BS EN 1863-1: 2011: Glass in building – Heat strengthened soda lime silicate glass – Part 1: Definition and description. 2009 3. London: BSI. 2006 AS/NZS 4284: 2008: Testing of building facades. 1999 3. NSW: Standards Australia. West Conshohocken.5 ISO 16933: 2007: Glass in building – Explosionresistant security glazing – Test and classification for arena air-blast loading.6 AAMA 501.2 BS 6180: 2011: Barriers in and about buildings – Code of practice. 2008 JGJ 113-2003.1 Draft for comment 13/30281354 DC: BS EN 16612: Glass in Building – Determination of the load resistance of glass panes by calculation and testing. Sydney. 2009 Asia/Pacific APP-37:2006: Curtain wall. 2013 3. 2007 3. PA: ASTM. Geneva: ISO. Appendix B (PNAP 106): Safety test.6-09: Recommended dynamic test method for determining the seismic drift causing glass fallout from a wall system. 2012 ANSI Z97. and doors under the influence of uniform static loads by non-destructive method. 2012 3.9 BS EN 1990: 2002+A1:2005: Eurocode – Basis of structural design. Technical specification for application of architectural glass. IL: American Architectural Manufacturers Association. London: BSI. PA: ASTM. et al. curtain walls.7 Keiller.3. New York: ANSI. London: BSI. J 255-2003. London: BSI. CIRIA C632. windows and window wall systems. 2005 3. Schaumburg. 2009 ASTM C1279-09: Standard test method for nondestructive photoelastic measurement of edge and surface stresses in annealed. West Conshohocken. London: BSI.11 Design criteria ASTM E998-12: Standard test method for structural performance of glass in windows. 2010 26 The Institution of Structural Engineers Structural use of glass in buildings (Second edition) . 2000 3. Hong Kong: Buildings Department. 2011 3.1-2009: American national standard for safety glazing materials used in buildings – Safety performance specifications and methods of test. heat-strengthened.3 BS EN 12150-1: 2000: Glass in building – Thermally toughened soda lime silicate safety glass.11 References 3. Guidance on glazing at height.

Therefore attention to contact detailing is essential. the simple global model allows for time-efficient study of the global behaviour and for deflections and reaction forces to be established. An approach recommended here is a sequential design process. This allows the level of modelling accuracy to be modified according to the purpose of the analysis and the model size. One of two approaches may be adopted in finite element modelling of glass structures: either. Figure 4. These can be post-processed into advanced load combinations. shell. In such instances. Various calculation methods are presented In this section different modelling techniques available to the designer are presented. the single detailed global model is used to calculate all structural aspects of the glass structure which are principally reaction forces. The simple global model is complemented by detailed local models which assess stress distribution in the portion of structure modelled.2 Analysis issues which are specific to glass structures are included in this section. However. In the first approach.1 Methodology Simple global model An example of a simple global model is presented in Figure 4. Such an approach increases the computational analysis time and is less easily modified to accommodate structural alterations Figure 4. the behaviour of the supporting primary structure needs to be considered and represented realistically.1 Introduction The principles applied developing computer models of glass structures. especially those for finite element analysis (FEA) of glass structures are essentially the same as those applied to the analysis of other structural materials. a simple global model and a series of detailed local models are created which are complementary and analyses are carried out iteratively.1 Example global model of entrance vestibule Figure 4. The possible deflected shapes of the support structure can be represented by separate load cases applied to the glass structural model. Readers are recommended to refer to other relevant publications for such information. detailed theory is not presented. volume and contact) is also presented. As with all structural analysis. Guidance is provided on the choice between global and local modelling. However. Of particular concern are the relative movements of the glass structure’s support points. These issues include aspects which are specific to the material properties of glass and interlayer materials. or a single detailed global model is created which addresses all structural aspects. the whole project is stored in one analysis file. and on appropriate element types and geometric simplification. In the second approach.2 Modelling techniques 4.1.2. 4. avoiding the need to create and update multiple analysis models. The level of modelling accuracy adopted should be appropriate to the purpose of the model and relate to the scale of the glass structure. Some design examples are presented. 4. it is appropriate to model glass members with two-dimensional shell elements. finding an optimal balance between the level of modelling accuracy and the solution time is fundamental in FEA. This section provides information to prevent the misapplication of FEA to glass structures. The use of different element types (beam. during the design process.4 Analysis of glass structures 4. Specialised non-linear contact elements should be used as required. whereby a simple global model and a series of detailed local models are analysed iteratively. the thickness of the shell elements can be calculated applying an effective thickness approach. For laminated glass.2. In the development of a glass structural model.2 Apple store entrance vestibule The Institution of Structural Engineers Structural use of glass in buildings (Second edition) 27 . deflections and internal stresses.2 is of the actual structure.

6 Example of detailed global model of glass stair .3. volumetric local model Figure 4. Due to the fact that effective (equivalent) thickness is always less than the overall thickness of the laminate. One way to do this is by increasing the partial safety factor applied to the dead load/permanent action in order to compensate for the reduction in self-weight of the global model.3 If one of the purposes of the model is to establish the stresses in the glass at a bolted connection. An example is shown in Figure 4. Where the lateral bending stiffness and torsional bending stiffness of a connection contributes to the global stability of the structure.3. The simple global design stage and detailed local design stage are not entirely independent. when appropriate to the problem. restraints and stiffnesses.3 Simplified bolted connection in global models 4. it is necessary to include a greater level of detail than in the approach described in Section 4. This allows for a reduction in computational time. these properties should be modelled accordingly.4 Bolted connection. radii at panel corners or arrisses along panel edges. e. Similarly. An example of the level of complexity required at the connection is shown in Figure 4. However. It is not necessary to include holes which penetrate the glass.5 Bonded connection. Three-dimensional volumetric elements can be used as illustrated in Figure 4. Furthermore. Separate detailed local models can be created to analyse the local behaviour and stress distribution in the region of a single glass-glass or glass-substructure connection.2.8. deflections and reaction forces. the glass holes at that connection need to be incorporated and the mesh density in that region needs to be sized appropriately.2.4. 28 The Institution of Structural Engineers Structural use of glass in buildings (Second edition) Figure 4. The use of two-dimensional Detailed local models Detailed local models are created to complement a simple global model. a compression-only connection should be modelled as such. A more detailed approach to connection modelling can be applied to local models which are used to accurately calculate stress distribution. They are captured by the detailed local models which are used to calculate the stress distribution in the structure. Symmetrical boundary conditions shall be used when appropriate to dimensionally reduce the model. Figure 4. Figure 4. two-dimensional stress-strain model 4. The method of load transfer should be modelled. glass-glass connections and glasssubstructure connections can be modelled using one-dimensional beam or link elements with appropriately assigned releases. representing the structural components with a twodimensional plane strain model can be beneficial. adjustments to the dead load need to be made to the model to allow for this.5.2 Analysis of glass structures in the Eurocodes and ASTM.7. The connection should account for all materials in the load path. The two processes interact and iterations are required.4 Detailed global model Sometimes. An example is shown in Figure 4.g.6 and the actual structure is shown in Figure 4. some simplifications may still be incorporated without compromising the accuracy of the analysis. These aspects are not relevant to the global behaviour.2. An example is presented in Figure 4. Alternatively. the effective thickness can be calculated from first principles using a purpose-built finite element model.4. This approach provides an appropriate level of detail for the calculation of global behaviour.

boundary conditions remain rigid under applied load. If it is necessary to accurately model the behaviour of these materials. such as PD.4 Design examples 4. Figure 4.e. This transition occurs when deflections are approximately equal to plate thickness. Other aspects which are addressed by a geometrically non-linear analysis are initial support movements. resting on a rigid steel frame covered with a neoprene gasket. 4.3 .7 Glass stair to Apple store on Fifth Avenue. a stability analysis where initial imperfections are applied to the structure before loads are applied).9) in thickness has been analysed. The effective thickness of the two-dimensional elements may be altered in the region of the connection to reflect this. 4. A geometrically non-linear analysis. contact capturing problems or compression/tension only supports) these effects should be included in the model appropriately. The Institution of Structural Engineers Structural use of glass in buildings (Second edition) 29 4. As deflections increase.3.Analysis of glass structures shell elements may provide adequately accurate results.3. element imperfections as described in Chapter 2. At larger deflections.g.1.3 Analysis types 4. However.1 Simply supported rectangular glass panel A rectangular glass panel measuring 1. a non-linear or hyper-elastic material model should be used. stresses are predominantly due to bending. The panel is simply supported (pinned) on all four edges. Special contact elements. The assumption that the simply supported boundary condition should be used with caution as it does not allow for edges that are free to move along their axis as well as rotate.1 Linear vs. soft sub-frames. It is applicable when the material stress-strain relationship is linear and when structural deflections are ‘small’. However. By assuming a support is infinitely stiff in all axes but free to rotate in orthogonally. non-linear A brief comparison between linear and non-linear analysis is presented in this section and reasons why an advanced non-linear analysis might be required are stated. a linear elastic analysis approach is recommended.4. At smaller deflections. compression-only face supports or spring elements with appropriate stiffness should be used. as presented in section 4.6m and 10mm (see Figure 4. It has a constant elastic modulus without plastic deformation or yielding point. However. does have an impact on the stress and deflection outputs.1 Description 4. stresses redistribute from bending to membrane. is more appropriate in such situations. In situations where boundary conditions depend on the applied load (such as elastic bedding. Hence.8 Detailed bolted T-connection in a global model Non-linear boundary conditions Typically.3.2 Linear elastic analysis This is the simplest possible analysis of a structural model.2m  1.3. i. linear analysis is adequate. New York Non-linear analysis In finite element analysis non-linear behaviours are categorised as follows: Geometrically non-linear When a plate is subjected to small deflections. half the thickness of the glass pane.4. Where applicable. These include interlayers. The principle of superposition is fully applicable which means that load cases are simply accumulated into complex combinations. linear analysis overestimates the stress in the plate leading to inaccuracies in design. A uniformly distributed face pressure of 25kN/m2 is applied in 1kN/m2 load steps. No uplift or rotational restraints are provided. 4. consideration should be given to the effect of increased stress on the level of composite action through the laminated panel in the region of the connection.3 Figure 4. 4. especially when the material is subjected to higher strains. analysing the material as linear elastic is accurate. such an approximation is not always suitable. Materially non-linear Glass is a fully elastic material to the point of fracture. other materials are used in glass structures which are not linear elastic. The computational solution time is short even with large models. and component deformations – all of which may influence structural stiffness (e. silicone adhesives and steel fittings if designed plastically.3.

A 20mm diameter steel bolt pin passes through the hole. Z Y Shell model.10 Stress and deflection at panel’s centre.4. 4.13c.4MN/m2 as shown in Figure 4. Comparison between linear and nonlinear analysis hence boundary conditions along the supported edges are modelled using compression-only cut-off bars.2m  1. Bolted glass connections are usually very stiff. A layer of 5mm thick resin material is located between the glass and the steel. For glass structures. The advanced analysis techniques that are considered when designing structural glass elements are: – dynamic analysis – viscoelastic analysis – creep analysis – probabilistic analysis – fragmentation analysis. Differences between linear and non-linear analyses are clearly visible. and human and machine induced 30 The Institution of Structural Engineers Structural use of glass in buildings (Second edition) . Eightnode square shell elements measuring 20mm  20mm are used. measuring 0. It should be noted that how the linear analysis produced a non-conservative result. According to the non-linear analyses.4. the stress peak is 138MN/m2 and is located at the centre of the plate. This engineered softness can be achieved by introducing soft bushing in the bolt hole assembly. The calculated connection stiffness is presented in Figure 4.14.5m  0. Symmetry boundary conditions are applied on two edges.4 Analysis of glass structures approximately equal to the panel thickness.010mm (MPa) Figure 4.6m  0. The mesh density increases in the region of the hole. such load situations typically include seismic actions. dynamic analyses should be performed. Symmetry X Symmetry Y Stress plots are presented in Figure 4. soft-body and hardbody impacts.4. the stress peaks are 78. 1. The maximum stress is 50MN/m2 and 104.9 Primary element stress 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 LA G NLA GM NLA 0 5 Load steps (mm) X 10 15 20 25 –50 –40 –30 –20 LA G NLA GM NLA –10 0 0 5 Load steps 10 15 Three analyses are performed: (1) a linear analysis (2) a non-linear analysis (3) a non-linear analysis with soft-bushing. A geometrically non-linear analysis should be used under these conditions. Contact between the steel pin and resin elements is modelled using compression-only contact elements. 20 25 Figure 4. As mentioned in Chapter 2. The model layout is shown in Figure 4.10.12.2 Advanced analysis techniques Three analyses are performed: (1) a linear elastic analysis (2) a geometrically non-linear analysis (3) a geometrically and boundary non-linear analysis. In these analyses stress redistribution occurs and the peak stress is not focused at the centre of the plate. with a 30mm diameter hole near to an unrestrained corner has been analysed. An inplane tension load of 20kN is applied to the steel pin in increments of 1kN. According to the linear elastic analysis.8MN/m2 according to the linear and non-linear analyses respectively. Introducing a softer connection marginally increases the stress to 105. Eight-node quadrilateral shell elements are used. the linear elastic analysis overestimates the deflections and stresses in the panel. the transition in behaviour between geometrically linear and non-linear analyses may be seen when the deflection is When loads vary with time and cannot be approximated as static. This approach quickly converges on the analysis solution and the results are accurate.5MN/m2 and 76. Midspan deflections –60 4. creating a quarter panel model. however in some situations softer connections are designed to encourage the redistribution of peak connection forces and to establish alternative load paths.11 for a 25kN/m2 uniformly distributed pressure.2MN/m2 respectively.2 Glass panel with loaded bolt hole A square region of a glass panel. As presented in Figure 4.5m.13. The stress distribution in the region of the hole for each of these analyses is presented in Figure 4. The plate is 10mm in thickness. This is because the contact elements in the linear analysis transfer both compression and tension which leads to a significant underestimation of the glass stresses.1.

12 Analysis model F 4.5.11 Analysis results of quarter model. which allow the designer to check the quality The Institution of Structural Engineers Structural use of glass in buildings (Second edition) 31 4. 40 Symmetric boundary conditions 500 Symmetric boundary conditions Ø30 40 Figure 4. These analyses apply to brittle materials which fragment into pieces when stress in the material reaches the breakage limit. Such materials include interlayer sheets and reinforced concrete. and full time history analysis are applicable without restriction. If advanced information about the probability of failure for a prescribed load combination is required. In soft body contact analyses. The damping of glass components and glass systems need to be established carefully and verified by testing for the results of dynamic analyses to be reliable. a probabilistic analysis can be carried out and a reliability assessment can be performed. spectral analysis. viscoelastic or creep analyses should be performed.Analysis of glass structures Figure 4. harmonic analysis. Cracks form and propagate along element boundaries following the cohesive law fracture model. Fragmentation analyses are still in development. Typical dynamic analysis techniques such as eigenvalue analysis. For glass structures incorporating or supported on materials which have time-dependent stress-strain properties. stress redistribution for (a) linear elastic analysis.5 Interrogation of model and results 4. (b) geometrically non-linear analysis. (c) geometrically and boundary non-linear analysis vibrations.1 Interpretation A brief list of model features is presented in this section.5 . special attention is required in 500 the estimation of the contact region and deformability of the impacted body.

13 Analysis results.15. The validation of FE results by comparison with hand calculation . An example is shown in Figure 4. A useful way to check the quality of the mesh is to . (c) contact non-linear analysis with soft bush Tension force (kN) of a finite element FE model.5. These discontinuities can relate to inconsistent element orientation in a mesh and neighbouring elements not sharing intermediate edges. 4. stress distribution for (a) linear elastic analysis.5 2 Figure 4. Furthermore. These checks allow the designer to tune the FE model to ensure that accurate and reliable results are calculated. Some features can be checked before analysis of the model. (b) contact non-linear analysis.3 0 0 0. others can only be checked after analysis by reviewing the results. A mesh which is too coarse leads to inaccuracies in results. It is advisable to keep the internal angle within +458 of these optimal angles.2 Verification of results In FEA it is desirable to optimise the density of the model mesh.4.5 Displacement (mm) 4. there are packages that are developed for analysing glass that also consider cavity glass elements as well as laminated and monolithic glass variants. a mesh which is too fine leads to a large model size and a long computation time.5. empirical knowledge and physical testing is discussed. This is especially common in large and/or complex models.5 Analysis of glass structures Figure 4. The optimal internal angle for quadrilateral elements is 908 and for triangular elements is 608. Some features which affect the quality of the elements in an FE mesh are the aspect ratios and internal angles of those elements. Aspect ratios nearest to 1 (where all edges are equal in length) are the most accurate.14 Axial connection stiffness 32 The Institution of Structural Engineers Structural use of glass in buildings (Second edition) Initial model checks A common problem encountered in FE modelling is discontinuities between elements of a mesh. 20 15 10 NLA soft NLA LA 5 1 1. Most FEA software packages contain tools allowing all of these features to be checked.

15.Analysis of glass structures review the normalised stress jumps in the results as illustrated in Figure 4. 4. 2008 The Institution of Structural Engineers Structural use of glass in buildings (Second edition) 33 4. the stresses are not necessarily continuous. Simple elastic formulas to determine the stress and strain in selected cross sections and plate components can be used to verify finite element results. A significant amount of research and development is needed in order to capture complex test results in sufficient detail. et al.16.2 Pilkey.16 Normalised stress jumps When novel glass structures are designed. A good approximation technique to remove discontinuities in the stress plot is to apply nodal averaging of stresses. Hoboken. for poorly meshed bodies. This result is where the maximum difference in the stress nodal values at each node is calculated and normalised by dividing by the maximum difference over the model.6 References 4. In general. Peterson’s stress concentration factors. W. However.e. However.C. When complex stress concentration problems are investigated.1 has proved to be a very useful source of information for decades. All finite element results should be double checked using simple analytical methods. broken into smaller discrete elements) should be used. averaging the stresses reduces the magnitude of maximum and minimum stresses causing inaccuracies in the results. Roark’s formulas for stress and strain4.D. 8th ed. D. prototype testing is essential. analytical methods published in Peterson’s stress concentration factors4.2 can be used to validate finite element results. the finite element method guarantees that the displacement across a mesh is continuous between connecting elements. 3rd ed. If necessary the structure can be simplified but the structural behaviour should not be compromised. New York: McGraw-Hill. NJ: Wiley. To increase result accuracy. A greater value suggests the mesh is too coarse. Figure 4. Well-known formulas can be used to calculate internal forces in determinate and indeterminate structural systems. This is contrary to physical reality (in the majority of cases). A very good fit between numerical and analytical results can be expected. and Pilkey. it is desirable to have normalised stress jumps less than 0. 2012 4.F. The verification of test results using finite element models may be challenging due to the simplifications assumed in finite element modelling. elements with a higher grade shape function (i. The magnitude of the discontinuity depends on many factors. Roark’s formulas for stress and strain.15 Plate aspect ratio example Figure 4. From theory.1 Young. W.6 .

A grillage of supports is akin to having a series of frames that are in turn supported laterally.1 Introduction This chapter concerns the use of glass as a cladding material. Such support systems are usually only found in single-storey enclosures due to the limitations of the material in terms of risk of damage to the structure. The form of support of cladding comprises two main forms: hung or gravity based system. then the glass does not form a diaphragm as it is independently supported. however in instances where it is horizontal the selfweight of the glazing units must be considered in their design. depending on the geometry of supports.2. the most onerous of which is typically the suction effect due to negative wind pressure. . Glazing panels must span between either continuous line supports or point fixings.2. Transoms can be tension cables or rods that span the length of the cladding.1 Figure 5. which are placed as far apart as possible. These trusses can vary in form from lightweight steel through to tension cables. Istanbul. If on the other hand the glass is fixed via a series of point supports (e. If for example. The difficulty with this system lies with the need to provide intermediate vertical supports to the transoms. Figure 5. but it is not uncommon to have discrete point fixings. This results in the stacking of glass panes. Figure 5. bolts).2 Design of glass panes within cladding units 5.1 Parameters Glazing panels within cladding systems need to be designed to withstand wind pressures. The all-glass solution has support elements. then it takes on a more structural role within the cladding system by acting as a diaphragm within the cladding (see Figure 5. as they typically cannot span very far without exhibiting significant vertical deflections. The amount of work a sheet of glass is expected to perform within a cladding system is partially dependent on its method of support. This design can result in thicker glass. This requires the glass to span between the vertical elements. leaving it to be supported on two continuous edges. Turkey Transom and vertical element methods of supporting cladding 34 The Institution of Structural Engineers Structural use of glass in buildings (Second edition) 5.2 Cladding over entrance to Palladium Shopping Mall. The connections between the glazing and support elements are typically adhesive based. Conversely the same system can be adopted that consists entirely of transoms. This results in an obtrusive structure with the glass only spanning between continuous supports within the frame.g. The duration of loading is typically short.5 Glass in the building envelope 5. Lightweight trusses can also be used. Cladding is typically placed in a vertical orientation. as variations will be visible as changes of colour in the fac¸ade. be they transoms or posts that are made from structural glass.1). it is supported via isolated frames. such as silicone. All glass panes in a cladding system will normally need to be of similar construction in order to maintain visual uniformity. depending upon the form of cladding system that has been adopted. hence the thickness of the glass tends to be thinner than floor plates for example. as they have to support a load that has a longer duration. This means that the critical design wind action will typically be the highest imposed on the glass.2 shows a series of support methods for cladding systems that can and have been adopted. As a variant on the aforementioned form of cladding structure there is the vertical-only element. These systems are not mutually exclusive and in many instances they are mixed to form a kind of hybrid system. which eliminates the need for the transoms entirely. which can cause problems when one of them needs to be replaced due to maintenance. Fac¸ade types can be broken down further based on the form of support that is described in Figure 5.

Isolated point fixings typically take the form of through bolts that clamp the glazing to the supporting structure. it is deemed to be acceptable. It is also possible to utilise wind tunnel testing as a means to determine a more accurate magnitude of wind load being placed onto cladding elements. with respect to its integrity to act as a shield.5 Serviceability The amount of deflection a cladding system can exhibit is dependent on the method of support as it influences how much of the cladding element will move. Where a glazing panel has a continuous support. Cladding framing members – For span less than 3. This is not as critical as it is for glass that is placed overhead. Both are subjected to an area load of some kind. especially where glazing is installed at ground level.1.2 Material choice For single glazing based solutions. It is not uncommon for glazing panels to be thinner than a floor plate with similar dimensions and loading.2. Dominant openings within cladding systems also need to be considered and guidance for this is provided in EN 1991-1-4 Eurocode 1 – Actions on structures Part 1-4: General actions – wind actions5. Methods of connection The ways in which cladding elements are connected is dependent upon the method of support.2 .2.0m and less than 7. Laminated glass is commonly installed within cladding systems as a means to create redundancy should a panel fail. The key point to note is the duration of the load being applied to the glazing panel. Wind load is considered to be significantly shorter than imposed load as it is based on a one second gust where cladding elements have a diagonal dimension of less than 5m. as well as the consequences of failure of the element. Basic annealed glass cannot accommodate such fixings as it cracks due to the localised stresses that build up around the connection. The Institution of Structural Engineers Structural use of glass in buildings (Second edition) 35 5. For example. This could expose it to lateral loading from pedestrians and would therefore act as a form of barrier in such instances. Their guidelines can be summarised as follows. 19mm). One of the drivers behind this decision is the distance the glazing has to span.5m: span/300 þ 5mm. These are expanded on at length in Chapter 2.Glass in the building envelope 5. 5. This addresses wind pressure on unique parts of the structure such as cladding elements.0m: span/200. such as a fin. Toughened glass is typically used for longer spans due to its higher strength. For point fixed cladding systems (see Figure 5. with the major difference being the duration and magnitude of that load. – For span greater than 7. or 3mm.3 Point fixing in cladding system placed within a frame and fixed via a clamp or glued to another element of glass.2 covers the movement of cladding structures.3 Design principles The principles used to design cladding elements are not too dissimilar to those that are used for floor plates. a failing glass cladding element could fall from height and cause harm to anyone beneath it.4 Figure 5. as is toughened glass. but other factors such as susceptibility to thermal shock and height above ground are also important. but there is cause for specifying it in certain conditions. and to provide containment. basic annealed glass is a valid choice of glass type. whichever is the lesser. 5. via structural silicone.5m: span/250.3). Part 2 of the Standard for systemised building envelopes5. it is either Cantilever framing elements Elements of the supporting structure that are cantilevering are to have a deflection limit of L/100 (max. This requires that the frequency of pressure taps in the wind tunnel model is increased. The Centre for Window and Cladding Technology (CWCT) has published guidelines as to what deflection limits of supporting cladding framing systems and the cladding elements themselves should be designed to. toughened or heat-strengthened glass is also required as it can withstand the localised stresses that are generated around the fixings. Provided the movement in the cladding is accommodated within it. due to higher acceptable deflections for glazing panels.2. The strength of the glass can be derived using the guidance provided in Chapter 3. – Maximum in-plane deflection of any member due to dead load and live load shall not exceed 1/500 of the span. Caution is advised when using this data as it must be made clear to the testing facility that a wind load to the cladding is sought and not just the building overall. – For span greater than 3. 5.2.

it is very difficult to pinpoint a set of rules of thumb for the initial sizing of glazing elements within them.2. Roof glazing elements – centre pane deflections To prevent ponding of water.3. and use that as a basis for establishing an initial thickness of the glazing before embarking on detailed design. Aesthetics can play a key part in specifying glass within an IGU installation.3 36 The Institution of Structural Engineers Structural use of glass in buildings (Second edition) Figure 5. as described in Section 5.3 Glass in the building envelope Localised cladding framing deflections Normal-to-plane deflections. This air pressure differential can cause a load to be applied to both panes causing them to deflect outwards.3. The deflection of the centre pane shall not cause the panel rebate edge cover to be reduced to less than 75% of its unloaded dimension including allowance for fabrication and installation tolerances. 50mm) under wind load. – Double glazing: short span/65 (max. Account shall be taken of the effects of deflections of all supporting members. The use of basic annealed glass within IGU installations has become the preferred choice of glass type as a result. 15mm) All glass elements – centre pane deflection Structural design of glass shall take into consideration the effects of calculated maximum glass surface temperature and its effect on stiffness of the interlayer(s) if present. Typically tolerances of movement are more onerous for cladding than primary structural elements and consideration should be given to this disparity when designing cladding systems. It is possible to take on board the advice given by CWCT in terms of deflection.2 Material choice IGU installations can be made from any type of glass. With a fixed quantity of air or gas being sealed between the panes of the IGU. A secondary seal is then added. Glass with unsupported free edge Single glazing.58 to the horizontal is maintained. Double glazing. The gap is filled with either dehydrated air or a single inert gas. including roller wave and warp. to bond the glass layers together structurally. It should be noted that that some manufacturers will allow greater deflections.3 Design of insulating glazed units 5. while still providing a warranty. If.2. – Double glazing: 1000/540  (frame span in m)2 mm (max. BS 5516-25.1 Description where: H is the height of the glazing panel. for example. edge of glass panel: D  H/125 where: H is the height of the glazing panel.4). Thermally toughened and heat-strengthened glass exhibits various deformations during manufacture. Standard sealed glazing units are as also described as insulating glazed units (IGU). 5. edge of glass panel D  H/175 (max. A maximum of 15mm deflection is for typical IGU sized elements. Glazing panel edge frame deflections – two edge support – Single glazing: 1000/180  (frame span in m)2 mm.4 Insulated glazed unit (IGU) . edge of panel: D  H/125 5. the structure the IGUs are to be installed in is at a high altitude. To overcome this. 5. Single glazing. Glazing centre pane deflections – four edge support – Single glazing: short span/65 (max. Basic annealed is commonly used for the smaller panels while toughened is favoured for larger profiles. edge of panel: D  H/175 where: H is the height of the glazing panel. measured over a single infill glazing unit: provides guidance on available pane sizes and thickness for both monolithic and cavity glass. glazing shall deflect such that a minimum drainage slope of 1.6 Initial sizing Taking into account the myriad of variables that exist within cladding systems. These are selfcontained glazing panels that are typically fixed within a frame (see Figure 5. IGU based cladding systems consist of multiple layers of glass that are divided by a spacer with a primary seal between it and the glass. Double glazing. which can lead to deformations within IGU installations and can have a detrimental effect on the appearance of the cladding as a whole. 20mm). which acts as a moisture sealant between the panes of glass. differing air pressures and changes in temperature will result in deformation and deflections within the IGU. Of special note is the need to address the movement of the primary structure when compared to the cladding support system.5. the external air pressure will be less than it will be internally.5. 50mm) under wind load. the outer panes can be made from thicker glass to prevent them from deflecting and thus be seen as a distortion.

London: BSI. London: BSI. 2006 The Institution of Structural Engineers Structural use of glass in buildings (Second edition) 37 5. security and wind loading. Code of practice for design and installation of sloping and vertical patent glazing5.3 Design principles The pressure that is exerted onto the glass panes due to the presence of the gas or air between them is a significant point of concern.3. 5. as well as the short duration.2.7 BS 6399-2: 1997: Loading for buildings – Part 2: Code of practice for wind loads. This can result in the designer of the IGU having to adjust the relative glass thickness of the panes to mitigate the risk of resonance occurring within the IGU. It is recommended that sufficiently accurate results will be obtained by assuming the single pane will support the point load and that no load sharing occurs.5. This clause assumes that the applied wind loads are uniformly distributed and are therefore shared between panes within the multi-glazed IGU. Their supports are designed to within deflection limits placed upon cladding systems. When there is a difference in this pressure and the surrounding environment. 5.Glass in the building envelope 5. fixings and movement.3. a point fixed based system or the primary structure.1] This. 2005 5. 1997 [withdrawn. 2004 5. Standard for systemised building envelopes.5. 2004 5.5 BS 6262-3: 2005: Glazing for buildings – Part 3: Code of practice for fire. BS 5516-1: 2004 Patent glazing and sloping glazing for buildings.4 Methods of support IGU assemblies are supported from a secondary frame. The reader is therefore directed to Section 5.6 can also be referred to for wind actions. reduces the shared action between the panes. it is possible to investigate this effect in greater detail using FE analysis.2. as described in Section 5. London: BSI. 5. 2005 5.5 for further guidance on this. although this does make reference to the now withdrawn BS 6399-2 Loading for buildings: Code of practice for wind loads5. However.2 Centre for Window and Cladding Technology.4 .4 of BS 6262 – Part 2 Glazing for buildings5.6 BS 5516-1: 2004: Patent glazing and sloping glazing for buildings – Part 1: Code of practice for design and installation of sloping and vertical patent glazing. London: BSI.5 Serviceability Serviceability limits for IGUs are the same as for single-glazed cladding elements. however. security and wind loading5. 5. superseded by ref 5. Part 2: Loads.4 and Part 3: Code of practice for fire. London: BSI. Acoustics can also play a part in the design of IGU installations.4 References 5.7. as the above recommendation is conservative. In such conditions it is acceptable to ignore the shared load and design the point load for a single pane. 2004 5. a force is placed onto the glass that must be designed for. Bath: CWCT.3 BS 5516-2: 2004: Patent glazing and sloping glazing for buildings – Part 2: Code of practice for sloping glazing. London: BSI. light and sound. This can create sound pollution problems if not addressed during the design stage.3. It is possible that they can become amplifiers due to the vibration of the glass within the IGU. IGU design is described in Clause 6. is not the case for point loads as the small area over which the load is applied.1 BS EN 1991-1-4: 2005 þ A1:2010: Eurocode 1: Actions on structures – Part 1-4: General actions – wind actions.4 BS 6262-2: 2005: Glazing for buildings – Part 2: Code of practice for energy.

Unlike the continuous support systems described in Section 6. Therefore attention needs to be paid to the local stresses around the bolts that pass through the clamp.2 and 6. for cladding elements it is more accurate to describe them as being supported off of a pair of discrete points. Nevertheless there are instances where for particularly large panes of glass both the compressive capacity of the setting blocks and any localised tension stress due to the bridging of the glass over the setting blocks needs to be addressed. Mechanical fixings can be further split into clamp and bolt fixings. i. Clamps can either be continuous or small. such pads have the tendency to cause the pane they are supporting to unduly deflect.1 Introduction This chapter builds on what was described in Section 2.1 Continuous support frame with setting blocks 38 The Institution of Structural Engineers Structural use of glass in buildings (Second edition) Clamp connections Friction connections Friction grip connections are a subset of clamping connections and are more often than not found in splice connections within beams and columns.6 Connection design 6. they have a tension capacity as well as shear and compression. soft bearing pads can be used within the clamp assembly. The localised stresses generated by these setting blocks are not normally a significant concern as they only typically support the self-weight of the glass panes.4.2. which the glass sits upon once it is installed. The applied stresses are compared against the design strength of the glass as described in Chapter 3. 6.4 Figure 6. localised fixings. For the purposes of design.e.2. In many cases this can govern the design more than the overall element itself (see Figures 6. The sizing of setting blocks can impact on the integrity of the glass pane they are supporting. These support points are setting blocks. It is therefore important to determine the relative stiffness of the clamp against the glass pane it is supporting. The hole around the bolt is oversized to accommodate the inclusion of a hard isolation material.3 6. The principle behind it focuses . The following procedure can be used to design splice connections using the estimated size and number of bolts within a splice. clamps can provide a positive fixing that does not rely entirely on gravity. connections can be split into two sub-categories: mechanical and adhesivebased. They transfer in-plane forces without needing the bolts to bear on the glass. Additionally. which explains the various methods of support for structural glass elements.1 and BS 8000:7 1990 Workmanship on building sites. As a general rule the width of setting blocks should be equal to the glass pane thickness. but for the smaller clamps the primary point of concern is the local bending and stiffness of the clamp itself as it interacts with the glass it is supporting. to minimise the effects of local stresses. 6.3). Code of practice for glazing6. as described in Section 2. They can have setting blocks present. It considers what needs to be reviewed for each connection type. then localised bending stresses can develop around the clamp. However. While generally accurate for floor plates subject to a UDL action to consider the relative stiffness of the glass and supporting frame. These capacities are dependent upon the elastic modulus of both the setting block and the pane of glass. It is possible therefore to review the impact of the size of setting blocks within a continuous linear support system. If they are relatively stiff compared to the glass panes they are supporting.1). For more information refer to BS 6262: 1 2005 Glazing for buildings – General methodology for the selection of glazing for sizing6. which creates the same issues as described in Section 6.2 Continuous linear support connections Continuous supports provide an unbroken line of support along an edge of a glass pane (see Figure 6. but the same issue holds true for small clamps. These blocks transfer the self-weight of the glass to the supporting frame. It is these stresses the glass has to be designed for. The stiffness of supports is discussed in Chapter 4 with respect to computer modelling.2 for installation guidance.4. Once that is established the bending stresses around the clamp can be determined and an analysis can be carried out.

In laminated glass the presence of friction-based connections causes problems with the interlayer material.1 the capacity of the splice can be approximated.2 Clamp fixing that allows for vertical displacement along its axis It is possible to assess such a connection using finite element analysis models for more accurate results. eliminates this issue and allows the designer to focus on addressing the high localised stresses within the bolt connection (see Figure 6. .5). The use of gaskets and brushes. The isolation is required to prevent the glass coming into contact with a material that is harder than it.1 for long-term loading conditions and 0. is needed between the glass and the steel clamping plates. It is for this reason that the designer must pay special attention to the interaction between the bolt fixing and the glass it is supporting.5 Bolted connections Bolted connections can generate high localised stresses. For friction connections to be able to transmit forces effectively they have to be well torqued and a ‘benign’ separator.1 i where: i is the number of the bolt (see Figure 6. unlike other materials such as steel and timber. so that it is of the same thickness as the interlayer after the fixing is torqued. . This material needs to be creep resistant and of a thickness carefully matched to that of the interlayer. 1 b1 2 b2 b3 b4 Centre of rotation 3 4 Figure 6. This requires laboratory trials in advance of manufacture. which are formed from materials with a lesser modulus of elasticity. As the clamp is pressed against the glass. This happens over a period of time that can occur within the design life of the structure and is therefore a hazard that can occur during the structure’s in-service condition. This may require the connection to be reviewed and checked on a regular basis to ensure the amount of required torque is maintained. To overcome this. This can be estimated as 0. which are not dissipated due to yielding. Add to this the complexity of avoiding direct contact between the bolt and the glass itself. Figure 6.4 Splice fixing within glass beam (friction connection) The Institution of Structural Engineers Structural use of glass in buildings (Second edition) 39 6. Glass cannot yield. thus significantly reducing the clamping force and rendering the connection ineffective. M ¼ 2m X F i bi . By comparing the applied bending moment against the value of M in Equation 6. the interlayer material is squeezed out from the laminated glass.2 for short-term. usually a creep-resistant fibre gasket.3 Clamp fixing to glass beam within walkway 6. Equation 6. The design of bolted connections must consider these interactions very carefully in order for it to function as intended. a layer of soft aluminium is placed within the interlayer where the fixing is to be located.5 .Connection design on the induced tension in the bolt via torque and the coefficient of friction m between the gasket in the bolt fixing and the glass.4) F is the tension in the bolt due torque b is the distance from the centre of the bolt group to the bolt m is the coefficient of friction between the gasket in the bolt fixing Figure 6.

5 Bolt fixing showing gaskets and brushes acting as isolating material between the bolt and the glass t = glass thickness x > 2t >2. 6.6 provides guidance on spacing of bolted connections within glass elements. The duration of . It is very difficult to carry out a simple manual calculation to determine the localised stresses around bolt connections in glass. the bearing capacity of the glass can be assumed to be 1kN/mm width of glass that is effectively carried. and it is advisable to employ the use of finite element modelling applications to determine stresses around bolt connections accurately.7). which are manufacturer dependent. Figure 6.6.5t 2t 4t x + y > 6t No holes in this area y > 2t 2t Figure 6.6 expands on the different types of adhesives available to the designer and advises on 40 The Institution of Structural Engineers Structural use of glass in buildings (Second edition) how they are used in glass design. and the distribution of stress around the bolts is difficult to model.8).6 Adhesive based connections Section 2. These can then be compared against the design strength described in Chapter 3. The properties of the proposed adhesive determine how creep may be anticipated when placed under load. The first is that when fixing through toughened glass. The glass is not able to yield. Structural silicone has varying material properties. Displacement occurs between the two elements as the tension force tries to pry them apart. Nevertheless there are some rules of thumb that can be used when initially sizing bolt connections. the transfer of load between the elements it is fixing together is one of the most important parts of the design (see Figure 6. Where adhesive is used in a less conventional manner. Peeling stresses can also be a concern as they are typically very high at the extreme ends of the adhesive. One of the most common forms of adhesive connection is the use of silicone to form glass-toglass right angle butt joints. This is only an estimate. however. This section explains what the designer needs to consider when using adhesives as a means to connect structural glass elements together. Such fixings allow the glass to rotate within the frame and are thus deemed to be simply supported connections when the glass is being designed (see Figure 6.6 Connection design Figure 6.4.6 Bolt fixing spacing The geometry of the bolt fixings with respect to their proximity to each other and the edge of the glass is of significant importance.

6.1 BS 6262-1: 2005: Glazing for buildings – General methodology for the selection of glazing for sizing. 4:0kNm [ OK 6. M ¼ 2  0:2  ½ðð0:073m þ 0:037mÞ  37kNÞ þ ð0:037m  37kNÞ þ ðð0:073m þ 0:037mÞ  37kNÞ þ ð0:037m  37kNÞ Regions of maximum strain in the adhesive.4 can support the applied bending moment.7 Glass staircase with treads fixed via adhesive based connections m ¼ 0.Connection design loads also has an impact on their capacity. 2005 6. The tension induced strength of the bolts is 37kN and their vertical spacing is at a pitch of 73mm. Check to see if two rows of four M12 bolts. laid out in a similar fashion to Figure 6.7 . Workmanship should also be taken into consideration to the extent that it is advisable to have test pieces made by the same process at the same premises. London: BSI. Bending capacity of splice connection is: Figure 6. where most of the load transfer occurs ¼ 4:4kNm . similar to glass. 1990 Figure 6. The designer must carry out numerous checks based on the form of loading they are designing the glass structure for when using structural silicone as an adhesive for connections.8 References 6. London: BSI.2 BS 8000-7: 1990: Workmanship on building sites – Code of practice for glazing.8 Differential strains in a long lap joint The Institution of Structural Engineers Structural use of glass in buildings (Second edition) 41 6. Production samples of what adhesive is going to be used during construction should be tested and not those made solely for testing purposes.2 due to short term loading.7 Worked example A splice connection is to support a design bending moment of 4kNm due to short term loading.

1.1 Glass staircase and link bridge with balustrade 7. The glass can form part of the barrier when used to infill a structural frame or become the barrier itself (see Figures 7.1 Introduction Glass balustrades are part-height barriers that protect people from a fall between levels. which states that an additional vertical load of 1kN or 0.6kN/m should be applied to the barrier during the design process. With this in mind. Figure 7. the location of the barrier and the possible distance of fall determine the height of the balustrade and the variable design actions to be applied.1m from above finish floor level.2 Glass staircases with balustrades 42 The Institution of Structural Engineers Structural use of glass in buildings (Second edition) Figure 7.7 Glass balustrades 7.2 Design principles The design of balustrades concerns the prevention of someone falling from an edge. The design process has to also take into account the actual installed height of the barrier. With .1 and 7.2). calculations have to take into account four specified design actions: – uniformly distributed action – a concentrated action – a line load at a specified height – a vertical action – any additional action from air movement or wind. When full height glass is used to protect from a fall this is not considered as a balustrade. the method of fixing and any other external loads due to building location. the primary component of loading is a lateral force due to a horizontal load of a short duration. This load is applied at 1. The building use. even though barrier loads still have to be taken into account. Typical balustrade heights range from a minimum of 900mm to 1200mm for protection but can be taken higher for reasons of privacy or to act as a wind break. regardless of the actual height of the balustrade. The vertical action for balustrades is defined in Clause 3 of PD 6688-1-1:2011 Recommendations for the design of structures7. In either case.

e. a bar/restaurant or a shopping mall.3.1 and 8. This can only be achieved by using laminated glass. 7. from infill elements within a steel framed structure through to a free-standing glass pane. Ionoplast interlayers provide greater stiffness and are therefore 4 5 6 7 8 Key 1 Glass 2 M16 bolts 3 3mm thick bush hard fibre or nylon 4 >12mm metal plate attached to structure at 500mm centres 5 >12mm metal plate min. Noting that the load is classified as not permanent and has an assumed duration of 30 seconds for domestic use. In all other cases the duration is increased to 5 minutes and has a corresponding kmod value of 0. a reasoned conclusion can be reached on whether or not the balustrade must be designed to be able to remain in place post-failure and still be able to withstand the full load. Free-standing glass balustrades are essentially cantilevers and must be designed to withstand the load as defined in the above referenced codes of practice. which are typically PVB. In instances where the balustrade is placed at height. The loads for balustrading are defined in BS EN 1991-1-1 Actions on structures7.g. it is safer to assume that both plies act separately. the glass should be laminated so that in the event of its failure it remains in place. It is unlikely to remain in place following failure.2 and BS 6180: 2011 Barriers in and about buildings – code of practice7. Neighbouring panels must then also be designed to withstand the additional load from the handrail as the failed panel can no longer support the loads applied to it. When designing balustrades constructed from laminated glass. the height of the applied load is 900mm from the finish floor level. For most interlayers. Any risk assessment must consider the location of the barrier and the use of the location it is placed in. Annex B of BS 6180: 20117.77. it is reasonable to adopt a kmod value of 0. The type of laminate material also has an impact on the way in which glass behaves post-failure. – Isolated bolt fixings or clamps within a frame. In the case of infill panels.3 and 7. 100 × 150mm 6 1. there are two forms: – Continuous edge supported within a frame. Without the redundancy of an additional ply of glass to support the failed ply.4. the fixing detail of the balustrade onto the primary structure must be designed in such a way as to prevent the glass falling if all plies in pane have failed.89 when determining the strength of the glass using guidance given in Chapter 3 and Appendix C. the balustrade will no longer perform as one as the pane will have failed completely.3 Point fixing clamp to balustrade The Institution of Structural Engineers Structural use of glass in buildings (Second edition) 43 7. For bolt fixings from the balustrade into the primary structure. resulting in falling glass if the balustrade is placed at height. Once the risk assessment has been developed. the glass deflects significantly but usually remains in place.2. For barriers that are placed along the edge of an opening.0mm thick fibre gasket 7 Side of drop 8 Public access side Figure 7. with no composite action.3 more robust in the post-failure condition than other materials. 1 2 3 Material selection Glass balustrades can be formed from any type of glass and are usually laminated. 7. Figures 7.5 and 7. similar to that described in Section 7.4 Methods of connection Glass balustrades can come in a variety of forms. Where no handrail is present then a risk assessment must be carried out to determine the consequences of it failing.4 of BS 6180: 20117.3. if a handrail is present at the top of the balustrade then it is advisable that it is designed to span between panels of glass within the balustrade should one of them fail. the infill panel must comply with the design criteria given in Clauses 6. For infill panels with continuous supports. This reduces the risk of the glass falling from its mount as one ply can act as a support to the one that has failed. What is common with all of these details is that they do not allow any direct contact between the steel and the glass.3 .Glass balustrades the case of infill sections and domestic use.6 show details of a method for clamping the glass into place.3 provides details of typical fixings for monolithic toughened glass balustrades which are reproduced in Figures 7. In the post-failure condition.

5 Glass balustrades Glass 1 1 2 2 80 3 3 4 4 200 30 5 6 90 7 8 Key 1 Glass 2 >12mm metal plate continuous >100mm wide 3 3mm hard fibre or nylon bush 4 M16 bolts at 500mm centres 5 1.0kN/m.5 Continuous clamp fixing to balustrade using steel angles 44 The Institution of Structural Engineers Structural use of glass in buildings (Second edition) Serviceability Typically Clause 6. and slippage of this connection will allow the glass to deflect. BS 6180: 20117.5 makes reference to a variety of packing materials between the glass and the steel. The grip on the glass is by a bolt in shear. 2 25 80 It should be noted that the above details can deal with the maximum horizontal loading of 3.7).4. The deformation of the connection system used can have a significant impact on the overall deflection of the balustrade and must be considered during its design (see Figure 7.3 stipulates that the maximum deflection at the top of a free-standing glass balustrade cannot be any more than 25mm. The high modulus sealant is not as stiff as hardwood and the movement at the top of the balustrade will be greater. extruded silicone S/H 85° or epoxy polysulphide compound 4 Setting block 5 Continuous 12mm thick plates Figure 7. When calculating the deflection of balustrades the designer should take note of the assembly that fixes the balustrade to the base structure. 3 7.5 4 5 Key 1 Glass 2 High modulus sealant 3 Hardwood. Hardwood spacers should be tight to the glass.7. and are therefore conservative for lower loadings. which is .3 can be referred to when determining the allowable deflection of a balustrade when subjected to the lateral load as described in Section 7.1 of BS 6180: 20117.4 Continuous fixing clamp to balustrade Figure 7.6 Alternative clamping system 6 1 12 The detail shown in Figure 7. extruded silicone S/H 85° or epoxy polysulphide compound 4 Setting block 5 Continuous 12mm thick angles Figure 7.2.0mm thick fibre gasket 6 >12mm continuous metal plate attached to structure 7 Side of drop 8 Public access side 5 Key 1 Glass 2 High modulus sealant 3 Hardwood.

cleaning.1 provides approximate thicknesses of freestanding balustrades made from toughened glass.6 . maintenance. including the likelihood of people being injured by falling glass.74 1100 15 / 21.5 1.5 3.3 is a guideline and as such it is ultimately up to the designer to determine acceptable deflection limits on the balustrade under consideration. The choice of annealed. 7. It should be noted that in post-failure condition these deflection limits do not apply. It should be noted that these figures are based on current codes of practice and assume a fully fixed continuous connection at the base of the balustrade.0 1100 25 / 31. The Institution of Structural Engineers Structural use of glass in buildings (Second edition) 45 7. Most manufacturers will have a view on the type of glass that they would recommend. based on fixing method. Figure 7. It must be noted that BS 61807.5 0. Critical structural issues include: – how the overall structure will behave – how the structure will behave after one or more glass elements have failed – the safety implications of the failure of a piece of glass. it is possible to reduce the overall thickness of the glass due to the greater stiffness properties the interlayer has over other materials. repair and replacement – availability of materials – appearance and fit – durability – environmental impact and life cycle costing.7 Rotation of connection assembly for balustrades a UK requirement.5 7.6 Initial sizing Table 7.5 1100 19 / 25.1 Approximate thicknesses of free-standing toughened glass balustrades Design load (kN/m) Height of glass (mm) Thickness of glass: monolithic toughened/laminated toughened (mm) 0.36 900 12 / 17.Glass balustrades Non-structural items include: – thermal transmission and solar radiation – condensation – rainwater runoff – fire – acoustic behaviour – access for installation. They are provided as a means to develop a final design and should not be regarded as definitive. heat-strengthened or toughened glass will rarely be determined by considerations of strength alone. inspection. as the balustrade need only act as an arrest from falling and not a semiimmovable barrier as it did prior to failure. the designer should also consider the following critical issues when designing a balustrade. handling and other considerations. Where ionoplast is used as an interlayer for laminated glass balustrades. Table 7.7 Design criteria Over and above what has already been described in this chapter. In most cases this is the governing criterion for the design of glass balustrades as this is a stringent limit that is difficult to achieve in glass thicknesses of anything less than 12mm for freestanding forms.

0.k gM:A þ k v ðf b. therefore fb. Determine fb.Glass balustrades 7. It is in a restaurant and is therefore exposed to public access.d ¼ k mod k sp f g.7 4kN /m 1100 7.74kN/m UDL acting 1.5 ¼ 1. Each pane of glass within the balustrade is 2m long and the following calculation is a design of the glass only and not its connection to the primary structure.2 respectively and fg. Assuming no overcrowding.1kN/m  1. float glass therefore ksp ¼ 1. laminated with two plies.6 and 1. Determine kmod The load is of a short duration.2kNm/m Toughened glass to be used.7 Actions 0.1kN/m BMult ¼ 1.k Þ gM:v The glass is toughened horizontally using a thermal based process and is not to be sandblasted.0 gM:A and gM:v are 1. The glass is made from float process and not sand-blasted.k The glass is toughened horizontally.8 Worked example for balustrade design A glass balustrade is to be installed along an edge of an opening within a ground floor that has a basement underneath it. therefore kmod is 0.74kN/m  1.1m ¼ 1.d ¼ 0:77  1:0  45N=mm2 1:0ð120N=mm2  45N=mm2 Þ þ ¼ 84:2N=mm2 1:6 1:2 Determine thickness of glass required based on design strength M 1:2  106 Nmm=m ¼ 14:3  103 mm3 =m  84:2N=mm2 [ Wrequired  W 84:2N=mm2 1000mm  t 2 [ thickness required:  14:3  103 mm3 =m 6 rffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi 6  14:3  103 mm3 =m [t ¼ 9mm 1000mm 46 The Institution of Structural Engineers Structural use of glass in buildings (Second edition) .74kN/m applied at a height of 1100mm above the floor level.k ¼ 120N/mm2 and kv ¼ 1.77 (see Appendix C).k  f g. The balustrade is a cantilever with continuous clamped connection at its base and a handrail.0 Calculate the design strength of the glass f g. the balustrade should be designed for a line load of 0.1m above FFL Partial factor for variable action gq ¼ 1.5 UDLult ¼ 0. Determine the strength of the glass using advice given in Chapter 3 and Appendix C Strength of glass f g.k is 45N/mm2.

4. the coefficient of shear transfer v is 0 (see Appendix C). In order to maintain the integrity of the balustrade.5mm thick laminated glass.5mm PVB interlayer.s ¼ ¼ 17mm > 9mm [ OK 12 Deflection check I¼ 1000mm  153 mm ¼ 281:3  103 mm4 =m 12 d¼ 740N  11003 mm ¼ 17mm 3  70  10 N=mm2  281:3  103 mm4 =m 3 Allowable deflection (as advised by BS 6180:2011 Clause 6.Glass balustrades Try 25. Post-failure check In the event that one of the panels fails. [ action=m ¼ 1:1kN ¼ 1:0kN=m 1:1m This action is additive to the one that was originally applied. Additional load from balustrade/handrail Partial factor for variable action gq ¼ 1.5 2m  0:74kN=m  gq 2m  0:74kN=m  1:5 ¼ ¼ 1:1kN 2 2 This reaction is spread over 1100mm. two sheets of 12mm thick toughened glass panes with 1. ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi p 3 In terms of deflection: hef.1) ¼ 25mm 17mm < 25mm [ OK This deflection does not take into account the rotation of the fixing. which needs to be assessed as part of the entire balustrade assembly. [ UDLULT ¼ 1:0kN=m þ 1:1kN=m ¼ 2:1kN=m Applied bending moment 1:1m  2:1kN=m ¼ 2:3kNm=m Determine bending resistance Elastic Modulus W ¼ 1000mm  172 mm ¼ 48:2  103 mm3 =m 6 M 2:3  106 Nmm=m ¼ ¼ 47:7N=mm2 < 84:2N=mm2 [ OK W 48:2  103 mm3 =m No deflection check is required as this condition is post-failure and serviceability limits do not apply. The effective thickness of the balustrade is therefore as follows. With the interlayer being PVB and the form of loading is on a public balustrade.w ¼ 123 mm þ 123 mm ¼ 15mm rffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi 153 mm In terms of bending capacity: hef. The Institution of Structural Engineers Structural use of glass in buildings (Second edition) 47 7. the handrail will have to span over the panel that has broken and share load into the adjacent one.7 . the remaining glass pane will have to support the load from the handrail.

2011 48 The Institution of Structural Engineers Structural use of glass in buildings (Second edition) .1 PD 6688-1-1: 2011: Recommendations for the design of structures to BS EN 1991-1-1. self-weight.9 References 7. London: BSI. 2011 7. London: BSI.2 BS EN 1991-1-1: 2002: Eurocode 1: Actions on structures – Part 1-1: General actions – Densities. imposed loads for buildings.9 Glass balustrades 7. 2002 7.3 BS 6180: 2011: Barriers in and about buildings – Code of practice. London: BSI.7.

it is reasonable to adopt a kmod value of 0.1. conditions where a variable action can be akin to storage (i.2 Design principles Glass floor panels can be supported on one or more edges. and therefore longer lasting. It is therefore required to carry out multiple assessments of the floor plate depending on the actions it is being analysed against. after all of the sheets of glass have failed. The glass should be designed for deflection and stress criteria ignoring the contribution of the plastic and the plastic should be designed for stress criteria only assuming no contribution from the glass. The plastic sheet should be designed to support a portion of the full design load as deemed acceptable by the engineer for the given failure scenario (typically 50– 70% of the design load is considered acceptable).1. due to maintenance. as long as broken fragments or shards are adequately restrained from becoming detached or from causing a person to lose their footing. In some instances.60 when determining the design strength of the glass. Noting that variable actions on floors have medium term duration. as stipulated in Appendix C.e. capable of supporting the applied loading.and postbreakage.1. Panels with aspect ratios greater than 2 should be designed as being supported on only two sides: In this case the interlayer is assumed to provide no structural stiffness and the panel should stay in place.1 Introduction Glass floors can act as both a walking surface and sometimes as the supporting structure to other glass elements such as a glass wall or balustrade. Hence it is up to the The Institution of Structural Engineers Structural use of glass in buildings (Second edition) 49 . steps must be taken to ensure that the loaded panel remains in place after the glass has broken. Basic annealed or heat-strengthened glass types are typically used for floor panels as they break into larger fragments on failure which can contribute to considerable postbreakage strength. As with the four sided support solution. particularly in roof light installations. The duration of applied actions affects the design strength of the glass – the shorter it is. however. The design of double glazed units is covered in Chapter 5. the higher the magnitude of design strength that can be assumed. A single or laminated sheet of glass underlain with a single sheet of clear plastic: Plastics such as acrylic can be used as a safety net for the situation where the glass breaks. After breakage the glass fragments will be held together by the interlayer material and many of the fragments will be large enough to continue spanning between at least two of the supported edges. The glass does not need to be bonded to the plastic in this system and attempts to do so have often led to other problems such as bowing due to the different coefficients of thermal expansion of the glass and the plastic. postbreakage.1 Glass floor plate design 8. Panel solutions based on these principles typically demonstrate satisfactory postbreakage behaviour.1 for an example of pedestrian short-term loading to a glass floor. while the permanent actions are obviously long-term – see Figure 8. It is always recommended that the system is fully tested to ensure compliance. to hold the fragments together in composite action with the interlayer acting as the tension component and the cracked glass providing compression resistance. as it is exposed to maintenance access. The following paragraphs give an overview of these design principles for various types of glass floor plates: Two or more sheets laminated with a resin or PVB interlayer supported on four sides. With this configuration allows any type of glass to be used. IGU need to be treated as a floor plate unit. Three or more sheets laminated with an ionoplast interlayer and supported on two or three sides or is cantilevering: In this case panels should be laminated with an ionoplast interlayer which is strong enough. Any proposed system that is based on what is described above should be verified by testing. which includes the analysis of IGU that are subject to imposed load/variable actions. Figure 8. Appendix C provides the relevant coefficient values for various durations of actions. Laminating the glass with an ionoplast interlayer will improve the performance of the panel pre. The ratio of length to breadth of the panel is must be 2 or less. as failure of one or more of the glass sheets could lead to serious consequences.1 Floor plate supported by glass beams Glass floors must be designed to withstand the variable action.8 Element design 8. basic annealed or heatstrengthened glass provides significantly better postbreakage resistance than toughened glass. A number of solutions have been developed to provide this fail safe behaviour. There are. self-weight permanent action and a concentrated variable action as defined in EN 19911-18. almost permanent). Floor plates are subjected to variable actions which may be either short duration or long duration. However. 8.

However. This typically induces the most bending stress in the floor plate. Curing sealant Silicone sealant Structure Methods of connection Rubber strip 3-5mm thick. it is not advisable to use chemically toughened glass as the depth of the prestress section of the glass is too thin and the glass is far more susceptible to failure when its surface is damaged. it is possible to provide point support solutions for floor plates. however. This allows light transfer through the glass and provides sufficient obscurity to create a modesty shield against those who would be able to look up through the glass to those walking above. 10mm to 25mm heat soaked toughened glass.e. This needs to be assessed based on its location and the likely use of the floor area. or otherwise textured by sand blasting or acid etching.4 In most instances. While less common. especially when it is wet. With such a fixing system being adopted. Figure 8. take this into account when the panels are continuous over supports. To provide slip resistance. Figure 8. One should. from the glass via a plastic or fibre washer. box. Care must be taken to isolate the connection material. minimum 60 Shore hardness 25mm Minimum bearing Rubber strip 3-5mm thick minimum 60 Shore hardness T. rather than at mid-span as expected with the continuous support systems.3 Example of a continuous support to a floor plate 50 The Institution of Structural Engineers Structural use of glass in buildings (Second edition) . which often results in a translucent effect.1. Typically floor plates are supported via a continuous edge.3 Material selection Glass floors can be made from any of the four types of glass. either on all sides or at least two. i. the critical case is the concentrated variable action. This should be taken into consideration when assessing the design of glass floor panels. Such a solution reduces the risk of concentrated stresses being developed within the construction. but larger spans can result in the uniformly distributed load becoming the critical case. In the case of floor plates this has no direct effect on the design of the glass that is simply supported as the tension face of the glass is on the underside.2 Example of an enamelled glass floor plate One important consideration is the slip resistance of glass. is much higher. which is typically steel. Both effects will generate some small tensions in the top surface and should therefore be considered when reviewing local effects adjacent to supports. as the stiffness of this structure will have a significant impact on how the assembly behaves. Sand blasting. All glass to have flat ground and arrissed edges. It is important to take into account the deflection and deformation of the supporting structure. The enamelling or etching process does have an impact on the tension capacity of the glass and can reduce it by up to 40%.3 is an example of a continuous floor plate support system. There will be some moment continuity at the support plus corner restraint if the panels are two way spanning. the risk of local failure around the connections. floor plates tend to be enamelled (see Figure 8. There is always the risk of concentrated stresses being generated within a floor plate if the means by which they are resting on the frames relies on spacing blocks which provide a form of point support along the frame.8. heat-strengthened. basic annealed. depending on load and size. This can be some form of steel frame that the glass floor plate sits in. There will also be some tension in the top surface even with nominally pinned supports.1.1 Element design 8. acid etching and enamelling are all standard methods of achieving the required slip resistance designer to designate the appropriate durations for applied variable actions based on the likely use of the floor. 8. or solid bar support 50mm minimum Figure 8.2). thermally toughened and chemically toughened.

as well as the method of fixing and plan dimensions. only covers the effect of the second harmonic caused by footfall onto the floor plate.1.1 .6 Initial sizing In most instances. The Institution of Structural Engineers Structural use of glass in buildings (Second edition) 51 8. however.Element design 8. method of fixing support and geometry. 8. This. Depending on the imposed load and geometry.1. the natural frequency should be limited to no less than 5Hz. as an initial estimate. For typical floors third harmonics are usually covered and rule of thumb frequency limits are set to above 7. glass floor plates can range from 12mm to 80mm. This is then refined further based on applied actions.5 Serviceability For glass floor plates it is common to use a base deflection limit of span/250 when subjected to both variable and permanent actions. With regards to floor vibration.5Hz. a base span/ depth ratio of 40–50 can be used to establish a thickness of glass.

short duration load For load duration of 5 hours. This frame provides a continuous support and the following analysis and design of the glass floor plate provisionally assumes it to be infinitely stiff. The effective thickness of the glass when considering deflection due to bending is: vffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi !ffi u X u X 3 hef.0kN The glass will not be sandblasted and will be enamelled on the wearing side. The simplified method of determining stress of glass within each ply is as follows. gM:A ¼ 1.k  f g. fg.5m grillage of beams.1 Element design 8. The following calculation determines the thickness of the glass required for the floor plate.1. It is assumed that the top sheet will be toughened and not included in the stress calculations although will be considered for deflection. Two action durations apply: permanent and short.k ¼ 70N/mm2.0.d ¼ 0:29  1:0  45N=mm2 1:0ð70N=mm2  45N=mm2 Þ þ ¼ 29N=mm2 1:6 1:2 Variable action condition i.6 and gM:v ¼ 1.d ¼ 0:60  1:0  45N=mm2 1:0ð70N=mm2  45N=mm2 Þ þ ¼ 37:7N=mm2 1:6 1:2 Determine the effective thickness of the glass required based on design strength Try a three-ply laminated glass made from two plies of 12mm thick toughened glass and a 12mm thick sacrificial ply of heat-strengthened glass. 150 0 150 0 The below floor loadings are typical for domestic use and should be used for design: Characteristic variable action qk ¼ 1.50 years. the shear interaction between the plies of the laminated glass via the PVB interlayer must be accounted for.5kN/m2 Characteristic point action Qk ¼ 3.w ¼ t hk 3 þ 12v hk hm.k 2 k 52 i The Institution of Structural Engineers Structural use of glass in buildings (Second edition) .e.7 Worked example for floor plate design A glass floor plate is to be installed that sits over a basement. In order to calculate the effective thickness of the glass pane. kv ¼ 1. This will not impact on the design of the glass as the enamelling is on the compression side of the floor plate.k Þ þ gM:v gM:A For load duration .0.8. f g.29 ksp ¼ 1.k ¼ 45N/mm2.60 [ fg. Permanent action condition Determine design strength of glass using Appendix C.k k v ðf b. fb.76mm thick. To provide the most effective post-breakage behaviour the lower two sheets will be heat-strengthened. kmod ¼ 0. for pedestrian action.2. fg. The support is via a steel frame with a 1. The laminate is PVB based material and is 0. The glass is to be made up of three layers of glass laminated with PVB. kmod ¼ 0.d ¼ k mod k sp f g.5m  1.

w 2 .7N/mm2 [ OK The Institution of Structural Engineers Structural use of glass in buildings (Second edition) 53 8. 29N/mm2 [ OK The applied bending stress to the plate during the variable action condition is: gq ¼ 1.22kN/m2 þ 1. When calculating stress the equivalent thickness is calculated from: sffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi hef. Additionally the tougthened top ply is not included when determining the overall depth of the glass as it is considered to be sacrificial. The effective thickness of the laminated glass for bending stress is as follows: sffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi 16:73 mm ¼ 18:7mm hef.7mm due to the inclusion of shear interaction within the PVB based interlayer.j ¼ 12mm þ 2  0:1  6:4mm Note how the effective thickness has increased from 15.1 .1mm to 16.k is the distance between the middle of the ply to the centre of the laminated glass pane. Effective thickness in permanent action condition The effective thickness of the laminated glass with respect to permanent action is as follows: ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi p 3 hef.5kN/m2  1.3N/mm2 .1 for v when considering variable actions and ‘0’ when assessing effects due to permanent actions. Effective thickness in variable action condition The effective thickness of the laminated glass with respect to variable action is as follows: qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi hef .4 of Roark’s Formulas for Stress and Strain – 8th Edition as: smax ¼ b qb2 hef.9kN/m2 (Note this includes the 12mm thick tougthened top ply which is not included when determining the effective thickness of the glass.w ¼ 3 123 mm þ 123 mm þ 12  0:1  ð12mm  6:42 mm þ 12mm  6:42 mmÞ ¼ 16:7mm This is the effective thickness of the laminated glass that is to be used for deflection calculations. therefore b ¼ 0.Element design where: is the thickness of each ply hk hm.287 [ smax ¼ 0:287  1:22kN=m2  1:52 m ¼ 2:3  103 kN=m2 ¼ 2:3N=mm2 0:01872 m 2. In this instance the ratio of the dimensions of the plate is 1.9kN/m2  1. UDL smax ¼ 0:287  3:47kN=m2  1:52 m ¼ 6:4  103 kN=m2 ¼ 6:4N=mm2 0:01872 m 6.5kN/m2  gq ¼ 1. two effective thicknesses need to be calculated.5 1.s.s.22kN/m2 þ 1.9kN/m2  gg ¼ 0.47kN/m2 There are two effects to consider for the variable action condition: that of the UDL and the point load.4N/mm2 .5 ¼ 3. which is then increased to 18.w ¼ 123 mm þ 123 mm ¼ 15:1mm Note that the variable v equates to ‘0’ hence it is not included in the calculation.35 ¼ 1. With respect to the permanent condition.22kN/m2 The applied bending stress to the plate during the permanent condition is defined in Table 11.036m  25kN/m3 ¼ 0.7mm when calculating stress.j Assuming a value of 0.35 UDLult ¼ 0. b ¼ 0:287 The b variable is dependent upon the ratio of geometry of the plate.) Partial factor for permanent action gg ¼ 1.j ¼ hj þ 2v hm.w 3 hef. the following applies: Permanent actions due to self-weight ¼ 0. Bending stress check There are two action conditions to check for: permanent and variable (short). 37.

the maximum allowable deflection is 6mm .00 ¼ 0. Equivalent thickness of 3 layers is as follows: sffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi 3 3 3 3 12 mm þ 12 mm þ 12 mm þ ¼ 21:5mm hef. Post-failure check As all three sheets of glass could fail the only truly reliable test for the proposed design is to undergo physical testing of the design to confirm its suitability. the following applies: Actions are similar to intact condition i. 37. In this instance the ratio of the dimensions of the plate equate to 1.9kN/m2 When taking into account the two way spanning action of the floor plate. 2.1N/mm2 þ 2. 0.9kN/m2  1. Bending stress check In the post-failure condition there remain the two action conditions to check for: permanent and variable (short). the applied bending stress to the plate during the permanent condition is: smax ¼ bqb2 hef:w 2 .e. Some schools of thought suggest a design method where one sheet is assumed to remain intact. therefore b ¼ 0.435 Partial factor for variable concentrated action gQ ¼ 1.1 Element design Concentrated point force The area over which the action is applied is 50mm  50mm ¼ 2500mm2 rffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi 2500mm2 0 0 [ equivalent circle area radius r0 ¼ r0 if r0  0:5t [ r 0 ¼ ¼ 28mm p Bending stress at point of concentrated load:   3W 2b s¼ ð1 þ n Þ ln þ b p r 00 2p hef. This can offer some measure of comfort but does not cover the case where all three sheets are broken. Permanent action condition The strength of the glass is the same for the intact floor plate. This approach is illustrated below.9kN/m2  gg ¼ 0.0 due to accidental condition UDLult ¼ 0.4 of Roark’s Formulas for Stress and Strain – 8th Edition b is length of plate. See Table 11.8.0N/mm2 [ OK 54 The Institution of Structural Engineers Structural use of glass in buildings (Second edition) .4mm therefore the floor plate passes both serviceability and strength checks. b ¼ 0:287 [ smax ¼ 0:287  0:9kN=m2  1:52 m ¼ 4  103 kN=m2 ¼ 4:0N=mm2 0:0122 m 4.5   3  3000N  1:5 2  1500mm [ spoint load ¼ þ 0:435 ¼ 29:1N=mm2 ð1 þ 0:22Þ ln p  28mm 2  p  18:72 mm [ including self weight soa ¼ 29.s. With respect to the permanent condition.w ¼ 12  0:1  ð12mm  12:82 mm þ 12mm  02 mm þ 12mm  12:82 mmÞ Equivalent I value ¼ 1500mm  21:53 mm ¼ 1:24  106 mm4 12 Taking the point load as the worst case condition: Serviceability state deflection ¼ 3000N  15003 mm ¼ 2:4mm 48  70000N=mm2  1:24  106 mm4 Assuming a span/depth ratio of 250. 29.3N/mm2 ¼ 31. Two action durations apply: permanent and short.4N/mm2 .7N/mm2 [ OK Deflection check It is safe to assume all three panels of glass participate in restricting deflection.j 2 where: W is the design concentrated point action n is Poisson’s Ratio b is a variable that is dependent upon the ratio of geometry of the plate.9kN/m2 Partial factor for permanent action gg ¼ 1.0N/mm2 .

0 ¼ 2.0 due to accidental condition UDLult ¼ 0.5mm.1 . the point load check still applies.9kN/m2 þ 1. The overall thickness of the glass is 37.8N/mm2 þ 2. No deflection check required as it is a post-failure condition.Element design The applied bending stress to the plate during the variable action.4kN/m2 There are two effects to consider for the variable action condition: that of the UDL and point load.3N/mm2 ¼ 49. Partial factor for variable concentrated action gQ ¼ 1. 37.9kN/m2 þ 1.4N/mm2 49.1N/mm2 .5kN/m2  1.7N/mm2 [ OK Point load check Although this is an accidental condition.4N/mm2 .7N/mm2 [ fails If the two bottom sheets remain as 14mm and the top sheet is dropped to 8mm then the overall thickness will remain the same and the stress calculated above will reduce to 36.3N/mm2 ¼ 13.0   3  3000N  1:0 2  1500mm þ 0:435 ¼ 47:1N=mm2 sconcentrated action ¼ ð1 þ 0:22Þ ln p  28:2mm 2  p  122 mm [ including self weight soa ¼ 47. The Institution of Structural Engineers Structural use of glass in buildings (Second edition) 55 8. which is within the allowable design bending stress. short duration condition is: Partial factor for variable action gq ¼ 1.5kN/m2  gq ¼ 0.1N/mm2 þ 2.9N/mm2. UDL sUDL ¼ 0:287  2:4kN=m2  1:52 m ¼ 10:8  103 kN=m2 ¼ 10:8N=mm2 0:0122 m [ including self weight soa ¼ 10. 37. which correlates closely to the span/depth ratio of 40.

is very similar to that of columns. Figure 8. it is the walls that get a significant amount of attention and they need to be checked for redundancy in the event of one or more plies failing.2. They do. Wall panels supported at the top and bottom can have fixed pinned or free connections. i. The principles governing their design are similar to those adhered to in the design of unreinforced brick piers or walls.5: – free at top fixed at base – free at base fixed at top – pinned at top and base – pinned at top fixed at base – pinned at base fixed at top – fixed top and base. wall panels can also be designed to support in plane loading. In such cases the use of finite element analysis would yield the most accurate results for the design of glass walls. In the absence of this the possibility of using buckling curves.1 Introduction This part of the Guide concerns frameless glass walls. stable and robust. When considering vertical actions. it is imperative that design and execution of the method of transferring load into and out of the glass is understood. laminated or double glazed. For walls that are supported on three or more edges. has P P p p H p P Figure 8. Examples of this are where the panel is required to support panels at a higher level or where the panel is subject to racking.5 Stability conditions of walls . the mechanics of the buckling of a plate become a more accurate model. This means that buckling needs to be considered. Because the glass cannot yield. Full rotational fixity of the bottom restraint is difficult to achieve in a glass connection. such as a roof panel. To this end the reader is directed to Section 8. have fewer edges being supported with some only having two (top and bottom) edges receiving restraint. which can have only some of the panes within their assembly subjected to the applied vertical load from elements they are supporting. They come in many forms – from internal simple partitions and glazing to retail units within shopping complexes. In the case of a wall composed of an IGU. These include lateral. Their design is similar to floor panels when considering the lateral actions they are subjected to. fracture may occur. axial and diaphragm actions as they are used as part of a lateral stability system for enclosures. This can best be described as a propped cantilever with an axial load.2. similar to those used for steel columns.4. The nature of how elements are supported by walls impacts on the compression capacity of the glass.4 for the design of glass columns for guidance on glass elements resisting axial forces. This is especially the case for multi-glazed units. The analysis of axial forces in glass walls that are supported by only two edges.2 Glass wall design 8. The effect of construction tolerances can mean that the entire load is taken by either the outer or the inner pane – see Figure 8. Any localised hard or high spots can cause very high local stresses. The major difference to floor plate design is the presence of axial actions due to the self-weight of the wall and other elements it may be supporting. hence it is more appropriate to model a rotational stiffness or spring as a support. Glass walls need to be adequately strong.5 shows the possible stability conditions for glass walls. 8.4 Vertical load poorly applied to laminated glass 56 The Institution of Structural Engineers Structural use of glass in buildings (Second edition) Figure 8.2 Design principles Glass walls can be a single pane. stiff.e. top and bottom.2 Element design 8. Although typically designed to support out of plane loading such as wind. as described in Chapter 5. through to elements within fully glazed enclosures. The latter are the most complex to design as they tend to have a multitude of forces to support. The various combinations of support conditions are shown in Figure 8. When assessing glass enclosures for disproportionate collapse. however. The cantilever condition is not commonly found in glass walls as their end is typically restrained by an element they are supporting.8. the degree of vertical load share between the outer and inner panes needs to be considered.

8).4 on the design of glass beams is applicable. similar to concrete cubes. short vertical elements fail not by an excess of compressive stress but by tension failure along a shear plane as an unconfined compression block will experience bursting tension forces. tend to be double glazed in order to maintain thermal properties. or point supports which can be on all sides but must be on at least two sides (see Figure 8.7 Example of a wall with continuous support considered as differential settlement. It is not uncommon for glass walls to be supported by glass fins or a light weight metal frame that supports the wall via a continuous joint.6 In plane forces glass walls can be subjected to been explored and continues to be developed for use as a design tool. 8. This is not necessarily the case as. 8.2 .Element design Figure 8.2.8 Example of a point connection within a wall The Institution of Structural Engineers Structural use of glass in buildings (Second edition) 57 8. It must be noted that the compressive capacity of glass is estimated to be twenty times that of its tension capacity.2. This is especially the case for non-coloured clear glass as it can cause injury if such markings are not present. Glass walls can act as direct support to other elements such as floor panels and glass beams.3 Material selection Glass walls can be made from any of the four types of glass described in previous chapters and in the case of walls that are exposed to the external environment. which are equivalent to the compression force  Poisson’s ratio. The connection of glass panels to other elements of the building structure needs to be carefully Figure 8. Figure 8.7). the stresses around the hole should be carefully checked. creep and live load deflections of supporting structures can all impose loads on panels which they must be capable of either avoiding through flexible joint design or resisting without being overstressed. It is important to note that glass walls in public buildings that are transparent need to have a marking or manifestation at eye level to prevent people trying to walk through them.6). As with all glass elements. concentrated stresses should be avoided when considering connection solutions. Where the glass is supported at discrete points such as in a bolted glass assembly (see Figure 8. the guidance in Section 8. Walls can also be subjected to shear forces when they are acting as a component of the structure that provides lateral stability. If tensile or shear stresses are generated (see Figure 8. Therefore when analysing short squat glass walls some assume that they can withstand enormous compressive forces.4 Methods of connection Walls are supported either via a continuous edge.

In other instances the designer should decide what deflection is appropriate based on experience. Alternatively it is possible to consider the design strength of the glass based on a pre-defined glass type and use the stress as a basis of the initial sizing.2. however. In such instances high compression forces and the PD effects will usually govern. With regards to axial shortening. that in most cases the lateral deflection limits on walls may be far more stringent than those for balustrades if they are supporting an axial load.5 Serviceability The lateral deflection of walls should not cause damage to the wall panel or its connections and in the case of walls that act as barriers the deflection limits for balustrades should be considered. In other cases the thickness will be determined from the glass type used and the relevant permissible stresses. 8. which is greater than those of timber or concrete. almost equal to that of aluminium and less than that of steel. It should be noted. which walls are always subject to. It should be noted that such methods do not consider axial loading.2 Element design 8. Glass panels supported by single cable walls for example have been designed for deflections up to 1m over a 30m span.4 for advice on glass column design.8. Glass walls are also exposed to relatively low working stresses and therefore there is an absence of creep or shrinkage. The wall acts more like a column in such cases and the reader is directed to Section 8.6 Initial sizing Where the wall panel is designed to act as a barrier or the panel is an insulated glazed unit deflection limits will probably govern the thickness required.2. glass walls are not usually prone to such problems because of the relatively high Young’s modulus of glass. Insulated glass panel manufacturers typically quote span/175 as a deflection limit on the edge of the panel to protect the glued connection of the edge spacer to the glass from excessive stress. 58 The Institution of Structural Engineers Structural use of glass in buildings (Second edition) .

k Þ gM:v Cladding wind load. fg. Strength of glass fg.Element design 8. gM:A ¼ 1.2.d ¼ kmod ksp fg:k gM:A þ kv ðfb.76mm thick PVB interlayer.0.k ¼ 120N/mm2.0 ksp ¼ 1. The glass is to be a two-ply laminated pane of 8mm thick toughened glass and a 0. It also does not provide any lateral stability and hence does not perform as a diaphragm. 0 2500 200 0. It is a 2m wide panel and an axial load of 2.6 kP a Wind load action ¼ 0. kmod ¼ 1.5 BMULT ¼ 2 2 wl 2 0:6kN=m  gq  2:5 m 0:6kN=m2  1:5  2:52 m ¼ ¼ ¼ 0:7kNm=m 8 8 8 The Institution of Structural Engineers Structural use of glass in buildings (Second edition) 59 8.k  fg. Determine thickness of glass required based on design strength Applied bending stress: Partial factor for variable action gq ¼ 1.2 . kv ¼ 1. fb.2.0. Determine design strength of glass.6 and gM:v ¼ 1.7 Worked example for glass wall design A glass wall that spans from floor to ceiling at a height of 2. fg. Variable action condition Determine strength of glass using Appendix C.k ¼ 45N/mm2.6kN/m2.d ¼ 1:0  1:0  45N=mm2 1:0ð120N=mm2  45N=mm2 Þ þ ¼ 90:6N=mm2 1:6 1:2 The glass is thermally toughened horizontally with no surface texture.6kN/m2 The top and bottom supports will be designed as pin connections.5m must withstand a net internal air pressure of 0. which is its self-weight.0kN.

0kN  gG ¼ 2. Check combination of applied bending moment and axial load: 2:70kN 2m  0:7  106 kNm þ 0:10kNm  106 ¼ 0:6 þ 9:433kN 52:9  103 mm3  90:6N=mm2 0.6 . Stress due to axial forces Permanent actions due to self-weight: Partial factor for permanent action gG ¼ 1.w ¼ qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi 3 83 mm þ 83 mm þ 12  0:1  ð8mm  4:42 mm þ 8mm  4:42 mmÞ ¼ 11:2mm This is the effective thickness of the laminated glass that is to be used for deflection calculations. 1.s.j sffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi 11:23 mm ¼ ¼ 12:6mm 8mm þ 2  0:1  4:4mm Bending resistance of glass wall W¼ s¼ bhef. 37mm.5N/mm2 .70kN The elastic buckling load (as described in Section 8.0kN  1. an additional bending moment is applied to the wall based on the maximum deflection from the wind action and the axial force: MPD ¼ 2:70kN  0:037m ¼ 0:10kNm This is only the first part of the iteration process and several additional cycles are required until convergence is achieved in order to complete this analysis. 60 The Institution of Structural Engineers Structural use of glass in buildings (Second edition) .1 from Appendix C. 90. To take this into account. For the sake of expediency we will conclude with the final combination of axial and bending moments based on the first iteration.35 ¼ 2.6N/mm2 [ OK Deflection check I¼ 2000mm  11:23 mm ¼ 234:2  103 mm4 12 D¼ 5wl 4 5  2m  600N=m2  2:5m  25003 mm ¼ ¼ 37mm 384E l 384  70000N=mm2  234:2  103 mm4 Assuming a span/depth deflection ratio of 65. The effective thickness of the laminated glass with respect to variable action is as follows: hef.0 therefore the wall with an overall thickness of 17mm is adequate.35 N ¼ 2. the maximum allowable deflection is 38mm .6: Ncr ¼ Ncr ¼ p 2E I Lcr 2 p 2  70000N=mm2  ðð2000mm  83 mmÞ=12Þ 25002 mm ¼ 9433N The wind load on the wall induces a lateral load and the resulting deflection will lead to second order PD effects. Also note how deflection was the governing criterion in this example. j 2 2000mm  12:62 mm ¼ ¼ 52:9  103 mm3 6 6 M 2m  0:7kNm=m  106 ¼ 26:5N=mm2 ¼ W 52:9  103 mm3 26.8.4) based on a single ply as composite action cannot be assumed for vertical actions that are subjected to permanent actions and is defined as per Equation 8.s.2 Element design Effective thickness of wall: The interlayer shear coefficient v equates to 0. The effective thickness of the laminated glass for bending stress is as follows: hef. therefore the wall passes both serviceability and strength checks based on the applied lateral wind action.

allowing it to remain in place. Fabrication tolerances also need to be considered for splice connections as a significant mismatch between connection points within the spliced elements can cause localised stresses. Such splices can be formed using friction-grip based connections to prevent localised stresses being generated within the connection. it is sometimes necessary to create a splice within a glass beam due to geometric restraints.9). but can be in any orientation and can support other elements. as shown in Figure 8. Soft aluminium can also be used as the gasket material.3. The gasket material between the splice plates and the glass must be soft enough not to cause stress concentrations on the glass.11 Spliced glass beam being lifted into place The Institution of Structural Engineers Structural use of glass in buildings (Second edition) 61 8.3 . The application of load is parallel to the laminate.g. depending on supplier. basic annealed and heat-strengthened glass. columns and walls (see Figure 8. Other limitations to the size of beam elements are tied to site access. It can also be used to support other primary structural elements including beams. Typically they are placed in a horizontal or near horizontal plane. Great care is needed in the design and manufacture of splices (see Figure 8. must have a reasonably high coefficient of friction to glass and the splice plates and must be elastic enough to accommodate possible differential thermal behaviour between the glass and the splice plates. Some connections use soft aluminium as the interlayer to replace the interlayer of laminated glass to avoid adverse effects. Figure 8. cranage inside the site and lifting. but some suppliers can provide lengths as much as 15m.10. The clamp plates must be sufficiently parallel to the glass surfaces not to cause excessive local bending when Figure 8.9 Cantilever glass ‘I’ beam The make-up of glass beams is typically laminated. They are vertical or sloping beams used to support fac¸ades and walls to help resist wind and other lateral loads.1 Introduction A glass beam is a linear loadbearing element that is subject to both bending and shear stresses. If lengths are joined together the limitation is usually the moment capacity of the joint itself. Normally single lengths can be up to 4 to 7m. 1 mm thick vulcanised fibre gaskets are good for this. Glass fins are exactly what the name implies – fins made of glass. The fins are attached to the panes of glass by silicone adhesive/ sealants or by bolting. This allows for some redundancy in the beam should it fail. Vertical fins that are hung can be regarded as cantilevering beams that provide lateral support to walls. As with beams made from other materials. such as floor and roof plates.11). and that site processes do not change its hardness and temper (e. must be relatively incompressible (so that preset bolt tensions do not decrease). grit blasting to roughen its surfaces and improve its coefficient of friction may harden its surfaces). If this is done then particular care is needed to ensure that the correct type and treatment of glass is specified and used. All forms of interlayers can be used as can a mixture of toughened. Glass beams can be made of a single length of glass or be composed of a number of lengths joined together.Element design 8.10 Application of load onto laminated glass beam Figure 8.3 Glass beam design 8.

Examples of this can be found in Roark’s Formulas for Stress and Strain8.2 Design principles Glass will fail in tension and. Unless there are alternative load paths allowing a beam to fail without causing instability of the structure or causing injury by falling from overhead the beam should be fabricated from three or more sheets of laminated glass. As an alternative. Fabrication tolerances are readily overcome by having oversized holes in the glass.1 and Appendix C. This can provide a good assessment of peak tensile stresses at mid-span (peak bending) and at the supports (peak shear). finite element analysis can also be used. . It will quickly become apparent from such an analysis how important it is to take care over how a beam is supported. For laminated glass. Shear connections using standard bolts separated from the glass with a suitable bush of high density nylon or similar material can also be used to create longer beam sections although the local stresses around the holes in the glass need to be carefully checked. The resistance to shear is based on the characteristic strength as described in Table 3.e. when considering primary stresses. þ/ (see Figure 8.1 is used for beams that are fully restrained along one edge of their length. 62 The Institution of Structural Engineers Structural use of glass in buildings (Second edition) With heat-strengthened or toughened glass the precompression stress of the surface typically a minimum of 30N/mm2 suggests that long-term tensile stresses of at least 37N/mm2 would need to be applied to the glass to trigger this type of failure. Creep in the plastic interlayer or high local stresses in thin glued joints has so far limited the widespread use of adhesive based connections. then annealed glass may be used if the circumstances of use and demands on the glass allow it. As with all glass structures the post-breakage behaviour of annealed and heat-strengthened glass is better than that of toughened glass. Equation 8:1 where: MCR is the critical elastic buckling moment Lay is the distance between points of effective rigid rotational restraints (E I)y is the effective rigidity for bending about the minor axis d is the depth of beam (GJ) is the effective torsional rigidity yh is the location from the neutral axis of the loading point. Such an approach will predict the location. although they are rare and based on a lamination method where the interlayer bonds glass sheets together and transfers the load across the splice in shear or are simply glued together with the glue performing the same role as the laminate. As there will be at least three plies of glass in a glass beam assembly it is statistically unlikely that they will all have the same defects in the same region of high stress so using the lower stress of 7N/mm2 for the design of an annealed glass beam may be over conservative. MCR ¼ ðp=Lay Þ2 ðE IÞy ½d 2 =4 þ y0 2  þ ðGJÞ ð2y0 þ yh Þ .12) .3. If bolting is not used. as it has no capacity to yield. or by gluing or bolting. whether by bearing onto a setting block. it is important to identify local tensile stresses at connections as well as the principal stresses due to bending and buckling. engineers may prefer to use Mohr’s stress circles to determine principal tensile stresses in regions of high shear. However. with proprietary filler material between the glass and the bolts.3 recommends Equation 8. the friction connections which were more common in the past have been largely superseded by the use of bearing connections in oversized holes. shear is considered. glass beams rarely fail due to shear. to ensure correct alignment of holes on-site. Bolt holes require toughened glass to be used. Ideally the structure should still remain safe with all plies broken and experiments have been successfully carried out where a thin metal bar was bonded to the bottom of the beam (in a simply supported span) utilising the large fragment breakage pattern of heat-strengthened or annealed glass to provide sufficient residual strength in the compression zone to act as a couple with the metal bar in tension. As glass beams are typically thin in relation to their depth buckling checks are important. Lateral torsional buckling is another key criterion when designing glass beams and can be the governing one. These connections are factory assembled in advance of delivery to site. This design has not yet been developed commercially so unlike the situation with floor plates the option of designing a beam which will continue to function after all plies have broken is not yet satisfactorily resolved.3 Element design the bolts are tightened. While it is possible to design glass beams by hand. Typically a substantial overlap between sheets is created to reduce the shear in the bolts in this type of assembly. magnitude and direction of the principal tensile and compressive stresses in the glass beam. The edges of glass are normally prone to defects such as chipping or shelling which can reduce their tensile capacity. With respect to shear capacity. The Australian code of practice on the design of structural glass provides guidance on the buckling analysis of glass beams and fins. This is a particular problem with basic annealed glass where permanent stresses of more than 7N/mm2 can cause crack growth leading to failure.2.8. Another method to model beam behaviour is to use the ‘strut and tie’ method. This removes the need for allowable shear stresses. Adhesive based splice connections are also possible. however. As in the case of floor plates the beam should be designed assuming two of the sheets have failed with the remaining sheet(s) designed to support the applied loads without collapse. . which is sensitive in terms of direction of applied load i. 8. Appendix C of AS 1288-20118. Glass fins are often made out of lengths of glass that are bolted together.

This can be done with suitable gaskets and bushes. This is especially true for bolted connections as there is the risk of local failure around the connections. Table 8. giving a factor of safety which is recommended in AS 1288 as being a minimum of 1.0 The Institution of Structural Engineers Structural use of glass in buildings (Second edition) 63 .7 2. for example.1 Coefficient of slenderness g1 Bending moment ratio at restraints Slenderness factor g1 Major axis restraint only Fully restrained 1.3. This must be taken into consideration when designing connections for beams and the material the connection is made from must be isolated from the glass.1 4. .6 1.5 " x Figure 8.3 apply.9 5. steel in tension are more likely to be designed at higher stress levels and it is more important that deflections are checked. g ¼ 2 Lay x d/2 The applied design bending moment is compared against the critical elastic buckling moment MCR .2 0. The use of basic annealed glass is usually reserved for the support of elements that are not subject to high stresses. Laminating steel reinforcement into the tension zone or introducing metal plates into the interlayer are also options for connections within glass beams.Element design is the distance of restraint to the neutral axis of the loading element. which is sensitive in terms of direction of applied load i. Equation 8:4 where: g2 and g3 are slenderness factors based on the form of applied load and support conditions of the beam (see Table 8.5 11.3 4.0 14.1 0.e.1 1. .1) g1 (EI )y is the stiffness of the beam in the minor axis For unrestrained beams Equation 8.4 6.0 5. but can be modelled with sufficient accuracy using finite element analysis.3 y Load direction Load direction G is taken as 28700kN/mm2 for glass. E is 70000kN/mm2 and J is determined in Equation 8.8 Fixed þ UDL 4.12) y0 y 8.4 5.1 0.0 8. Heat-strengthened glass can also provide a good balance between strength and post-failure performance. .5 4. b b y y Concentrated stresses are a particular concern with respect to connection solutions for glass beams. þ/ (see Figure 8. MCR ¼ ðg1 =Lay Þ½ðE IÞy ðGJÞ1=2 yo = d/2 Serviceability At the low stress levels commonly used in designing glass beams and fins.3.2.5 5.5 6. Equation 8:3 where: is the coefficient of slenderness (see Table 8. An example of such a connection is given in Figure 8.6 Fixed þ mid-point load 5. 8. 8.14 against factored loads.0 3.2 1.3 Material selection With strength being the governing criterion for beams as well as a need for redundancy in the event of failure.0 1.0 2. J¼ db 3 3  1  0:63 b d yo = yh = d/2  .7 6.0 Table 8. .1 8. . but is normally coupled with a more traditional connection for the sake of robustness.13).12 Definition of variables yh and y0 For beams with intermediate restraints.2 6. deflection is rarely a problem.4 can be used.3 14. The use of adhesives is also possible. the procedures in Equation 8. glass beams are typically made from laminated toughened glass.14.2 for values) It should be noted that the buckling of laminated glass beams is still being researched.4 Methods of connection Glass beams are typically bolted or set into a glazing box (see Figure 8.0 Cantilever þ UDL 0 0 6. . Composite beams that use the glass in compression and.4 2. MCR ! d/2  1=2  ðE I Þy ðGJÞ 1  g3 ! 1=2 yh  ðE I Þy ðGJÞ Lay # .2 Simple þ mid-point load 4.3 Coefficient of slenderness g2 and g3 Support condition and applied load Major axis restraint only Fully restrained g2 g3 g2 g3 Simple þ UDL 3.3. 8.5 7. Equation 8:2 yh = –d/2 x x where: d is the depth of beam b is the effective width of beam .3 Cantilever þ point load 0 0 4.

This is especially true when a beam is relatively short and the connections are highly loaded. It should be noted that in some cases the connection governs the design of the beam thanks to the need to reduce the impact of localised stresses.14 Example of a bolted connection for beam 64 The Institution of Structural Engineers Structural use of glass in buildings (Second edition) chosen type of glass.8. Equation 8. it is possible to size the glass initially using the applied design bending stress and comparing it against the design strength of the Nylon bush Bolt tightened with lock nut Incompressible fibre gasket Stainless steel angle Laminated heat soaked toughened glass Figure 8. . natural frequency should be checked.3 Element design Section along depth of beam Neoprene linear to beam box Base plate End view Steel base plate Glass beam Glass beam Steel beam box welded to base plate Neoprene linear to beam box Steel beam box welded to base plate Polypropylene setting block Polypropylene setting block Internal dimensions of beam box are larger than nominal dimensions of beam Figure 8. .6 Initial sizing With design strength primarily governing the design of the glass beams. Equation 8.13 Example of a glazing box connection If a glass beam is supporting a floor plate or a section of cladding that could be subject to vibration.5 where: d is the mid-span deflection of the beam The limiting value of natural frequency should be kept above 5Hz in order to avoid excitation by foot traffic or wind. 8.3. . As a simple rule of thumb.5 can be used to determine the natural frequency of a simply supported glass beam: 16 F ¼ pffiffiffiffi Hz d .

5     1:75m 1:75m MULT ¼ 1kN=m2  gq  2m  1:75m  ¼ 1kN=m2  1:5  2m  1:75m  ¼ 4:6kNm 2 2 Reviewing the bending capacity of the fin. The Institution of Structural Engineers Structural use of glass in buildings (Second edition) 65 8. The beam is a 350mm deep  2 ply 10mm thick laminated toughened glass fin placed at 2m c/s.0kNm  4.7 Worked example for glass beam design A 1.3 . It is subjected to only one short duration action.6kNm but this check is only for illustrative purposes as the actual resistance to bending is far less when considering buckling.d ¼  83:3N=mm2 ¼ 17:0kNm 6 6 17. 0 200 350 0 200 1. ignoring buckling effects and assuming only one ply in the laminate is resisting bending stress. Variable action condition Wind load.d ¼ 0:74  1:0  45N=mm2 1:0ð120N=mm2  45N=mm2 Þ + ¼ 83:3N=mm2 1:6 1:2 Check thickness of glass required based on design strength Local bending stress is initially reviewed before carrying out an overall buckling check. Applied design bending moment: Partial factor for variable action gq ¼ 1. kmod ¼ 0. its resistance to bending is as follows: Bending resistance ¼ t  d2 10mm  3502 mm  fg.74 kmod ¼ 0:74 [ fg.0 2500 1750 kPa The glass is toughened horizontally using a thermal based process and is not to be sandblasted. The laminated ply will not be considered in this design and will be treated as a conservative lower bound condition.Element design 8.3.75m long cantilevering glass fin is supporting a wall that is subjected to a lateral design wind action of 1kN/m2.

6kNm therefore OK in bending when tension edge of fin is restrained.14 ¼ 6.8. therefore the same checks with the similar properties of the section would apply. the buckling resistance is therefore defined as: !2 p Lay MCR ¼ ðEIÞy " # d2 þ y 0 2 þ ðGJÞ 4 ð2y0 þ yh Þ  p 2 8 2 4 ð70  10 kN=mm  2:92  10 m Þ  1:75m MCR ¼ 6 ! 0:352 m 2 þ 0:175 m 4 ð2  0:175mÞ þ 0:175m 28:7  10 kN=m  1:146m4  107 6 þ 2 ð2  0:175mÞ þ 0:175m ¼ 7:03kNm Factor of safety check: 7.03/1. The above calculation does not assume composite action. 66 The Institution of Structural Engineers Structural use of glass in buildings (Second edition) . Deflection check: Major axis stiffness: I¼ D¼ tb3 10mm  3503 mm ¼ ¼ 35:7  106 mm4 12 12 wl 4 1000N=m2  2m  1:75m  17503 mm ¼ ¼ 0:9mm 8El 8  70000N=mm2  35:7  106 mm4 In the post-failure condition it is assumed one of the plies has failed.3 Element design Buckling resistance: Properties of fin Minor axis stiffness: I¼ bt 3 0:35m  0:013 m ¼ ¼ 2:92  108 m4 12 12 Torsional constant J:   0:35m  0:013 m 0:01m  1  0:63  ¼ 1:146  107 m4 3 0:35m The fin is restrained along its length. 4.17kNm . Similar check required for when the fin is in reversal due to negative wind pressure.

4.15 – this shows the buckling model of a column when subjected to a vertical load with an eccentricity ‘e’. M Figure 8. . the surface stress can be calculated using Equation 8.15 Buckling model of a glass column The w0 variable allows for imperfections within the glass. . . In instances where columns form part of a portal frame. Again referencing the variables described in Figure 8.15.6.4. N As with glass beams.8. Equations 8.3 Design principles Glass columns are subject to the same rules as columns in any other material but care must be taken that local stresses in connections are carefully considered in addition to the principal stresses arising from bending due to buckling.2 Material choice As with beams and floor plates all types of glass can be used for columns as long as the tensile stress in the glass is within safe limits. smax ¼ The following guidance on the design of laminated glass columns is drawn from Structural Use of Glass by Haldimann. Laminated glass columns are subject to the same limitations as any other glass element. N N þ w0 þ eÞ + ðw A W max .1 Introduction Glass columns can either be part of the primary structure or secondary structure such as a vertical element that supports an entrance canopy.8 can be used to determine the surface stress for monolithic glass columns. It should be noted that this only applies to pin ended columns. One is more critical than the other in terms of overall stability of a structure and this should be taken into consideration during the design.4 .7. it is reasonable to treat them in a similar manner to beams. with fixed end connections. This stress can be compared with that determined in accordance with Chapter 3. 8. Ncr ¼ Ionoplast interlayers have greater stability than PVB and resin at higher temperatures and columns laminated with this material can be designed assuming some composite action when subject to long-term loading. as Once these variables are calculated. 8.4 Glass column design N 8. . As glass columns are typically slender the tensile forces arising from buckling stresses and out of plane bending typically govern. As with beams and floor plates a column fabricated from annealed or heat-strengthened glass laminated with ionoplast can exhibit better postbreakage behaviour than a column laminated with toughened glass. Equation 8:6 Lcr 2 where: I is the stiffness of the column about the axis it will buckle. wmax ¼ e w0 pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi þ N=Ncr Þ 1  N=Ncr cosðLcr =2 . . columns should have sufficient redundancy to allow the member to fail completely with safe redistribution of the load or it should be fabricated from a minimum of three plies of laminated glass in which two of the plies are assumed to have failed. .4. A conservative assumption states that columns designed in laminated glass with PVB or resin that are supporting long-term loads should ignore any interlayer and assume each ply within the laminated glass acts independently. Lower bound of imperfections can be summarised as follows: – Basic annealed: L/2500 – Heat-strengthened and toughened: L/300 By determining the deflection at the midspan of the column it is possible to calculate the maximum surface stress in the glass. N p2 E I . Consider Figure 8. θ wθ wmax Mmax Lcr Buckling instability of a slender column is the typical mode of failure due to applied compressive loads however as with any other glass element the fail safe behaviour usually governs the design. Luible and Overend8. Its value varies depending on the treatment the glass has been subjected to. Equation 8:7 Where the columns are laminated use can be made of the beneficial effect of ionoplast interlayers as long as the shear capacity of the interlayer is calculated for the maximum temperature that it will be subject to in relation to the duration of the variable and permanent loading. typically minor for asymmetric columns Lcr is the height of the column The maximum deflection to the column caused by the Ncr can be defined as shown in Equation 8. They are therefore influenced by temperature and load duration.Element design 8.4. The critical elastic buckling load Ncr is defined in Equation 8.6 to 8. Equation 8:8 where: N is the applied vertical force A is the cross sectional area of the column W is the elastic section modulus of the column The Institution of Structural Engineers Structural use of glass in buildings (Second edition) 67 8.

5 I1 þ I2 Is I1 and I2 are the second moment of areas for the plies of glass and IS is defined thus: b¼ This is then inserted into the surface stress calculation as described for monolithic glass columns. This means that the connection must be designed to accommodate the forces that are likely to be generated due to the restraint they are assumed to provide. axial shortening of glass elements is not usually an issue. Ncr ¼ p2 ð1 þ a þ p2abÞ E IS 1 þ p2b Lcr 2 . . . This is because of the relatively high Young’s modulus of glass combined with low working stresses and the absence of creep or shrinkage.4. 8. If semi-rigid supports that provide rotational resistance are installed. Equation 8:10 2 bð1 þ p bÞ From this it is possible to determine the elastic modulus of the glass. sffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi 2 3 12IS ð1 þ a þ p abÞ teff ¼ . This can be done via a plastic or ceramic washer.10. . Equation 8:9 where: in the case of two-ply laminated glass.18. . 8.8.4. Concentrated stresses should be avoided when considering connection solutions for columns. It is possible to reduce the effective buckling length of columns by making assumptions on the nature of the connections to the rest of the structure. then the effective length of the column can be reduced.4 Element design described in Section 8.3. To this end.4 IS ¼ bðt1 z1 2 þ t2 z2 2 Þ where: is the thickness of each ply ti zi is distance between the centreline of each ply b is the overall thickness of the glass section Methods of connection Columns can be supported via a fully fixed moment connection or via point supports. the connection material must be isolated from the glass. This can be determined using Equation 8. tint E IS Gint bðz1 þ z2 Þ2 Lcr 2 where: Gint is the shear modulus of the laminate interlayer is the thickness of the laminate tint In the case of three-ply laminated glass: 2I1 þ I2 IS a¼ IS ¼ 2bt1 z1 2 tint E IS 2Gint bz1 2 Lcr 2 b¼ The midspan deflection of a laminated glass column must be calculated using the effective thickness of the column teff . When considering shortterm loads such as gusts of wind or ionoplast interlayer is used laminated glass can be considered to be acting compositely and the following analysis approach should be adopted. Examples of columns with such connections are given in Figures 8.16 Example of a fully fixed moment connection for a glass column . W¼ 68 bt eff 2 6 .11.16. . For laminated glass columns the composite action between the plies of the glass increases the complexity of the analysis. a¼ The deflection is determined using the effective thickness and any applied lateral load.3 with additional buckling check for vertical loads. adhesive based connections using a suitable bearing material such as nylon or neoprene are not uncommon due to their ability to spread the load more evenly at the point of connection. . Equation 8:11 The Institution of Structural Engineers Structural use of glass in buildings (Second edition) Figure 8. As with all such connections. as shown in Equation 8. The axial load capacity of a laminated glass column is given in Equation 8. 8.17 and 8. As explained in Section 8. It therefore follows that lateral deflections of columns are kept within acceptable limits. although this can create an increased risk of local failure around the connections due to concentrated forces. It is also possible to use point supports for columns.9. Serviceability The lateral deflection of glass columns is a function of their ability to support the vertical loads.

18 Spliced columns with point supports The Institution of Structural Engineers Structural use of glass in buildings (Second edition) 69 8.Element design Figure 8. Figure 8.4 .6 Initial sizing As with most column design there is not a great deal of guidance with respect to a rule-of-thumb with regards to initial sizing.17 Example of columns with point supports 8. A trial section size is selected and tested against a model to determine whether or not it is capable of supporting the applied loads.4.

Permanent action condition Determine strength of glass using Appendix C. fg. fg. Determine elastic modulus of the minor axis W¼ 70 bt 2 350mm  122 mm ¼ ¼ 8400mm3 6 6 The Institution of Structural Engineers Structural use of glass in buildings (Second edition) .6 and gM:v ¼ 1. kmod ¼ 0.0.d ¼ 0:29  1:0  45N=mm2 1:0ð120N=mm2  45N=mm2 Þ þ ¼ 70:7N=mm2 1:6 1:2 In order to allow for redundancy.4.7 Worked example for glass column design A 2. kv ¼ 1. 3. Therefore only one of the plies can be assumed to support the lateral load from the wind. we must assume one of the plies in the glass will fail. the lamination cannot be considered to be composite and only one of the 12mm thick plies can be regarded to be acting as a supporting element. load duration . fb.5kN 350 2500 8. It is subjected to both permanent and variable actions. The column is a 350mm  24.76mm. 50 years.k ¼ 120N/mm2. Therefore: Ncr ¼ p2 EI Lcr 2 ¼ p2  70000N=mm2  ðð350mm  123 mmÞ=12Þ 25002 mm ¼ 5571N The next item to check is the combined bending and axial force against the induced stress vs. The column is pinned at both ends.k ¼ 45N/mm2.4 The glass is toughened horizontally using a thermal based process and is not to be sandblasted. gM:A ¼ 1. Determine buckling resistance Ncr of column Due to the redundancy requirement and the nature of the action being permanent.0.29 ksp ¼ 1.Element design 8. the design strength of the glass.5m long glass column is supporting a design axial action of 3.2. with two plies of 12mm toughened PVB laminated glass.5kN due to self-weight and support roof panel glazing. Permanent action.

4 .Element design The value of w0 is L 2500mm ¼ ¼ 8:3mm 300 300 8:3mm Wmax ¼   ¼ 22:1mm 3:5kN  103 1 5:6kN  103 Assuming no eccentricity onto the column: [ smax ¼ 3:5kN  103 3:5kN  103  22:1mm ¼ 10:0N=mm2 + 350mm  12mm 8400mm3 Checking the combination between axial force and bending moment the following expression applies: 3:5kN 10:0N=mm2 ¼ 0:8 < 1:0 [ OK þ 5:6kN 70:7N=mm2 The Institution of Structural Engineers Structural use of glass in buildings (Second edition) 71 8.

et al. 8th ed.8. Sydney. Structural Engineering Document 10. 2002.C. 2006 8. W. imposed loads for buildings. Roark’s formulas for stress and strain. self-weight.5 References 8.3 AS 1288-2006: Glass in buildings – Selection and installation.5 Element design 8.1 BS EN 1991-1-1: 2002: Eurocode 1: Actions on structures – Part 1-1: General actions – Densities.2 Young. 2008 72 The Institution of Structural Engineers Structural use of glass in buildings (Second edition) . M. Structural use of glass. et al. London: BSI. Zurich: IABSE-AIPC-IVBH. 2012 8. 8.4 Haldimann. NSW: Standards Australia. New York: McGraw-Hill.

such as a cylinder with a tension cable through it. Although the structure itself does not deform grossly. In addition to these aspects. There is also the issue of the sensitivity to movement tension structures have that compound the aversion to using them. The key point to note is that the localised stresses can tend to be greater than for structures with no prestress support structure present. Design principles The way that the precompression is applied to prestressed glass structures can significantly affect the buckling length of the member concerned. making axial shortening less of an issue. This includes pre-tensioned glass structures and the heavy reliance on adhesives in some glass assemblies. This The Institution of Structural Engineers Structural use of glass in buildings (Second edition) 73 . including the likelihood of people being injured by falling glass. Unlike prestressed concrete. the prestressed tendons will stretch over time and need to be checked and tightened as required. which is sudden. They are relatively rare due primarily to the nature of compression failure of glass.1 Introduction This chapter concerns unusual uses of structural glass within structures. but other critical structural issues may require the adoption of heat-strengthened or toughened glass.9 Special application of structural glass 9. in the case of a glass beam. cables used to prestress glass are usually attached to slender structures so that the change of main structure geometry may affect the cable force significantly.4 Methods of connection The methods that are used to connect the glass elements to the prestressed supporting structure are very similar to those found in point supported structures. even more so than for non-prestressed structures. For Axial shortening of prestressed glass beams may cause problems for the supporting structure and should be checked. the selection of type is dependent on indirect aspects of design. With respect to maintenance. Where it does become sensitive to the design of the structure as a whole.2. buildability.1 Introduction A description of the different types of adhesives that are used in glass is presented in Section 2. A non-linear analysis may be necessary for some types of prestressed structures.2 Prestressed glass structures 9. 9. The external precompression may not be applied symmetrically. the length of which varies on a case by case basis.5 Serviceability The lateral deflection of column elements does not tend to be a governing criterion for prestressed glass structures.3 example. The sequence the prestressing occurs must be carefully planned out as there is a risk of residual stresses being developed that the structure has not been designed for during construction.4. acoustics. Despite this. which can cause problems within the structure. These criteria include. Basic annealed may be adequate in most instances due to its strength in resisting compressive forces.3. They can vary in form from having a tension cable being placed through the glass and acting as a clamp through to a hollow element.2.1 Principles of design Prestressed glass structures rely upon the high compressive strength of glass. This occurs over a period of time after the completion of the structure. any small deflection may have an important impact on the overall behaviour. Asymmetric precompression will camber a glass beam. This has an impact on the structural integrity of the structure as its strength is diminished. 9.2. To this end the designer must be mindful of the importance of localised stresses in connections. 9. it is important to remember that precompression is always accompanied by axial shortening. fire protection. 9. This does not occur so readily in glass thanks to the high Young’s modulus when compared to other materials. which is taken to be equivalent to 20 times that of its tensile capacity. In practice prerestressed glass elements are not stressed to the same degrees as steel. a small change in geometry may reduce the tensile force in a cable. maintenance and durability.g. These include thermal effects.2. e. non-structural concerns also need to be addressed.2 Material choice With compression being the primary component of the glass being used in prestressed structures. but are not limited to: – how the overall structure will behave – how the structure will behave after one or more glass elements have failed – the safety implications of failure of a piece of glass. 9. the engineer will have to address the stiffness of the structure to arrest excessive movements. Prestressed structures are sensitive to shortening of axial elements.2. As with prestressed concrete. due to the reliance on connectivity between the supporting structure and the glass with respect to stability. 9.3 Adhesive based glass structures 9. a prestressed glass column will shrink three times as much as a similarly sized steel element.

which will restrict the choice of adhesives. Figure 9. This could lead to deterioration of adhesion between glass elements. Capillary action by water can debond glued joints. Adhesion tests need to be carried out on both elements that are being bonded together to ensure that correct cure and bond strength can be achieved.2 – – – Design principles There are a number of significant issues for designers who wish to use adhesives in glass structures. London: IStructE.3 Lack of flatness can cause problems with adhesives Figure 9. 1999 Time Figure 9. This is more likely to lead to – – – – Strength 9. it may be appropriate to undertake some testing to establish design values. A drop in temperature will simultaneously shrink glass and metal and increase the stiffness of the adhesive joining them. Use of a suitable primer is crucial to minimise the chances of this. Steel generally has a much rougher surface than glass and is much harder to apply adhesive primer to.2 Reduction in strength of adhesive over time 74 The Institution of Structural Engineers Structural use of glass in buildings (Second edition) . It is very important to control the joint thickness. a month or more should be considered in order to determine if there is a lower bound figure of adhesive strength. High shear stress across adhesive based connections can lead to peeling. stress concentration alone is not a reliable indicator of a problem with a joint. Depending on the level of risk and the degree to which the structural system will give some warning before it fails.g. Guide to the structural use of adhesives. whereas higher modulus adhesives are more suitable for carrying shear forces. The flatness of the glass and metal surfaces to be joined may mean that the joints need filling. The surface treatment of glass.3). a low emissivity coating.2). In long overlapping joints in shear it is the adhesive at the ends of the joint that transfer most of the load. Adhesive properties are temperature-dependent.1 Institution of Structural Engineers.1 Glass structure using adhesive based connections section explores their use in glass structures and what needs to be considered during their design. ‘Roller wave’ and ‘edge dip’ are the names given to the lack of flatness of glass as a result of support by rollers during heat treatment (see Figure 9. – – – – Guidance on the choice of appropriate factors of safety may be found in the Institution’s Guide to the structural use of adhesives9. The behaviour of a glued joint is very much dependent on the preparation (degreasing and then priming) of the contact surfaces. Etching the glass surface to improve adhesion will reduce the strength of the glass.3.1.4 – – – × × × × × × × complete structural failure than failure within the adhesive or at the interface. Energy absorption can sometimes be a better indicator. It is important to note that cyclical loading can reduce the strength of adhesive joints. 9.1 is an example of a structure that is primarily made of adhesive based connections.4 Reference 9. – Adhesives have a wide range of moduli. The behaviour of two-part adhesives is very dependent on how accurately and well the parts are mixed. However. – Many adhesives are stronger than the glass to which they are attached and failure can then occur within the glass.Special application of structural glass Flange showing an exaggerated roller wave Web with accurately cut straight edges Figure 9. e. This is most important when the adhesive is being applied on-site under different weather conditions. Finite element modelling of glued joints can indicate where stress concentrations may occur. it is left to the judgment of the engineer to decide what figures to adopt. Silane is a commonly used primer for glass with modified epoxy adhesives. They are listed below: – Time dependency: adhesives tend to flow and may be sensitive to the rate of application of the load (see Figure 9. For applications in which the adhesive is under longterm load then load testing with the loads applied over. for example. Continual tests need to be carried out on the mix of silicone adhesives as they are being applied. Heat of adhesives curing can be difficult. – In the absence of code-based allowable stresses for adhesives. is likely to affect the behaviour of an adhesive joint. Adhesives with low moduli are suitable for holding glass in place. 9.

10 Fire protection of glass structures

10.1 Introduction
Glass does not have any inherent fire resistant
properties and is usually considered to be sacrificial
when assessing structures in the event of a fire. It is
important to appreciate that there are two
approaches when considering fire and how it affects
glass elements. Firstly there is fire protection to glass,
which is the protection of glass from failing due to
exposure to fire. Secondly there is fire protection of
glass, which concerns the role of glass in fire
protection of a structure, i.e. compartmentation.
Fire protection to glass is focussed on its isolation
from the fire itself. However, it is possible to develop
glass structures that have significant resistance to
fire. The protection can be either modifications to the
glass material or positive protection via sprinklers to
reduce the temperature on the glass itself. This
chapter brings together the current methods of fire
protection of glass structures.

10.2 Material changes to glass for fire
protection
Glass is incombustible and in the event of a fire does
not represent a fire load. When exposed to the
effects of heat, normal sheet glass products shatter
relatively easily because of their low tensile strength
with relatively high coefficient of thermal expansion.
Borosilicate glass is frequently used in fire protection
applications due to its high ability to resist the
stresses caused by temperature changes (based on
7–15% boron oxide in the glass melt). Also the
coefficient of thermal expansion of alkaline earth glass
(according to BS EN 14178-110.1) is slightly lower
than that of soda-lime-silica glass – this can greatly
reduce stresses due to temperature changes. The
use of fire-resistant glass requires national technical
approval. What follows are descriptions of the
different types of fire resistant glass that are available.
Glass that is deemed to have some element of
inherent fire resistance is placed into categories,
which are based on BS EN 13051-2:200710.2. The
most commonly used categories are as follows:
– Class G (E) type glass: remains transparent and
intact when exposed to fire, depending on form of
construction. In principle this type of glass prevents
the passage of smoke and flames, but not
transmission of heat radiation. It employs a special
single glazing that does not shatter when exposed
to fire but deforms depending on the thermal load.
Alternatively it can consist of two panes of float or
toughened glass, separated by a fire-resistant layer
or a cavity that is filled with air or an inert gas. In
the event of a fire the fire-resistant layer expands in
a similar manner to intumesant paint to steel
elements.
– Class F (EI) type glass: provides additional
protection against heat radiation as well as smoke

and flames. This is achieved by using a multi-ply
construction with special interlayers that foam up
when exposed to heat, e.g. two panes of basic
annealed or toughened glass separated by a gel
(i.e. fire resistant layer).
– Class EI glazing: the fire protection strategy for this
type of glazing system is based on the concept that
the surface of the side of the glass not directly
exposed to fire may not rise above room
temperature more than 1408C on average and
1808C as a peak value.
– Class EW glazing: this prevents passage of smoke
and flames and reduces (but does not eliminate)
transmission of heat radiation. The radiation
generated by a fire must not exceed 15kW/m2
when measured at a 1m distance from the surface
not directly exposed to the fire.
If a fire-resistant glass assembly fails due to
emergence of gaps or openings, fire can spread to
the side not directly exposed to the flames. The
enclosing function and reduction in heat transmission
is then no longer satisfied.
The glazing beads which hold the fire-resistant glass
in place must be made from incombustible materials.
Sealing strips which ensure no-rigid support for the
glass can create an insulating layer or foam up in the
event of a fire.
Angle of installation of glass elements is important.
Vertical installations (.708 to the horizontal) must
guarantee fire protection requirements for a fire on
either side. For sloping (between 708 and 158 to the
horizontal) and horizontal (,158 to horizontal) fireresistant glass in suspended floors and roofs, fire
protection requirements must be satisfied for a fire
from below.
To provide fire protection, fire-resistant glass must be
fitted in appropriate frames along with approved fixing
and sealing materials.
A critical factor to fire-resistance glass is how long it
can withstand the fire: 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes
are the classes of resistance.
Testing involves the complete unit consisting of frame,
seal and glass. The standard temperature in the fire
chamber rises according to the standard
temperature-time curve as follows: reaching 7008C
after 15 minutes, 8258C after 30 minutes, 9008C after
45 minutes, 9208C after 60 minutes, just below
10008C after 90 minutes.
To check smoke and flame integrity a cotton wool
pad is held directly behind the glass; it should not
ignite spontaneously and there should be no flames.
Heat treated glass (toughened or heatstrengthened) has residual surface stress which
helps it to withstand thermal loads. Up to about
3508C, there could be a slight reduction in residual
surface stress of the order of 5%, but this would
not affect the ability of the glass to meet its design
requirements.
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75

10.3

Fire protection of glass structures
Table 10.1 Deterioration of PVB interlayer vs.
temperature rise
Step of deterioration

Temperature (8C)

First liquid formation (and first
deterioration in adhesion to glass)

100-125

Start of decomposition

200-230

Smoke generation

240-250

Splitting of the laminate (pieces of glass
falling off)

250-260

However, this temperature may not occur uniformly
over the whole surface of the glass at the same time.
It is possible that the different temperatures over
different parts of the glass surface could cause failure
in some cases.
It is therefore necessary to consider how the glass is
held together once it has failed; for this the behaviour
of the interlayer is important.
With respect to laminated glass, tests in the UK have
been carried out into the behaviour of PVB in fire,
with the results as shown in Table 10.1.
It can be seen from the data in Table 10.1 that the
stiffness and bond of PVB interlayer will start
deteriorating above approximately 1008C, and that at
2508C decomposition will be well underway. In
conclusion, interlayers in laminated glass lose most of
their strength above 1008C.
Specific data on the decomposition temperature for
rubber gaskets and seals in fire are not available.
However, it is noted that silicone ovenware can
withstand domestic cooking oven temperatures of up
to 2608C.

10.3 Positive fire protection to glass
structures
It is not very common for glass to have direct fire
protection measures applied to it. As can be seen
from Section 10.2, the emphasis is on treating the
glass itself to withstand high temperatures.
Nevertheless there are spray systems that can be
used to extinguish the fire. In addition water mist
systems can reduce air temperature to levels that do
not endanger the glass.

10.4 Impact of fire protection to the design
of structural glass elements
The major impact that fire protection has on the
design of glass structures is the treatment of the
glass itself. This impacts on the material selection
only.
There is also the issue of testing that needs to be
considered as part of the design process. Typically a
fire resistance test procedure evaluates against the
following criteria:
– Loadbearing capacity for framework (if appropriate).
76

The Institution of Structural Engineers Structural use of glass in buildings (Second edition)

– Integrity: ability to prevent spread of gases and
flames.
– Insulation: ability to restrict temperature rise on the
unexposed surface of the glass to below specified
levels.
– Radiation: level of radiation hazard, high levels of
heat radiation can inhibit means of escape or ignite
materials on the unexposed side of the specimen.

10.5 References
10.1

BS EN 14178-1: 2004: Glass in building – Basic
alkaline earth silicate glass – Part 1: Float glass.
London: BSI, 2004

10.2

BS EN 13051-2:2007 Fire classification of
Construction products and building elements – Part 2:
Classification using data from fire resistance tests,
excluding ventilation services

11 Designing glass structures for extreme loading conditions

11.1 Accidental loads
When structures are expected to withstand extreme
loading conditions, such as explosions and seismic
activity, a great deal is asked of them with regards to
stability and robustness. With glass being somewhat
unforgiving as a material, how does the designer take
the forces that are generated from these events into
account?

11.2 Designing for blast loads
A blast wave is caused by the almost instantaneous
transfer of a suddenly released amount of energy into
the surrounding air. This causes a thin front of highly
compressed air to be pushed outwards from the
explosive source in all directions. The leading face of
the front is at extremely high pressure, which reduces
across the thickness of the front to zero pressure,
followed by a longer zone of suction (i.e. subatmospheric pressure). The speed of the blast wave
is supersonic and its time to pass a fixed point or to
load a surface is therefore very short, measured in
milliseconds.
A structure subjected to this pressure front will
therefore receive a very high positive load of very
short duration (analogous to an impact), followed by
a suction load of smaller intensity and longer
duration. The effect of this loading is to set the
structure and its elements into motions, which may
result in distortion past material survival limits. The
latter may involve displacements above or below the
limits of permanent distortion.
In considering this phenomenon in the context of
glazing, the objective of the engineer is to be able to
quantify with some confidence the response of, for
example, a window of given parameters to a blast
wave of given parameters. The approach to this
problem may be on the basis of empirical tests or by
mathematical analysis.
On any installation the factors that influence the
choice of bomb-blast resistant glazing will vary and
may include:
– the threat
– the degree of protection required (safety of people/
minimisation of damage)
– the extent of the building area to be protected
– architectural constraints, including any opening
requirements
– manufacturing and installation limitations
– budget.

blast resistance or thicker panes it is pointless to
upgrade glass into a frame which is not strong
enough to carry the reactions generated by the new
glass.
The range of briefs for providing blast resistance to
glazing may vary. From providing complete protection
to specified rooms under a specified threat (bomb
size and distance), to enhancing the resistance or
hazard mitigation properties of existing windows over
a large fac¸ade by a nominal amount by adding film
and curtains that are designed to mitigate against the
effects of blast loads. Intermediate levels of upgrading
may consist of re-glazing with stronger glass, or
replacing with stronger frames and stronger glass,
but for an unspecified threat.
Between these two approaches lies the transition
from a deterministic approach (i.e. against a specific
defined threat) to a stochastic approach (i.e. risk, or
statistical) influenced by pragmatic policy and cost
decisions. It is easy but confusing to mix the two
philosophies.
The predicted threat itself can only be an estimate
even if it is carried out by those who have information
to enable them to do so. The threat may change with
time and there will always be a chance that the
predicted value will be exceeded.
Rapid and efficient methods of estimating maximum
structural response and damage are very desirable
in preliminary dynamic structural design. This is
especially true when developing the characteristics
of the structural response under blast load from
experimental blast test data for application in
design.
Basic annealed glass breaks into jagged irregular
fragments that are extremely dangerous. Toughened
glass is several times stronger than annealed glass
and it breaks into cube-shaped ‘dice’. Laminated
glass is generally held together after the glass has
broken by the plastic or resin interlayer.
The plastic interlayer normally used for blast
resistance is PVB, but specialist applications can use
polyurethane. Glass can also be laminated with layers
of polycarbonate using polyurethane as a bonding
layer.

Costs of different glasses should not be considered
in isolation from the framing and installation costs.

PVB is highly ductile at room temperature and has
significant tensile strength and high recovery after
deformation. It bonds well to glass. Under blast load,
after the glass has broken, the PVB acts as a ductile
membrane in catenary and is capable of stretching a
significant amount. The interlayer material will stretch
further the larger the force placed upon it until failure
initiates by tearing of the PVB or by pulling out from
the frame rebates. The breaking strength of PVB
which is 1.52mm thick is approximately 10N/mm.

Anti-shatter film or thin laminated glass can be
installed in standard frames with the objective of
providing some hazard mitigation by limiting the
spread of loose fragments. For more comprehensive

Under blast load, laminated glass behaves in a
fundamentally different way to plain glass. Blast
energy will cause brittle fracture of annealed glass,
converting it into high velocity hazardous shards.
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77

Typically these forces are of the order of 50% of the forces normal to the fac¸ade. sometimes more than 50mm. a certificate must be produced upon installation to show conformity. the data to prove which glass configurations satisfy which hazard criteria were obtained exclusively from field test data. When selected for bullet resistance the glass construction can be very thick.2 Bullet proof glass installation . These covered a limited range of window sizes.1. Another criterion is the nature of the splinters of glass ejected from the rear face of the glass.2. combining the toughness of polycarbonate with the stiffness of glass. An essential part of laminated pane design is in the edge retention detailing and frame strength to support the glass. even though the inner layers of polycarbonate remain held in the frame. The results have been corroborated with test data. the interlayer(s) exert membrane forces on the framing in the plane of the fac¸ade.and vandal-resistant frames if they are also required to resist blast.Designing glass structures for extreme loading conditions Pressure applied to frame members 11. Being more expensive than PVB. See Figure 11. 11. It is also advisable to employ the services of a blast consultant. This overrides the usual requirements of blast resistance. The glass loads its perimeter frame in a direction normal to the plane of the fac¸ade. The high strength and stiffness of the composite pane can load its frame severely. Polyurethane is used as the interlayer because it adheres to both glass and polycarbonate and it can cope with the differential thermal movements of glass and polycarbonate. prevent the passage of bullets from defined weapons. Polycarbonate can be laminated with glass. modify the strength and edge retention details of bullet. stiff. There is proprietary software available which can calculate the performance theoretically for any window size.2 for an example of such a glass. which gives hazard categories ranging from A to F. which is as strong and ductile as PVB and which retains these properties at higher temperatures. An alternative interlayer material is polyurethane. It is therefore important to assess the capacity and. Glass polycarbonate can resist blasts effectively but the outer glass layers are liable to be thrown off as hazardous fragments. Bullet-resistant glazing must. 78 The Institution of Structural Engineers Structural use of glass in buildings (Second edition) Figure 11. bullet-resistant pane can transmit higher shock loads to the frame than a thinner. Such a thick pane is capable of resisting blast loads for which the frame support will have to be much stronger than would be needed to resist bullet or manual attack threat. There are specialist blasted-rated systems that have already been tested and can be shown to perform as required. Even if only required to resist a lesser blast threat than its full capacity a thick. 0 Time (ms) 10 20 30 Figure 11. of course. The hazard levels relating to glass in fac¸ade systems describe how far any glass fragments fly into a room following a blast. The laminated glass often incorporates a layer of polycarbonate to enhance ballistic resistance.1 Idealised pressure-time history applied to frame members by laminated glass in blast Laminated glass can absorb considerable blast energy while retaining integrity as a flexible membrane (see Figure 11.3 Ballistic loading Laminated glass is effective against bullets and manual attack when correctly selected. if necessary. At the same time it softens the blast shock impact transmitted to the glass supports.1). To transfer these forces to the framing the glass is usually bonded into its framing using adhesive sealant. it is used for special critical applications such as aircraft windows. it is recommended to seek advice from a security consultant. However once the glass cracks and the interlayer(s) go into tension. laminated pane capable of resisting that threat. These are related to a standard test chamber as described in ISO 1693311. more flexible. In the past. However.3 Interlayer breaks Interlayer acting in catenary Glass breaks For further advice on designing structures for blast loading and other security related issues. Additional information and advice can be gained from Blast effects on buildings11.

1 where: d is the horizontal seismic drift over the height of the panel being considered c1 is average clearance on vertical sides c2 is average clearance on top and bottom h is the height of a rectangular panel b is the width of a rectangular panel This philosophy of movement and flexibility must extend throughout the structure.6 References Anti-bandit glass comes in different forms with different levels of resistance. Laminated annealed glass often provides the right level of protection. The evaluation of the threat should be carried out by the client’s security advisor.com/pdf/LPS1175-6. which is taken from ASCE 7-10 Minimum design loads for buildings and other structures11. 2007 11. Watford: BRE Global. The Institution of Structural Engineers Structural use of glass in buildings (Second edition) 79 11. This can result in an increase in the complexity of the connections within the structure. London: Thomas Telford. This movement is allowed through the use of larger than normal clearance between the glass and the framing. et al. This applies to all structures of course. strongpoints. Geneva: ISO. For more sustained and energetic assaults it will be necessary to provide a higher level of resistance. Reston. Loss Prevention Standard LPS 1175: Issue 6: Requirements and testing procedures for the LPCB approval and listing of intruder resistant building components. especially at the points of support. VA: ASCE Press. 2nd ed. 2009 11. most of which are applicable to glass elements. 2007.4 ASCE/SEI7-10: Minimum design loads for buildings and other structures. therefore extra care must be taken when designing glass structures that are subject to seismic events.1 ISO 16933: 2007: Glass in building – Explosionresistant security glazing – Test and classification for arena air-blast loading.4. with multiple layers for high security areas. or in providing strong glass and frames that can easily be removed. The BRE-authored Loss Prevention Standard LPS 117511. regardless of the material type. However glass failure can lead to fatalities. Blast effects on buildings.4 .pdf [Accessed: 11 October 2013] 11.4 Intruder resistance 11. 2010 Toughened glass is susceptible to impact from sharppointed objects.redbooklive. security enclosures and free-standing barriers. 11.5 Designing for seismic loads When a glass structure is located within a seismic zone. caused by seismic activity.3 provides further guidance on antiintrusion measures. Equation 11. The framing system for anti-bandit glazing is just as important as the glass. it is imperative that it is allowed to move in sympathy with a dynamic action.1. Even wired glass can sometimes act as an effective deterrent. such as axes. . D. breaks into jagged edge pieces that can deter or delay entry.Designing glass structures for extreme loading conditions 11.2 Cormie. although weaker. There is no point in providing strong glass in a weak frame. A simple formula to calculate the required clearance for a rectangular panel is given in Equation 11. Available at: http://www. 11. d ¼ 2c1(1 þ hc2/bc1) .3 Loss Prevention Certification Board. . Basic annealed glass. It may be sufficient to deter a housebreaker by persuading them that it will take too long (and hence increase the risk of detection).

element size accuracy. For glass that is wrongly sized or incorrectly specified. In this case. Desire for better performance and the ever-increasing demands on larger sizes means the constant updating of processes and systems. resized. These address the presence of bowing. This means that the finished specifications and dimensions have to be determined well in advance of the final installation. It is not just scratches and blemishes that have to be categorised but also other phenomena that become apparent when glass is curved. The main aim with this sort of design should be to keep things simple and limit the possibility of mistakes or incorrect interpretation of instructions. 12. Depending upon the exact specifications of the glass it may have to be processed and transported from overseas on lengthy delivery times. the number of potential suppliers reduces globally. laminated or made into multiple paned units. toughening. the Glass and Glazing Federation guidelines state that a double glazed unit should be viewed under normal 80 The Institution of Structural Engineers Structural use of glass in buildings (Second edition) daylight conditions (but not direct sunlight) from a distance of 3. integrity of prestress and position of holes/cuts. As specifications become ever more challenging and increasingly individual to a specific project. waves. distortion or discolouration that have little chance of being avoided completely and occur more often with larger and more complicated pieces of glass.12 Procurement. There are industry standards that set out how the visual quality of this damage should be assessed and whether it is serious enough for the glass to be rejected. construction. This chapter explains what the designer should allow for when developing glass structures with respect to their construction. Germany.1. a good standard for visual quality of glass is the Guideline to assess the visible quality of glass in buildings12. Often difficult discussions can arise between what is acceptable for the glass industry. These can result in lines. For example.1 Introduction The construction phase of glass structures can be more complex than the more traditional structural materials. These standards set out what is allowed and what constitutes a defect. In the past the application of glass was limited by its availability rather than. this is sometimes at the expense of quality control that takes time to catch up again. 12. processing. Alternatively the support structure would need to be reworked or rebuilt to suit the glass.3 Quality control Glass can be damaged at any stage throughout manufacture. transportation or installation. quality of edge polishing. These are particularly present in coated glasses or applications when more than one process has to be undertaken (e. There are also a number of associated qualifying statements depending on the specification of the glass and the location of the damage. In addition to what has been described above in terms of quality control. often the only solution is for it to be scrapped and replaced.g.0m and perpendicular to the face of the glass. toughened. when detailing the supporting structure it is important to make sure that tolerances can be as flexible as possible and any adjustments can be easily made prior to installing the glass. These standards require the glass to be placed upon a viewing platform and examined from a stated distance and orientation under standard lighting conditions. They can appear and disappear as these conditions change. It helps greatly . coating and then laminating). Due to time constraints on-site this often means the glass is being manufactured from drawings rather than waiting for the supporting structure to be surveyed. demonstrating conformity to these standard tests and the clients’ expectations as to the visual performance of the glass installed. and maintenance of glass structures 12. 12. even the smallest scratch or blemish can be visually and structurally unacceptable. It is not unusual to find glazing materials travelling long distances from process to process before arriving at their final point of installation. Alternatively. prepared by the Institute of the Glazing Trade for Glazing Technology and Window Manufacture in Hadamar. Although glass is fairly hard to damage. It means nothing to get the calculations and details correct if site conditions or installer ability do not allow them to be fulfilled.2 Procurement Unlike many other materials most types of glass cannot be reshaped. These are often dependent on viewing angle and the distance and location of the light source.4 Construction methods Due to the inability for glass to be modified postproduction. as now. cut or added to once they have undergone processing. The only guaranteed route to provide glass that will be certain to fit is to carry out a site survey after the support structure has been completed. it needs to be clearly understood by all on site that accuracy is the key element in structural glass installation. the requirements of modern design driving glass technology faster and further beyond its comfort zone. presence of flaws and blemishes. the structural aspect of the glass elements must also undergo similar checking regimes.

This ensures that the correct materials are being used and in the correct manner so that adhesion can be assured. 12. These parts should be designed in such a way that they can be replaced without affecting structural elements. both internally and externally. and requirements for movement (both thermal and structural) and construction inaccuracies need to be calculated. Performance of the core elements of the design (usually brick. There are usually more important reasons for a particular design. Inspection of critical areas is advisable to allow for as much advanced notice as possible in cases of potential failure. For example. and in a way that is safe for those carrying out the work and those using the building at the time. Records of these adhesion tests need to be kept by the glazing company to help diagnose any cases of future failure.Procurement. In almost every case for this type of construction the glass tends to be the final element to be installed and is the least able to be adapted with regards to inaccuracies and movement. needs to be considered from the start. The reasons for replacement will include damage.5 Replacement strategy and maintenance regimes of glass structures Glass structures may need to have individual or complete elements replaced or renewed in the future. Whether this is in the form of a crane or a winch. Timely prevention is preferable for urgent replacement or certain alteration. but at least it can be controlled. If the glass is being used as the primary structural element then the adjustability of the connection needs to be between the fixing elements and the building core. This has increased the need for accuracy both within the design and the installation. Fixed glass structures require little maintenance beyond cleaning down to avoid prolonged contact with air (or water) borne contaminants. This is usually undertaken by the glazing contractor. end of expected life and failure. Exact like-for-like replacement may not necessarily be an option and therefore it may be acceptable to consider replacing an original element with something where installation is more achievable. A broken glass beam might not be visually appealing but the breakage should not cause collapse of the structure. Throughout the construction process. it is achieved through correct specification in the first place and employing experienced companies that know what they are doing. or at least reducing the risk. The risk of material damage and personal injury must be assessed and be eliminated throughout the specification. construction. changes of specification.5kg/m2 per millimetre thickness. There are some external factors that can adversely affect the construction of structural glass elements that cannot be predicted nor directly controlled at the design stage. It is just as important. Opening elements need more continual servicing to ensure they are operating correctly and a more regular replacement of moving parts needs to be anticipated. In these cases the fixing structure would be undertaken at the same time as the core elements. although greater weights can be accommodated by the use of bespoke lifting systems. consideration needs to be given to site conditions and overall manoeuvrability of the glazed elements. site conditions have to accommodate their use. but the thought process should not be excluded even if it is later discounted. that the specification of the glass is correctly made in the first place and properly interpreted when being manufactured for installation. Installing replacement glass elements is often considerably more difficult than removing existing ones due to the inaccessibility of the fixing elements once the initial works have been completed. This needs to be carried out with minimal disruption to other elements. At 2. the connection between the fixing elements and the glass can be used to accommodate these requirements for movement and tolerance. concrete or steel) need to be analysed. a single large panel of glass could be later replaced by several smaller elements not requiring mechanical lifting. is more important. and when using these materials. The Institution of Structural Engineers Structural use of glass in buildings (Second edition) 81 12. and maintenance of glass structures to involve experienced companies that are used to the tight tolerances of structural glazing and that can adequately control the likelihood of a successful execution. A regime for cleaning and inspection should be documented and allowed for within the original design brief. For example. regular testing must be carried out on-site during their use. structural sealants must not be used in freezing or wet conditions. Health and safety requirements often make it necessary to use mechanical lifting devices to install the glazing. Construction methods vary enormously depending on the part the glass is playing on the overall structure. when dealing with elements where replacement is difficult. Consequences of breakage can be managed in terms of urgency and necessity. Regular maintenance and on-going inspection will extend the life expectancy of a glass structure and reduce the need for early replacement. A basic guideline to manual handling is 150kg in vertical applications or 100kg in horizontal applications.5 . When planning for the best method of construction. The increased desire for ‘minimal’ or ‘frameless’ features has further complicated structural element design as connections have had to be miniaturised or hidden entirely from view. The connecting element between the core and the glass can then be constructed in such a way as to accommodate these values and therefore be fully prepared in advance of the glass installation. Limiting the need to replace elements. The risk of replacement cannot ever be completely overlooked as glass is a brittle material and it gets broken. glass can become heavy and unmanageable. Site location and access may often dictate the size and specification of both the glass and the structural elements of the design. All tests need to be carried out by experienced and trained operatives with knowledge of the materials that they are using. Safe and convenient access to the glass. The role of ‘window’ or ‘cladding’ requires less accuracy than that of ‘envelope’ or ‘structure’. Where the glass is simply being used as an infill material or bolt-on. design and construction processes. The possible likelihood and resultant cost of this replacement needs to be considered and a strategy formulated for each element of the structure.

de/media/visible_quality_06_2009. and maintenance of glass structures 12. 2009.6 Procurement.isolar.6 References 12.1 82 Institute of the Glazing Trade for Glazing Technology and Window Manufacture and Federal Association for Architectural Glazing. Available at: http:// www.12.pdf [Accessed: 19 September 2013] The Institution of Structural Engineers Structural use of glass in buildings (Second edition) . construction. Guideline to assess the visible quality of glass in buildings.

It is most important that the requirements of the specification can be objectively verified – they can be measured or tested according to clearly defined standards.2 Specification for glass cladding With respect to cladding elements. in response to criteria established by the designer or specifier. This would include: – wind load information up to site specific information sufficient to establish local pressures – information on or specific data on internal pressures – partition loads – balustrade loads – deflection/displacement of elements. It may include requirements for materials and workmanship. a reasonably robust specification would be developed. or it may contain requirements for the performance of the glass (sometimes known as performance-based specification). storey and overall structure. it is recommended that the specification includes the following items: – the extent of the glazing – its geometry – how it is attached to the building – its intended solidity – lightness – texture – contrast – colour.13 Specification 13. This is the traditional specification. The quality of workmanship is clearly defined with reference to codes of practice. accommodation of leaning/ maintenance gantries. sometimes known as a prescriptive specification. A specification needs to be: – complete – clear – precise – enforceable – co-ordinated with other project information (for example.1 Introduction With an absence of code of practice it is left to the designer to develop bespoke specifications for glass structures. 13. attachment to the building. Design requirements Responsibilities. programme. regulations. durability. including other contract documents. stability. In such instances. glass. Infestation Ironmongery Lightning protection and electrical safety Locked-in stresses Movement Noise generation Robustness Safety Solar control Strength. There is. some guidance given in the NBS suite of specifications. stiffness Thermal transmittance Vibration Weathertightness Wind resistance – safety Wind resistance – serviceability The Institution of Structural Engineers Structural use of glass in buildings (Second edition) 83 . health and safety. key design data and criteria need to be expressed within the specification and other design documentation. General requirements Pressure equalised cavities. The terms ‘consultant designer’ and ‘specialist designer’ are sometimes used to distinguish between the different parties involved in this process. ease of removal. It is not exhaustive.3 Specification for glass structures The specification is a document included in the contract documents and contains the instructions of the designers or specifiers to the contractor. movement. however. or even samples if this is appropriate. codes. adjustment. Performance requirements Acoustic transmission Air permeability Applied loads Bracketry and fixings Condensation Corrosion Design life Fire and smoke stopping Fire performance General requirements for enclosure. thermal bridging. it should not conflict with drawn information). it may combine the two. Visual acceptance criteria are not easy to define. in which all required materials are described as well as any reference standards. ease of removal/replacement. locations of weather seals. 13. accepted industry standards. support and attachment to the building. System descriptions Types of framing. or the completion of the design. This chapter of the Guide explains what needs to be included in a specification for glass structures of all types. It is not uncommon for the design responsibility of glass elements to fall to the specialist contractor. but it is comprehensive enough that if it were followed. What follows is a checklist of items that should be contained in a specification for glass structures. In a performance-based specification the contractor is responsible for the design.

3 Specification Submittals With tender Post-contract Quality assurance Quality plan Quality control procedures Technical procedures Air permeability tests Assessing thermal performance Attachments to concrete Checking flatness Checking sizes Erection and dismantling Factory-assembled mock-up samples General Impact tests Load tests On-site quality control samples and testing Reporting Sizing movement joints Sources of information Testing (scope) Testing procedures The test rig The testing authority Thermal load test Watertightness tests Weathering performance test specimens Wind resistance test General standards of product quality Accuracy and flatness Aluminium Annealed glass Anodising Carbon steel Double glazed units Fabrication Gaskets General Glass Heat-strengthened glass Heat soaked toughened glass Insulation Laminated glass Low emissivity coatings Non-structural sealants Polyester powder coat finishes Safety Screen printing Setting blocks Sizes Stainless steel Stainless steel finishes Structural silicone glazing Thermal stresses Toughened glass Vapour control layers Visual acceptance criteria Waterproofing membranes Execution Accuracy of erection Accuracy of joints between components Erection tolerances Finishes Fixings Gaskets Glazing Handling and storage Health and safety file 84 The Institution of Structural Engineers Structural use of glass in buildings (Second edition) Inspection and testing Installation Insulation Protection and cleaning Setting blocks Vapour control layers and waterproof membranes .13.

Obvious indicators of distress around connections would include cracking of the glass itself. 14.1 Crack pattern in basic annealed glass due to thermal shock 14. Before any recommended remedial action is taken.2 Crack pattern in basic annealed glass due to load failure The Institution of Structural Engineers Structural use of glass in buildings (Second edition) 85 . Basic annealed glass generates long cracks (see Figure 14. 14.g. the glass element it is supporting is likely to crack due to additional stresses being placed upon it.2). breakages and loose elements within the fixing? Are the isolating elements that separate the glass from the fixing degrading in any way? These defects can lead to deterioration of the integrity of the support and then a failure of the glass. two edge support vs.1 Introduction 14.6 Cracking due to impact Failure of glass due to impact is often confused with nickel sulphide inclusions within toughened glass. Are all of the elements that should be within it present? Is there corrosion.14 Inspection of glass structures 14.2 Degradation of connections Connections are typically the weak point of a glass structure. The differences between the two are that the intensity of the cracks around the point of impact is far greater Figure 14. What should also be reviewed is the integrity of the connection assembly itself. As always. Thermal cracking to glass elements have a certain pattern that is dependent on the type of glass. This will usually include both the general public walking past the building and the occupants of the building. Are they.1) that project perpendicularly from the line of support. The crack pattern for this is much more varied and is reflective of how the glass is buckling and deflecting under load as its supporting structure becomes unstable. Any remedial proposals should be thought of as new design work and evaluated as part of a lifecycle cost. In such instances the advice of structural glass specialists may be appropriate.5 Cracking due to surface imperfections There are tiny flaws in the surface of glass that can cause it to fail within designed loading conditions. Toughened glass is not susceptible to thermal shock and heat-strengthened glass is rarely susceptible. It is for this reason that they become the focus of attention when carrying out inspections on glass structures.3 Cracking due to thermal shock It is not uncommon for structural engineers to be called upon to carry out inspections on glass structures. for example. four edge support (see Figure 14. Figure 14. related to the complete installation or just to a local detail? What is the scale and urgency of the problem? Diagnosis of defects or failures can be a complicated matter and should be approached systematically. 14. These scratches can occur during manufacture or while the glass is being handled during construction. the designer must consider the health and safety not only of the people carrying out the repair or replacement but also of those affected by the work. The crack pattern typically stretches across the whole of the glass pane and varies depending on the extent and method of support e.4 Cracking due to instability When the support system for glass becomes unstable or is compromised in some way. This chapter explains some of the items that need to be considered when carrying out such inspections. defects should be diagnosed to determine the cause(s) and extent of failure.

The cracks all generate from a single point in the glass with no sign of impact of the outer surface. where a weakness is generated from within the glass itself and not via an external agent.3 Nickel sulphide failure pattern than for nickel sulphide failure. and the patterns do not have the small butterfly-like wings that are indicative of that source of defect. 86 The Institution of Structural Engineers Structural use of glass in buildings (Second edition) .7 Inspection of glass structures Figure 14. and definitive proof can only be obtained by microscopic examination in a laboratory. This is a very important point to note as it is very easy for the two sorts of failures to be confused with one another. this is a major difference from nickel sulphide failures. which is characteristic of a nickel sulphide failure. Impact failures always show damage to the surface of the glass. However.14.3).7 Nickel sulphide imperfections Failure due to nickel sulphide imperfections within toughened glass generates a unique cracking pattern (see Figure 14. The centre of the crack pattern typically has a double-D or butterfly pattern. these do not conclusively point to a nickel sulphide cause. 14.

J. D. London: ICE Publishing. B. M.C. Roark’s formulas for stress and strain. et al. Zurich: IABSE-AIPC-IVBH. examples. ICE manual of structural design: buildings. 2010 Bull. 2007 Weller. New York: McGraw-Hill. Basel: Birkhauser. Glass in building: principles. T. Basel: Birkhauser.F. J. 1993 Haldimann. 1999 Schittich. Glass in building: a guide to modern architectural glass performance.Appendix A Bibliography Ashby. Guide to the structural use of adhesives. ed. Structural Engineering Document 10. applications. Facade construction manual. Glass structures: design and construction of selfsupporting skins. 4th ed. C. et al. W. Basel: Birkhauser. Glass construction manual. M. 2nd ed. Oxford: Pilkington Glass with Butterworth Architecture. 2009 Wurm. and Pye. Basel: Birkhauser. et al. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann. London: IStructE. et al. et al. 2012 The Institution of Structural Engineers Structural use of glass in buildings (Second edition) 87 . Structural use of glass. 2004 Institution of Structural Engineers. 2008 Herzog. 2007 Young.W. B. 2012 Button. 8th ed. Materials selection in mechanical design.

Appendix B Regulatory framework National and European standards Many national standards exist for glass products and the use of glass. Separate regulations apply to England. The Building Regulations If it is intended to erect a new building. or to change the use of a building in the UK. the European Committee for Standardisation. These are listed below: – England: The Building Regulations 2013 – Wales: The Building Regulations 2013 – Scotland: The Building Standards (Scotland) Regulations 2013 – Northern Ireland: The Building Regulations (Northern Ireland) 2010 Health and Safety Designers in the UK should be aware of their duties under the various health and safety regulations. to alter an existing building. Wales. better known as the CDM Regulations. These include The Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999 and The Construction (Design and Management) Regulations 2007. the Building Regulations will probably apply. European Standards are being prepared or already exist and are issued in the UK under the prefix BS EN. 88 The Institution of Structural Engineers Structural use of glass in buildings (Second edition) . Draft European Standards are prefixed prEN and are issued by CEN. Scotland and Northern Ireland.

45 Patterned wired glass 0.v is the material partial factor for surface prestressed glass Type of glass Material partial factor Basic annealed glass gM:A ¼ 1.00 30 seconds Domestic balustrade load 0.22 Enamelled patterned glass 0. a UK National Annex will likely be created alongside it that will recommend a value of 1.k annealed glass (45N/mm2) kmod is the factor for load duration ksp is the factor for glass surface profile gM.w.0 0.k k i .0. Equation C:1 gM.44 3 months Snow load long-term 0.1 Note a An infill panel whose failure would not cause injury.6a gM:V ¼ 1.6 Drawn sheet glass 1. .k  fg. Equation C:2 where: t is the duration in hours The equation can only be used for load durations that are more than 20msec. unless advised otherwise by respective national annexes. hef.74 30 minutes Maintenance access 0.1 Material properties Material Property Table C. The Institution of Structural Engineers Structural use of glass in buildings (Second edition) 89 . self-weight and altitude pressure) 0.69 5 hours Pedestrian access 0.2 Material partial factors Surface prestress Note a Where glass is etched with acid the ‘as produced’ value of ksp should be used.2.s .2 Note a The material partial factor of 1.k Þ . . .6 be used for the material partial factor for basic annealed glass.k is the characteristic bending strength of prestressed glass gM.5 Action duration factor kmod Duration Example kmod 5 seconds Single gust 1. which indicates a value of 1. . Equation C:3 Table C.8. is defined in Equation C.6 1.k gM.45 Poisson’s ratio m 0.8.Appendix C Design data for structural glass Table C.6 70000N/mm2 Enamelled float or drawn sheet glass Shear modulus G 28700N/mm2 Patterned glass 0. hef.2 Low risk infill panela 1.6 stated does not correlate with that given in Table 2 of prEN 16612.45 Polished wired glass 0.60 1 week Snow load short-term 0.48 1 month Snow load medium-term 0.77 10 minutes Multiple gust (storm) 0.3. Table C.25. For all other regions the default value is 1.75 0.5 Secondary structure 1. Laminated glass effective thickness hef.4 Glass surface profile factor ksp Value 2 Characteristic bending strength of basic annealed glass fg.89 5 minutes Workplace/public balustrade load 0.A is the material partial factor for basic annealed glass kv is the factor derived from the method of strengthening of the glass fb.k 45N/mm Density r 2500kg/m3 Young’s modulus E Type of glass As produceda Sandblasted Float glass 1.29 Note a The minimum value of kmod is 0.w and hef.j The effective thickness of laminated glass in terms of bending stress.d ¼ kmod ksp fg.v where: is the characteristic strength of basic fg.w vffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi ! u u X 3 X t 3 2 ¼ hk þ 12v hk hm. b In the case of extremely short loading conditions such as explosions.75 0. kmod ¼ 0:663t1=16 .0 0.0 0. . Table C.3 Infill panel 1. Partial factor for variable actions Primary structure 1.41 50 years Permanent (e.3 Variable action partial factor gQ Type of element Load duration factor kmod The base equation to determine the value of the load duration factor kmod is as shown in Equation C. kmod can be greater than 1.g. This is because once a formal European code of practice is adopted.36 Characteristic strength of toughened glass fg.75 0.A þ kv ðfb. .6 0.

is defined in Equation C. arrissed.3 h3 Mid-plane of laminated glass Figure C.9 1.0 Patterned glass 0.9 Coefficient of shear transfer v Table C.k Base glass material Glass type Characteristic bending strength fb. which varies from 0 to 1. .j .1 hm.8 0.k (N/mm2) Thermally toughened Heatstrengthened Chemically toughened 120 70 150 Patterned 90 55 100 Enamelled float glass or drawn sheeta 75 45 Enamelled patterned glassa 75 Float glass or drawn sheet Table C.8 0.j . hk and hj are the thicknesses of the plies of glass within a laminated sheet.8 Wired patterned glass 0. or ground edgesa Seamed edgesb Polished edges Float or sheet glass 0. b Arrissed or ground edges by machine or hand where the abrasive action is along the length of the edge.7 Strengthening factor kv Manufacturing process Strengthening factor kv Load case Family 2 Family 3 Horizontal toughening 1.1.j ¼t hj þ2v hm.1 Snow loads – external canopies 0. h1 h2 Mid-plane of each ply hm. h1 ¼ hk and h2 ¼ hj hm. Edge strength factor ke As-cut.4 Personal load – normal duty 0. The different material types currently in use along with their stiffness family are as follows: – Acoustic PVB: Family 1.3 Snow loads – roof 0 0. i.1 Permanent loads 0 0 where: v is the coefficient of shear transfer of the interlayer. as defined in Figure C.1 0.1 Laminated glass thickness dimensions 90 The Institution of Structural Engineers Structural use of glass in buildings (Second edition) Acoustic PVB and materials that fall outside the definitions above are decreed to be in Families 1 and 0 respectively.s .8 0.6 Vertical toughening 0.7 The effective thickness of laminated glass in terms of stress within a ply. Table C.8 0.e.8 Note a Arrissed or ground edges by machined or hand where the abrasive action is across the edge.2 hm.5 Personal load – crowds 0 0.Appendix C Table C. .8 Polished wired glass 0.8 Edge stress factor ke 45 Note a Enamelled glass cannot be chemically toughened.1 0. hef. – Standard grade PVB: Family 2.8 0.8 0. .s.6 Wind load (other locations) 0. Materials that fall within Family 0 can have the shear coefficient v increased following extensive testing to verify their properties and performance. Equation C. – Ionoplast: Family 3.6 Characteristic bending strength for prestressed glass fb.8 0.4. vffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi u  3 u h ef.0 Wind load (Mediterranean) 0.3 Maintenance load 0 0.w  hef.i is the distance to the mid-plane of the glass plies The coefficient of shear transfer v is based on the material of the interlayer and the duration of load the glass is to be subjected to.1 0.3 0.

the following charts are reproduced from Materials Selection in Mechanical Design – Fourth Edition. with which designers may be more familiar.Appendix D Material properties charts To set glass in the context of other materials. Figure D.1 Young’s modulus plotted against density The Institution of Structural Engineers Structural use of glass in buildings (Second edition) 91 .

Appendix D Figure D.2 Strength plotted against density Figure D.3 Young’s modulus plotted against strength 92 The Institution of Structural Engineers Structural use of glass in buildings (Second edition) .

Appendix D Figure D.4 Specific modulus plotted against specific strength Figure D.5 Fracture toughness plotted against Young’s modulus The Institution of Structural Engineers Structural use of glass in buildings (Second edition) 93 .

7 Loss coefficient (damping) plotted against Young’s modulus 94 The Institution of Structural Engineers Structural use of glass in buildings (Second edition) .6 Fracture toughness plotted against strength Figure D.Appendix D Figure D.

8 Thermal conductivity plotted against thermal diffusivity Figure D.Appendix D Figure D.9 Linear expansion coefficient plotted against thermal conductivity The Institution of Structural Engineers Structural use of glass in buildings (Second edition) 95 .

Appendix D Figure D.11 Young’s modulus plotted against relative cost 96 The Institution of Structural Engineers Structural use of glass in buildings (Second edition) .10 Linear expansion coefficient plotted against Young’s modulus Figure D.

Appendix D Figure D.13 Strength plotted against energy content The Institution of Structural Engineers Structural use of glass in buildings (Second edition) 97 .12 Strength plotted against relative cost Figure D.

14 98 Young’s modulus plotted against energy content The Institution of Structural Engineers Structural use of glass in buildings (Second edition) .Appendix D Figure D.

which comes up to about waist height. which has no frame.2m above finish floor surface. Absorption An alternative word for absorptance. Acoustic performance The properties of a glass or glazing product which describe its airborne sound insulation. Blast resistance The ability of a particular type of glass to provide enhanced performance in response to explosion pressure waves. protecting a drop. Bushes Nylon or hard fibre ferrules used around the shanks of bolts in bolted connections. acid etching. a safety film.2m above finish floor surface. Airspace An alternative term for cavity. expressed as a percentage. Bevelling The manufacture of polished shallowly chamfered edges to glass. e. Butt joint A joint between the edges of adjacent panes. Basic annealed glass See annealed glass. Autoclave Device used during the fabrication of laminated glass. as measured by the reduction or attenuation of sound. Bead See glazing bead. Bow One form of distortion of toughened glass or heat-strengthened glass.g. Bullet resistance The ability of a particular type of glass to withstand armed attack using a particular type of weapon. to prevent direct contact between the bolt and the glass. Annealed glass Ordinary stress free glass which can be cut by scoring and snapping. commonly silicone sealant. expressed as a fraction (see solar properties).g. Armed attack An attack using firearms. Acoustic laminate A laminated glass with special interlayers with better acoustic performance. Applied film An organic (plastic) film stuck on to glass to give it additional properties. Aspect ratio The ratio of the long edge of a pane to the short edge. at specific frequencies. These terms typically have equivalent phrases that are described in the text. in decibels (dB). Backing paint A form of opacifier. Anti-bandit glazing A form of security glazing resistant to manual attack. Anti-ballistic glazing See bullet resistance. sand blasting or forming coated glass. not just by stopping the bullets. Base glass A term used to describe the glass which is subsequently processed. A vast majority of the terms are included in the text of the Guide. Balustrade A term commonly used for a barrier. The Institution of Structural Engineers Structural use of glass in buildings (Second edition) 99 . Barrier A structure designed to either guide the direction of pedestrian traffic or to provide guarding to the edges of drops. or a protective coating applied to mirrors. by pouring a liquid resin between two panes of glass and curing it either chemically or by exposure to UV light. Applied leading Strips of lead adhered to both surfaces of a pane of glass to give the appearance of a leaded light. but some are not. See also acoustic performance. Arris An edge finish to the glass where the sharp corners of the edge have been removed. Attenuation The reduction of either sound (see acoustic performance) or electromagnetic radiation (see electromagnetic shielding). It typically induces heat and 12 atmospheres of pressure onto the glass for 5 hours. Airborne sound insulation The type of sound insulation provided by glass. Typically this is 1. Cast-in-place (CIP) A type of interlayer used in the manufacture of laminated glass. Acid etching A process that creates a pattern whereby a polished surface of glass is made matt by exposure to hydrofluoric acid.Appendix E Glossary of terms The list below is a glossary of terms that are encountered when using glass as a structural material. Term Definition Absorptance The proportion of incident solar radiation absorbed by the glass. Where this is not the case a more detailed description of the term is provided. Break safely See safe breakage. Typically this is 1. e. but is filled with adhesive sealant. but also in terms of the spall ejected from the opposite face by the impact.

e. i. or low level glazing. Edge clearance The distance between the edge of a pane and the frame in which it is glazed.Appendix E Term Definition Cavity The gap between the panes of an insulating unit also known as the airspace. UV light (generally described as 280nm to 380nm wavelength).g. Decibel (dB) The scale used to measure or describe – loudness of sound. Cold bent glass Glass which is formed into a curved shape by bending without heat. a mechanical requirement) and also to ensure the edge seal of an insulating unit is protected from the environment. leading it to over-estimate actions due to buckling. dB See decibel. covered by the glazing bead. usually applied on-line (i. Containment The ability of a glass or glazing product to prevent persons who accidentally fall against it from falling through (see also guarding and barriers). The clearance is required to allow for tolerances. or – sound insulation and sound reduction indexes (see acoustic performance). single glazing in cold weather. in the case of drained glazing.e. Double glazing Historic term for insulating units comprising two panes of glass with a gap between them. Edge seal The hermetic seal around the edge of an insulating unit. Critical locations Those areas of a building. or – attenuation of radar and radio waves (see electromagnetic shielding). Clear float Untinted float glass (but which may have a slight green tinge to it. Drained glazing A glazing system in which any lodged water is channelled out of the rebates. doors. during the manufacture of the float glass) or a sputtered coating (soft coat) applied off-line (i. Electromagnetic radiation The full spectrum ranges from gamma rays with very short wavelength. Cut sizes Panes of glass cut to the final size for glazing. designed to limit the rate at which water vapour penetrates into the cavity. where glazing is most vulnerable to accidental human impact and which may require the use of safety glass. This is required to ensure the pane is effectively secured (i. 100 The Institution of Structural Engineers Structural use of glass in buildings (Second edition) . not formed into an insulating unit. Cold radiation A description of the apparent effect felt when sitting near to a cold window surface. Diffusing Randomly scattering the incident light while still allowing transmission. following manufacture of the float glass) to stock sizes or cut sizes. usually by draping the softened glass over or into a mould. adjacent to doors. through X rays. usually in conjunction with applied leading to give the appearance of a leaded light. usually noticeable only when looking at the edge of the glass). visible spectrum (generally described as 380nm to 780nm) and infrared.g. Coated glass A base glass to which an inorganic coating has been applied. Edge cover The amount of glass within the rebate. This is then converted to calculate its surface stress. Electromagnetic attenuation See electromagnetic shielding. Conduction heat gain The transfer of heat from outside the building to the inside when the external air temperature is hotter than the internal air temperature. It is not accurate as it does not consider imperfections and nonlinear behaviour. Usually applied to the effects on light of acid etching. avoid contact between the glass and its framing and. Desiccant Material or chemical that sustains a state of dryness close to its proximity.e. but which are glazed separately. Curtain walling A glazing system in which the complete fac¸ade is glazed into frames attached to the building structure. either a pyrolytic coating (hard coat). Cross bar A support for the lead cames in large traditional leaded lights. The shaped glass is subsequently cooled slowly to form annealed glass or it may be rapidly chilled to form toughened glass. The glazing may include both vision areas and spandrel panels. Coloured film Decorative applied film stuck on to the glass. Double window A window containing two panes of glass in the same vision area. sand blasting and white interlayers (see also translucent). Dual seal system System of edge seal to insulated units with an inner air seal (primary) and an outer structural seal (secondary). Curved glass Glass which has been heated past its softening point and formed into a curved shape. to radio waves with very long wavelength. Data protection The electromagnetic shielding of computers either to prevent scanning of the radio waves emitted by computers or to prevent corruption of data by interference from outside radio or radar sources.e. Ceramic coating The enamel finish applied to toughened glass. to give sufficient room for water to drain away.e. The better edge seals are usually dual seal systems. Eigenvalue analysis A form of non-linear analysis that predicts the buckling strength of a structure. e. Differential stress refractometry (DSR) A technique that uses optical imagery instruments to measure the twist in polarised light from the thin surface of toughened glass.

However. Film See applied film. Fire safety See fire protection. producing a product with surfaces which are flat and parallel. The surface compressive stress of fully tempered glass is at least 69N/mm2 as opposed to the European limit of 75N/mm2. across which electrical fields. Framing system The type of material and the design of the frame supporting the glass (see also glazing system). when made into low emissivity glass (low E glass). Faraday Cage A complete electrically conducting earthed screen around a volume of space. after which the sharp corners are arrissed. such as a window or spandrel panel. Enamel A glassy material which is melted into the surface of the base glass at high temperatures to form a ceramic coating. Frit The powder from which glass is manufactured. usually at the frequencies of radar and radio waves. Fire propagation See reaction to fire. Fire protection The action of a fire barrier in containing a fire. typically used in North America. There are no posts or balusters. partition or glazed screen. Fire resistance The ability of an element of construction. Float glass Glass which has been manufactured by floating the molten glass on a bed of molten tin until it sets. Fired-on transfer An applied transfer containing ceramic material or enamel which is melted into the glass surface at high temperature. Fire performance The length of time an element of construction. Fixing Depending on the context this may mean either – the method of retaining the glass in position on the building. The alternative to framing is by using bolted or structural silicone connections. such as a wall. enhancing the U value of the glazing. In terms of glass.Appendix E Term Definition Electromagnetic shielding The use of a Faraday Cage to reduce or prevent the passage of the longer wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation. or the cladding covering it. Face clearance The distance between the glass and the rebate upstand. Flat ground edge A glass edge which has been completely flattened by a grinding machine. partition or glazed screen. Free path The distance which a person can move directly towards a barrier. such as polysulphide or silicone sealant. including electromagnetic radiation. Frameless Not supported by a frame on any of the edges. Fac¸ade The face of a building. Typical descriptions of glazing systems would be 4 edge framed or 2 edge framed. to maintain integrity and/or insulation. the glass is cantilevered from the floor and has a continuous handrail mounted on the top edge. Explosion resistance See blast resistance. This is used as a measure of how much energy can be developed by accidental impact in order to determine the appropriate containment level for glass in the barrier. in an appropriate glazing system. allows the glazed screen or door to achieve fire resistance for more than 30 minutes. Fire barrier An element of construction. Glass naturally has a high emissivity. the glass surface does not absorb the radiated heat. partition or glazed screen. such as a wall. The electromagnetic attenuation given by the Faraday Cage is measured in decibels. Emissivity The ability of a surface to absorb or emit electromagnetic radiation. or – the action of installing the glass (glazing it). this requires all the surfaces of a room to contain a metal mesh or be made from electrically conducting materials. This is usually filled with a gasket or sealant. emissivity is only important with respect to long wavelength radiation (in the range 5000nm to 50000nm) produced as radiated heat by objects at around room temperature. The fire resistant glass may be a non-insulating glass. but reflects it back into the room. Fire resistant glass A glass which. It is sometimes used as an alternative name for enamel. Free-standing glass protective barrier A balustrade in which the glass performs all the mechanical functions. Enamelled glass Glass with enamel applied. continues to give fire resistance when tested under simulated fire conditions. Fully tempered glass Alternative term for toughened glass. Flexible compound A type of glazing material or sealant which remains permanently elastic. Fac¸ade element A part of the facade. Fin box The glazing system used at the ends of glass mullions to retain them. In terms of data protection. The Institution of Structural Engineers Structural use of glass in buildings (Second edition) 101 . Framed Supported by a frame along the full length of an edge. cannot pass. which gives an appropriate level of fire resistance. The surface appearance is similar to sand blasting. such as a wall.

Impact resistant Alternative term for safety glass. supported on rollers. or – the glass or glass product itself. It is a term usually applied to pyrolitic coatings. Insulated panel A spandrel panel with insulation in the form of organic foam or mineral wool attached to the rear face. 102 The Institution of Structural Engineers Structural use of glass in buildings (Second edition) .e. The final product shows traces of this sagging as a phenomenon called roller wave. such as putty and can be used as a gap filler. i. Glazing compound A glazing material which is soft and pliable. Glazing bead The common mechanism used to retain glass in a frame. minimising the ingress of moisture into the cavity. The air in the cavity can be replaced by another gas to give the unit specific thermal insulation or sound insulation properties. Glazing factors Another term for radiometric properties. the glazing materials and the fixing or frame. A desiccant is incorporated in the spacer bar to dry up any residual moisture. Insulating glass A fire resistant glass which gives both integrity and insulation for a specific period of time. An edge seal is applied around each cavity to form a hermetic seal. Heat-strengthened glass Glass which has been heated past its softening point and chilled rapidly to increase its strength. which is typically greater than 30 minutes. or – a panel underneath the handrail in a barrier. Any glass glazed into or forming such a barrier or balustrade is required to give containment. convection or radiation). Inner pane The pane on the room side of an insulating unit or double window. glazing compounds. bushes. Guarding The prevention of persons falling. pre-formed glazing materials used to separate glass from other parts of the fixing or frame. Glazing platform The horizontal leg of the rebate in a frame. Inclined glazing Glazing which is either horizontal or sloping at an angle. Glass mullion A mullion support for glass panes made entirely from glass or from glass beams splice jointed with metal connectors. glazing tapes. upon which the glass sits (on setting blocks) when it is glazed. Handling All the activities involved in transferring the glass from factory to the site and into position in the building ready for glazing. or – the finished glazing. Glazing materials The gaskets. resistant to abrasion. Hard coating A term for a coating which is very durable.Appendix E Term Definition Gaskets Solid. this could mean – an alternative term for spandrel panel. which may manifest itself as a regular distortion of images reflected in the glass surface. Glazing within 158 of vertical is usually defined as vertical glazing. Infill panel Depending on the context. Installation Depending on the context this is either – the act of glazing. Insulating unit A construction consisting of two or more panes of glass spaced apart with spacer bars to form a cavity between the panes. Impact performance The impact resistance of a safety glass. Glazing seal Another term for glazing compound or sealant. Glazing system The frame and the design or method of fixing the glass into the frame. but which breaks like annealed glass. when it is soft it tends to sag between the rollers. Inner leaf See inner pane. solar properties and optical properties. Heat soaked toughened glass Toughened glass which has been heated for a period of time at moderately high temperatures to reduce the probability of spontaneous fractures in-service. An insulating unit does not normally have any fire resistance properties unless it incorporates at least one pane of fire resistant glass. Impact safety An alternative term to impact resistance. Heat transfer coefficient A measure of the rate at which heat can cross a boundary or surface (whether it be by conduction. Although the glass is kept moving during the process. sealants and other items required for the purpose of glazing a glass product. Inner glass See inner pane. by means of barriers and balustrades. Not to be confused with insulating units. or – the act of installing the glass or glass product.e. Also known as a fin. Horizontally toughened glass Glass which has been toughened in the horizontal position. The edge seal of an insulating unit is a hermetic seal to minimise the rate at which water vapour can penetrate into the cavity. Typically this is in the region of up to 758 from the horizontal. Glazing Depending on the context it is either – the complete element of construction comprising the glass. i. Hermetic seal An edge seal which is designed to prevent gas passing.

Integrity only glass Another term for non-insulating glass. insulating units incorporating low E glass have much improved thermal insulation properties when compared to units without low E glass. In terms of glass and glazing. Intumescent interlayer An interlayer which intumesces in fire conditions. It is therefore much stronger and stiffer than PVB. The Institution of Structural Engineers Structural use of glass in buildings (Second edition) 103 . so large leaded lights may need additional support from cross bars attached at intervals to the lead cames. from 5000nm to 50000nm wavelength).e. or – an alternative word for thermal insulation. Location blocks are not required in every instance. Location blocks Small separators placed between the frame and the edge of the glass to maintain the edge clearance between the glass and the frame. or – the length of time that a construction can give fire resistance in relation to the passage of flames and smoke. Glass is opaque to this radiation so short wave radiation from the sun is trapped by glass. where there may be a tendency for the glass to move in the frame. Laminated toughened glass Laminated glass made with all the panes toughened glass. but the commonest is float glass. Low E glass See low emissivity glass. Glass with such a coating is called low E glass. Lite See pane.9. ionoplast or intumescent. Integrity Depending on the context.2 in the long wavelength radiation part of electromagnetic radiation. Light reflection can be described as low (( 15%) or high ( . The separators are called location blocks when positioned on the vertical and top edges of the pane. which is produced by objects at around room temperatures. Light reflectance The proportion of the visible spectrum which is reflected by the glass. polyester. but also creating an effective barrier to smoke. Leaded light Glazing which is formed either – in the traditional manner by using lead cames to fix small panes of glass. The panes can be any type of glass. Intumescent Capable of expanding. or – by sticking applied leading on to the surface of a single pane. It is has a significantly higher modulus and less loss of strength at elevated temperature than PVB. The lead cames are relatively flexible. Lead cames The lead used in traditional leaded lights to hold the individual small panes of glass in position. Uncoated glass has an emissivity of around 0. Low emissivity glass Glass coated with a material which has an emissivity less than 0. cast-in-place. not only holding the laminated glass together. Interlayer The material used to separate and bond the plies of glass in laminated glass. Laminate The material used to bind plies of glass together in laminated glass and is also an alternative term for laminated glass. Long wave shading coefficient See shading coefficients. to long wavelength radiation. Light transmittance The proportion of light transmitted through the glass in the visible part of the spectrum.Appendix E Term Definition Insulation Depending on the context. expressed as a percentage. 15%). but are commonly used in opening windows. intumescent means specifically that it becomes swollen. this may mean – the ability of the glass to hold together after fracture. Leaded glass An alternative name for leaded lights. flames and heat. Since radiation is a significant component of the heat transfer across a cavity. Ionoplast A type of interlayer used in the manufacture of laminated glass. Long wavelength radiation That part of the electromagnetic spectrum (i. At the bottom edge their equivalents are setting blocks. especially upon exposure to heat. Light reflection An alternative term for light reflectance. Laminated glass Two or more panes of glass separated and bonded by interlayers. The interlayer can be PVB.e. i. Low level glazing Glazing which is wholly or partly within the critical location that is typically described as approximately 800mm from finished floor level. this may mean either – the material applied to the back of spandrel panels to increase the thermal insulation of the panels. It is possible to design coatings which are transparent to visible light. Leaf See pane. Internal applications Applications where glass or glazing products are not exposed to natural weather. The purpose of low E glass is to reduce the radiation component of heat transfer across the cavity of an insulating unit. but which are highly reflective. or – the length of time that a construction can give fire resistance in relation to the passage of heat. usually expressed as %. giving the greenhouse effect. EVA. expressed as a fraction (see optical properties). have a low emissivity.

either after passing through a polarising filter. Observed side See public side. private side is not visible. Polyurethane A type of interlayer used in the manufacture of laminated glass in a similar fashion to PVB only it can also attach sheets of polycarbonate to glass. Opacified Made opaque by the application of a backing paint or other backing material. Highly reflective. Primary seal See dual seal system. Observing side See private side. Polarised light Light waves which are vibrating in a specific orientation. Mirror A glass which is highly reflective and opaque. Mullion Vertical element of a frame structure that directly supports a cladding element. Ordinary glass See annealed glass. which allows vision through a window from only one side. or after being reflected from a surface or from the sky. Ply See pane. It does NOT indicate double windows or insulating units. Polished wired glass Wired glass which has subsequently been ground and polished on both surfaces to make it transparent. usually in roofs. Pinhole A small defect where a coating. Pallet A packaging method for transporting and storing glass. Private side The side of a one way vision glass from which the other. on-line. coated glass with a backing paint is also a mirror. public side is clearly visible. but not firearms. Optical properties The light transmittance and light reflectance of glass products. The most common marks are those related to safety glass classification and to insulating unit performance. by placing a sheet of the material between two panes of glass and curing under heat and pressure. Polyester A more rigid interlayer material than PVB and is usually CIP. Optical quality The presence or absence of visual distortion or small blemishes in the glass. Printed interlayer A process whereby the interlayer of a pane of laminated glass is printed upon that provides a texture and/or image within the glass. Pyrolitic Applied at high temperature. In relation to glass. Marked Having a permanent inscription indicating the performance of the product and other information. Polyvinyl butyral (PVB) A type of interlayer used in the manufacture of laminated glass. Patterned glass Glass manufactured by passing between two rollers (hence it used to be called rolled glass). Outer pane The pane on the external side of an insulating unit. this term is usually applied to coatings applied on-line when the ribbon of float glass is around 5008C to 6008C. See also rack and stillage. Noise attenuation An alternative term for sound insulation. Multi-laminated Containing more than two plies of glass in the laminate. Overhead glazing Inclined glazing or horizontal glazing. Multi-pane A term applied to fire resistant glazing which has been tested with more than one pane of glass in the assembly. Multiple glazing Historic phrase for an insulating unit comprising two or more panes. Marking The permanent inscription marked on the glass. enamel or backing paint is missing.Appendix E Term Definition Manual attack Attack using manually held implements or thrown objects. Off-line/on-line See coated glass. Nickel sulphide inclusion A small impurity in the glass which can cause spontaneous fracture of toughened glass sometime after toughening. One way vision An optical effect resulting from the relative luminance of transmitted and reflected light. Public side The side of a one way vision glass from which the other. a term related closely to spandrel panels. one of which forms an impression or pattern into the glass. Non-combustible See reaction to fire. Non-loadbearing element An element of construction which plays no part in supporting the building structure or part of the structure. Pane A piece of glass. 104 The Institution of Structural Engineers Structural use of glass in buildings (Second edition) . Silvering followed by an application of backing paint forms the commonest type of mirror. Outer glass/ outer leaf See outer pane.

Appendix E
Term

Definition

Rack

A packaging method for transporting and storing glass. See also pallet and stillage.

Radiative combustion

See reaction to fire.

Radiometric properties

The combined sets of optical properties and solar properties of a glass product.

Reaction to fire

The way in which a material or product behaves in a fire situation. There are four major
classifications used to define the behaviour. Radiative combustion relates to whether fire can pass
through a material when used as a roof covering subject to heat from an adjacent fire. Materials
are also classified by surface spread of flame, the ability or otherwise of fire to spread along its
surface. Materials are also assessed for being non-combustible, i.e. that they do not burn, and for
their fire propagation, i.e. whether they contribute to a fire. Glass is non-combustible, except for
laminated glass, which typically achieves the highest rating for fire propagation.

Rebate

The part of a frame which holds the glass.

Rebate depth

The depth of the rebate in a frame, being the sum of the edge clearance and the edge cover of
the glass.

Reduced spall

See spall.

Reflectance

The proportion of incident light or solar radiation reflected by the glass, expressed as a fraction
(see optical properties and solar properties).

Robustness

The ability of a pane of glass to resist breakage (under accidental human impact).

Rolled glass

An old name for patterned glass.

Roller wave

See horizontally toughened glass.

Safe breakage

Either cracking without producing large openings or separate large sharp edged pieces (i.e. in a
manner similar to laminated glass), or cracking into many small fragments (i.e. in a manner
similar to toughened glass). Safe breakage is precisely defined in BS EN 12600 – Pendulum test
– Impact test method and classification for flat glass.

Safety

Depending on the context, this may be either
– the ability of glass to reduce the possibility of piercing and cutting injuries when subjected to
accidental human impact, or
– the reduction of hazard from breakage of glass in overhead glazing, or
– fire protection.

Safety backing

An alternative term for safety film.

Safety film

A plastic film adhered to one surface of the glass with the intention of holding it together after
fracture, so that the glass can be classified as a safety glass.

Safety glass

A glass or glazing product, which classifies the product as giving no break or safe breakage when
the glass is tested.

Safety rating

The classification achieved for a safety glass.

Sand blasting

A process whereby the polished surface of glass is made matt by exposure to air blown sand or grit.

Screen printed glass

Glass which has been given a decorative surface finish of either ceramic ink (a type of enamel),
which is subsequently fired onto the glass, or epoxy based ink.

Sealant

A glazing compound which sets after application into a rubbery consistency.

Secondary processing

Subsequent processing of glass after initial manufacture, e.g. manufacture into laminated glass,
toughened glass, or insulating units.

Secondary sash glazing

A double window.

Secondary seal

See dual seal system.

Security

Depending on the context this means either
– the ability of glass to withstand manual attack or armed attack, or
– blast resistance, or
– electromagnetic shielding, or
– one way vision.

Security glass

A glass which assists in giving security.

Security glazing

A glazing system including security glass which assists in giving security.

Semi-tempered glass

Alternative term for heat-strengthened glass, typically used in North America.

Setting blocks

Small packers, usually of hardwood, hard rubber or plastics, placed under the bottom edge of the
glass to support it off the glazing platform and allow clearance for drainage and ventilation.

Shading coefficients

The total shading coefficient is a measure of the total amount of heat passing through the glazing
(known as the total solar heat transmittance) compared with that through a single clear glass.
Glass lets heat through in two ways; a proportion of the short wavelength radiation is transmitted
straight through, while some is absorbed by the glass and re-radiated as long wavelength
radiation. The total shading coefficient is split into two parts relating to the proportions of the total
solar heat transmittance which are short wavelength – the short wave shading coefficient, and
long wavelength – the long wave shading coefficient.
The Institution of Structural Engineers Structural use of glass in buildings (Second edition)

105

Appendix E
Term

Definition

Short wavelength radiation

That part of electromagnetic radiation (i.e. from 280nm to 2500nm wavelength), which is radiated
by the sun. The main components of glass are transparent to the majority of this short wave
radiation.

Short wave shading coefficient

See shading coefficients.

Silicone sealant

A type of glazing compound made from silicone material which is gunned into position and cures
into an elastic solid.

Single glazed/glazing

Fitted with only one pane of glass, neither an insulating unit nor a double window.

Silvering

Depositing silver on glass to form a mirror.

Sloping glazing

An alternative term for inclined glazing.

Solar control

The effectiveness of glass in limiting solar heat gain. Solar control can be described in terms of
the total shading coefficient of the glass, as being low (shading coefficient .50%), medium
(35% , shading coefficient 50%), or high (shading coefficient ,35%).

Solar direct transmittance

The proportion of incident solar radiation which passes straight through the glass, expressed as a
fraction (see solar properties).

Solar energy

An alternative term for solar radiation.

Solar gain factors

Numbers related to and derived from shading coefficients, which also describe the ability of the
glazing to reduce solar heat gain.

Solar heat gain

The amount of heat from the sun which passes through the glass into a building.

Solar properties

Those properties of glass related to solar radiation, i.e. reflectance, absorptance, solar direct
transmittance, total solar heat transmittance, shading coefficients and solar gain factors. The term
is also used occasionally to include emissivities and optical properties.

Solar radiation

The heat, light and UV emitted by the sun as received at the surface of the earth.

Sound insulation

See acoustic performance.

Spacer

An alternative term for spacer bar.

Spacer bar

A pre-formed section, usually aluminium or steel, which separates the panes within an insulating
unit to form a cavity. The spacer bar usually also acts as a container for the desiccant in the
insulating unit.

Spall

The pieces of glass ejected from one face of a pane of glass when it is impacted from the
opposite face. This term is commonly used in connection with bullet resistance, where a
requirement for reduced spall may be part of the classification system.

Spandrel panel

A glass panel, commonly in a curtain wall, which is made of an enamelled glass or an opacified
glass in order to hide parts of a building structure, such as the edge of floor slabs.

Spontaneous fracture

The sudden breakage of glass. The term is more often associated with fracture of toughened
glass than any other type, because the mode of fracture of toughened glass tends to disguise the
cause.

Spigot

A form of fixing within a cladding system.

Spread of flame

See reaction to fire.

Stained glass

Depending on the context, this may mean
– a traditional leaded light made with glass of different colours to form a picture or decorative
pattern, or
– a pane of glass with coloured applied film and applied leading which looks like a traditional
leaded light
– a piece of glass of the type used in a leaded light.

Stepped unit

An insulating unit with one pane larger than the other. The unit may be stepped on only one edge
(often used at the bottom edge of roof glazing) or it may be stepped on more than one edge.

Stillage

A packaging method for transporting and storing glass. See also rack and pallet.

Stock plate

An alternative term for stock sizes.

Stock sizes

The glass as manufactured and stored ready for cutting down to cut sizes.

Stress pattern

The effect seen in toughened glass when it is viewed under polarised light or through a polarising
filter, which shows a patterning of spots or bars due to slight non-uniformity of the surface
compressive stress in the glass.

Structural glass

Glass used in a manner where it may be supporting other building components (e.g. glass
mullions) or where it performs a semi-structural role (e.g. free-standing glass protective barriers).
The term is sometimes misused for glass fixed using bolted connections (frameless glazing), even
if it performs no structural function.

Surface 1

The surface of glass exposed to the weather.

Surface 2

The room side surface of single glazing, or the cavity surface of the outer glass in an insulating
unit.

106

The Institution of Structural Engineers Structural use of glass in buildings (Second edition)

Appendix E
Term

Definition

Surface 3

The cavity surface of the inner glass in an insulating unit.

Surface 4

The room side surface of double glazing.

Surface coated glass

See coated glass.

Surface compressive stress

See toughened glass.

Surface resistances

The inverse of the heat transfer coefficients at a surface.

Surface spread of flame

See reaction to fire.

Tempered glass

See toughened glass.

Template

An exact size physical model of the shape of the glass to be manufactured.

Thermal insulation

The ability to restrict the flow of heat. The lower the U value, the better the thermal insulation.

Tinted float

Float glass which has small amounts of colourants added to the glass to give it solar control
properties. Also called body-tinted float.

Tinted interlayer

An interlayer in laminated glass which is tinted to give the glass solar control properties, or for
aesthetic effect.

Total solar energy
transmittance

An alternative term for total solar heat transmittance.

Total solar heat transmittance

The proportion of incident solar radiation transmitted by the glass, including both the solar direct
transmittance and a portion of the absorbed radiation which is re-radiated, expressed as a
fraction, also known as g-value.

Total transmittance

An alternative term for total solar heat transmittance.

Toughened glass

Glass which has been heated past its softening point and chilled rapidly to build in a surface
compressive stress, which gives it greatly increased strength and makes it break into small
fragments if broken.

Translucent

Letting light through, but obscuring clear vision.

Transmission

An alternative word for transmittance, expressed as a percentage.

Transmittance

The proportion of incident light or solar radiation transmitted by the glass, expressed as a fraction
(see optical properties and solar properties).

Transom

Horizontal element of a frame structure that directly supports a cladding element.

U-Value

A measure of the thermal transmission usually expressed in W/m2K.

Vandal resistance

The ability to resist damage from external sources, as opposed to the ability to resist penetration.
Glass typically does not have high vandal resistance.

Vertical glazing

See inclined glazing.

Vertically toughened glass

Glass which is toughened while in vertical orientation, held by tongs on the top edge.

Vision area

Depending on context, either
– an oval with axes equal to the height and width of the pane, or
– the parts of a building facade or curtain wall which are intended for the passage of light.

Visual distortion

The warping of images when seen through the glass, due to the surfaces of the glass being not
exactly flat and parallel. The term is also sometimes applied to reflected images.

Visual quality

An alternative term for optical quality.

Weight

The area density of a pane of glass, expressed in kg/m2.

Wired glass

Generic name which covers polished wired glass and wired patterned glass.

Wired patterned glass

Glass with a welded steel mesh incorporated within the body of the semi-molten glass and formed
by passing between two rollers, one of which forms an impression or pattern into the glass.

Abbreviation

Definition

EPDM

Ethylene propylene diene monomer (M-class) (EPDM) rubber is a synthetic rubber that is
commonly used as a form of sealant for glazing.

EVA

Ethylvinylacetate, a type of interlayer used in the manufacture of laminated glass, in a similar
fashion to PVB. Unlike PVB, does not need to be placed into an autoclave to cure it.

IGU

Insulating glazing unit – self-contained cavity glass panel made up of multiple panes with a gap
between each one that is filled with air or an inert gas, see insulating unit.

PVB

See polyvinyl butyral.

TNT

Trinitrotoluene is an explosive chemical and is used in the context of this report in terms of
determining the threat of charge size of an explosive device.

The Institution of Structural Engineers Structural use of glass in buildings (Second edition)

107

This Guide updates and revises the Institution of Structural Engineers’ well renowned and respected text Structural use of glass in buildings. such as extreme loading conditions and fire protection. specification. It assumes varying degrees of prior knowledge of the structural use of glass.org www.org Registered with the Charity Commission for England and Wales No. or place constraints on what can be achieved. beams and columns. especially as a structural material. Like the first edition. but rather a principal source of information and reference for those interested in the structural use of glass. Connection design is also considered. It is intended that this Guide be used by experienced structural engineers and construction industry professionals. as connections play a significant role in the design of glass elements. +44 (0)20 7235 4294 mail@istructe. Structural use of glass in buildings (Second edition) February 2014 The Institution of Structural Engineers International HQ 11 Upper Belgrave Street London SW1X 8BH UK T. SC038263 Barcode to be supplied by the printer Institution Structural Engineers .istructe. worked examples are given throughout the Guide for the simple design of glass elements such as floor plates. +44 (0)20 7235 4535 F. This Guide also addresses some of the other issues that may influence structural behaviour. Unique to this edition is the inclusion of advice on the modelling of glass structures within structural analysis computer applications to reflect the contemporary working practices with the increased reliance of such tools. 233392 and in Scotland No. in relatively recent times. undergone significant increase in its use within our built environment. It also provides general guidance sourced from all over the world that is based on existing good practice as a starting point from which designers can carry out further studies and research according to circumstances. materials and techniques in the design and construction of glass structures. in order to provide an insight into design methodology.Structural use of glass in buildings (Second edition)   February 2014 Glass has. This Guide is not intended to be a code of practice.

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