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Indian FFoundry
oundry Journal

Vol 59

No. 8 zAugust 2013

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Vol 59

No. 8 zAugust 2013

Indian FFoundry
oundry Journal

The Institute of Indian Foundrymen


IIF Center, 335, Rajdanga Main Road
East Kolkata Township P.O.
Kolkata - 700 107
Gram : Foundrymen
Phone : (033) 2442 4489 / 6825 / 7384-87
Fax : (0091) (033) 2442 4491
E-mail : journal@indianfoundry.org
secretariat@indianfoundry.org
Website : www.indianfoundry.org
Technical Paper (soft copy) may be forwarded to :
prodyot_mitra@yahoo.co.uk with a copy to
journal@indianfoundry.org

Editorial Board
Prof. P. K. Mitra

- Chairman & Editor

Prof. M. K. Mitra

- Vice Chairman

Dr. B. Ravi

- Associate Editor

Prof. P. P. Chatterjee

- Associate Editor

Prof. A. K. Chakrabarti

- Member

Prof. M. Chakraborty

- Member

Prof. P. T. Pushp

- Member

Dr.-Ing. S. K. Sengupta

- Member

Dr. N. P. Sinha

- Member

Dr. A. K. Vaish

- Member

Dr. H. Sundara Murthy

- Member

Dr. B. K. Basak

- Member

Prof. P. Thareja

- Member

Dr. M. K. Muralidhara

- Member

Prof. G. L. Datta

- Member

Prof. S. K. Paknikar

- Member

Mr. Suparno Moitra

- Secretary General, IIF &


Convenor, Editorial Board

Mr. S. H. Arjunwadkar

- Chairman, NCTS

Mr. A. Guha

- Chairman,
Advisory Committee, CET

Invited Members
Mr. Subrata Chandra

- Chairman, Eastern Region

Mr. Amish Panchal

- Chairman, Western Region

Mr. V. Ramaswamy

- Chairman, Southern Region

Mr. Shashi Kr. Jain

- Chairman, Northern Region

1.

2.

All correspondence on Editorial Matters, Subscriptions


and Advertisements should be addressed, The Institute
of Indian Foundrymen, IIF Center, 335, Rajdanga Main
Road, East Kolkata Township P.O., Kolkata - 700 107.

The Editor and the Institute do not accept any


responsibility for statements and opinions expressed by
the authors.
Indian FFoundry
oundry Journal

Vol. 59 z No. 8

Foundry Day Special Issue

August, 2013

Page
7
21

From the Presidents Desk

From the Editorial Desk

Technical Paper :
z ZA27-SiCp Composite Foam through Liquid Metallurgy
Technique Using CaH2 as a Foaming Agent

Sonika Sahu, A.K Barnwal, D. P. Mondal and Prabhash Jain

23

Inoculation of Cast Iron


W. Maschke and M. Jonuleit

30

Lightweight Castings for Automotive Applications


Ankan Guria and Aditi Bhattacharya

36

Use of 3D White Light Analysis Technology to


Optimise Casting Weight
Purshottam Godhia

Building India Through Global Quality Castings Edge


Suhas K. Paknikar

Case Study :
z Air Intake Manifold
Anant Bam

40
43

51

NCTS Column :
z Case Study Leakage in Cylinder Block Castings
Through Chaplets
Ziauddin Ahmed and Avinash Joshi
IIF Appoints New Secretary General

55
57
69
73
77

Price Trend of Foundry Raw Materials


62nd IFC Call for Papers
Indian Foundrymen Visited Foundries in Japan
A Report
Round Table Meet on Economic Resurgence of
Foundry & Metal Sector

89

IIF Annual Awards 2013 Nominations Invited


CET Column :

97
105

117
135
136
141 5
149

One Day Workshops

News from IIF Regions & Chapters


Goverment Schemes for Financial Assistance to SMEs
Task Force Studies Export Transaction Cost
News & Trends
Forthcoming Events
Vol 59

No. 8 zAugust 2013

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No. 8 zAugust 2013

Indian FFoundry
oundry Journal

Dear Members of IIF Fraternity,


There has been some significant work done by the Policy Advocacy Committee recently- hopefully, we should see the
constitution of Foundry Development Council in the near term. We also highlighted to GoI about the difficulty in sourcing
sand for foundry operation. It is almost the first time when I am referring to an immediate problem faced by the foundry
industry. I, however, think that we are headed towards a situation reminiscent of what happened with respect to iron ore
in Karnataka a few years back. Iron ore mafia in Karnataka assumed that they can live [?]; prosper indefinitely by
rampant illegal mining to the detriment of the economic development of the state and its people.
A public resource became private property.
However, the day of reckoning came and the iron ore mining came to a complete halt. Many users curtailed or stopped
production. It remained in force for a fairly long time. I know of a company which completely shut down their plant which
generated revenue of about Rs.550 crore/year and provided direct/indirect employment to 1000 persons.
WHY AM I TALKING ABOUT IRON ORE WHEN OUR IMMEDIATE CONCERN IS SAND?
Clearly my belief is that sand mining mafia is following the footsteps of iron ore mining mafia and may invite similar
harsh, punitive action which may result in its unavailability for a very long time. Foundries need to recognise the imminent
danger and take a long-term view :
1.

Availability of sand will be an issue with its demand soaring on account of heavy requirements from real estate and
infrastructure projects.
2. Environmental Concerns will limit its supply.
3. Being low cost input material, its transportation over long distance may not be cost-effective.
We have few options which we need to explore :
z

Enhance reuse /recycle of sand.

Develop SandSubstitutes or Alternatives.

Import Sand.

While the last option is purely commercial and thus dependent upon cost-price equation working out for the foundries; the
first two alternatives require investment in technology. I am aware that no one foundry is capable of engaging itself in
pursuing technology development for increasing sand re-use or sand substitute; but collectively it is possible to do it.
Will foundry clusters join hands for a Centralised Sand Reclamation Plant/ deploy resources to innovate on higher % of
re-use and development of sand substitute at a COST WHICH IS COMPARABLE TO NATURAL SAND? It is also an area
for our NCTS to focus. Knowledgespillover from the intervention will be huge for the foundry industry.
TIME FOR ACTION IS NOW.
Quick anticipation and action is better than breast-beating later.
WILL WE WAKE UP TO THE CHALLENGE ??

Happy Reading,
Harsh K Jha
President, IIF
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IIndian
n d i a n FFoundry
Foundry
o u n d r Journal
y Journal

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2013
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Indian FFoundry
oundry Journal

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THE INSTITUTE OF INDIAN FOUNDRYMEN


Affiliated Member of the World Foundry Organization
[Founded 1950]
Patron-in-Chief
Dr. V. Krishnamurthy, Chairman, NMCCz Mr. B. Muthuraman, Director, Tata Steel

IIF NATIONAL COUNCIL (2012-13)


OFFICE BEARERS
President
Mr. Harsh K. Jha

Hon. Secretary
Mr. D. S. Chandrashekar

Vice President
Ms. Reena Bhagwati

Hon. Treasurer
Mr. A. K. Ray

Immediate Past President


Dr. H. Sundara Murthy

Elected Members
Dr. N. P. Sinha
Mr. K. C. Mathew
Mr. Viney Luthra
Mr. Devendra Jain

Mr. B. Ramachandran
Mr. N. Krishna Samaraj
Mr. K. K. Bagree
Mr. Pradeep Mittal

Mr. Jayant S. Shah


Mr. A. K. Ray
Mr. Anil Vaswani
Mr. Sanjay Shroff
Mr. Gautam Mukhopadhyay

Mr. R. K. Mehta
Mr. M. K. Raijada
Mr. Atul Tandon
Mr. S. K. Saxena

Nominated Members
Eastern Region
Mr. Subrata Chandra
Mr. Sunirmal Dutta
Mr. Harsh K. Jha

Western Region
Mr. Amish Panchal
Mr. Anant Bam
Ms. Reena Bhagwati
Mr. Pravin Patel
Mr. S. H. Arjunwadkar
Ms. Sudha Kurupp
Mr. Prasanna Paranjape

Southern Region
Mr. V. Ramaswamy
Mr. Veera Iyyapan
Mr. S. Kuppusamy
Mr. C. Natarajan
Mr. C. Ravi Chandramouli
Mr. D. S. Chandrashekar

Northern Region
Mr. Sashi Kr. Jain
Mr. Vineet Jain
Mr. Surendra Verma

Co-Opted Members
Mr. Vijay Menon

Mr. N. Purushottama

Mr. Swapan Kr. Ghosh

Past Presidents Council


Mr. V. Mahadevan
Mr. Ravi Sehgal

Mr. Jagat Shah


Mr. Naresh Garg

Mr. H. Sundara Murthy

[All Other Past Presidents


are Invitees to the NC]

IIF Centres of Excellence


National Centre for Technical Services (NCTS)
Mr. S. H. Arjunwadkar, Chairman
Flat No. 104, Sharmad Residency, S. N. 291, Shilavihar Colony
Behind Hotel Olivia, Erandwana, Karve Road, Pune - 411 038
Phone : (020) 25422902/25437374/65004705
Fax : (020) 25422902, E-mail : iifncts@iifncts.org
Centre for Education & Training (CET)
Mr. A. Guha, Chairman z Mr. G. Mukherjee, Director
IIF Center 335, Rajdanga Main Road
East Kolkata Township P.O., Kolkata -700 107
Tel. : (033) 2442-4489/6825, Fax: 2442-4491
E-mail : cet@indianfoundry.org

Foundry Informatics Centre


Mr. A. K. Anand, Director
67, Tughlakabad Institutional Area, New Delhi - 110 062
Tel. : (011) 29960601, Telefax : (011) 29958028
E-mail : iiffic@bol.net.in
SECRETARIAT
Mr. Suparno Moitra
Mr. A. K. Anand
Secretary General
Director
E-mail : sg@indianfoundry.org
IIF-Delhi Office,
Mr. B. Dutta
New Delhi
Executive Director
E-mail : iiffic@bol.net.in
E-mail : ed@indianfoundry.org
IIF-Head Office, Kolkata

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TECHNICAL PAPER

From the Editorial Desk


Papers of Choice
August being the founding month of IIF, it is time for Special Issue of the Journal.
We try to put together a Theme for the Journal. We try to select papers which
have somehow a common focal point. This time, we have selected practicaloriented papers for this issue. The papers published in the Journal can be broadly
classified into two groups, experimental and literature review. Literature reviews
are update of technical or theoretical developments on a specific field. Like a
literature review on ADI would cover all the developments on the processing
and alloy development of ADI till the current stage of activities. Experimental
works can be divided into three categories, viz., i) shop-floor practices, ii) product
or technology development and iii) experimental work of purely academic
interest. The papers of third category may not interest readers immediately, but
at a later date it may turn out to be of massive interest. Ductile iron or ADI started
off their journeys as work of academic interest only. For that matter, all new
products or processes are initially received quite tentatively by engineers. The
experiments with development of different moulding techniques can be cited as
example of second category. Foundrymen and shop-floor engineers often come
across various issues or difficulties while doing their routine jobs and need to
solve them almost immediately. Experienced campaigners in the foundry take
immense pleasure in solving such problems and often send to us a write-up on
these for publication. These are the papers of first category or practical-oriented
papers. Though papers of all types are important for a journal, somehow, majority
of readers look up for the papers of first category. We have tried to put together
such practical-oriented papers for this edition of the Journal.

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Indian Foundry Journal

Vol 59

No. 8 z August 2013

TECHNICAL PAPER

THE INSTITUTE OF INDIAN FOUNDRYMEN

Membership Strength as on July 31, 2013


Those members who have paid their Annual Subscription for 2013 and beyond have been included
Region

Chapter

LM

AFL

IM

CM-1

CM-2

Eastern

Kolkata
Howrah
Jamshedpur
Ranchi

33
1
9
9

12
7
1

9
15
5

Total

52

20

Agra
Batala
Chandigarh
Delhi
Jaipur

4
18
2

Total

26

Foreign
Northern

CM-3

CM-4

SM

FEL

Total

5
4

27
2
2
1

93
59
42
26

8
4

10

198
92
60
41

29

11

32

220

15

11

391

10
1
7
12
3

8
10
10

6
5
1

4
18
1

21
21
54
54
31

1
11
5

39
22
84
128
55

33

31

15

23

181

17

328

Southern

Bangalore
Belgaum
Chennai
Coimbatore
Hyderabad
Kerala
Mangalore
Shimoga
Total

27

16
116
7
1
5
3
175

19
18
9

4
58

10
2
14
18
8

2
54

3
1
4
6
5

1
20

6
5
16
34
3
1

5
70

61
60
92
77
17
43
6
19
375

16

196
23
5
1

241

4
1
1
1

11

135
68
363
295
55
47
11
34
1008

Western

Ahmedabad
Vadodara
Bhopal
Gr. Mumbai
Indore
Kolhapur
Nagpur
Pune
Rajkot

38
96
8
25
3
7
30
31
45

8
5

18
1
4
5
4
6

12
6

10
1
5
3
10
3

2
1

4
4

7
4
1
18
3
6
2
9
4

75
14
7
67
40
160
13
57
54

21
3

1
1
14
3
1
3

167
129
16
149
49
197
56
119
119

283

51

50

19

54

487

47

1001

536

162

164

65

180

1264

320

31

2730

Total
Grand Total
M = Member
SM = Student Member
LM = Life Member

FEL = Fellow Member


AFL = Affiliate Member
CM2 = Company Member (Turnover : 1-5 Cr.)
IM = Institutional Member

CM1 = Company Member (Turnover below : 1 Cr.)


CM3 = Company Member (Turnover : 5-10 Cr.)
CM4 = Company Member (Turnover : above 10 Cr.)

APPEAL
Membership Strength is published in the Indian Foundry Journal every month. All Chairmen, Secretaries and Office Bearers of IIF
Chapters and Regions are requested to give a special drive and increase their efforts to improve the strength of membership.
D . S. CHANDRASHEKAR
Hon. Secretary, IIF

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Indian Foundry Journal

TECHNICAL PAPER

ZA27-SiCp Composite Foam through Liquid Metallurgy


Technique Using CaH2 as a Foaming Agent
Sonika Sahu2, A.K Barnwal1, D. P. Mondal1* and Prabhash Jain2
1

CSIR-Advanced Materials and Processes Research Institute, Hoshangabad Road, Bhopal-462026,


2
BUIT, Barkatullah University, Hoshangabad Road, Bhopal-462026
* Corresponding author, E-mail : mondaldp@yahoo.com

Closed cell zinc aluminium alloy (ZA27)-SiC composite foam with different
Relative Density varies from 0.068-0.186 was successfully prepared by
conventional stir-casting technique using CaH 2 as foaming agent. The
synthesised foam is characterised in terms of cell size, cell wall thickness,
foam density, relative density and compressive stress-strain curve. The
compressive behaviour of the synthesised foam has been compared with
that of 2014-Al-SiC. It is found that the deformation behaviour of ZA27-SiC
foams is similar to that of 2014-Al-SiC foams. The present studies
demonstrate ZA27-SiC foam could easily be made through liquid metallurgy
technique and be used for several engineering applications at low cost as
compared to Al-foams.

INTRODUCTION
Metallic foams are attractive light-weight materials. It has attracted
considerable attention due to its excellent mechanical and functional
properties, such as high specific strength, high flame resistance,
excellent vibration reduction capacity, high impact resistance and high
energy absorbing capacity[1-4]. These can be used as structural material
as well as functional materials[2-3]. According to previous investigations,
the compressive properties of metallic foams depend on the composition
of material, property of the cell wall material, relative density, cell
structure and the type of load[2,5-6]. Considerable attention has been
paid on the manufacturing and characterisation of aluminium alloy
foams as these alloys are light-weight and exhibit excellent mechanical
properties[7,9]. Additionally, these alloys are easy to handle during high
temperature processing. Closed cell aluminium foam is fabricated
mainly through liquid metallurgy routes either by stir casting technique
using blowing agent[8] or melt foaming through simultaneous gas
purging and stirring[9]. The zinc alloys are also having reasonably good
strength. These include ZA22, ZA12 and ZA27. Additionally, these
alloys have lower melting point than the aluminium alloys. The lower
melting point of these alloy do not allow excess burning of metal
hydride which are used for foaming of liquid metal[6]. Zinc alloys being
softer than aluminium alloy, it is reported that it will have greater
strain rate sensitivity as compared to the aluminium alloy. Thus, it

shows higher strength and energy absorption capacity under dynamic


condition[10]. Out of the conventional zinc aluminium alloys, ZA27 is
a hyper-eutectic alloy and have the strength and ductility[13]. The
plateau stress and energy absorption is proportional to the strength of
the alloy with which the foam is made off. It is thus expected that the
ZA27 alloy foam would give higher strength and energy absorption
characteristics as compared to that of other ZA alloys. The alloy has
also shown a favourable combination of physical, mechanical and
technological characteristics (low melting point, high strength, good
castability, wear resistance and high corrosion resistance) comparable
to aluminium alloys. The strain rate sensitivity and energy absorption
of ZA27 foam are thus expected to be higher than Al foam due to
superplastic deformation of cell wall or low melting temperature[10]. A
few literatures are available on making of ZA alloy foam using liquid
metallurgy route[12]. In most of this literature, ZA22 alloy was used as
matrix material and CaCO3 was used as foaming agent[11, 12]. It is
reported in the literature that ZA22 foam having density of 0.43 can
be made through liquid metallurgy route[2, 5, and 12]. However, no attempt
was yet made in preparation of ZA27-SiC foam. In the present work,
ZA27 SiC foam was prepared through the stir casting technique wherein
SiC is used as reinforcing agent as well as stabilising agent and CaH2 is
use as foaming agent.

Synthesis of ZA27-SiC Foam


ZA27-SiC foam was prepared through stir-casting technique; a simplified
flow sheet is shown in Fig.1(a). The method involved number of steps.
Firstly, melting and cleaning of ZA27 alloy in a steel crucible is carried
out. Then preheated SiC particles of 10 wt.% was added manually into
the cleaned melt which is mixed with steel stirrer (quoted with graphite)
rotating at a speed of 800 rpm. The crucible used for making foam is
split type. After foaming the crucible was cooled and then opened to
get the foam billet. The foam making setup is shown in Fig.1(b). After
addition of SiC into the melt, stirring was continued for 2 min. to ensure
uniform distribution of SiC. Addition of SiC particles helps in controlling
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TECHNICAL PAPER

Zinc (73%)

Al (27%)

Melted at 600 0C

Zn-27% Al Alloy

Add SiC Fine Particle

Mechanical Stirrer at
800 rpm for 2 mins

Mechanical Stirrer at
800 rpm for 2 mins

Zn-27% Al Composite

ADD CaH 2

Zn-27% AL FOAM

(a)

(c)

(b)

(d)

Fig. 1 : (a) Flow sheet (b) Setup and (c) Split die making ZA27-SiC foam, and (d) ZA27-SiC foam billet and
cross-section of foam billet.
viscosity of the melt. After incorporation of SiC particles, the melt
temperature was brought down to 650oC. Then the melt was stirred
for a few seconds for keeping the distribution of SiC particle uniform in
the melt. After that 0.6 wt% of CaH2 powder (of size range 10 m to
15 m) was added in the melt through mechanical stirring at a speed
of 800 rpm. After addition of CaH2 powder in the melt, the melt
temperature was kept fixed at 650oC for 60 to 70 seconds for complete
foaming. During foaming, the height of melt surface gradually increased
and after 60 to 70 seconds, the melt surface did not increase further

indicating foaming was complete. If one kept the foam inside the furnace
after complete foaming, the foam cells would collapse and then foam
would drain out. The split type mild steel crucible (in open condition)
and the crucible filled with foamed ZA27SiC are also shown in Fig.
1(c). The foam billet was made, its cross-section is shown in Fig.1(d).
It is noted that the cells are uniform in size through the cross-section.
The CaH2 powder in place of CaCO3 can also be used for making ZA27SiC foam. During foaming only 0.4 wt.% of CaH2 was used. In case of
aluminium foam, generally 1.0 to 1.2 wt.% CaH2 is used for getting

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TECHNICAL PAPER
porosity in the range of 80 to 90%. As the density of ZA27 alloy is
around 5.0 gm/cc, it is expected that the volume of ZA alloy is around
half of the aluminium alloy. The requirement of hydride powder is
primarily related to its volume. In view of this, 0.4 wt% CaH2 powder
was used for foaming of ZA-SiC foam.

Micro-Architectural Characterisation
ZA27-SiC foam was solidified in a crucible and the cellular structure
of a typical foam billet as shown in Fig 1(d) was achieved. Foam samples
were cut from the foam billets and used for metallographic investigation
and compression tests. Foam cell size, cell wall thickness and relative
density were measured. For measuring the cell size of foam samples,
numbers of cells intersecting the measuring line were counted. Such
type of measurement was repeated for at least 50 randomly selected
lines so that 1000 cells were intersected. The average cell size is the
average length intersected by each intersected cells. The density is
measured from the weight and volume of foam samples. The cell wall
thicknesses of foams were measured from the microstructure of foam
samples. Average of at least 100 randomly selected region of cell
walls were considered for cell wall thickness measurement. Some of
the foam samples cut from the billet for microarchitecture
characterisation and compression testing are shown in Fig. 2(a). A
typical microstructure of ZA27-SiC foam is shown in Fig. 2(b). The cell
(marked as C), cell wall marked as W is shown in this figure. Higher
magnification micrograph of cell wall of these foams is shown in Fig.2(c).
It is noted that the cell wall does not depict any dendritic structure.
SiC particles are found to be pushed towards the boundary of the cell
wall. It is thus confirmed that solidification of cell wall starts from the
centre of the cell wall or from the centre of the cell wall junction point.
The foam samples cut from different regions of the billets show the
variation in density vis--vis relative density. This variation is more
prominent with the depth of foam billet and this is due to variation in
cell size and cell wall thickness along the depth of foam billet. The top
portion has relatively lower density and coarser cell size while the
bottom exhibits finer cell size and higher density. This is exactly reported
in Table1. Coarser cell wall and finer cell wall thickness towards top
portion of foam billet is due to less pressure on the gas bubbles while
foaming is taking place and lower cooling rate while the gas bubbles
are trapped in the foam billet. Thus foams with gradient structure can
be made using this technique. ZA27-SiC composite materials are also
easy to foam.

(a)

(b)

Compr
tion
Compreessiv
sivee De
Deff orma
ormation
Samples were cut from the foam billet for compressive test with
dimensions of 20 20 15 mm3 approx. Compression tests were
carried out at a strain rates of 0.01/s and at different temperatures
(100, 150, and 250C respectively) in an INSTRON Universal Testing
Machine (Model-8801). The compressive stress-strain curve
(engineering stress vs. engineering strain) of the foam samples were
recorded from test data. The deformed samples at intermediate strain
level were also examined in order to understand the deformation
mechanism.

(c)
Fig.2 : (a) Test sample for compression test (b) microstructure of
ZA27- SiC foaam and (c) magnified microstructure of cell wall of
ZA27- SiC foam.
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TECHNICAL PAPER

(a)

(b)

(c)

Fig.3. Compressive stress-strain curve of ZA27-SiC Foam at strain rate is 0.01/s and different temperature, graph (a) at 100
C, graph (b) at 150 C and graph (c) at 250 C.
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TECHNICAL PAPER
Tabl
e-1 : Density, Relative Density, Cell Size, Cell Wall
able-1
Thickness of ZA27-SiC Foam Sample
Location

Density
gm/cm3

Relative
Density

Cell Size
mm

Cell Wall
Thickness m

Bottom

0.874656052

0.17493

1.27551

327.24

0.771354971

0.15427

1.676471

218.18

0.662623702

0.13252

1.712121

145.44

0.633061626

0.12661

1.752747

138.8

0.417557161

0.08351

2.030769

92.65

0.304599249

0.06092

2.745614

71.42

Middle

Top

Compressive stress-strain curves of ZA27-SiC foams obtained at


different temperatures (100, 150, 250C) at a same strain rate i.e.
0.01/s are shown in Fig. 3(a) to Fig.3(c). The stress-strain curves, in
general, depict three distinctly different regions (i): a linear elastic
region with a steep slope, (ii) plateau region after that yielding, where
the stress remains almost unchanged with strain, (iii) densification region
after plateau region where the stress abruptly rose with minor increase
in strain. In the elastic region, the foam material undergoes elastic
deformation throughout the whole sample. As the stress (localised)
increased to yield stress of the cell wall material, the plastic deformation
of the cell wall started. During plastic deformation, the stress distribution
is not uniform. Some of the cell walls (preferably coarser cell and
thinner cell wall) undergo earlier deformation as the stress level in the
localised region attains yield stress in these regions earlier than other
region. As the stress wave does not move easily, if the cells are uniform
it is expected that deformation would start from the loading end of the
foam samples. During plastic deformations coarser cells or the cells
at loading end deformed one by one or layer by layer. Because of this
fact, the effective stress in the plateau region remained almost flat
with strain. In this case, the cell walls of the individual layers or of
individual cells get deformed through bending and subsequently get
fractured and compacted. Consequently, the plastic deformation is
initiated in the cell walls of next layer cell or of the cells of other
coarser sizes. Finally, the cells get compacted and during crushing or
fracturing, stress decreases. But during compaction and plastic
deformation of cell wall, stress increases. The cycle of cell wall plastic
deformation, fracture compaction and plastic deformation take place
layer by layer or cell to cell depending on the size of cells, and this led
to oscillating behaviour in the plateau region of the stress-strain curves.
All metal foam show almost similar stress-strain curves[5-11].
The stress at which foam starts permanent deformation is called plateau
stress. After reaching the plateau stress, the stress remained invariant
with strain until the densification started. The strain at which stress
starts increasing suddenly is termed as densification region. In this
case, plastic collapse of the cell walls is completed and the cells are
compacted to more dene material. The strain at which compaction
starts is termed as densification strain. The energy absorbed during the
deformation is calculated from the area under the curve up to certain
strain level.

(a)

(b)

(c)
Fig. 4 : Deformed microstructure of ZA27-SiC foam at (a) after strain
level 0.05, (b) after strain 0.15., (c) Increase strain level of 0.3.
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TECHNICAL PAPER
The figures state that plateau stress increases with increase in density
of the foam (with decrease in porosity) and deceases with increase in
temperature. This is in fact a general trend observed. Densification
strain on the other hand follows the reverse trend with that of density
of foam and temperature of deformation. This is attributed to the fact
that the load bearing capacity of the matrix material decreases with
increase in porosity and temperature. At higher temperature,
deformation is easier and materials become softer. At higher porosity,
cells are thinner and thus easily get bended and at lower stress level,
the localised stress increased to a stress value greater than that of
yield stress. Higher porosity also led to greater extent of compaction
and thus densification strain increases. However, densification strain is
noted to be almost invariant to temperature. This confirms, that
densification strain is primarily due to compaction of the cell (porosity).
Foam with less density has higher amount of porosity and thus
undergoes greater level of compaction.

Deformation of Cells
The microstructure of ZA27-SiC foams after 0.05 strain level is shown
in Fig.4(a). It is noted that cells are almost undeformed and spherical
in shape. In few cases shearing of cell walls and cell wall bending is
noted (marked arrow). This signifies that plastic deformation has
initiated. After deformation of 0.15, the cells of foams at the loading
end are bended, sheared and fragmented. Compaction of fragmented
cell walls are recorded from the microstructure of deformed sample
[Fig. 4(b)]. It is further noted that thinner cell walls subjected to early
fracture through bending deformation and the thicker cell wall are
subjected to fracture preferably through shear deformation. Under
Tabl
e-2 : Comparison between ZA27-SiC and 2014 Al-SiC Foam
able-2
on the basis of Plateau Stress and Densification Strain at Different
Relative Density and Temperature 100C
S. No. Relative
Density
0.1
0.17493

0.2

0.3

0.13252

0.08351

Material
ZA27-SiC

Plateau
Densification
Stress (MPa) Strain
7.24
0.5447

2014 Al-SiC

5.8

0.539

ZA27-SiC

3.68

0.639

2014 Al-SiC

2.9

0.629

ZA27-SiC

1.4

0.711

2014 Al-SiC

0.8

0.72

this level of strain, the cells in the middle parts of the sample are only
mildly deformed and the microstructure is similar to that observed in
Fig.4(a). This signifies that deformation band is propagating layer by
layer from loading end to the middle layer of the foam sample. When
strain level increased to 0.3, the cells are severely damaged and
started get compacting [Fig. 4(c)]. The severe cell wall fracture
followed by collapsing and compaction is noted in this figure. This
figure also demonstrates that coarser cells and thinner cell walls are
preferably subjected to greater extent of cell wall fracture and

fragmentation. Similar type of deformation is also reported by other


investigators in other closed cell composite foams[9]. Because of the
presence of SiC particles in the cell wall especially along the cell
boundary, makes the cell wall more brittle. As a result, the cell wall
exhibits greater probability of fracture/fragmentation during
deformation as compared to bending and compaction.

Comparison with AA2014-SiCp Foam


The compressive deformation response of these ZA27-SiCp foams
was compared with that of AA2014-SiC foam. It is noted that the
plateau stress and densification strain of these two foams are
comparable. However, AA2014SiC foams with same density exhibits
marginally higher plateau stress but less densification strain. But the
energy absorption capacity of these foams is almost same. This is
attributed to the fact that the aluminium foam and zinc foam with
same density have different porosity. The aluminium foam has the less
porosity. This makes aluminium foam marginally stronger. For example,
if the density of both the foam is 0.25, the porosity level in aluminium
foam is ~95%, but for the same density, the porosity level in zinc foam
is ~95%. The plateau stress of foam follows power law relationship
with porosity. It is therefore expected that, there would be considerable
reduction in plateau stress if the porosity is reduced from 95% to
90%. But only marginally lower plateau stress is noted in ZA27-SiC
foam. This is attributed to higher strength of ZA27 alloy as compared
to AA2014 alloy[10-12] in cast condition. However, densification strain
increases linearly with amount of porosity. So there is greater
densification strain in case of ZA27-SiC foam as compared to AA2014SiC foam as shown in Table-2. The energy absorption of foam is the
product of plateau stress and densification strain. As a result of these
facts almost similar level of energy absorption capacity is noted in
ZA27-SiC foams and AA2014-SiC foam, even-though these two foams
have the same density but different porosity. The zinc is cheaper and
easier to foam. The requirement for hydride for foaming is less. Thus,
it is expected that the ZA27-SiC foam would be cheaper than
aluminium foam. It is thus suggested that one should explore zinc
foam in place of aluminium foam for energy absorption and vibration
control application.

CONCLUSIONS
z

Like aluminium alloy-SiC foams, ZA27-SiC foams can be made


through liquid metallurgy route using CaH2 as foaming agent.
This foam can be made relatively at lower temperature as
compared to aluminium foam. Addition of 0.6wt% of CaH2 can
lead to ZA27-SiC foams of porosity as high as 92%.

The density of foam decreases as the height of billet increases


from the bottom plate of the crucible.

The mechanical property especially plateau stress of ZA27-SiC


foam is significantly higher than that of aluminium foam, when
both these foam have the same relative density. The densification
strain remained almost same in both aluminium and zinc foams.

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TECHNICAL PAPER
z

The densification strain is invariant to temperature. But the plateau


stress decreases with increase in temperature.

The plateau stress and densification strain of ZA27-SiC foams


are strong function of relative density. The plateau stress increases
with increase in relative density, while densification strain
decreases with increase in relative density.

ZA27-SiC foams can be made more easily and it requires less


hydride. This makes ZA27-SiC foam cheaper than that of
aluminium-SiC foam. One can explore the use of ZA27-SiC foam
in place of aluminium foam.

R e f er
enc
erenc
encee s
1. M. F. Ashby, A. G. Evans, N. A. Fleck, L. J. Gibson, J. W. Hutchinson,
H.N.G. Wadley, Metals Foams: A Design Guide, ButterworthHeinemann, Woburn, 2000.
2. Strong Yu, Jiaan Liu, Ming Wei, Yanru Luo, Xianyong Zhu, Yaohui
Liu, Compressive Property and Energy Absorption Characteristic
of Open Cell ZA-22 Foam, 2008.
3. Barnhart J., Manufacture, Characterization and Application of
Cellular Metals and Metal Foams, Pro Master Sci 2001, 46:559632.
4. H. P. Degischer, B. Kriszt, Handbook of Cellular Metals:
Production, Processing Applications, Germany: Wiley-VCH, 2002.

5. Jiaan Liu, Strong Yu, Xianyong Zhu, Ming Wei, Yanru Luo, Yaohui
Liu, Correlation between Ceramic Additions and Compressive
Properties of Zn-22Al Matrix Composite Foams:2008.
6. D. P. Mondal, S. Das, N. Ramakrishnan, K. Uday Bhasker,
Composites: Part A, 40, (2009): 279-288.
7. Mohamed Shehata Aly., Behavior of Closed Cell Aluminum Foams
upon Compressive Testing at Elevated Temperatures:
Experimental Results:2006.
8. D. P. Papadopoulos, H. Omar, F. Stergioudi, S. A. Tsipas, H.
Lefakis, N. Michailidis, J. Porous Materials, 17, (2010): 773777.
9. D. P. Mondal, Nidhi Jha and S. Das, Closed Cell AluminiumCenosphere Foam with Hybrid Porosity through Stir-Casting:
2012.
10. Koichi Kitazono and Yoshihiro Takiguchi, Strain Rate Sensitivity
and Energy Absorption of Zn-22Al Foams: 2006.
11. A.Daound, Effect of Strain Rate on Compressive Properties of
Novel Zn12Al based Composite Foams containing Hybrid
Pores:2009.
12. Yu Sirong, Liu Jiaan. Luo Yanru, Liu Yaohui, Compressive Behavior
and Damping Property of ZA22/SiCp Composite Foams:2006.
13. B. Boic, S. Mitrovic, M. Babic, A.Vencl, I. Bobic, Corrosion Behavior
of the As- cast and Heat-Treated ZA-27 Alloy.

29
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TECHNICAL PAPER

Inoculation of Cast Iron


W. Maschke1 and M. Jonuleit2
1

Application Technology and 2Head of Application Technology,


ASK Chemicals Metallurgy GmbH, Unterneukirchen, Germany

INTRODUCTION
The addition of an inoculant to molten cast iron is advisable and even
necessary in most cases, in order to be able to produce castings which
fulfil the quality requirements. The mechanical properties and
machinability of cast iron with lamellar, compact and nodular graphite
greatly depend on the formation of the basic and secondary structure.
Both are significantly influenced by the inoculation treatment.
Therefore, the mechanism of inoculation and the graphite nucleation
during the solidification of cast iron is explained here.

WHAT IS MEANT BY INOCULATION OF CAST IRON?


Inoculation of molten cast iron refers to the introduction of nuclei
into the melt in order to influence the solidification process or structural
formation in the casting in a specific way. Nuclei are fine particles that
are 4 m in size and which serve as crystallisation centres for the
graphite precipitation.
The literature contains various theories concerning inoculation, which
are not explained in detail here. Of the many theories, the oxide
nucleation theory is regarded as the most significant and most
probable[1, 2]. According to this theory, the precipitation of SiO2 nuclei
occurs during the inoculation, and the graphite can then grow onto
these nuclei. However, these nuclei also depend on the existence of
foreign nuclei. These are formed, in particular, by those elements that
have a high oxygen affinity (see also the Inoculants section).

previous history of the melt to be cast, i.e. its initial metallurgical state,
the temperature-time course and the chemical composition.
Inoculation can occur in several stages, but has its greatest impact
shortly before or during pouring. Depending on the nuclei effectiveness
and cooling conditions, inoculation occasionally takes place in the
furnace or in the intermediate vessel. However, it preferably happens
while filling the ladle, in the pouring stream or in the mould.
Besides iron, unalloyed or low-alloy cast iron contains about 1.5% to
3% silicon and 2% to 4% carbon. During the cooling, the melt attains
the eutectic composition (4.3% carbon) after a certain time and then
the eutectic solidification begins immediately, at least under conditions
of equilibrium. The precipitating carbon is then fully present as graphite.
In practice, however, these conditions of equilibrium are not achieved.
The reasons for this include variations in the chemical composition, the
wall thickness or cooling speed and the pouring temperature, with the
result that the melt in most cases cools below the stable eutectic
temperature before the solidification of the eutectic begins (Fig. 1).

The setting of a favourable nucleation state is designed to influence


both the graphite precipitation (number, size, form) as well as the
formation of the basic structure in a targeted manner like promoting
the grey solidification, prevention of a ledeburitic chill, etc.
Effective inoculation leads to uniform mechanical material properties
in different wall thicknesses, especially to a restriction of the hardness
scatter. It can also influence the feeding characteristics due to its
effect on the austenite-graphite eutectic.
Nevertheless, the inoculation effect is in direct correlation to the

Fig. 1: Typical cooling curve of a hypoeutectic gray cast


iron.[3]

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The aim of inoculation is now to ensure that sufficient nuclei are present
for the crystallisation of graphite at the beginning of this eutectic
solidification and that the formation of iron carbide (cementite, Fe3C) is
largely prevented. The addition of an inoculant is thus to be equated
with an addition of crystallisers to the molten iron, thus enabling graphite
crystallisation with minimal undercooling below the stable eutectic
temperature. This consequently enables the formation of evenly
distributed A-type graphite in cast iron (Fig. 2) with lamellar graphite
and the formation of many small graphite nodules in the Mg-treated
cast iron.

Fading Effect
The effect of the inoculation treatment depends on temperature, but
above all, on time. The term fading is also used. The fading time begins
with the addition of the inoculant and ends when the eutectic
solidification temperature is reached. A reduction in the number and a
coarsening of the inoculation-effective inclusions results during this
time due to re-oxidation, concentration compensation as well as the
dissolution of nuclei. This also explains the influence of the solidification
times on the inoculation result. While the normal wall thickness areas
of castings of 5 mm to 50 mm solidify in seconds to a few minutes, the
crystallisation of thick-walled, heavy castings with wall thicknesses
bigger than 60 mm can take hours, depending on the casting
temperature. These differences in the solidification times entail a greater
fading effect of the inoculation for bigger castings and hence a reduction
in the number of nuclei able to grow, which leads in turn to a longer
crystallisation time. Both factors have the result that the eutectic
grains or graphite nodules present in heavy section castings are
generally fewer in number but larger in size (Fig. 3).
Tabl
e-1: Inoculants Inoculation-Effective Elements and
able-1:
Applications
Effective
el
ement
element
ementss

Al

DI and GI

Inogen

Fig. 2: Gray solidified X100 structure with A-type graphite.

INOCULANTS
In practice, inoculants are mostly special alloys based on ferro-silicon.
They contain additions of inoculation-effective elements with a high
affinity to oxygen, such as calcium, aluminium, barium, zircon,
strontium and rare earth metals. This is because successful inoculation
is always associated with a depletion of the oxygen dissolved in the
melt. However, some inoculants also contain elements such as bismuth,
titanium, manganese, sulphur and oxygen, for example, which can
also have a positive effect on the graphite nucleation. A selection of
the wide range of inoculants available is shown in Table-1. Furthermore,
inoculants based on FeSi with additions of graphite are also available
via which, in addition to the resultant oxides, graphite nuclei are
introduced into the melt. When using graphite as an inoculant, it must
be noted that this involves crystallised graphite, which is produced at
high temperatures (2500C).
Some of these inoculation-effective constituents of the inoculants, in
particular calcium and aluminium, are already contained in certain
quantities as natural content in the so-called inoculation FeSi. The
complex-alloyed special inoculants contain higher amounts and/or
the additional elements mentioned above, which, besides the
inoculation effect, also partly affect the dissolution performance of
the inoculant.
The use of pure ferro-silicon as an inoculant has proved to be ineffective.

DI
(Ductile
Iron)

GI
CGI
(Grey (Compact
Iron) Graphite
Iron)

VP 216/116
/Germalloy

Ca
Ba

SB 5

Mn

ZM 6

Zr

Inoculo 63
VP 316/
optigran
Optinoc Z

Ca
Bi

SMW 605

CerMM
Sr

CSF 10
SRF 75

SRF 75

Ti

LC

LC

Graphidox Graphidox
Because of the omission of appreciable fading times and of the thenlower-iron-temperature in the case of late inoculation enables very
good inoculation results to be achieved with minimum inoculant
additions at the same time. The maximum inoculation effect of late
inoculation is generally not attainable with ladle inoculation.
The most effective late inoculation methods applied in practice are
pouring stream and mould inoculation. In these cases, the inoculant is
either dosed precisely into the pouring stream or placed in the mould
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and Fig. 6. The result is the formation of ferrite areas, which leads to a
reduction in strength and a deterioration of the machinability.

Fig. 3: Very large nodules in casting of DI X100


(20 nodules/mm2, nodule diameter upto 100 m).

Fig. 5: B-graphite X100.

and dissolved evenly by the molten iron during the overall casting
process.
The fact that the subsidence or fading effect depends on the inoculant
composition also merits particular consideration. Thus, for example,
very powerful inoculants usually subside very quickly as well. On the
other hand, a very long-lasting inoculant effect is ascertained for
inoculants containing barium and cerium. This aspect is, above all, to
be noted for multi-stage inoculation.

Effect on the Graphite Formation


Via the state of nucleation of the molten cast iron, the inoculation has
an effect on the number, size and partly the form of the graphite
precipitations.
Inadequate inoculation (Fig. 4) and resultant increasing undercooling
initially lead to the formation of B-type graphite (rosette graphite) or
also D- and E- type graphite (undercooling graphite), as shown in Fig. 5

Fig. 6: D-graphite X100.


If the undercooling continues on account of increasing cooling speed
or a poorer state of nucleation, it results in a mottled or even white
structure, in which the graphite is present partially or fully as iron
carbide (Fe3C).
In the case of cast iron with nodular graphite, a poor state of nucleation
is discernible via a reduced number of nodules, poorer nodularity and
also via the structure with higher pearlite content and, in the less
favorable case, with increasing chill.
With the same cooling conditions (wall thickness), for example, a DI
casting inoculated with inoculant 605 containing bismuth exhibits
significantly higher numbers of nodules than an iron inoculated with an
inoculant containing barium, as shown in Fig. 7.

Fig. 4: Cooling curve of an iron with inadequate nucleation state


significant undercooling below the stable eutectic temperature.

Nevertheless, it must be noted that, with the same wall thickness and
same amount of inoculant, the specific number of nodules is, in turn,

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Fig.7a : Late inoculation with 0.15% inoculant 605.

Fig.7b: Late inoculation with inoculant containing barium X100.

also determined by the type of inoculant (inoculation-effective


elements).

Fig. 8: Effect of the wall thickness and the inoculation-effective


elements on the number of nodules after late inoculation.
Figure 8 shows the effect of the wall thickness or cooling speed on the
specific number of nodules in relation to various inoculants. Owing to
the very rapid solidification, all inoculants are still fully effective in thin
wall thicknesses, while a fading effect occurs as the wall thickness
increases, hence leading to a reduction in the number of nodules. In
other words, one can never get the same number of nodules in heavy
section castings than in thin-walled castings, even with optimum
inoculation. In very thick areas, sometimes only 40 to 60 nodules per
mm2 are encountered, for example, while nodule numbers > 500/
mm2 are perfectly possible in casting areas of only a few millimetres.
The reduction in the number of nodules is also accompanied by a
coarsening of the graphite as shown in Fig. 3 and Fig. 9.
What is shown here as an example of Ductile Iron is applicable for the
other cast iron materials too.

Fig. 9: Comparison of nodule numbers and nodule size for different


wall thickness [4] X100.

Effect on the Matrix

Cast iron with Lamellar Graphite


In most cases, the formation of a fine-grained, pearlitic matrix without
chill and the formation of fine A-type graphite is aimed for cast iron with
lamellar graphite. Effective inoculation or a good nucleation distribution
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affects the solidification process positively in this respect and, taking
into account the other influential variables (chemical analysis, cooling
conditions), leads to the desired structure as well as the formation of
uniformly finely distributed A-type graphite. Almost uniform
mechanical properties with very good machinability are therefore
ensured, even in different wall thicknesses.
Cast Iron with Nodular Graphite
Cast iron with nodular graphite would mostly solidify white or mottled
if not inoculated, owing to its fundamentally greater tendency towards
undercooling due to the magnesium treatment. The grey solidification
is only brought about by the inoculation. As a result, the specific
number of nodules is increased, the nodularity improved, the ferritisation
tendency increased and, above all, the tendency towards chill or carbide

formation reduced.
As an illustration, Fig. 10 compares the inoculation result after ladle
inoculation with 0.3% inoculant (after the magnesium treatment), as
well as ladle inoculation with 0.2% and 0.1% additional mould
inoculation. The additional mould inoculation has increased the number
of nodules, improved the nodule shape and increased the ferrite content.
In medium- and thick-walled castings, the structural formation is also
significantly improved by late inoculation. In the case of thick-walled
castings made from Ductile Iron (besides the creation of ingot moulds),
the mould inoculation is often the only option for increasing the number
of nodules and largely avoid undesired segregations, inter-granular
carbides and graphite degeneration.

Fig. 10: DI after ladle inoculation (above) and with additional mould inoculation (below);
wall thickness 10 mm, magnification 100:1 X100.
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INOCULATION METHODS

Mould Inoculation

Pre-Inoculation/Pre-Conditioning

Mould inoculation is the addition of inoculant as late as possible and


hence also the inoculation method in which the fading effect is reduced
to a minimum. In mould inoculation, the inoculant is introduced in the
pouring basin or directly into the gating system of the mould. The
dissolution therefore occurs under air exclusion directly in the iron
over the entire pouring time. Preferably cast inoculant blocks should
be used, otherwise there is a risk of flowing in of undissolved inoculant
grains with negative consequences for the cast structure.

This refers to the addition of so-called pre-conditioning agents or other


nucleation-effective substances as early as the furnace or during
tapping. This involves establishing favourable conditions for optimum
structural and graphite formation right at the start of the metallurgical
process in the iron.
VL(Ce)2 containing Ce-Zr-Mn is typically used as a pre-conditioning
agent, contributing to a reduction in the oxygen content and an
improvement in the nucleation distribution. Other preconditioning
agents may contain barium or aluminum, for example.
The use of silicon carbide can also be referred to as preconditioning in
a certain sense, as this also ensures a basic iron rich on nuclei.

Ladle Inoculation
This is the classic inoculation method, the inoculant being added during
tapping or pouring, e.g. after a magnesium treatment. Depending on
the amounts of iron, inoculants with grain sizes between 0.6 mm and
6 mm are mostly used for this type of inoculation. It must be ensured
that the inoculant is not placed on the bottom of the ladle but added
as steady as possible to the iron stream.

CHECKING AND MONITORING THE INOCULATION AND


THE INOCULATION RESULT
To avoid errors during inoculation, simply monitoring the inoculation
effectiveness after pouring the casting is inadequate, i.e. it must be
planned as part of the quality assurance and adapted to the individual
production steps and operating conditions. The data logging and
evaluation should satisfy the requirements of statistical process control.
This begins as early as the choice, the incoming goods inspection and
the storage of the inoculant. It also includes, for example, temperature
measuring, time recording and dosing devices (e.g. periodic checking
of the added inoculation amounts, control of the frequencies for vibrating
channels, and the feed during wire inoculation). [5]

In wire inoculation, the inoculation is performed with the help of a


cored wire filled with granular inoculant. The wire is fed to the melt via
a controllable feeding machine, thus ensuring a precise dosing of the
inoculant both via the wire length and the feeding speed. The wire
inoculation can be carried out both in a ladle and in the pouring channel
of a casting device.

Various options are available to the caster for monitoring the inoculation
result. These are, on the one hand, the conventional methods of
evaluating casting wedge samples (depth of the chill) and the fabrication
of metallographic ground samples (graphite and structural formation,
number of eutectic grains, number of nodules). On the other hand,
thermal analysis systems are now-a-days available, which besides the
representation of the cooling curve, also provide further evaluation
options for assessing the inoculation result.

Pouring Stream Inoculation

REFERNCES

Wire Inoculation

Here, the inoculant is added to the iron stream directly during pouring.
In most cases pouring stream inoculation devices are used, which
enable a quantitatively uniform addition of the inoculant to the pouring
stream over the entire casting process. What are known as the pouring
stream grain sizes are mostly between 0.2 mm and 0.7 mm. The
amount added should not be more than 0.15%, as the inoculant has
to be completely dissolved in a very short time. The advantage
compared to the ladle inoculation is the late addition time and hence
largely avoid the fading of the inoculation effect. Pouring stream
inoculation is above all used in automatic molding systems.

1. F. Neumann: Giesserei 83 (1996), No. 14, p. 11-15.


2. J. Mller, W. Siefer: Giessereiforschung 45 (1993), No. 3, p.
92-98.
3. J.F. Janovak, R.B. Gundlach: Gieereipraxis (1983), No. 15/
16, p. 223-242.
4.

K. Reifferscheid: Gieerei Praxis (1973) Issue 22/November,


p. 393-398.

5. VDG Information Sheet, p. 210, Impfen von


Gusseisenschmelzen.

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TECHNICAL PAPER

Lightweight Castings for Automotive Applications


Ankan Guria and Aditi Bhattacharya
Final Year Students,
Metallurgical and Material Engineering Department, Jadavpur University, Kolkata - 700032

Cast lightweight metals, like aluminium and magnesium, can replace cast
heavier metals, like iron and steel, in selected vehicle structural parts. To
be effective substitutes, cast lightweight metals must have similar
properties and performance to their heavier counter-parts and
comparable costs to manufacture. Castings tend to be inherently flawed with
variable properties (e.g., tensile strength, fracture strength, ductility),
requiring designs to be anchored around the poorest known performance
of a particular property. More precise knowledge of properties of castings
can enable designs that reduce materials usage and weight. Crash tests,
tests of deformation characteristics, as well as drive and continuousrunning tests, demonstrate conclusively that high safety demands made
on the chassis components are met in full.

INTRODUCTION
In vehicles of all types, weight reduction is a question of crucial
importance. Along with cost and environmental considerations, all newly
developed components must have a weight advantage in addition to
conventional solutions. In order to achieve the best technical and
economical performance, one has to consider the inter-relationship
between design, material and production process for the particular
application. The chief targets of every automaker are to reduce
weight by integrating components and eliminating structural
redundancy, as well as using lightweight metals. This paper gives a
number of examples of lightweight design with aluminium and
magnesium castings. New applications of particle-reinforced light
metals offer additional potential for weight saving and better technical,
economical and environmental performance.
Die-casting is one of the most economical casting processes for
manufacturing precision-shaped parts in mass production. Die-cast
components are being used increasingly in the automobile, aerospace,
electronic and other industries because of their premium quality, low
cost, and low weight[2].

HIGH PRESSURE DIE-CASTINGS (HPDC)


The conventional high-pressure die-castings cannot be applied for
welded structures or age-hardening alloys. This is because, under high
pressure, entrapped gases are present either in pores or in the metal

matrix. Melting of the metal during welding leads to formation of


blisters, causing poor-quality and porous welding seams after
solidification. Annealing prior to age-hardening isnt possible either,
since the expanding entrapped gas would lead to surface blistering.
The nature of these old HPDC process, equipments and practices
results in casting with high levels of porosity. Porosity again has negative
effects as it decreases the strength and ductility of the material when
chassis or body applications with thick walls are concerned. For thinner
walls (<2.5 mm) the issue of porosity is less serious.
However, these conventional technologies evolved into the preferred
high volume casting process for the industry due to familiarity and
simplicity.
Some new HPDC technologies have been developed to produce
weldable and age-hardenable die castings[1]. Such new technologies
are:
z

Vacuum casting

Squeeze casting

Thixo casting

PRINCIPLES OF NEW TECHNOLOGIES


Vacuum Casting
z

Die cavity is evacuated to less than 50 mbar pressure.

High filling velocity, turbulent filling mode.

High pressure during solidification.

Reduced gas inclusions due to vacuum.

Castings produced in this process are currently targeted for components


requiring pressure tightness and good mechanical properties via heat
treatment. This casting system thus stretches the capabilities of
conventional die-casting while preserving its economic benefits.

Squeeze Casting
z

Casting die is not evacuated.

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z

Reduced and controlled filling velocity.

High pressure during solidification.

Reduced gas inclusions due to laminar filling mode.

Thixo Casting
z

Casting die is not evacuated.

Reduced gas inclusions due to casting in the semisolid metal


status.

The ULC (Ultra-Large Castings) project has explored emerging casting


processes that have prospects of overcoming the drawbacks of HPDC
through the use of semi-solid moulding and/or multi-port hot runner
technology like sub-liquid casting of Al and Mg or Thixomoulding of
Mg. These processes also have high potential for improved ductility
and mechanical properties.

The desired mechanical characteristics (high yield strength and tensile


strength combined with good elongation) are obtained through suitable
alloy composition and heat treatment of the die-castings which are
manufactured using the vacuum HPDC process.

Design Opportunities with Magnesium HPDC [1]


Most large automobile parts, such as door panels, are made from
multi-piece, multistep steel stamping and joining processes. However,
engineers must meet challenging standards and improve fuel economy
through the use of lightweight materials and innovative manufacturing
methods. Magnesium, the lightest structural metal available, presents
the greatest opportunity for vehicle lightweight, but is not extensively
used due to higher costs and other barriers.
In contrast to aluminium, the magnesium die-casting process has the
following features:

Design Opportunities with Aluminium HPDC1]

By varying the heat treatment of such castings, the mechanical


properties can be tailored to a special application, such as -

Lower wall thicknesses possible, as magnesium has better diefilling behaviour.

Longer die lifespan, as magnesium has no tendency to alloy with


the steel of the die.

Shorter cycle times due to lower heat content.

High strength, medium elongation for high static loads.

Medium strength, high elongation for medium and dynamic loads.

Simultaneous development of the production parameters, in


particular, the composition of the alloy and heat treatment
techniques, have allowed the use of aluminium die-castings as joint
elements at nodes in the space-frame of the AUDI A8 (Fig.1) and
Chevrolet Corvette Z06. The thin-walled joint elements are
reminiscent of deep-drawn sheet components and they also behave
similarly when subjected to deformation in a crash-test. With the use of
welding to join the aluminium die-casting joints with aluminium
extrusions, a completely new principle in designing structural bodywork
components has been created. The application of aluminium diecastings in the chassis area is also a reality.

Fig. 1: Aluminium Chassis Components. [1]

However, closed furnace system for melting and casting with inert
gas protection is necessary.
The magnesium alloys which are most suitable for producing
thin-walled, large-surface structures are MgAl9Zn1 (AZ91HP) and
MgAl6Mn (AM60HP). Because of good crash properties[1] alloy AM60HP
is particularly well-suited for bodywork applications. In general, these
alloys, based on high purity (HP) magnesium have a good resistance to
surface corrosion which is comparable with aluminium die-casting
alloy AlSi9Cu3 _226. Magnesium body parts, such as the front section
(Fig.2) of AUDI 200 and Ford F-150 Donor Vehicle and tank cover

Fig. 2: Magnesium Body Part.

[1]

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(Fig.3) of Mercedes-Benz SLK demonstrate the design opportunities
with the HPDC process for integrative castings with a number of other
functional elements, for example, mounting flanges, bores, passages
and reinforcement webs, all of which are integrated in the design of the
casting.

In fact, 3 ULCs (ultra-large casting) replace a conventional multipiece steel and plastic front-end structure for a 67% weight savings.
Galvanic corrosion remains a concern for high-purity magnesium diecastings when joined with steel components. In order to mitigate
corrosion issues, aluminium isolators are required when joining
magnesium castings to steel, adding one step in the assembly process
and additional cost.

PARTICLE RE-INFORCED
APPLICATIONS

ALUMINIUM

ALLOY

Si-particle reinforced aluminium alloys with Si contents well above the


eutectic level of AlSi12 and with fine particle structures and distributions
are manufactured with the spray-compaction process [2]. In this
process, the aluminium melts which dissolves the high Si-content, is
pulverised. The spray jet is directed at a rotating plate and moved back
and forward at the amplitude of the plates diameter. The fine metal
droplets solidify at a very high speed between the nozzle and the plate.
This causes the silicon to precipitate in the form of extremely fine
particles. The typical structure of an alloy with 25% silicon shows an
extremely fine and evenly precipitated form[1, 2].
The spray-compaction process is used for the production of round
billets which are then extruded to tubes and further processed to
achieve the final dimensions of the cylinder liner.
Fig. 3 : Magnesium Body Part. [1]
An example for light metal design without increased cost is the seat in
the new double-decker high-speed train TGV in France [1]. The previous
steel-sheet structure meant a weight of 28 kg for each individual seat.
As alternative to this design, magnesium die-castings were developed
for connection with aluminium extrusions. The side supports were
designed as thin-walled magnesium die-castings; with the result
that it was possible to include the desired mounting functions in the
near-net-shape castings. The thread required for attachment to the
extrusions was incorporated using self-cutting bushes without
mechanical machining. This allowed the total mass of the seat
including foam padding and textile fabric material to be reduced to
just 14 kg.
In spite of the fact that magnesium castings and aluminium extrusions
have a higher price per kilogram than steel components, their ease of
assembly and the amortisation of the tooling costs for a limited number
of 45,000 seats made it possible to achieve a balance in cost between
the light-metal and a steel design.
The previously mentioned Chevrolet Corvette Z06 also uses the forstin-industry magnesium engineering cradle, magnesium steering
column, steering wheel and brake module support bracket, carbon
fibre floor pan, front fenders and wheel houses. The use of these
advanced materials, in combination with the use of efficient
hydroforming and die-casting processes, made this vehicle the fastest
production car in the world (pickup 60 mph in 3.7 sec)[5].

Through the use of cylinder liners either of grey iron or particlereinforced aluminium, it became possible to produce aluminium
engine blocks (Fig.4) by die-casting using the alloy AlSi9Cu3, the
most commonly used die-casting material. The special advantages of
the Si-particle reinforced aluminium cylinder liners are as follows[1-4]:
z

Good thermal stability.

Effective grain refinement.

Uniform dispersions.

Low weight.

Same expansion behaviour as the basic engine-block material.

Improved exhaust quality.

Better conditions for recycling.

SiC-Particle Reinforced Aluminium for Car-Parts :


SiC-particle reinforced aluminium materials are manufactured by
metallurgical methods by introducing SiC particles into the base molten
aluminium alloy. Aluminium materials with about 10% and 20% SiC
particles are known by the name of DURALCAN. This type of alloy is
distinguished among other things by particularly high wear resistance.
In view of the high concentrations of SiC particles in the melt which tend
to sink to the bottom of the melt because of their greater weight,
special melt-treatment and processing methods were developed to
make this material suitable for casting. In collaboration with a user,
brake disks with weights of over 60 kg for rail vehicles were developed
which are now being produced in series. SiC-particle reinforced

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TECHNICAL PAPER
present time. However, in alternative designs, e.g. electric vehicles, it
has a high degree of potential for future use. Besides the sand- casting
process, the permanent mould process could also be used for the
manufacture of larger series of internally ventilated brake disks (Fig. 5).

CONCLUSIONS
New light-weight materials and advanced casting technologies are
opening up new opportunities for weight reductions in vehicles. The key
to intelligent light metal concepts is the design potential offered by

Fig. 4: Aluminium HDPC Motor Block.[1]


aluminium brake disks have an extremely high wear resistance which
is superior even to that of iron materials. The good conductivity of the
base material ensures that the thermal stressing of the brake disks
never becomes critical.
Through the application of aluminium brake disks, the weight reduction
on one axle of the rail vehicle is around 200 kg with four brake disks per
axle in comparison to brake disks of ferrous materials. The aluminium
brake disks are in use for example on the urban railway system of
Copenhagen and on the ICE Intercity Express operating between Berlin
and Munich. In view of the above development, it may be expected that
brake disks of particle-reinforced aluminium will also find uses in car
brake systems. The thermal stressing of car brake disks with current
vehicle weights and speeds preclude the use of this material at the

New and improved alloys.

Advanced production technologies.

Tailored heat treatment and processing technologies.

The high perfection of the new high-pressure die-casting technologies


has opened new design opportunities for applications in body structures
and chassis components. Mechanical properties can be tailored to
specific requirements by heat treatment. Net-shape or near-net-shape
die-castings reduce manufacturing cost. For magnesium die-castings,
there are special opportunities in thin-wall body structure applications.
Welded assemblies, combining aluminium die-castings with extruded
and rolled products, respectively, are opening new design opportunities.
Higher material cost for magnesium alloys can be compensated by
intelligent casting design with multiple integrated structural functions
and increasing the units of production to thousands.
Particle-reinforced light metals lead to properties of a new. Si-particle
reinforced aluminium for cylinder liners and SiC-particle reinforced
aluminium for brake disks offer additional potential for weight saving
and better technical, economical and environmental performance. [1]

Acknowledgements
We would like to thank Prof. P. K. Datta, Jadavpur University, who
taught us foundry technology. We would like to pay our gratitude to
Prof. P. K. Mitra, Jadavpur University, who had helped us with the
theoretical aspects of foundry technology for the last two semesters.
Thanks to National Institute of Foundry and Forge Technology, Ranchi,
Mercedes Benz and Audi Research sections for providing us with
resources for this study.

REFERENCES

Fig. 5 : Aluminium Brake Disc. [1]

1.

Light Weight Design with Light Metal Castings, D. Brungs, Materials


and Design, Volume 18, December 1997.

2.

Chauhan, Menghani, IJETED, Issue 2, Vol.4.

3.

F.H. Froes and C.M. Ward-Close, J. Ad. Mats., 25(1), (1993) 20.

4.

Georges Broihanne, New Spin on Titanium Casting Technology,


Materials World, Vol. 8 No. 8, p. 21-23, August 2000.

5.

Alan A Luo, Anil K. Sachdev, Bob R. Powell, 69th WFC, 2010.

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Use of 3D White Light Analysis Technology to


Optimise Casting Weight+
Purshottam Godhia
Senior Manager, Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd., Mumbai
Cell: 09869340984
E-mail : 200405@mahindra.com, godhia.purshottam@mahindra.com

It is practically not possible to check specified dimensions on


Components (complicated shapes, intersected zones, radius, profiles
and inaccessible zones) due to limitation of checking instrument
(checking probes). Traditional layout inspection method consumes lot
of time hence a faster measurement technique was essential to reduce
the overall inspection time. In traditional layout, it is not possible to
check all dimensions even for once due to lack of facilities available.

on the part being scanned.

Various Casting components when weighed found to have their weights


more than expected (Table-1). This was revealed when casting weights
were compared with 3D model casting weights.

The captions of Figs. 1-3 are self-explanatory.

Table-1
Part Name

3D CAD
Weight
kg

Transmission Case

Actual
Part
Weight
kg
a

Difference:
Weight
more
Kg
10 %

Rear Axle Carrier

9%

Clutch housing

7%

Variable Transfer Unit

7%

Crankcase

7%

By adopting the 3D White Light Analysis Technology, areas which were


as of today totally inaccessible to the conventional checking instrument
could be measured.

INTRODUCTION
3D White Light Analysis Technology
3D White Light Technology is 3D scanning process using non-contact
optical scanning device which uses white light source to project fringes

The sensor of the scanner which is equipped with two cameras take
several images of the part during the measurement. These images are
then sent to a high-end PC where advanced image software calculates
point co-ordination throughout the visible area of the part under scan.

Casting for Case Study


By using the technology and the related software, it becomes easy to
super-impose the 3D model on the scanned results to get a quick and
easy understandable output for improvement.
Results of 3D Scanning :
After superimposing, scanned with actual 3D model.

ANALYSIS
The areas of concern in the castings is revealed in Red colour, this
reveals that material is in excess. The amount of deviation of material
is shown in millimeter (mm). Yellow colour and light Blue colour
reveals nearness to actual dimensions. Green is within acceptable
dimensions and Dark Blue colour is with negative dimensions. All these
get reflected through appropriate software.

Innovative Features and Uniqueness of the 3D White


Light Technique
Use of this technique reveals areas of deviations in dimensions and
shapes of actual vs. 3D model which otherwise is not possible.
Fast Data Capturing and processing (inspection takes only 2 days for
part like Transmission case).
High resolution scan data does not ignore any feature on part.
The colour shades helps in faster diagnosis of the part.

+ The paper was originally presented at 61st Indian Foundry Congress held during January 27-29, 2013 in Kolkata.

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CASE STUDY
Approach / Process Followed
The castings were selected for white light analysis based on following
3 criteria
1) Wherein casting weight difference found to be more with respect
to 3D model weight.
2) Complexity of the Castings with respect to profiles, shapes and
difficult to probe.
3) High volume.
The prioritised castings were scanned using 3D white light technology
available. The scanned image was then super- imposed on 3D model
of the cast component using the software available. The software
helped in identifying areas of deviations of all the dimensions of the
component with respect to 3D model.

Fig. 1 : Image of casting with 3D White Light scanner device.

The difference in casting weights and that of 3D CAD model weights


were found to be very less compared to earlier. The parts were machined
and tested on test rigs and in field and found to be OK.

Challenges
Collecting data on raw, finished and 3D model cast component weights
by actual / physical measurement (heavy and difficult to handle on
weighing scale), cutting them to get the actual sections as per drawing
and sending to external agency (Pune) to carry out 3D scanning were
difficult.

Benefits

Fig. 2 : Casting 3D model (Machined).

By using 3D White Light technology, it was possible to capture fast


data and process the same to detect the irregularities in integrated
shaped components which otherwise were difficult or was not possible
to detect.

The Cast Component Suppliers


were involved for discussion to
eliminate the areas of deviations
through feasibility study looking at
the Process and Tooling involved in
manufacturing the said component.
Without affecting the regular
production, suppliers were
instructed to make new Tooling and
make Cast Component as per 3D
model.
With new Tooling sample, castings
were made. The specified
dimensions and all critical
dimensions checked and verified.
The castings were sectioned and
verified for dimensions. The sample
castings were weighed and
compared with 3D model weights.

Fig. 3 : Scanned Casting superimposed with Casting 3D Model.


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Building India Through Global Quality


Castings Edge
+

Suhas K. Paknikar
Metallurgical & Foundry Consultant, Pune.
E-mail : skpaknikar@gmail.com Mobile : 9860683750

Author has solved specification testing and casting defect analysis based on
microstructure and other conditions laid down by the global customer by
interacting with (1) Government of Maharashtra Mint at Mumbai for heat
treatment problem of cracking Coining Dies (2) German Company to replace
steel by Ductile Iron (3) German metallurgist for Measurement of Inter
Dendrite Arm Spacing (IDAS) in case of aluminium silicon alloys in microns
as per their method (4) American customer and Indian foundry for defect
analysis (5) Danish metallurgists for correct identification of casting defect
through metallographic techniques.

3. It was suggested that the packing material used should be


changed from C.I. cuts to alumina granules crushed from old
refractory bricks or silica sand which would not carburise the die
surface.

RESULTS
Heat treatment cycle was conducted as per suggestions and the
results were encouraging. There were no crack and the hardness
obtained was 670 VPN.

The case studies are supported by number of microstructures.


Keywords : IDAS, Shrinkage, Defect Analysis, Decarburisation in S.G..

Case Study 1
Coordination with Indian Government Mint
India Government Mint, Fort-Mumbai
PROBLEM
The coining dies made of high speed steel were hardened in oil-fired
furnace by packing the dies in charcoal and then heating to hardening
temperature and then quenching after opening the packing boxes and
quenching in water. The problem was that the dies use cracked after
the treatment.

SOLUTION

CASE STUDY 2
A Case Study of M/s. Vulcan Technologies Pvt. Ltd., Pune
PROBLEM
M/s. Vulcan Technologies Pvt. Ltd. produces variety of castings of
couplings of different types. They had a typical practical working
problem during working of L-shape ring and hub steel castings when a
rubber ring was fitted on the exterior outer circular surface of casting
as shown in Fig. 1 of LShape Ring Casting of Steel.
The problem was of adherence of rubber with surface of steel castings
during working. It was thought that it could be solved if the casting
material was replaced by some other material replacing steel.

SOLUTION

1. It was suggested to change the H.T. cycle as step heating 710720 C for 2 hours and then increase temperature to 870 C
and then oil quenching. The step heating is for uniform heating
and homogenising the temperature for large diameter dies and
to speroidise the carbides.
2. It was suggested to check severity of quench of quenching oil
periodically.

The points considered for the replacement of Steel by S.G.. Iron for
better adherence of rubber with surface of the casting were as under:
1.

Thermal Conductivity of Steel & Cast Iron


The thermal conductivity of steel or cast iron is influenced by the
microstructure of steel or cast iron in discussion. The thermal
conductivity of grey iron at room temperature is approx. same as

+ The paper was originally presented at 61st Indian Foundry Congress held during January 27-29, 2013 in Kolkata.

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(B)

(A)

other ferrous materials ranging from 0.110 to 0.137 cal/sq.cm/


sec/cm/ C depending upon microstructure of the grey or S.G.
Iron.
The following table indicates the effect of micro-constituents on thermal
and electrical conductivity in relation with temperature.

2.

Specific Gravity
The specific gravity of steel is 7.7 gms./cm3 while that of S.G.Iron
is 7.1 gms./cm3. So there would be less weight of the castings
and so less cost.

3.

Shrink
age TTendency
endency
Shrinkage
The steel has higher shrinkage during solidification of casting
hence higher risering is required to compensate the volumetric
shrinkage in casting, hence the yield of castings and more fettling
work required increasing cost of production.

Micro-Constituent Thermal Conductivity at Different Temperatures

Graphite
Ferrite
Pearlite
Cementite

(C)

Fig. 1

0 1000 C

5000 C

10000 C

0.7-1.0

0.2-0.3

0.1-0.15

0.17- 0.19

0.1

0.12

0.1

0.017

From the above values, it was clear that Ferritic S. G. Iron (GGG40) has
superior thermal conductivity as shown in graph (Fig. 2). The graph
actually shows higher thermal conductivity of flake graphite than
nodular or S.G. Iron however, due to its lower torsion fatigue it is not
recommended for our application.

4.

Bonding FFact
act
or with Na
tur
al R
ubber
actor
Natur
tural
Rubber
Normally, the bonding of rubber on metallic surface is higher in
case of S. G. Iron due to presence of graphite nodules which act
as an interface between metallic matrix and rubber. This is also
because of good thermal conductivity of S. G. Iron than steel.

5.

Machinability of S.
G. Ir
on
S.G
Iron
The machinability of S. G. Iron is better than steel due to presence
of graphite nodules which break the continuity of the metallic
matrix. The chip formation during machining is segmental while in
steel is continuous ring formation that also affects the surface
finish of casting after machining.
The material of casting was changed from steel to S. G. iron for
better working of casting.

CASE STUDY 3
Measurement of Interdendritic Arm Spacing in
Aluminium Alloys
Aliminium-Silicon Casting Alloys
The microstructures of Hypoeutectic and Hypereutectic alloys are
shown in Fig. 3.

Fig. 2 : Effect of Graphite shape on the relative thermal and


electrical conductivity of grey and S.G.. Iron as compared to Steel.

The most commonly casting alloys are of hypoeutectic type. It contains


dendrites of alpha in a matrix of eutectic which is in the interdendritic
space. The measurement of this Inter Dendritic Arm Spacing (IDAS)
has effect on the properties of the castings and that was the subject of
this case study. There was a difference in the methods of measurement
of IDAS in microstructure of German Experts and the Indian Consultant.
This has been discussed below.

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Fig.3 : Microstructures of Aluminium-Silicon Castings.

German Method - They draw a line through the dendrites and


measure the length of line in microns and divide the total number of
alpha dendrites to get SDAS in microns (Fig. 4).
Figure 5 shows the difference between German and Indian Method of
measurement of SDAS in Microstructure of Aluminium-Silicon Alloys.
Indian Method of Measurement of SDAS Same number of
dendrites was selected and measurement of width of eutectic spacing
was carried out. Average of that was reported which was between

13.3 to 20.0 microns as compared to German method which was


67.50 microns. It was demonstrated on different specimens.
In German method, the only length of the measurement was divided
by both alpha dendrites plus eutectic cells also. So it was not the
actual measurement of eutectic width which actually affects the
strength of the casting. Alpha phase is soft and so it should not be
included in the measurement.
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CASE STUDY 4
BACKGROUND OF THE CASE STUDY
One Indian casting exporter was procuring S.G. Iron Top Plate castings
from one of the investment casting foundry from Gujarat. The postmachining was done by the exporter of casting to USA. The failure
analysis of the S. G. Iron Top Plate was done by IMR Test Laboratory
and sent to C.E.Engineers. It was forwarded to the foundry. Then again
the testing was done by the Investment Foundry and the reports are
presented in Fig. 6.

SDAS As calculated by Germans 473/7 = 67.5 Microns

Fig.4

Magnification 200 X
11,20,16,25,43,25,16 Average 20 Microns

Magnification 200 X
(20,17,5,5,13,9,9,14,28) Average 13.3 Microns

Fig.5 : Comparison of German & Indian method of measurement of SDAS.

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Fig.7
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OBSER
VATIONS
OBSERV
All the photomicrographs show some black coloured defects which
are confused with shrinkage cavities. However there is no dendritic
structure at any focusing techniques.
MICR
O SC
OPIC EXAMINA
TION
MICRO
SCOPIC
EXAMINATION

Fig. 9

Fig. 8
The microstructure (Fig. 8) at this magnification does not reveal details
of the defect. The matrix comprises of well-distributed pearlite plus
ferrite with some globular carbides in the structure.
The microstructure (Fig. 9) at higher magnification shows greenish
slag inclusions near the defect area so also inside the black defect. At
this magnification, also there is no evidence of dendritic structure
which is an indication of shrinkage defects.
The microstructure (Fig. 10) also shows slag inclusions inside the
defect area. The matrix is uniform. There is no evidence of shrinkage
defect anywhere in this area.

Fig. 10

Photomicrograph (Fig. 11) also shows quite large amount of slag


particles in the defect as well as surrounding the defect. Here again
there is no evidence of shrinkage defect.
In Fig. 12, at 750 X there is a clear slag inclusion inside the defects.
Here also there is no evidence of shrinkage defect.

MACROSCOPIC EXAMINATION - SULPHURE PRINTING


Sulphure print (Fig. 13) at the fracture area indicates the presence of
slag inclusion.
RESUL
RESULTT: The defective sample shows slag inclusions which is confirmed
by sulphure printing at the fracture surface, The failure is not due to
shrinkage defect.

SOLUTION
As the castings were produced by the Investment Casting Process,
the following suggestions were made:

Fig. 11

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1. To check the composition of the mixture of waxes used for the
patterns and the gating systems.
2. To Check that the dewaxing is completeed thoroughly.
3. If there is wax adhering to the shell then there is posibility of
sulphure from wax can get segregated and can give greenish
slag inclusion which is of Iron-Sulphide slag formed after the
pouring and slag is trapped in the casting.

CASE STUDY 5
PROBLEM

Fig. 12

One of the renowoned Grey and S.G.. Iron foundry in Pune Chapter
area was intending to export grey iron castings to Denmak through
their representative in India. When the first batch of castings was
exported to the overseas customer, they sent a report of the castings
as rejected due to presence of shrinkage porosity in the castings.
According to them, they had checked the defect under fluorescent
light in their laboratory (Fig. 14). The report was received by the foundry
through their representatives.
The foundry then dicided to have a third party inspection from a reputed
Metallurgical Consultant from Pune. A meeting of the representative
of customer, concerned foundry and Consultant was organised. The
Consultant inspected seven samples sent by the customer in presence
of customers representative and foundry persons and found that there
was no shrinkage porosity in any casting samples. The inspection under
the fluorescent light was done in Physics Department of the University
of Pune.

Fig. 13

Fig. 14 : (a) Microstructure in unetched condition graphite flake


and so-called Porosity.

The report submitted by the Consultant was forwarded to the Danish


customer. Next a joint meeting of four Danish experts, Indian foundry

(b) Photograph under Fluorescent light examination.

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Fig. 15 : Appearance of Dendritic surface of Shrinkage Defect.

persons, their representatives and Indian Metallurgical Consultant was


arranged at Pune, India. It was decided to take a special heat for
subsequent testing in presence of Danish experts.
Specimen, were prepared with special care and first samples were
observed under the microscope. No agreement could be reached on
the results.
The Indian expert then placed one sample under microscope and located
one defect under microscope and repeated it and all Danish experts
observed that the defect area changed its appearance while focussing

and defocussing and at varying magnification. It was explained that it


was a dendrite and therefore there was change in structure. This was
a confirming test to identify the shrinkage defect. No other defect
behaves like this under microscope (Fig. 15).

CONCLUSION
From knowledge of Die Penetrant test, even under fluorescent light
shrinkage cannot be identified as both graphite thin fkakes also can be
seen as bluish flakes so also small lumo of graphite which was
considered by the Danish experts as shrinkage porosity.

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Indian Foundry Journal

CASE STUDY
TECHNICAL
PAPER

Air Intake Manifold


Anant Bam
Aluminium Foundry Consultant
Cell : 98228 45478, E-mail : bamanant@yahoo.co.in

DESCRIPTION OF THE COMPONENT


The casting is complex tubular shape with water jacketing weighing
about 3 kg. There is large section variation at the junction point of
tubes. For better understanding, refer Fig. 1.
Shell core assembly is used for the internal shape. The resin content is
3 to 3.5%. All cores are painted with graphite-based coating, and duly
dried in core baking oven.

TYPICAL CHEMICAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES


The alloy used is AC4B in fully heat-treated condition (T6 temper).
Other TTeest
s+
sts+
The casting has to pass pressure test at pressure of 4 bars for 5
minutes under water without any visible air bubble or noticeable
pressure drop.
METHODING
The casting is poured vertically as shown in Fig. 2 from side feeder at
one end and exit riser is provided at the top and other end. To improve
yield, insulating paint is used at all the risers. Average yield is about
65%.

Fig. 1 : Casting.

The metal was prepared in gas-fired melting furnace and was


transferred, treated and bailed out from electric resistance-type holding
furnace; it was de-gassed by ultra high purity nitrogen gas passed
through purge tube. Coverall 11 was used to clean and cover metal.

Tabl
e-1: TTypical
ypical Chemistr y
able-1:
Element
Range in %

Copper

Silicon

Iron

Magnesium

Others

Aluminium

3-4

7.5 -9.5

<1.3

<0.3

<0.3

Remainder

Tabl
e-2 : TTypical
ypical Mechanical Pr
op
er
tie
able-2
Prop
oper
ertie
tiess
Property

Range

UTS

240 N/mm2 minimum

Yield Strength

180 N/mm2 minimum

% elongation on gauge length


Hardness

2% minimum
90 BHN minimum
51

Indian Foundry Journal

Vol 59

No. 8 z August 2013

CASE
STUDYPAPER
TECHNICAL

Severe Leakage
Minor Leakage

Fig. 3 : Defect area.


based die-coat (Dyekote 140), die temperature was between 350 to
450o C.
Solidification time was about 180 seconds. Total cycle time including
core fitment and pouring was about 7 minutes.
Fig. 2 : Methoding.
Grain refinement was done by metallic grain refiner having 5% titanium
and 1.5% boron. The level of titanium was kept at 0.05 to 0.08% in
final chemistry.
Pouring temperature was maintained between 730 to 740o C. Pouring
was done manually by bail out spoons.

Defect
Nearly 50% castings were failing at pressure test. The leakage was
varying from tiny bubbles to strong air jet. The leakage area was not
defined, and the nature was very erratic. However, the bigger leakage
was predominantly at the water jacket junction as shown in Fig. 3. This
is the very area of section variation.

Die was made of cast iron, and was coated with standard zirconia-

After cutting the castings at leaking areas, severe shrinkage was


observed as depicted in Figs. 4, 5, 6 and 7.

Fig. 4 : Section Variation.

Fig. 5 : Internal Shrinkage.

Fig. 6 : Severe Shrinkage.

Fig. 7 : Contraction Cracks.

52
Vol 59

No. 8 z August 2013

Indian Foundry Journal

CASE STUDY
TECHNICAL
PAPER
Confirmation of Defect
To confirm that the defect is shrinkage and not blow hole or inclusion, all the three defects were compared and then analysed.
Shrinkage

Gas Hole

Inclusion

Shape

Erratic, uneven

Round or oval

Erratic, of any shape

Macro appearance

Dendritic, rough

Smooth, shiny

Erratic spot, not cavity

Micro appearance

Dendritic cavity,
Goes out of focus
with matrix.

Round/ rounded cavity,


goes out of focus
with matrix.

Erratic dark spot,


Does not go out of
focus with matrix.

Usually at centre of
metal mass.

Usually on the top


gravitically.

Anywhere, without any


relation with gravity or geometry.

Location

Blow Holes are round.

Inclusion is different material.

Shrinkage is erratic, rough cavity.

Our defect is erratic, rough cavity, hence it is shrinkage.

ANALYSIS
The location of shrinkage was directly under the riser / feeder but the
passage was through thin wall. Due to sand core, it was not possible to
feed it from anywhere else. Also the thin-walled nature, caused
selection of higher temperatures of about 740oC, thus inviting more
shrinkage as a result of delayed solidification.

The first observation was insufficient feeding. Secondly, the shrinkage


had become a tendency of this material and it was seen almost
anywhere. Hence, it was necessary to first understand solidification
and related shrinkage tendencies. AC2B is a peculiar material wherein
the silicon content is about 8.5%. The solid solubility of silicon in
aluminium is 1.65%. Rest 6.85% is free silicon which segregates
during solidification. This segregation is often in form of Lamellae or
53

Indian Foundry Journal

Vol 59

No. 8 z August 2013

CASE
STUDYPAPER
TECHNICAL

Lamellar Silicon forming array of Shrinkage.

Lamellar Silicon leading to Shrinkage.

Partial Modification. No Shrinkage.

Fully modified Silicon. No Shrinkage.

All four micrographs at 1000X etched with HF2%


Needles. They find their place in the inter-dendritic gap or interstitial
gap [gap between 2 grains]. The needle or lamellar structure often
leaves behind some cavities which create sites for shrinkage. This nature
of silicon is often seen enhanced in presence of copper and iron. Since
this alloy has inherent copper at 3% and iron uncontrolled upto 1.3%,
the silicon got the worst possible combination. In presence of shell
core, the scene worsens further. The resin in core starts burning when
it comes in contact with molten aluminium. This exothermic combustion
of resin further heats up the metal and delays solidification. Also the
gas of combustion may cause blow holes or it may dissolve in the
metal leading to pin holes.

Action TTak
ak
en
aken
z

The feeder was increased considering the modulus of casting,


feeder now had higher modulus; and trial was taken with all other
parameters same.

Result : The severe shrinkage in top portion of water jacket was


reduced, but still the rejection level was same.
z

The core was coated with graphite paint to eliminate metal


resin contact and increase conduction.

Result: No significant change in leakages.


z

The core was coated with Aluminium paint to give chilling effect.

Result: No significant change in leakages.


z

The metal temperature was reduced to 720o C.

Result: Casting was un-filled.


z

The chemistry was controlled, copper was taken to the lowest


limit of 3%, Iron was controlled to less than 0.2% and modification
process was introduced without any core paint and temperature
at 740o C.

Result
Result: Significant reduction in leakages.
z

Controlled Chemistry, Modification and Core painted with


Aluminium paint (Chilling coat).

Result: Leak-proof, sound castings were seen; rejection level dropped


down to 2 to 3%, and those also were not due to shrinkage, but were
due to inclusions or cracks caused by human error.

CONCLUSION
To eliminate shrinkage in casting having shell core and section variation,
only proper feeding was not sufficient. Also core coating did not make
significant contribution. However, significant change was observed only
after reducing copper, iron and after modification.
This means, complete metal treatment including modification is the
key to leak-proof castings.

54
Vol 59

No. 8 z August 2013

Indian Foundry Journal

NCTS COLUMN
TECHNICAL
PAPER

Case Study Leakage in Cylinder Block Castings


Through Chaplets
Ziauddin Ahmed1 and Avinash Joshi2
1

Adviser (Technology and Projects), Amtek Auto Ltd., Delhi and Member, NCTS Experts Panel,
2
GM (Designs & Development), Amtek Auto Ltd., Bhiwadi, Rajasthan

INTRODUCTION
Grey Iron cylinder block castings are pressure tested after machining.
Pressure testing is done by applying air pressure in water jacket and
oil passage area. Leakage may occur between water jacket and
cylinder bore or between water jacket and cope/drag wall.
Chemical composition of grey cast iron is as follows :
%
C
3.28

Si

Mn

Cr

Cu

1.98

0.06

0.07

0.6

0.15

0.03

This case study describes an experience of cylinder block leakage


problem through chaplets.
Fig. 2 : Photomicrograph - Zone D (100x)

WHEN CHAPLET CAUSES LEAKAGE?


Many times unfused disc of the chaplet is clearly seen on the surface
of the casting .The unfused chaplet will give rise to leakage if it makes
a continuous connection through the wall thickness of casting starting
from bottom disc to stem to top disc. An ideally fused chaplet will
have microstructure as shown in Fig. 1 and microstructure in different
zones as shown in 3 photomicrographs (Figs. 2-4).

Fig. 3 : Photomicrograph - Zone A & B (100x)

The chaplets may remain unfused due to


i)

Use of excessively heavy chaplets i.e. having very thick stem and
discs.

ii) Use of large number of chaplets.

Fig. 1 : Different Zones

iii) Dirty chaplets, particularly those contaminated with oil, grease


etc. (2) (which can form gas when in contact with liquid metal) or
which have coating contaminated with zinc.
55

Indian Foundry Journal

Vol 59

No. 8 z August 2013

NCTS
COLUMN
TECHNICAL
PAPER
formation of lead oxide causing discontinuity in metal matrix. Chaplets
are coated with tin not only to protect it from rusting, but also because
of tin helps in fusion of chaplets with the body of the casting and
formation of metallurgical bond. Lead is not as good as tin when it
comes to formation of metallurgical bond and fusion with the main
body of the casting. Such a non-fusion around the chaplets will results
in leakage. It is also well-known that presence of lead in as small an
amount as 0.0004% (1) causes degeneration of graphite flakes which
drastically reduces tensile strength of grey iron. Due to this, casting
may develop minute crack in localised area which may result in leakage.

CASE STUDY

Fig. 4 : Photomicrograph - Zone B & C (100x).


If chaplet is the cause of leakage, a very obvious remedy would be to
eliminate the chaplet altogether. It has been observed that at times,
unusually large numbers of chaplets are used because the prints of
the core are not properly designed and are unable to withstand the
upthrust of the liquid metal. Other remedial measures could be to
increase pouring temperature or modification of the gating system to
allow passage of hot metal in area of unfused chaplets.
Contaminated protective coating on chaplet may also be cause of
leakage through chaplets. Chaplets are often received which have
been galvanised instead of being tin-coated. Zinc in contact with liquid
iron forms zinc vapour (boiling point of zinc-980C) resulting in blow
hole or formation of characteristics zinc oxide white fumes which may
get entrapped in liquid iron forming a non-coherent film through which
air may pass, under pressure test, resulting in leakage.
It has also been observed that sometimes chaplets are coated with tin
contaminated with lead. Such chaplets cause leakage because of

The author had an interesting experience of a casting which suddenly


started showing leakage through chaplets. The casting which showed
leakage was a cylinder block casting in which chaplets were placed
over water jacket and these were between water jacket and cope
mould.
On careful examination of sectioned casting pieces, (Fig.1), it was
found that leakage was caused due to blow (marked X in Fig. 1) near
the chaplet. However, the chaplet was found to be free from zinc or
lead contamination. Further examination of the blow area revealed
that the blow formation was from the lower side of the chaplet i.e. the
chaplet end which was kept on the core. It was then found that a shim
was placed under the chaplet to get the required height. Test on shim
showed that it was not coated with tin at all, rather it was galvanised.
The remedial measure in this case is obvious.

REFERENCES
1. BCIRA Broadsheet-50, Harmful Effects of Trace Amounts of Lead
in Flake Graphite Cast Irons.
2. BCIRA Broadsheet-179-1, Chaplets.

56
Vol 59

No. 8 z August 2013

Indian Foundry Journal

IIF Appoints New Secretary General


Mr. Suparno Moitra has been appointed Secretary General of The Institute of Indian
Foundrymen (IIF).
Mr. Moitra will be responsible for the pan-India operations of IIF and would be based in
Kolkata.
Mr. Moitra brings with him over 22 years experience of working with the Industry,
Government, Academia & Civil Society, with more than a decade spent at different national
trade bodies in various capacities.
A seasoned trade body professional, Mr Moitra in the past worked at the Council for Leather Exports (CLE), sponsored
by the Department of Commerce, Government of India, as the Regional Director-Eastern Region and at the
Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) as Deputy Director and West Bengal State Head, both positions being based in
Kolkata.
His immediate past employment was with NASSCOM (the apex body of the IT-BPO industry in India), where he
served as the Regional Manager- East and was responsible for its activities in the East and North-Eastern parts of India.
Mr. Moitra holds a 1st class Post Graduate Diploma in International Trade from the Indian Institute of Foreign Trade
(IIFT, Delhi), Diploma in Marketing Management from IMT, Ghaziabad, a leading B-school, and a 1st class Masters
degree in Political Science. Mr. Moitra is also a certified SA 8000 auditor.

Corrigendum
Mr
arno Moitr
ppoint
et
ar
ener
al of IIF
Mr.. Sup
Suparno
Moitraa aappoint
ppointeed aass Secr
Secret
etar
aryy G
Gener
eneral
In July issue of the IFJ (page 51), it was inadvertently reported that Mr. Suparno Moitra has been appointed

Director General of The Institute of Indian Foundrymen.


et
ar
ener
al of The Institute
It should correctly be read as Mr. Suparno Moitra has been appointed Secr
Secret
etar
aryy G
Gener
eneral
of Indian Foundrymen.
The error is regretted.
oundr
g
All communications to the Secretary General should be sent to: sg@indianf
sg@indianfoundr
oundryy.or
org

Please Subscribe to and Advertise in


Indian Foundry Journal
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PRICE TRENDS

Price Trend of Foundry Raw Materials


Ferro-Chrome, Ferro-Si / Pure Mg, Ferro-Mn, Steel Scrap, Pig Iron, LAM Coke, Al Ingot

US Cents/Lb
FOB China Port

Ferro-Chrome Price Trend

NO
TE : Freight from China to India Port is about 60-80 USD PMT for container load.
NOTE

USD/Ton Ex Plant China

Ferro-Si / Pure Mg Price Trends

NO
TE : Freight from China to India Port is about 60-80 USD PMT for container load.
NOTE

69
Indian FFoundry
oundry Journal

Vol 59

No. 8 z August 2013

PRICE TRENDS

Price Trend of Foundry Raw Materials


Ferro-Chrome, Ferro-Si / Pure Mg, Ferro-Mn, Steel Scrap, Pig Iron, LAM Coke, Al Ingot

USD/Ton FOB China Port

Ferro-Mn Price Trend

NO
TE : Freight from China to India Port is about 60-80 USD PMT for container load.
NOTE

PRICE

MELTING STEEL SCRAP IN RS. PER KG INCLUSIVE OF EXCISE

DATE

THE INSTITUTE OF INDIAN FOUNDRYMEN


67, TUGHLAKABAD INSTITUTIONAL AREA, NEW DELHI-110062

70
Vol 59

No. 8 z August 2013

Indian FFoundry
oundry Journal

PRICE TRENDS

Price Trend of Foundry Raw Materials


Ferro-Chrome, Ferro-Si / Pure Mg, Ferro-Mn, Steel Scrap, Pig Iron, LAM Coke, Al Ingot

PRICE

PIG IRON IN RS. PER KG INCLUSIVE OF EXCISE

DATE

THE INSTITUTE OF INDIAN FOUNDRYMEN


67, TUGHLAKABAD INSTITUTIONAL AREA, NEW DELHI-110062

Rs. /Kg

LAM COKE

DATE

THE INSTITUTE OF INDIAN FOUNDRYMEN


67, TUGHLAKABAD INSTITUTIONAL AREA, NEW DELHI-110062

71
Indian FFoundry
oundry Journal

Vol 59

No. 8 z August 2013

PRICE TRENDS

Price Trend of Foundry Raw Materials

DATE

PRICE OF AL INGOT

THE INSTITUTE OF INDIAN FOUNDRYMEN


67, TUGHLAKABAD INSTITUTIONAL AREA, NEW DELHI-110062

Ferro-Chrome, Ferro-Si / Pure Mg, Ferro-Mn, Steel Scrap, Pig Iron, LAM Coke, Al Ingot

RS. / KG

72
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No. 8 z August 2013

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oundry Journal

73
Indian FFoundry
oundry Journal

Vol 59

No. 8 z August 2013

Examination on Foundry Technology- 2013


WINTER ((December
December 2013)
1.

Module-I Pre-Diploma (ITI Level)

Practical Experience :
(a) Two years working experience in Foundry.
(b) Engineering Graduates in Metallurgy / Mechanical /
Production / Manufacturing etc. where Foundry is a
subject, are not required to have any practical
experience.
(c) Candidates with less than 2 years practical experience
or with no experience may also appear provided :
(i)
He/She has acquired six months practical
experience before appearing in Sec. B and
(ii) Practical experience of 2 years of training in an
approved foundry or related organisation before
he/she is conferred with the final degree by the
Institute.
Guide Notes : Under Preparation.
Registration : Eligible candidates are to register themselves
as students of Module - III Post Diploma Examination. For this
purpose, a candidate should submit Registration Form. duly
filled-in along with a Bank Draft for Rs.600/- to get his/her
Registration Number.
Examination Fee: Rs.400/- for each paper.

Eligibility : Class 10 passed of 10 + 2 schemes or


equivalent qualification.
Registration : Eligible candidates are to register themselves
as student of Pre-Diploma Certificate Examination. Once
registered, student will receive Syllabus and Study Materials
of all the 10 subjects. Students willing to register have to
send a DD of Rs.2,000/- drawn in favour of The Institute of
Indian Foundrymen payable at Kolkata.
Examination Fee : Rs.100/- for each paper or Rs.900/- for
TEN papers at a time.
Student Question Bank : Last years question papers are
available against payment of Rs.50/- per set (inclusive of
mailing charges).

2.

Module-II Diploma Examination


Eligibility:
Class 10 Passed of 10 +2 in Science or its equivalent with
Physics, Chemistry and Mathematics.
ITI Passed or Module -I of IIF passed.
Practical Experience: 1(ONE) year practical experience in
foundry or allied industry before/after successful completion
of the course. However, candidates with less than 1(ONE)
years experience may also appear in Part A provided he/
she acquires six months of practical experience before
appearing in Part B and 1(ONE) years experience or
training in an approved foundry or related organisation for
awarding Module II (Diploma) Certificate.
Syllabus: Cost of Syllabus along with Registration Form is
Rs.100/-. Candidates need to send the amount by a Demand
Draft in favour of The Institute of Indian Foundrymen
payable at Kolkata.
Guide Notes : For Guide Notes, please contact CET at IIF
Center, Kolkata
Registration : Eligible candidates are to register themselves
as students of Module - II Examination. For this purpose, a
candidate should submit Registration Form. duly filled-in
along with a Bank Draft for Rs.500/- to get his/her
Registration Number.
Examination Fee: Rs.300/- for each paper.
z

3. Module-III (Post Diploma Examination on


Foundry Technology
Eligibility:
10 +2 in Science Stream with Physics, Chemistry and
Mathematics.
Passed Module II Examination.
z

4.

ec
ognis
Graduateship Examination (Grad IIF) (R
(Rec
ecognis
ogniseed
by Govt. of India, Ministry of HRD)
Minimum Qualification : 10 + 2 in Science or its equivalent
with Physics, Chemistry and Mathematics
Practical Experience :
(a) Two years working experience in Foundry.
(b) Engineering Graduates in Metallurgy / Mechanical /
Production / Manufacturing etc. where Foundry is a
subject, are not required to have any practical
experience.
(c) Candidates with less than 2 years practical experience
or with no experience may also appear provided :
(i)
He/She has acquired six months practical
experience before appearing in Sec. B and
(ii) Practical experience of 2 years of training in an
approved foundry or related organisation before
he/she is conferred with the final degree by the
Institute.
Syllabus : Cost of Syllabus along with Registration Form is
Rs.100/-. Candidates need to send the amount by a Demand
Draft in favour of The Institute of Indian Foundrymen
payable at Kolkata.

74
Vol 59

No. 8 z August 2013

Indian FFoundry
oundry Journal

Study Materials : For Study Materials, please contact CET


at IIF Center, Kolkata
Registration : Eligible candidates are to register themselves
as students of Grad-IIF Examination. For this purpose, a
candidate should submit Registration Form, duly filled-in,
along with a Bank Draft for Rs.600/- to get his/her
Registration Numbers.
Examination Fee : Rs.400/- for each paper or Rs.1800/for appearing in FIVE papers under one Section at a time.
All Demand Drafts are to be drawn in favour of The Institute
of Indian Foundrymen payable at Kolkata in advance as per
requirement.
Schedule of Examination : 9th-13th December 2013 (as
follows).

Last Years Question Papers : Available on Payment of


Rs. 50/- per year (inclusive of mailing charges).
NO
tions
NOTE
draaft
ftss ffor
aminations
TE FFOR
OR EXAMINEES: Demand dr
or all eexxamina
are to be drawn in favour of The Institute of Indian
Foundrymen, payable at Kolkata in advance as per requirement.
Schedule of Examinations: 9th-13th December, 2013.
Last Date of Registration for all Modules : 9th November, 2013

All Communications to be Addressed to :


oundr ymen
Institutee of Indian FFoundr
The Institut
IIF CENTER, 335 Rajdanga Main Road
East Kolkata Township P.O., Kolkata - 700 107
Ph : (033) 2442-4489 / 6825, (Direct) 40630074
Fax : (033) 2442-4491, E-mail : cet@indianfoundry.org
Website : http://www.indianfoundry.org

Examination Programme - Winter 2013


Module-I (Pre-Diploma - ITI Level) Examination (9th - 13th December, 2013)
Date
Monday
Tuesday
Wednesday
Thursday
Friday

09.12.2013
10.12.2013
11.12.2013
12.12.2013
13.12.2013

10:00 AM to 1:00 PM
English (P-1)
Chemistry (P-3)
Engg. Drawing (P-5)
Pattern Construction (P-7)
Melting Technology & Cupola Melting Emission Control (P-9 a&b)

2:00 PM to 5:00 PM
Physics (P-2)
Mathematics (P-4)
Workshop Technology (P-6)
Moulding Technology (P-8)
Cast Metal Technology (P-10)

Modul
e-II (Dipl
oma) Ex
amina
tion (9th - 13th Dec
ember
ar t-A
Module-II
(Diploma)
Examina
amination
December
ember,, 2013), PPar
Date
Monday
Tuesday
Wednesday
Thursday
Friday

09.12.2013
10.12.2013
11.12.2013
12.12.2013
13.12.2013

10:00 AM to 1:00 PM
Mathematics (A-1)
Applied Chemistry (A-3)
Engineering Drawing (A-5)
Electrical Technology & Electronic Devices (A-7)
Basic Mechanical Engineering (A-9)

2:00 PM to 5:00 PM
Engineering Physics (A-2)
English for Communication (A-4)
Introduction to Computing (A-6)
Introduction to Engg. Materials (A-8)
-----

Modul
e-II (Dipl
oma) Ex
amina
tion (9th - 13th Dec
ember
ar t-B
Module-II
(Diploma)
Examina
amination
December
ember,, 2013), PPar
Date
Monday
Tuesday
Wednesday
Thursday
Friday

09.12.2013
10.12.2013
11.12.2013
12.12.2013
13.12.2013

10:00 AM to 1:00 PM
2:00 PM to 5:00 PM
Casting Technology (B1)
Mould and Core Making (B2)
Melting and Casting Technology (B3)
Special Casting Processes (B4)
Heat Treatment of Casting & Related Equipments (B5) Testing and Inspection in Foundry (B6)
Industrial Management (B7)
1st Elective (B8)
2nd Elective (B9)
(Any one of the following from each group)

Elective-B8
(E-I) Process Planning and Cost Estimation
(E-II) Pollution Control and Occupational Health in Foundry Industry
(E-III) Principles of Methoding and Casting Design

Elective-B9
(E-IV) Technology of Cast Iron
(E-V) Technology of Cast Steel
(E-VI) Technology of Non-Ferrous Metals and Alloys
ontd to a e

75
Indian FFoundry
oundry Journal

Vol 59

No. 8 z August 2013

Examination Programme - Winter 2013 (contd.)


Modul
e-III ( PPost
ost
-Dipl
oma) Ex
amina
tion (9th - 13th Dec
ember
Module-III
ost-Dipl
-Diploma)
Examina
amination
December
ember,, 2013)
Date
Monday
Tuesday
Wednesday

09.12.2013
10.12.2013
11.12.2013

Thursday

12.12.2013

Friday

13.12.2013

10:00 AM to 1:00 PM
Engineering Mathematics (PDC A-1)
Industrial Chemistry (PDC A-3)
Mechanical Drawing (PDC A-5)
Modern Equipment, Instrumentation and
Sensor in Foundry (PDC A-7)
Metal Shaping and Surface Finishing (PDC A-9)

2:00 PM to 5:00 PM
Engineering Physics (PDC A-2)
English Communication (PDC A-4)
Pollution Control Safety & Social
Accountability (PDC A-6)
Basic Physical Metallurgy & Heat Treatment
(PDC A-8)
-----

Grad IIF Examination - 2013 (9th - 13th December, 2013) , Section : A


Date
Monday
Tuesday
Wednesday
Thursday
Friday

09.12.2013
10.12.2013
11.12.2013
12.12.2013
13.12.2013

10:00 AM to 1:00 PM
Mathematics (A-1)
Physics (A-3)
Mechanics of Solids and Fluids (A-5)
Workshop Technology for Foundrymen (A-7)
English for Technical Communication (A-9)

2:00 PM to 5:00 PM
Introduction to Computing (A-2)
Chemistry (A-4)
Introduction to Materials (A-6)
Basic Electrical & Electronics Engineering (A-8)
Engineering Drawing (A-10)

10:00 AM to 1:00 PM
Theory of Foundry Processes (B-1)
Testing of Metals and Alloys (B-3)
Foundry Management (B-5)
Energy Efficiency and Pollution Control (B-7)
Elective-I (B-9)
(Any one of the following from each group)

2:00 PM to 5:00 PM
Principles of Methoding & Casting Design (B-2)
Fuels, Furnaces & Refractories (B-4)
Metallurgy of Cast Alloys (B-6)
Advances in Casting Technology (B-8)
Elective-II (B-10)

Section : B
Date
Monday
Tuesday
Wednesday
Thursday
Friday

a)
b)
c)
d)

09.12.2013
10.12.2013
11.12.2013
12.12.2013
13.12.2013

Elective-I
Technology of Iron Casting
Steel Foundry Technology
Non-Ferrous Foundry Technology
Physical Metallurgy of Ferrous and Non-Ferrous Alloys

Elective-II
a) Welding Technology
b) Foundry Instrumentation & Control
c) Foundry Mechanisation, Automation & Layout

Introduction of ModuleIII (Post-Diploma) Course in Foundry Technology


echnol
ogy and with this all the
The Institute of Indian Foundrymen is introducing the Post-Diploma course (Module - III) in Foundr
oundryy TTechnol
echnology
Modules in Foundry Technology i.e. Module-I ( Pre-Diploma), Module-II (Diploma) ModuleIII (Post-Diploma) and Module-IV (Grad IIFGraduateship) are now available for working foundrymen to upgrade their knowledge and educational qualification.
ModuleIII has following subjects on latest important areas of Foundry Technology :
z
Quality Control Techniques including Data Analysis
z
Pollution Control, Safety & Social Accountability
z
Modern Equipment, Instrumentation and Sensor in Foundry
z
Sand Casting Technology
z
Selection and Application of Metal and Alloys
z
Production and Human Resource Management
z
Metal Shaping and Surface Finishing
z
Precision Casting Process
z
Pattern Engineering Technology
z
Salvaging of Castings by Welding and other means
z
Melting and Casting Technology
z
Computer Application & Simulation
z
Testing ( Mechanical & NDT) & Salvaging
z
Casting Defects and Their Remedies
Interested students may register for the Module-III course. The Institute will start conducting the examination of this course along
with the other modules from December, 2013.
urther
details
aree av
availabl
ailablee fr
from
F ur
ther det
ails ar
ailabl
om :
Mr. G. Mukherjee, Director (CET), Phone : 40630074, E-mail : cet@indianfoundry.org
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oundry Journal

Indian Foundrymen Visited Foundries in Japan


A Report
A delegation of Indian foundrymen from all over India, sent by IIF,
visited a few foundries in Japan in the recent past. The delegation, led
by Mr. A. K. Anand, Director, IIF-Delhi was sent in persuance of MoU
signed between IIF and Japan Foundry Society. The metalcasting units
visited in Nippon were all SMEs and located in and around Nagoya, Gifu
and Tokyo.
The team members, while observing those foundries underlined several
remarkable differences in production process, quality management,
environmental aspect, as compared to their Indian counterparts. This
report contains details of their observations that would be interesting
to Indian foundrymen.
The group visited eight ductile and cast iron and two aluminium lowpressure die-casting foundries. Most of eight casting units have adopted
mass production system with mechanised as well as semi-mechanised
layout. Four areas that have been taken care of with utmost seriousness
by the Japanese foundries are environment protection, safety of
workers, product quality and manufacturing lead time cycle.
According to the Japanese foundrymen, best quality castings could
be produced with combination of good pattern, good sand, good melt
composition and good moulding. It was observed that match-plate
patterns seem to be machined from a single-piece casting block. Their
concern over environment is appreciable. Dust collectors are placed
in every point of operations like shakeout, fettling, grinding, pouring
even in cupolas. Collected dust is recycled and the unusable portion is
used for road construction. Indian foundries, irrespective of their sizes,
may follow the practice. As the Indian foundrymen observed, most of
ferrous foundries use hot blast water- cooled cupola fitted with dust
collector and heat exchanger system. Charging is done with skip hoists

Transfer to the Pouring Ladle after Mg Treatment

View of a Hot Blast Cupola

that are loaded by fork lifter carrying the bins loaded with coke, pig iron
and lime stone. Temperature of metal spout was about 1550C.
Green Bond is a special type of additive for mixing with green sand
which not only improves casting surface finish, but also produces much

Shake-out dust collecting system

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z

No. 8 zz August 2013

200 MT per person per annum in some CI/DI casting


units. They are also producing super materials like
composite materials with corrosion resistance,
abrasion resistance and higher toughness properties.
Vanadium carbide is added to martensite steel matrix
through casting/liquid metallurgy route for making
smash hammer where abrasion resistance and
toughness are of prime importance.

Fettling station with dust collection facility

better machinability by giving birth to gaseous film between mould


and molten iron mitigating excess surface hardening during solidification.
This bond is used by many foundries in Japan. Higher machinability
results in overall cost reduction significantly, productivity enhancement
and also longer tool life. Use of this special bonding agent
contributes to higher flow and compactibility of sand
preventing sand-related defects like inclusions, sand
burning/sand penetration, sand drops etc. Green Bond
reduces cost of additives like bentonite, sea coal and
starch. Allowable dead clay varies between 2-3% (max.)
and active clay varies between 8-9% (max.).
Bigger foundries in Japan are having facilities like highpressure moulding lines, automatic pouring and fettling
etc. Here, pattern changing process is very fast which
takes a few minutes and normally, patterns are changing
8-10 times in a shift. For product development,
solidification simulation software is used. To reduce lead
time of dispatch, simulation is also resorted to for
machining.
Workers movement in the foundries in Japan is strictly
controlled within clearly demarcated areas on the shop-floor and other
areas of plants. Flow line for each man and material never cross each
other to avoid accidents.
Workers safety as well as workplace condition is taken care of with
utmost importance. Two-shift production system prevails in Japanese
foundries. Yearly 120 days are non-working days and additional 20
days (average) are paid holidays. Workers productivity is as high as

Cost reduction is done by VE/VA activities as


developmental cost is suppressed. One of leading
foundry equipment manufacturers reported that they
regularly organise safety courses not only for their
employees, but also for customers as a variety of
safety measures are necessary while accessing
equipment in operation. An installed software performs pre-check of
operators health condition on the touch panel. Risk Prevention Meeting
is held at the plant every morning before starting work. Information on

Castings ranging 40g 60 kg.

possible risks at workplace is shared at this meeting.


Foundries in Japan are very much cautious about their social
responsibilities. They are concerned about health of the people around
their plants, for which they put in much effort.
Japanese foundries give high school students access to their workshops
to learn about various operations at the plant to and get the feeler of
becoming Worker for a Day.

am Sutr
Report from Dr
Dr.. Gout
Goutam
Sutraadhar
dhar, Professor, Deptartment of Mechanical Engineering, Jadavpur University, who was part of the
IIF delegation.
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IIF Membership Benefits


The Institute of Indian Foundrymen (IIF) is a professional organisation affiliated to the World Foundry Organization (WFO) and Confederation
of Indian Industry (CII), India.
IIF has completed 60 years of service to the Indian foundry fraternity and allied industries.
Members can renew membership and purchase IIF Publications online and pay using Credit/Debit Cards, Bank Transfer etc.
z

For online renewals, click Online Services in Home Page of website www.indianfoundry.org and follow guidelines therein.

Renewals may also be done by sending remittance by Cash/At per Cheque/ Demand Draft with Membership number to IIF Center,
Kolkata.

Applicants for admission to membership may download Form from Membership section of website and send remittance with completed
form or fill Online Form and pay by Credit Card/Debit Card etc. at the secure Online Servicesat IIF Website.
Membership Benefits (Category Details given below)
SM

LM

IM

CM

FEL

AFL

FM

FCM

Indian Foundry Journal (Monthly)

Free

Free

Free

Free

Free

Free

Free

Free

Free

Attend Chapter/Region Activities

Free

Free

Free

Free

Free

Free

Free

Free

Free

Conference Fee Rebate

yes

yes

yes

yes

yes

yes

yes

yes

yes

Exhibition Space Rebate

yes

yes

yes

yes

yes

yes

yes

yes

yes

yes

yes

Free Entry in Indian Foundry Directory

yes

Weightage of Vote

2/4/7/10

Representation in Councils

yes

yes

yes

yes

yes

IIF Website - Alphabetic Profile listing,

Free

Free

IIF Website - Buy/Sell Used Equipment

Free

Free

Free

Free

Free

Free

Free

Free

IIF Website - Consultancy Wanted/Offered

Free

Free

Free

Free

Free

Free

Free

Free

IIF Website - Respond to enquiries regarding

yes

Free

Free

Free

Free

Free

Free

Free

Free

Free

Free

Free

Free

Free

Free

Free

Free

Free

Free

Buy IIF Publications in E-Store

Category & Product Search Enabled

Castings Required
IIF Website - Reply to
Situations Vacant Domestic and Foreign
against postings by companies
IIF Website - Ask the Experts

SM=Student Member, M=Member, LM=Life Member, IM=Institutional Member, CM=Company Member, FEL=Fellow Member, AFL= Affiliate Member,
FM=Foreign Member, FCM=Foreign Company Member

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IIF MEMBERSHIP BENEFITS


Membership Categories
Member (M)
Any individual who has completed 28 years of age with at least 3
years experience in a position of responsibility in technical or
executive or teaching function in a foundry or related industry/
Institute is eligible for membership in this category.

by an existing member aged over 45, who has completed a stipulated minimum period of membership.
Institutional Member (IM)
Educational Institutions, Research Organisations and Libraries can
join as Institutional Members.

Student Member (SM)


A student of engineering or science from a recognised school,
college or Institute or a technical trainee in foundry can qualify for
student membership for a maximum of five years.
(Maximum period of Student Membership is FIVE years. This was
inadvertently mentioned as three years in earlier issues.)
Affiliate Member (AFL)
Such persons who are not directly connected to the foundry work,
but wish to keep themselves in touch with the happenings and
progress in the foundry industry by updating himself through the
Institutes publications and programmes.
Life Member (LM)
Lifetime membership by paying a one time fee can be availed of

Company Member (CM)


A Company Member of the Institute is eligible to receive additional
facilities such as free entry in Indian Foundry Directory ( a reference book on Industry used by all Govt. and Non-Govt
Organisations), free listing in IIF Website, access details of Casting
Buyers in IIF website, participate in Group activities like International Exhibition - GIFA, Hannover Fair etc. at discounted rates
arranged by IIF. Company members also enjoy higher weightage in
votes and have sector-wise quota in Chapter, Regional and National Council.
F or
eign Member
or
eign Comp
any Member (FM / FFCM)
CM)
oreign
Member,, FFor
oreign
Company
Overseas or Foreign Members are also welcome to join IIF fraternity.

Subscription and Admission Fees


CA
TE
GO R
Y
ATE
TEG
RY

Annual
Subscription

Admission
Fee

AFFILIATE MEMBER

` 2000/-

` 500/-

INDIVIDUAL MEMBER

` 1200/-

` 300/-

STUDENT MEMBER

` 200/-

Nil

INSTITUTIONAL MEMBER

` 5000/-

` 5000/-

COMPANY MEMBER - (Annual Sales Turnover-based)


- Below 1 Crore

` 2000/-

` 1000/-

- Between 1 to 5 Crores

` 3000/-

` 1500/-

- Between 5 to 10 Crores

` 5000/-

` 2500/-

- Above 10 Crores

` 10000/-

` 5000/-

FOREIGN INDIVIDUAL MEMBER

USD 75

USD 25

FOREIGN COMPANY MEMBER

USD 250

USD 75

LIFE MEMBER (Conditions Apply)

` 50,000/-

N.B.

z
z

In addition, Service Tax is payable @12.36% on Membership Subscription / Admission Fees.


Company Members are requested to provide copy of Balance Sheet along with the application where, their Annual Sales
Turnover is below ` 10 Crore ( ` 100 million) .

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Indian Foundry Journal

IIF MEMBERSHIP BENEFITS

CHANGE OF MEMBERSHIP SUBSCRIPTION PERIOD FROM CALENDAR YEAR TO FINANCIAL YEAR


As per National Council decision, for Membership Subscription, the Institute is switching over from CALENDAR YEAR (JAN-DEC) to
FINANCIAL YEAR (APRIL-MARCH) with immediate effect.
With respect to this changeover, Membership Subscription is payable as per table below.
Period already paid upto

Period to pay for

December 2011

January March 2012 to be followed by Financial Year (April 2012 March 2013) and
thereafter pay for (April- March) Financial Years

December 2012

January March 2013 and thereafter pay for (April- March) Financial Years

December 2013

January March 2014 and thereafter pay for (April- March) Financial Years

December 2014

January March 2015 and thereafter pay for (April- March) Financial Years

Discontinuation of Rebate on Membership Subscription


As per decision of the National Council of IIF, all rebate on
Membership Subscription is withdrawn with immediate effect.
Exception
Exception: Individual and affiliate Members can avail of a discount of 25% on Membership subscription
on fulfilment of all of the following conditions:
1) Having completed 15 years or more of continuous membership
2) Above 60 years of age
3) Retired and not currently in professional employment
4)

Furnishing a declaration to that effect

CET Study Material for Practising Foundrymen


z
z
z

P oll
ution Contr
ol & Oc
cup
al
th in FFoundr
oundr y Industr y
ollution
Control
Occup
cupaa tional He
Heal
alth
Energy Efficiency & Pollution Control
Ener
gy Management & Audit in FFoundrie
oundrie
Energy
oundriess

Metal casting is an energy-intensive manufacturing process which causes


environmental pollution.
The above study materials are aimed at creating appropriate awareness on this subject
and would help in adopting means to control pollution.

The publications are available from :


Centr
or EEduca
duca
tion & TTrr aining
Centree ffor
ducation
IIF Center, 335, Rajdanga Main Road, East Kolkata Township P.O. Kolkata - 700 107, E-Mail : cet@indianfoundry.org
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Round Table Meet on Economic


Resurgence of Foundry & Metal Sector
Growth of manufacturing sector is essential
for GDP growth, job creation, poverty alleviation
and overall economic upliftment, said Shri N.K.
Singh, Honble Member of Rajya Sabha while
addressing the Round Table Meet on Economic
Resurgence of Foundry & Metal Sector as Chief
Guest on July 19, 2013 in New Delhi. The Meet
was organised by IIF-Delhi Chapter and
supported by Policy Advocacy Committee of
IIF.
In the Meet at Hotel The Claridges, among other
dignitaries present were Shri Ajay Shankar,
Member Secretary, NMCC; Mr. U.P. Singh, Joint
Secretary, Ministry of Steel; Shri Gaurav Dave,
Chief Jt. Secretary & Dr. K.B. Thakur, Addl. Chief,
NMCC and Shri P. Udayakumar, Director
(P & M) of NSIC.
Shri Singh said that in the past, priority had been given to growth of
service sector. Accent now needs to be shifted to manufacturing sector.
In his opinion, to revitalise manufacturing sector, several issues like
land reforms, reforms in power, coal sectors need to be addressed.

Shri Singh commented that foundry industry, which contributes a lot in


progress of manufacturing sector, is not focused on as the industry is
treated as residual sub-sector.

six millions directly and indirectly with huge potential to grow and
having an important place in the countrys economy need to be
supported adequately. He also mentioned of various challenges faced
by Indian foundry industry. Shri Singh urged the Member-Secretary,
NMCC to help create a forum like Development Council who would
revive various issues of metalcasting sub-sector periodically and take
required steps. The Chief Guest also promised to utilise his good offices
to extend support and cooperation for growth of foundry industry which
is essential for progress of Indian manufacturing Inc.

Emphasising the importance of metalcasting industry, the Chief Guest


stated that about 5000 casting units providing employment to nearly

Shri Ajay Shankar, Secretary of NMCC in his address stated that he had
long association with IIF since he was Secretary, DIPP. Echoing to

There is no chance for power tariff reduction rather the same would
further go up, he observed.

89
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59 zz No.
No. 88 zz August
August2013
2013
Vol

Shri Singh, Shri Shankar said that sustainable


growth of foundry industry is vital for growth of
Indias manufacturing sector, which contributes
a lot to the countrys economy, needs to attract
attention of the policy makers. Shri Shankar
expressed his full support to IIFs proposal for
setting up of a Development Council for foundry
sub-sector.
Mr. V.P. Saha, Co-Chairman of IIF Policy Advocacy
Committee in his address supported the statement
made by Shri Shankar.
Earlier, Mr. Harsh K. Jha, President of IIF in his
welcome address had pointed out reasons for
success of Chinas manufacturing sector. He
informed that Chinese Government gives utmost
importance to this sector. They have policy to
select a few key manufacturing sub-sectors from time to time whom
they provide with special help to grow and even support to become
Global leaders. He wished that Indian policy makers also could help
manufacturing sector to flourish resulting in creation of millions of jobs
in the country.
Mr. U.P. Singh, Jt. Secretary, Ministry of Steel while addressing the
Meet stressed the need for enhancing steel production in India. He
informed that at present, steel plants are facing raw material crunch.
He also emphasised the need for adopting updated technology in the
steel sector for improved operational efficiency.
Ms. Reena Bhagwati, Vice President of IIF in her address presented
overview of Indian foundry industry as well as global scenario of the
industry. She also mentioned various impediments faced by the

metalcasting sub-sector and the areas where Government policy


makers attention is needed to be invited for intervention to ensure
sustainable growth of the foundry industry.
Mr. G.S. Agarwala, Chairman of IIF-Energy & Environment Committee
highlighted the importance of metalcasting industry for the growth of
automobile and other engineering sectors. He also threw light on
availability of raw material like scrap in metal industry at competitive
price and need for abolition of import duty in input items that would
affect competitiveness of metal shaping industry in India.
Vote of thanks was offered by Mr. Vinod Kumar, Chairman of IIF-Delhi
Chapter.
The event was covered in leading newspapers.

Subscription Rates of Indian Foundry Journal


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Old Issues of Indian Foundry Journal are Available at Discounted Price.
Limited stock of old issues of IFJ since 2006 are on sale. Please send your enquiries to :
journal@indianfoundry.org
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Nominations are Invited for

ANNUAL AWARDS
Of The Institute of Indian Foundrymen for the year 2013
The A
war
ds will be pr
oundr
Awar
wards
preesent
enteed aatt the 62nd Indian FFoundr
oundryy Congr
Congreess
o be hel
d during FFebruar
ebruar
andhinagar
o IIF Member
held
ebruaryy 07-09, 2014 aatt G
Gandhinagar
andhinagar,, Gujar
Gujaraa t tto
Memberss ba
bassed on
tto
nomina
tions rrec
ec
eiv
arious ca
nominations
eceiv
eiveed under vvarious
catt egorie
egoriess
Unless otherwise stated, the period considered for the Awards would be
1st April, 2012 to 31st March, 2013
(Last date for receipt of Nominations is 30th November, 2013)
1.

Lakshman Rao Kirloskar Award - for Foundry of


the Year Sponsored by Kirloskar Oil Engines, Pune (Open

Minimum Qualifying Criteria


The foundry should have consent to operate from the State
Pollution Control Board. Copy of consent to be enclosed. The
consent should be current. Copy of yearly or half-yearly
statement for the previous year as submitted to the concerned
authorities should be enclosed.

only to Company Members of the Institute)

Criteria for Selection


(i)

(ii)

(iii)
(iv)

Qualitative and quantitative improvement in the last 3 years


oduction by adopting
and various steps taken to increase pr
production
advanced technology.
-15 points

[i]

Qualitative and quantitative improvement in the last 3 years


oductivity and
and various steps taken to increase pr
productivity
improve production by reduction of man-hours. -15 points
Energy savings effected with Energy Audit (Energy Audit report
to be enclosed).
-10 points
Waste reduction by effecting Waste Management.
Criteria value of savings
-10 points

(v)

Innovative technology.

-10 points

(vi)

New process controls introduced.

-10 points

[ii]

The foundry should have taken steps to install Pollution Control


Equipments for improving the quality of air and water. It should
submit the following :
a)

The equipments installed, with technical details and


photos.

b)

Methods adopted for record keeping & reporting.


-15 points

The foundry should submit the following details for Waste


Management :
a)

(vii) Quality Management for overall quality improvement.


-10 points

Steps taken to reuse/recycle spent foundry materials/


wastes and/or other by-products and benefits accrued.
- 5 points

b)

Method of waste treatment and disposal.

- 5 points

(viii) Safety Management.

c)

Energy conservation activities.

- 5 points

(ix)

No. of accidents during the year

-10 points

HRD Promotion efforts.

-10 points
Total :

Total :
[iii]

The policy and practice by the foundry in obtaining Safety


Data Sheets from the supplier for each chemical used in the
foundry.
- 5 points

[iv]

Actions taken by foundry in eco-friendly packaging of both


incoming and outgoing products.
-10 points

[v]

Details with photos of the area inside and outside the foundry
building clearly indicating the actions taken for developing of
greenary. Ratio of greenary area to foundry operational area
to be specified.
-10 points

[vi]

Evidence of top Management commitment to Environmental


Protection in terms of an Environmental Policy and
Environmental Management System.
- 5 points

100 points

Nominations for this award should be accompanied by:


a)
b)

2.

Facts and figures with adequate explanatory notes covering


each of the above criteria and
At least 6 numbers of colour photographs showing excellence
in various aspects of the foundry i.e. sand conditioning,
moulding/core making, melting, pouring, fettling, heat
treatment, viz. plant & equipment and foundry products.

Gargi Huttenes-Albertus Green Foundry of the


Year Award - Sponsored by Gargi Huttenes-Albertus Pvt.
Ltd., Mumbai (Open only to Company Members of the Institute)

15 points

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ANNU
AL AW
ARDS
ANNUAL
AWARDS
[vii]

Measures introduced to reduce / prevent noise pollution.


-10 points

Nominations should be sent by the Chairman or the Hon.


Secretary of the Region, to the IIF-HO.

[viii] Foundry should submit healthcare and welfare measures


adopted for their personnel.
-10 points

Nominations are to be filed by all Regions.

[ix]

(i)

[x]

3.

Foundry should submit safety measures that have been put


in place and training of their personnel in handling emergency
measures in case of fire.
-10 points

The criteria for the award will be :-

(b)

Use of alternate energy resource - Building, Construction,


Transportation etc.
-10 points
Total :100 points

Foundryman of the Year Award - Awarded by IIF


The nominee for Foundryman of the Year Award should be a
Member, Life Member, Fellow Member or employee of
Company Member of IIF and (a) should be at least a Diploma
holder and have a minimum of 10 years of experience related
to foundry industry or employee of a company member (b)
should have a minimum of 15 years of experience out of
which at least 5 years should be in the foundry industry.

For conducting Regional Council


Meetings (1 point per meeting)
Minimum 1 meeting per quarter

5 Points max.

For conducting Regional Council


Meeting at other than Regional
HO city, at Chapter Head Offices
of the Region (1 bonus point
per meeting)

5 Points max.

Sub-Total : 10 Points max.


(ii)

Annual R
epor t and Annual Audit
Repor
Auditee d Ac
Accc ount
ountss :
a)
Timely submission by the Region
5 Points
b)
Ensuring timely submission by
the Chapters under its
jurisdiction
10 Points max.
Sub-Total : 15 Points max.

(i)

Process Improvement

10 Points

Chapter Activities :
a)
Ensuring that Chapters conduct
Technical Meetings

(ii)

Material Substitution

10 Points

b)

(iii)

Criteria for the award will be contribution to :-

(iii) Use of New Technology

10 Points

(iv) Cost Reduction

10 Points

(v)

15 Points

Increase in Production

(vi) Increase in Productivity

15 Points

(vii) Energy Savings

10 Points

(viii) Quality Improvement. including


ISO Certification

10 Points

(ix) HRD Promotion Efforts

10 Points

c)

(iv)

Nominations for Foundryman of the Year award should be


accompanied by facts and figures and adequate explanatory
notes covering each of the above criteria and highlighting the
individual contribution made by the nominee under each of
the criteria.
Photographs (optional) may be submitted to substantiate the
proposal for the award.

IIF Region of the Year Award - Awarded by IIF


o 30th June,
The period for this award is 1st Jul
Julyy, 2012 tto
2013.

5 Points

Ensuring that Chapters submit


Monthly Activity Reports in
prescribed form regularly

5 Points

Na
tional FFoundr
oundr y Da
ebr
National
Dayy Cel
Celebr
ebraa tion
a)
On 17th August or within a week
before or after 17th August
b)

Nominations for the award should be forwarded to IIF-HO by


the Company where the person is currently employed.

c)

5 Points

Ensuring that Chapters hold


regular Chapter Council
Meetings

Sub-Total :

Total : 100 Points

4.

(a)

15 Points

6 Points

Quality of National Foundry Day


and Social Get-together

2 Points

Chief Guest for NFD must be


a person of Stature in industry/
Government

2 Points

Sub-Total : 10 Points max.


(v)

Membership Growth :
Membership Growth over the year in percentage will be
calculated giving due weightage to type of Member. For
company members, weightage will be as per Annual Sales
Turnover i.e. 2,4,7,10. Weightage for others, except Student
10 PPoint
oint
Members =1.
ointss

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ANNU
AL AW
ARDS
ANNUAL
AWARDS
(vi) Technical Activities :
a)
Organisation of one Seminar/
Workshop relating to the
Presidential theme
b)

c)

The Chairman or the Hon. Secretary of the Chapter concerned


should send the nomination to IIF-HO with details of criteria
as stated below :5 Points

Ensuring Chapters under its


jurisdiction conduct Technical
activities

a)
b)

5 Points

jurisdiction

(ii)
5 Points

15 Points max.

(iii)

(a)

(b)

a)

b)

(v)

10 Points max.

Sub-Total :
(vi)

2 Points
(max. 6)
2 Points
(max. 4)

10 Points max.

CET Technical Activities :


a)

Lectures arranged ....


point per lecture

4 Points max.

b)

Lectures by outstation speakers within the Chapter or


arranged outside the Chapters jurisdiction
1 point per lecture
2 Points max.

c)

Lecture / Training Programme for shop-floor personnel


in vernacular - 2 point per lecture
6 Points max.

Gargi Industries, Mumbai (For IIF Chapter of the Year)


The period for this Award is 1st June. 2012 to 31st May,
2013.

4 Points

Works Visit:

100 Points

Viswamitra Kapur Memorial Award - Sponsored by

6 Points

Only one visit in each quarter will be considered


a)
Each visit within the Chapters
territory
b)
Each visit outside the Chapters
territory

Participation in terms of Delegates/Technical Presentations/


Souvenir and mobilisation of other resources, assistance for
conduct of the Congress wherever it is held
5 Points

5.

Celebration of NF Day on
August 17th or within a week
before or after August 17th
Quality of NFD programme &
social get-together
(Chapters must present
mementos to Members
completing 25 years)
Sub-Total :

Indian Foundry Congress :

The proposal for Nomination should cover brief write-up on


each of the above points.

Attending Regional Council meetings by


Chapter Chairman and Hon. Secretary
(1/2 point for each meeting)
5 Points max.

Celebration of National Foundry Day

Submission of Technical Proceedings

Total :

4 Points max.

15 Points max.

Each Region should promote public relations with the


Government Departments and also hold regular Press
Conferences bringing to light the problems faced by foundry
industry, particularly relating to availability of input materials,
central levies like Excise, Customs Duty on capital goods,
import of scrap, reduction of power tariff etc.
5 Points

(xi)

6 Points max.

Chapter Council Meeting


(1/2 point for each meeting with
a ceiling of one each month)

(iv)

Submission of Technical Proceedings of Seminar conducted


by Region or by Chapters under its jurisdiction at H.O.
5 Points

5 Points

Timely receipt of Monthly Activity Reports (in prescribed


form supplied by the HO) by 21st of the following month.

(viii) Technical Services rendered for quality improvement, energy


savings, increased productivity, decreased rejection etc.
Documentary evidence to be submitted
5 Points
(ix) Service to Foundry Industry :

10 Points

15 Points max.

Each such report will earn 1/2 point

(vii) Attendance at NC Meetings by Nominated Members of


the Region (Chairman, Hon. Secretary, other Nominated
Members) Proportion of attendance
5 Points

(x)

Timely submission of Annual


Audited Accounts to HO
Timely submission of Annual
Report to HO
Sub-Total :

In-plant technical lecture or technical


lecture organised in educational Institutions
by Region or by Chapters under its
Sub-Total :

(i)

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d)

Full Day /Two or more days Seminar/


Workshop/Clinic
6 Points max.

e)

Promoting CETs Modular Educational


Programme (Module I : Pre-Diploma,
Module II : Diploma, Module III,
Post Diploma and Module IV : Grad-IIF
Examination) point per student
registered in CET Education courses 12 Points max.
Sub-Total :

that there is no paper which comes upto a Standard to deserve


the award, it will not recommend any award for the year.
Reprints from IFC/WFC/SEMINARS/CONFERENCES would not
be considered.

8.

For the best Technical Paper presented at the Congress.


If the paper has more than one author, the author making
the presentation will be given the Award. Both content and
presentation will be taken into account in deciding the award.
Reprints from IFC/WFC/SEMINARS/CONFERENCES should
not be considered.

30 Points max.

(vii) Technical Service rendered to Foundries :


Activities in this area are expected to encourage improved
vvorking methods/ processes leading to savings through
increased yields, lower rejection, cost reduction etc. Service
should be provided to at least two foundries.
5 Points

9.

Membership Growth over the year in percentage will be


calculated giving due weightage to type of Member. For
company members, weightage will be as per Annual Sales
Turnover i.e. 2,4,7,10. Weightage for others, except Student
Members =1.
10 Points

Total :

5 Points
100 Points

Chairmen or Hon. Secretaries of the Chapters should send


details with a brief write-up of each of the above criteria.

6.

Membership Growth Award for IIF Chapters Awarded by IIF


The period for this Award is 1st January 2012 to 31st
December, 2012. Membership Growth over the year in
percentage will be calculated giving due weightage to type of
Member. For company members, weightage will be as per
Annual Sales Turnover i.e. 2,4,7,10. Weightage for others,
except Student Members = 1.

7.

He or she nominated for the Award should be :

Formation of Student Groups


Formation of Student Group with at least
2 programmes

Best Technical Paper Award - Awarded by IIF


The best technical paper will be judged from the papers
(other than non-ferrous) published in the Indian Foundry
Journal during the period, April 1st, 2012 to March 31st,
2013.
As the Awards are intended to be a recognition for outstanding
contribution, in the event of the Committee being satisfied

Young Foundryman of the Year


The Nomine
or YYoung
oung FFoundr
oundr yman of the YYee ar
Nomineee ffor
Award shall be from Industries who are Members of
IIFAwarded by IIF

(viii) Membership Growth :

(ix)

Soli Commissariat Best Paper Award (Silver Medal)

a)

Graduate in Metallurgy / Foundry Technology or


equivalent qualification and should have a minimum of
8 years of experience related to the Foundry Industry.

b)

The maximum age limit for the eligible candidate will


be 40 years.

The criteria for the award will be for excellence in combination of


following :a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
g)
h)
i)
j)

Process/Quality Improvement
- 10 Points
Material Substitution
-10 Points
Use of New Technology
-10 Points
Cost Reduction
-10 Points
Increase in Production
-10 Points
Energy Savings
-10 Points
Books/papers published (Details of Journals)
-10 Points
Exposure to Foreign Organisations
-10 Points
Participation / Paper presentation in National
and International Seminars
-10 Points
Awards received, if any
-10 Points
Total :
100 Points

10. Casting of the Year Award (Showcase Your


Companys Casting Capability) - Awarded by IIF
Eligibility
a)
b)
c)

Participation is open to all Indian Foundries.


Foundry / Owner of Foundry must be member of IIF
Casting may be of any metal, any end-application, size/
weight produced using any casting process.

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The awards will be given in two categories :
1) Ferrous Cast Iron, SG Iron or Steel Casting

Small castings upto 100 kg

Large castings above 100 kg


2) Non-Ferrous Aluminium or Copper-based

Small castings upto 100 kg

Large castings above 100 kg


Each category will be given two awards - Winner and Runnerup.

[C]

Criteria

Eligibility Criteria
a)

Nomination for any category, the minimum export


ge-Scal
oundr
turnover for a Lar
Large-Scal
ge-Scalee FFoundr
oundryy is Rs.100 crore
and above.

b)

oundr y is Rs.25
Nomination for Me
Medium-Scal
dium-Scalee FFoundr
dium-Scal
crore to Rs.100 crore.

c)

oundr
Nomination for Small-Scal
Small-Scalee FFoundr
oundryy is Rs.1 crore
to Rs.25 crore.

d)

Of the three categories, all the foundries should provide


the data of export for a period of 3 years clearly
indicating the growth rate of exports on a year-to-year
basis 15-20% for Large-Scale, Medium-Scale
oundrie
and Small-Scal
Small-Scalee FFoundrie
oundriess in terms of total sales
value / volume.

Entries will be evaluated on the following criteria


Benefits to the casting user

Use of unique capabilities of casting process


Contribution to growth of the casting market.
[D]

Te r m s
a)

b)

c)
d)

Application to be accompanied with details of the casting and


photographs from three angles. Judge(s) of the panel or their
representative may visit the foundry to inspect the casting if
necessary.

a)

Tonnage and type of castings produced.

b)

Quality control for participating in the export


promotion/exhibition.

If required, the casting will have to be sent to Ahmedabad at


the cost of applicant. (The applicant has to rebook the casting
at his own cost).

c)

Quality Certification.

d)

Products exported in tonnage and value.

Applications from Small-Scale Units will have to be


accompanied by a copy of SSI certificate.

e)

Countries to which exports are made.

f)

Nominations should be sent along with either published


Annual Report / Accounts or Auditors Certificates as
evidence of Annual Production / Export Performance.

Photographs received along with the application may be used


by IIF for tradeshows, displays and for publications in Indian
Foundry Journal.

12. Jayaswal Neco Quality Award

11. Export Excellence Award Awarded by IIF


Criteria
This award is categorised into Large / Medium / Small-Scale
Industries.
For the purpose of awards, the following shall be the definition
of the above categories :
[A]

1.

Lar
ge-Scal
oundrie
Large-Scal
ge-Scalee FFoundrie
oundriess
All foundry units which are in operation and whose annual
production is 20,000 tonnes and above.

2.

Me
dium-Scal
oundrie
Medium-Scal
dium-Scalee FFoundrie
oundriess
All foundries whose tonnage of production is 10,000 20,000 tonnes per annum.

Small-Scal
oundrie
Small-Scalee FFoundrie
oundriess
In this category, the foundry units whose tonnage of
production is 2,500 - 10,000 tonnes per annum.
Products manufactured by the Foundry should cover
Automobiles / Tractors / Defence and other engineering
industries.
3.

[B]

The following details should be provided along with


nomination :-

Sponsored by Jayaswal Neco Industries Ltd., Nagpur (for


excellence in Quality).
A]

This award is being instituted from the year 2009. The award
will be given to a foundry which achieves outstanding quality
performance during preceding 12 months.

B]

The criteria for award consists of the following considerations:

C]

1) Quality Performance
2) Process Management / Improvements
3) Energy Conservation & Management
4)
Shop-Floor Practices
The application will be in two parts i)
ii)

Reply to the enclosed questionnaire.


A brief self-assessment report highlighting the high points
of the various initiatives taken by your organisation and
the results achieved. This report should contain points
not covered by the questionnaire if any. Please do not
repeat what is already addressed in the questionnaire.
Self- assessment report should be restricted to 10 pages
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of A4 sheets including graphs, photographs and other
supporting documents.
D]

0.0 Company Outline


Please provide a brief write-up covering the following points:

Guidelines for preparing the application

0.1 History and background of the organisation

Please use A4 size paper only

0.2 How old is the organisation

Send 4 copies of the application

0.3 Whether Joint stock company, partnership, family-owned,

Report should be supported by data in the form of


graphs, bar charts substantiating claims made

In case your organisation has received Awards for good


performance, letters of appreciation from customers.
Please enclose copies and photographs commemorating
these events if any. These may be for quality of
product, service, delivery, cost reduction, innovations
in casting design resulting in weight reductions, reduction
of machining times, ease of handling etc.

The following required information is applicable to


one Manufacturing Plant and therefore data
pertaining to that plant only must be submitted.
z

Name of the plant for which application is sent

Site Address

Name of the Corporate Group


(If the company is part of a Corporate Group)

Name of the Chief Executive of the Corporate Group

Name of the Chief Executive (Site)


Mobile Number
E-mail

Name of the Contact Executive

Owner / manager type


0.4 Major achievements and milestones in the life of the company
0.5 Type of foundry - Jobbing / Captive
0.6 Alloys and alloy families / Technology used
0.7 Customer Profile
0.8 Key Competitor

1.0 Quality Performance

-25 points

1.1. Customer Satisfaction


1.1.1 Does the organisation have a formal system for
capturing customer complaints
1.1.2 Is a customer complaint analysis done customer-wise,
process-wise viz defects as-cast, during machining,
delivery-related, cleanliness-related etc. Please explain
the system
1.1.3 Please provide data on the rejection values and trends
for the above break-up
1.1.4 What is the system you have in place for resolving
customer complaints.
What are the proactive steps to
a)

Reduce customer complaints

Fax

b)

Prevent recurrence of complaints

Phone

c)

Horizontal deployment of corrective & preventive


actions, provide case histories if any to support
the above

Designation

Mobile Number
E-mail
Is the foundry Captive or Jobbing

1.2. In-House Rejection

Capital Employed

Sales Turnover (2010-11 in Rs. Cr.)

1.2.1 Give detailed data & break-up of in-house rejection viz melting,
moulding , coremaking, fettling & finishing- related. Show
the trends over the months & years wherever possible.

Year of commencement of Commercial Production

Total No. of Employees

Alloys / Alloy families manufactured

1.3 Cost of Quality

Key manufacturing processes

No. of Suppliers ( Direct Material)

1.3.1 Does your organisation measure, monitor overall Cost of


Quality, Cost of Poor Quality - What is the trend

1.2.2 Explain the efforts to reduce in-house rejection

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2.0 Evaluation by Customers

- 15 points

2.1 List out the awards, citations received from customers starting
from current year going backwards
2.2 Do your customers rate your QCD (quality, cost, delivery). If
so, please attach copies of the reports
2.3 Please provide summary of audit findings in second party
audit conducted by your customers. Please provide copies
of improvement actions initiated by you and customers
observations on these

3.0 Process Management / Improvements


-20 points
3.1 Vendor Management
3.1.1 Do you have a criteria for vendor selection
3.1.2 Does your organisation have internal standards /
acceptance criteria for raw materials & other supplies
coming from unorganised sector viz sand, bentonite
and other such items
Please provide copies of a few specimens and list of
all the items for which these systems are in use
3.1.3 Do you recognise performance of good vendors by
way of awards, vendor meets, support to vendors by
way of training, technical inputs. If so, give details.

3.2 Low-Cost Automation

4.0 Energy Management

-15 points

Please answer Yes or No for each of the questions listed


below and give a brief write-up covering all the aspects and
whatever data you can share.
4.1 Does your organisation have a long- term energy
management / conservation plan covering for e.g.
various energy inputs used - Coke / Furnace oil /
Electrical Energy from grid, self-generation / renewable
sources etc.
4.2 Have you laid down energy consumption norms
operation-wise say for Melting, Heat treatment, Process
heat, Compressed air etc.
4.3 Do you have norms units per heat / batch, per shift,
per tonne of molten metal etc.
4.4

Does the company have metrics to monitor energy


consumption at various stages as well as overall units
per tonne of despatch and energy consumption as a
percentage of sales

4.5 Does the company analyse the electrical energy bill in


terms of unit consumption, additional levy for maximum
demand, low power factor etc.
4.6 Have you got Energy audit conducted for your
organisation and undertaken improvement actions on
the basis of audit.

Give examples of low-cost automation.

5.0 Shop-Floor Practices


3.3 Process Improvements
3.3.1 Improvement in Casting Design
Give examples of improvements made which have
resulted in benefits to customer
3.3.2 Improvements in Manufacturing Processes
Give examples which have resulted in reduction of
rejection both in-house and at customers end during
machining.

3.4 Environment Management Processes


3.4.1 Does the organisation have resource conservation
strategy. List some steps and achievements by the
company
3.4.2 What are systems of waste sand disposal. Does your
organisation have a sand reclamation plant
3.4.3 Provide a list of Pollution Control Equipment and
Equipment for recycling consumables

-15 points

5.1 Does your organisation follow 5S practices


5.2 What are the methods adopted to evaluate 5S practices
5.3 Illustrate with photographs the effectiveness of the
implementation.

6.0 Employee Involvement

-10 points

6.1 Do you have suggestion scheme. What is the number of


suggestions per employee per year
6.2 Do you have small group activities for improvement of
shop-floor practices
6.3 Do you have safety committee involving workers. Do
you monitor the trend of accidents, near-miss accidents
regularly. What steps do you take for employee participation
in this activities.
Total :

100 points
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13. Chandran Menon Memorial Award for Applied


Research & Innovative Technology Sponsored by

3.

Menon & Menon Ltd., Kolhapur to encourage Foundrymen to


actively pursue applied research and innovation technologies
in the field of metal-casting.

4.

Criteria for Selection:The Nominee for the award shall be a Scientist/Technologist/


Practising Foundryman and member of The Institute of Indian
Foundrymen.
1. Should have at least 5 years experience in foundry field/
related Research Institution / Engineering College/
Polytechnic having foundry technology as part of
Mechanical/Metallurgical Engineering.
2. Should have made outstanding contribution towards the
advancement of Metal Casting or Technology based on
original work in the field of development in new materials,
processes, quality standards, energy savings including

equipment, automation reflecting technological excellence.


The new developments should have been proven in the field,
meeting the immediate user requirements leading to cost
savings, improved performance, commercial exploitability.
Should have published papers in foundry journals /presented
in Foundry Congresses/ Workshops/Seminars National /
International.
Nomination should be supported by :
a. Report of the work carried out by the Nominee during the
5 years preceding the nomination with focus on foundry
materials, processes and equipment.
b. Summary of achievements for the eligibility of the award.
c. At least 3 references of the people who know the Nominee
and his work.
d. A list of papers along with prints published by the Nominee.
e. Any other information relating to pending patents,
commercial use of technology developed in support of
nomination.

nominations
should
etss, aaddr
ddrees s e d tto
All nomina
tions shoul
d be in ffour
our sset
et
ddr
o :
Executive Director
The Institute of Indian Foundrymen, IIF H.O., IIF Center, 335, Rajdanga Main Road, East Kolkata Township P.O., Kolkata - 700 107
Tel : 033 2442 4489/6825/7385, Fax : 033 2442 4491, E-mail : ed@indianfoundry.org

Centre for Education and Training


av
ar fr
om GERMANY
bbyy Mr
Mr.. Amit
Amitav
avaa So
Sovvak
akar
from
Mr
.Amit
av
ar rretir
etir
om FFO
OSE
CO G
ermany is vver
er
ell-kno
wn tto
o ffoundrie
oundrie
ur
op
or his significant ccontribution
ontribution
Mr.Amit
.Amitav
avaa So
Sovvak
akar
etireed fr
from
SEC
Germany
eryy w
well-kno
ell-known
oundriess in EEur
urop
opee ffor
in optimising casting yield.
The Centre for Education and Training (CET) of The Institute of Indian Foundrymen, as part of its ongoing continuing education programme,
is very happy to announce that Mr.Sovakar has accepted invitation to conduct One-Day Workshop during his brief stay in Kolkata.
The topics he will cover are :
z

Date
Time
Venue

:
:
:

Principl
on Ca
stings and Applica
tion ffor
or Aut
omotiv
on Ca
stings
Principlees of Ir
Iron
Castings
Application
Automotiv
omotivee Ir
Iron
Castings
&
z Achieving 80% Yield for Some Steel Casting Alloys

Thur
Thurssda
dayy, No
Novv ember 14, 2013
10:00 A.M. to 5:00 P.M.
IIF CENTER
335, Rajdanga Main Road,
East Kolkata Township, P.O.
Kolkata - 700 107

Registration
Registration: Rs.1011/-(Rupees One Thousand Eleven Only),
Inclusive of Service Tax (12.36%) per head payable by Bank
Draft/Local Cheque in favour of The Institute of Indian
Foundrymen, Kolkata or by Cash.

Last Date for Registration : November 14, 2013.

For further details, please contact :


Mr. G. Mukherjee, Director-CET (IIF)
Tel. : 24424489/6825, 40630074(Direct), M : 9330272475
E-Mail : cet@indianfoundry.org
104
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CET Column
C E T O rrg
g a n i ssee s S h o r t - T e r m R
Ree fr
free s h e r C o u r s e s
In the fast-changing global scenario where quality and cost are two main criteria required for capturing markets, manufacturers need to resort
to technological as well as managerial upgradation of their production processes and business operations. Mission of manufacturers including
casters is to produce quality products as per customer specifications at lower cost. Thus, adoption of advanced technology is need of the hour
in manufacturing industries, where foundry is no exception.
The Centre for Education & Training (CET), a centre of excellence of IIF, organises one-day workshops on various aspects of metacasting
technology and foundry management.

Workshop on Use of Casting Simulation to Increase Yield & Reduce


Rejections in Castings
This workshop was organised on March 22, 2013. Mr. Arul K. Pandiyan,
Senior Engineer Application of Prosim R&D Pvt. Ltd., Bangalore
deliberated on the above topic.
Mr. G. Mukherjee, Director of IIF-CET introduced the faculty member
to the participants.
Prosim is a ISO 9001 : 2008 certified and DSIR, Govt. of India recognised
R&D centre. It is also a CEMILAC (DRDO) certified design house.
Mr. Pandiyan, in the beginning, explained the advantages of using
advanced casting simulation like easy learning, time reduction for
development/designing, improvement in quality, yield improvement,
rejection reduction etc.
Then he made presentation on ADSTEFAN software that simulates
how molten metal flows and solidifies in the mould and visualises it in
3D : Design Support (CAE) too. ADSTEFAN leads to cost and time

To explain how casting simulation works the speaker discussed the


following points:
Solidification (cooling heat transfer), Formation of defects, Analysis of
defects (by engineer), Modification of gating and re-running of the
simulation till the perfect casting is achieved.
On defect assessment and optimum designing, Mr. Pandiyan
deliberated onMisrun, cold shut, flow line, air entrapment, gas porosity, shrinkage
cavity, micro porosity, cold flakes, hot spot, soldering, casting distortion,
crack.
Optimisation of positions of overflow and cooling, optimisation of risers
position and size, position and geometry; Optimisation of runner
geometry, optimisation of gate.
The speaker, while dwelling on sensitivity analysis concentrated on the

reduction in designing/development process. Sand Casting, HPDC,


LPDC, GDC, Shellmould, Investment are different types modules in
ADSTEFAN.

process parameters for a specific output. He stated that yield


improvement could be done based on the solidification pattern of the
casting.
Several case studies were presented by the speaker.

Workshop on Analysis of Casting Defects in Foundry by CAE A New Approach


Mr. Tapan Roy, Asst. General Manger of Texmaco Rail & Engineering
Ltd. a fully automated modern foundry was faculty at the workshop.

categorised as (i) Solidification-related defects and (2) Flow-related


defects, he said.

Mr. Roy started his presentation stating that simulation technique is


used to analyse various casting defects. These defects could be

He presented a few industrial case studies on casting defects involving


simulation technique.
105

Indian Foundry Journal

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CET Column
Ca
tudy No
.1: Hot TTee ar De
Casse SStudy
No.1:
Deff ect
ectss

or low refractoriness of base sands, (b) due to poor


quality of bentonite (c) high moisture of processed
sands, (d) soft moulds (e) improper or no painting of
moulds fuse at the casting surface and stick to the
surface.

Two conditions of hot tear discussed were (a) There


must be resistance to contractions (b)There must
be variable temperature gradients within the casting
sections.
Reasons of hot tear defects and their remedial
measures discussed were- (i) The low collapsibility
of cores/mould materials (ii) Higher percentage of
sulphur and phosphorus (iii) Excessive large feeders
used causing obstructions during constractions (iv) Faulty design of
castings i.e. wide variations in wall thicknesses and (v) Too high pouring
temperatures etc.
Remedial measures suggested were- (i) Moulding Materials (ii) Steel
Quality (iii) Hydrogen in steel (iv) Pouring temp (v) Feeding Practice (vi)
Gating Practice (vii) Casting Design (viii) Casting Flash/ Fins (ix) Due to
overheating of moulds/ Poor collapsibility of moulds (x) Due to
Solidification of an alloy (xi) Hot Tear due to Sulphur segregation (xii)
Other measures to avoid hot tear defects.
Case Study No. 2 : Rough surface finish / Poor Surface
Finish
The causes discussed were (a) Sands due high temp. of molten metal

Remedial measures suggested in areas like


(i) Moisture content / Compactibility of prepared
sands (ii) High Clay Content in process sand
(iii) Temperature of the sand (iv) Grain fineness
numbers (v) Compactness of the mould / core (vi)
Gating system i.e. ingate location and size (vii) Pouring Temperature
(viii) Mould wash and core wash quality (ix) Quality of incoming sand
and (x) Bentonite quality etc.
Case Study No. 3 : Sand fusion found at the bottom part of
casting
Ca
tudy No
age de
ound in bogie ca
sting
Casse SStudy
No.. 4 : Shrink
Shrinkage
deffect
ectss ffound
casting
(Bolster) due to potential hot spot found at junction of casting as
per simulation view.
Ca
tudy No
obl
ems in gr
and
Casse SStudy
No.. 5 : Air entr
entraa pment pr
probl
oblems
gree en ssand
moul
ds produced in High Pressure Molding Line and its remedial
moulds
measures.

CET Shimoga

Workshop on Melting and Pouring Practices in Foundries


A workshop was organised by CET on the above topic on
July 13, 2013. The workshop was especially meant for
operators. Mr. Ramachar L., CET Coordinator in Shimoga
was faculty member at the workshop. IIF-Shimoga Chapter
supported in organising the workshop.
Mr. Ramachar discussed a number of good practices in
melting as follows:
z

Use of good scrap of proper size which is free from


rust, oil. moisture etc. apart from using dense scrap
to increase melting efficiency, melt quality
improvement and for reduced power consumption.

Induction furnace operating technique, Charging


method, Power input technique etc.

Care to be taken while metal handling and pouring.

Use of properly dressed and dried ladles.

Pouring temperature and effect of high temperature on casting


quality

Safety aspects etc.

Thirty operators from 8 foundries participated in the training workshop.


They raised a number of queries that were clarified by the faculty
member.

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Ca
sting De
Casting
Deff ect
ectss
z Analysis of Casting Defects - Causes & Remedies
Cast Iron / Ductile Iron
z Alloy Cast Iron
z Ductile Iron Foundry Practice
z Ductile Iron Production
z Ductile Iron Technology - Defects Analysis and
In-mould and Stream Treatment
z Grey Cast Iron Technology
Energy and Pollution Management
z Air Pollution Measurement and Control in Foundries
z Energy Management and Audit in Foundries
F oundr y FFurnac
urnac
urnacee s
z Cupola Practice
z Induction Furnace and Electric Arc Furnace (Operation Optimisation
of Melting, Refractory Lining and Maintenance)
F oundr y Pr
actic
Practic
acticee
z Advances in Casting Technology
z Special Casting Processes
z Some Aspects of Foundry Practice
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ur
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llur
urgy
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z Metallurgy for Foundrymen
Handbook :
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z Casting Simulation Case Studies
z Conventional Methoding, Simulation and Solid Modelling
z Engineering Methoding Practice in a Foundry
z Gating System Design for Steel Casting
z Methoding Principle for Ferrous Casting Major
z Pattern Making Technique & Methods
z Methoding/Solidification Related Defects and Their
Remedies for Iron and Steel Castings
Moulding
z A Guide of Sand Control Practice in Ferrous Foundries
z Mould and Core Making (B-2)
z CO 2 - Silicate Moulding Process
z Moulding Practices for Grey Iron Castings
z Moulding Processes and Sand System
z Moulding Sands and Processes for Steel Castings
z Resin Binders & No-bake Related Equipments
Repair/Welding/Machining
z Application of Welding in Foundry Casting
z Machining Technology for Cast Iron Castings
z Repair and Reclamation Technology of Casting
Steel
z Steel Foundry Technology
Te s t i n g
z Heat Treatment of Quality Ferrous Castings
z Inspection and Quality Control
z Non-Destructive Testing
z Laboratory and Shop-floor Testing for Ferrous Foundry

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(Continued to page 115)

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113

PHOOLCHAND BHAGATSINGH
ESTD.1957
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Indian Foundry Journal

STUDY NOTES AVAILABLE FOR


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Grad IIF : (Graduateship)
Advances in Casting Technology (B-8)
Energy Efficiency & Pollution Control (B-7)
Engineering Drawing I & II (Module IV) (A-10)
Foundry Management (B-5)
Foundry Mechanisation Automation (B-10) [E-IIc]
Fuels Furnaces & Refractories (B-4)
Introduction to Materials (A-6)
Metallurgy of Cast Alloys (B-6)
Physical Metallurgy for Ferrous and Non-Ferrous Alloys (B-9) [E-Ic]
Principles of Methoding & Casting Design (B-2) Vol.II
Steel Foundry Technology (B-9b)
Technology of Iron Casting (B-9) [E-Ia]
Testing of Metals and Alloys (B-3)
Theory of Foundry Processes (B-1)
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Module : II (Diploma)
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Casting Technology (B-1)
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Engineering Drawing - I (A-5)
Heat Treatment of Castings & Related Equipments (B-5)
Industrial Management (B-7)
Introduction to Engineering Materials (A-8)
Melting & Casting Technology (B-3)
Mould and Core Making (B-2)
Pollution Control and Occupational Health in
Foundry Industry (B-8) (E-II)
Principles of Methoding & Casting Design (B-8) [E-III] Vol.I
Special Casting Processes (B-4)
Technology of Cast Iron
Testing and Inspection in Foundry (B-6)
Module : I (Pre-Diploma)
Cast Metal Technology (P-10)
Chemistry (P-3)
Cupola Melting Emmission Control (P-9) [B]
Engg. Drawing (P-5)
English (P-1)
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50% Discount on CET Guide Notes for Students registered in IIF Courses
P a yment : All ppaa yment
d be ma
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emand Dr
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olk
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ablee aatt K
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olkaa ta.
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Phone : 033 2442 4489/6825, Fax : 033 2442 4491, E-mail : cet@indianfoundry.org
115
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News From IIF Regions & Chapters


Belgaum Chapter
Management ffor
or Industrie
Industriess
IIF-Belgaum Chapter organised a technical meeting on
July 17, 2013 where Mr. Ashutosh David, Head of
Department, BBA Course of People Tree College made
an informative as well as educative presentation on the
above topic.
Mr. David said that, today organisations face many
challenges. In most cases, they are from external
environment. However, the internal ones should be looked
into with seriousness and hence the concept The smell
of the place. Smell of the place is revealed during visit
to the organisation or meeting (formal/informal) with any
representative. Employees verbally communicate a lot of information
about their place of work. According to Mr. David, traditional
organisations work with constraints, contract, compliance and control.

feel a sense of commitment, stated the speaker.


Lastly, Mr. David said that the new way is Constrained Stretch, Contract
Trust, Compliance Discipline and Control Support. According to
him, management should motivate employees to innovate, share the
new ideas, build a level of trust and support to grow with the organisation.
Adoption of new way is to go for modern organisation and stay ahead of
time with the power of its environment.

Technical Me
eting
Meeting

Further, the speaker informed that the management is constantly


pounding the levels below to work with constraints, reinstate their
contracts, fulfil compliance at every stage and make policies so that
they can have maximum control on the system. Working in such
constrained situation, organisations still expect their employees to
perform better, learn continuously, bring benefits of learning back to
the organisation, support the success, share and help one another and

IIF-Belgaum Chapter in association with Karnataka State Pollution


Control Board (KSPCB)
conducted XGN training
workshop to train on submission
of online consent application for
various foundries in Belgaum.
The workshop was held on July
16, 2013 at Belgaum Foundry
Cluster Hall.
Mr. Jagadish I.H. and his
colleagues of KSPCB explained
in detail how to make online
entry of consent application.
They clarified a number of queries raised by the participants.

Bangalore Chapter
Visit tto
o FFoundrie
oundrie
oundriess with Cupola
Cupolass
A team of IIF-Bangalore Chapter visited a few metalcasting units in the
Rajkot area on June 29 & 30, 2013 who use cupola as melting route.
Participating foundrymen from Bangalore are presently running
conventional cold blast cupolas of 18 inch ID at their foundries.
The first visit was to a new foundry Sagar Ferex set up by a mechanical
Indian Foundry Journal

engineer Mr. Sanjay Patel. This foundry with a 18 inch cupola produces
2 tonnes/hour and upto 20 tonnes a day.
The next visit was to Paro Metal Processing Co. with 27 inch and 33
inch cupolas. Production in these furnaces is 4 tonnes and 50 tonnes
respectively. The second cupola is at a new unit where process is being
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Vol 59

No. 8 z August 2013

NEWS FROM IIF REGIONS & CHAPTERS


standardised. This foundry produces
large castings of 4 tonnes single-piece
and is planning to produce larger ones.

working extremely well at high energy


efficiency level, informed Mr. Sachin Patel,
Director of the company.

Mr. Sanjay Soni, owner of this foundry


while interacting with the visiting
members acknowledged the
contribution of TERI for superior design
of his cupola. Thus, his casting unit
could save huge coke and he also
mentioned that the installation cost is
very low compared to the benefits.
The team members then visited Delta
Technocast Pvt. Ltd., a modern
investment casting foundry producing
net-shape alloy steel castings upto 80
kg single-piece. They manufacture
high quality precision castings of about 30 MT per month. They have
plans to increase production capacity and expand the infrastructure.
At this unit, AC pump is powered by gas which was designed by TERI
under the Japanese-TERI JAICA Project. The AC for the entire plant is

As per report received from Bangalore


Chapter, the foundries visited were mostly
run by second generation entrepreneurs
who belong to younger age group with
passion and determination to move
forward to heights. They gave warm
reception to the visiting Bangalore
Chapter members including IIF Past
President Dr. H. Sundara Murthy and Mr.
Prosanto Pal, Senior Advisor of TERI who
accompanied the visiting team. There was
open discussion among the foundry
representatives and the visiting foundrymen with commercial data.
The visiting team members of IIF-Bangalore Chapter had a meeting
with IIF-Rajkot Chapter Office Bearers.

Chapter Day Celebration


delivered strictly as per schedule. He also mentioned the scope of
contribution towards green foundry practice by die-casting technology
and through maximum recycling.
The speaker also referred to the challenges Indian foundries would
face in future and the ways those might be met.
Dr. Ramaprasad had interaction with the participatants to clarify their
queries.
Prior to the technical presentation, Dr. H. Sundara Murthy, Past
President of IIF speaking on the occasion briefed about formation story
of Bangalore Chapter of which he had been Chairman for quite some
time. Ex-Chairmen of Bangalore Chapter were felicitated by the the
Chapter Chairman Mr. S. Sridhar on the occasion.
As part of Chapter Day Celebration,
IIF-Bangalore Chapter organised a
technical meeting on Recent
Trends in Gravity Die-Casting :
Future Challenges on July 6,
2013. Dr. M.S. Ramaprasad, an
eminent metalcasting expert made
a presentation on the aforesaid
topic.
Dr. Ramaprasad in his presentation,
highlighted the importance of diecasting in todays market that is
heading towards light-weight nonferrous net-shape casting to be
118
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Indian Foundry Journal

NEWS FROM IIF REGIONS & CHAPTERS

Jaipur Chapter
Green Sand Control & Yield Improvement
Sand is a very important input in the
process of casting production. Sand
is largely responsible for quality of
castings. Erroneous sand practice
causes several casting defects.
In todays highly competitive market
where customers choice is a vital
factor, product quality is the first
priority to the foundrymen.
The Jaipur Chapter of IIF organised a
technical meeting on Green Sand Control & Yield Improvement
where representatives of a leading foundry input supplier made
excellent presentation covering various aspects of green sand
practices in foundry on July 27, 2013.
Mr. Kuldeep Patil, Applications Engineer in Green Sand System of
Foseco India Ltd. deliberated on Good Casting Quality through
Sand Control in Green Sand Foundry. Highlighting the importance
of sand in a casting unit, the speaker explained the process of
controlling sand quality and various ingredients of green sand system.
Mr. Patil also discussed the causes of various casting defects

resulting from sand quality/system and suggested possible preventive


measures for the same.
Improve Yield and Reduce Rejection by Better Methoding Solution was
the topic on which Mr. Manilal Bhimani, Manager Methoding Solutions of
Foseco India Ltd. made an interesting presentation.
He explained how to improve yield with the use of Kalpur a direct pour
unit with a filter in feeder. Use of Kalpur eliminates requirement of gating
system resulting in cost savings and yield increase compared to traditional
gating system.
Earlier, Mr. T. C. Vishwakarma, a veteran foundryman had delivered
welcome address and introduced the speakers to the participants.

Pune Chapter
Condol
enc
eting ffor
or La
Condolenc
encee Me
Meeting
Latt e A. G
G.. Ogal
Ogalee
IIF-Pune Chapter organised a condolence meeting on sad demise
of Past President of the Institute A. G. Ogale on July 12, 2013.
Members of Pune Chapter gathered to pay Homage to their friend,
philosopher and guide who had left this earthly world a few days
ago.
Mr. Saibal Sen, Chairman of IIF-Pune Chapter paid his Homage to

late Avinash Ogale describing him as a lighthouse to the fellow foundrymen.


His blessings are always with the Chapter.
Others who also paid their Homage by recalling memories of this great
personality were Mr. Probal Sen, Mr. Manas Sen, Prof. S. K. Paknikar,
Mr. S. H. Arjunwadkar, Mr. S. A. Kshirsagar, Mr. Anil Agashe and Mr. Dani.

119
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NEWS FROM IIF REGIONS & CHAPTERS

Reliable Quality Sustenance is the Key


At a technical meeting organised by IIF-Pune Chapter on July 24,
2013, Mr. S. Subramanian, former Deputy General Manager, Tata
Motors, Pune made a mind-blowing presentation on the above topic.
He discussed at length various aspects of casting rejection,
measurement quality, reliability and sustenance.
Summary of the presentation is as under:
These days, recycling of rejected castings has become a habit and
double-digit scrap rates have failed to inspire foundrymen to look at
ppm as a measure of quality. This has made them concentrate on
acceptable quality which often hinges on the periphery of poor quality.
Reliability involves making good quality castings where acceptable
quality is hardly the talk of the town. Familiar initiatives like CAPA, DOE
Traceability, and Continuous Improvement are becoming just rituals
and they proudly occupy the display boards for audits. The reality
behind this curtain of familiarity is to ask hard questions and have the
courage to narrow the operating width in the sub-processes. Routine
machine maintenance has to give way to process-oriented approach
and likewise process parameters have to be set meaningfully.
Sustainability comes from the ability to perform operations with
repetitive accuracy within narrowed down control limits and take CA

exercises seriously to install meaningful PAs, execute DOEs with


measurable objectives, etc, to combine production process and plant
maintenance into a synergistic endeavour. Attempts should be made
to convert chance causes into assignable ones on a continuous basis
and corrective steps as well as process designs revisited often for
maintainability of the system. Product inspection should become
secondary in the chain of efficient and robust processes. Sustenance
is then a byproduct that quite easily creeps into the system, pervades
generously and proclaims reliability to customers nonchalantly.

Greater Mumbai
Chapter Day Celebration
IIF-Greater Mumbai Chapter celebrated their Formation Day in June
2013.
Mr. K. B. Bharati, Chief Guest at the celebration spoke on Quality In
Every Area of Life. Mr. Bharati, a Fellow of IIF and Past Chairman of IIFWR lucidly explained why quality is important in our life. Quality in
behaviour, quality in attitude, quality in conversation and quality in
production. He discussed the related principle, change when change,
change before change and content & container. The Chief Guest
stressed the need for developing positive attitude in us. His comment
in this regard was Challenge the limits instead of Limit the
challenges.
Earlier, Mr. S.P. Oudhia in his address urged that Chapter Day be
celebrated along with members spouses and children, so that they
all may have the chance of coming closer to one another to make the
fraternity stronger. Master of ceremony was Mr. R.K. Kinariwala.

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Indian Foundry Journal

NEWS FROM IIF REGIONS & CHAPTERS

Ranchi Chapter
Workshop on Ener
gy
-Efficient Mel
ting Pr
actic
oundr
or
s
Energy
gy-Efficient
Melting
Practic
acticees in the FFoundr
oundryy & SStt eel Sect
Sector
ors
Ranchi Chapter of IIF organised the
above workshop on the occasion of
their Annual General Meeting on June
22, 2013 at Hotel BNR Chanakya,
Ranchi.
In the inaugural session of the
workshop, Mr. R. Misra, Chairman &
Managing Director of HEC Ltd.
expressed his happiness to be present
at such an important function. He said
that energy-efficient melting practice
is need of the hour to successfully
compete in the highly competitive
global market. He highlighted HECs
significant role in building the nation.
his concern over imposition of import duty on scrap by the Central
Government as it would bring about raw material price hike.
Mr. Subrata Mitra, Director (Projects) of M.N. Dastur & Co. in his address
praised IIF-Ranchi Chapter for organising a workshop on such an
appropriate topic in the present context of production of quality castings
at lower cost.
Earlier, Dr. K. K. Singh, Chairman of IIF-Ranchi Chapter while delivering
welcome address discussed energy efficiency in most energy
consuming area in foundry melting. He suggested a few measures
for energy savings in melting, holding and pouring.
Mr. S. K. Saxena, General Manager (FFP), HEC Ltd. and a Life Member
of IIF was given Scroll of Honour in recognition of his valuable
contribution to IIF-Ranchi Chapter for over two decades.
Mr. Rajeshwar Ray, Head (Eastern Region) of ABP Induction Systems
Pvt. Ltd., a leading induction furnace supplier, in his presentation
highlighted need of using induction furnace
for efficient melting practice. He detailed on
the functions of sophisticated induction
furnaces of low as well as high capacity and
their advantages.

Dr. Ghanshyam Das, Hon. Secretary of IIF-Ranchi Chapter offered


vote of thanks.

Mr. Subrata Chandra, Chairman of IIF-ER while


addressing the inaugural session highlighted
the necessity of such workshops for the
benefit of metalcasting industry. He suggested
some energy-saving measures for foundries.
Special Guest Mr. A.K. Ray, Hon. Treasurer of
IIF presented the current scenario of
metalcasting industry in India. He advised the
foundries to use scrap as raw material to save
energy consumption. However, he expressed
121
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NEWS FROM IIF REGIONS & CHAPTERS

Howrah Chapter
Non-De
structiv
err
ous Component
Non-Destructiv
structivee TTeest on FFerr
errous
Componentss
Howrah Chapters technical meeting on Non-Destructive Test on
Ferrous Castings was held on April 18, 2013. Mr. D. Chatterjee made
an interesting presentation on the aforesaid subject.
In his in-depth presentation, Mr. Chatterjee
mainly discussed basic principles of nondestructive test, its applications, advantages and
limitations.

pseudo indication due to side wall effect in case of axial scanning.


He threw light on complication in case of ultrasonic test of grey iron
due to sound scattering from graphite flakes and effect of nodular
structure in case of ductile iron.

He stated the necessity of non-destructive test


at different steps of formation of conponents
from raw material stage to finished product
signifying inherent condition, processing
condition and in-service condition.
The speaker detailed on four methods of non-destructive test like
z

Liquid Penetration Test

Magnetic Particle Test

Radiographic Test

Ultrasonic Test

He highlighted the importance of selecting ultrasonic test with regard


to sensitivity, resolution, near zone effect so that chance of missing of
relevant indication can be avoided. He also explained Effect of Beam
Divergence Angle to minimise chance of receiving attenuation and

Technique of sensitivity calibration for steel casting materials and its


relevant specification was also discussed by the speaker.
Participants raised several technical issues faced in their foundries
related to detection of casting defects by testing. The speaker
suggested possible solutions to the problems.

118th Metalcasting Congress


April 8-11, 2014
Renaissance Hotel & Convention Center, Schaumburg, Illinois, USA

Call for Papers

American Foundry Society (AFS) is inviting papers covering all issues relating to the following
subjects :
Metalcasting zDiecasting zFoundry Management and Operations z Unique In-plant
Procedures zNew Technologies zEquipment zProducts and other innovations that have
contributed to enhance metalcasting productivity and quality.
z

More information is available from :

American F
oundr y Society
Foundr

1695 N. Penny Lane, Schaumburg, Illinois 60173, USA


E-mail : plassila@afsinc.org, Website : www.afsinc.org
122
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Indian Foundry Journal

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Indian Foundry Journal

New

CDs, BOOKS AND TECHNICAL


INFORMATION SHEETS OF NCTS

New

Price List w.e.f. May 2013

CD (Casting Defects) (Duration : Around 20 Minutes Each)


1.

NCTS/NITTTR /1 to 7

Introduction to Casting Defects, Blow Holes, Shrinkage, Inclusions


Scab, Discontinuities, Pinhole Porosity in Aluminium,

Rs. 3,900.00
Set of Seven CDs

CD / DVD
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10
11.
12.

CD-101
CD-102
CD-103
CD-104
DVD-105
DVD-106
DVD-107
CD-108
DVD -109
DVD -110
DVD-111
DVD-112

Melt Quality Control and Productivity in Foundry


Efficient Cupola Operation and Productivity in Foundry
Computer-based Programme on Microstructures of Cast Iron
Temperature Measurements & Instruments & Thermal Analysis Techniques
Green Sand Moulding Practices along with Technical Booklet)
Interactive CD on Manufacturing Techniques and Heat Treatment of S. G. Iron
Efficient Aluminium Melting Practices (English/Hindi)
Gravity Die-Casting Techniques for Aluminium Casting
Shell Moulding Process
Investment Casting Process - Defect Control Instructor
Divided Blast Cupola Process & Technology
A Journey Through Cold Box Process

Rs.
Rs.
Rs.
Rs.
Rs.
Rs.
Rs.
Rs.
Rs.
Rs.
Rs.
Rs.

700.00
700.00
3,400.00
2,100.00
2,100.00
3,400.00
2,800.00
3,400.00
3,400.00
4,000.00
2,600.00
3,400.00

Books
1.

Efficient Cupola Design and Operation

Rs.

200.00

2.
3.
4.

Green Sand Preparation and Control Mr. A. R. Krishnamurthy


High Manganese Steel Casting
Pattern Design Practical Guidelines

Rs.
Rs.
Rs.

500.00
325.00
460.00

5.

Green Sand Practices for Defect-Free Casting Mr. S. Subramanian

Rs.

650.00

Rs.

2,800.00

Technical Information Sheets


1.

NCTS / INFO SHEETS Full Set of 120 sheets***


.iifnct
g for details of individual Infosheet.
***Please visit our website www
www.iifnct
.iifnctss.or
org

Terms and Conditions:


1.
2.
3.

Above prices are inclusive of packing and forwarding charges for IIF Members and Technical Institutes. IIF members will get 20% discount on list
price on presenting membership number.
Material will be sent by courier on receipt of payment.
S-IIF
Please send At Par Cheque / D. D. in favour of NCT
NCTS-IIF
S-IIF, payable at Pune.

Available from :

The Institut
oundr
ymen
Institutee of Indian FFoundr
oundrymen
NATIONAL CENTRE FOR TECHNICAL SERVICES
Flat No. 104, Sharmad Residency, S. No. 291, Shilavihar Colony, Behind Hotel Olivia, Off Karve Road, Pune - 411 038
Telephone : +91-020-2543 7374 / 2542 2902 / 6500 4705 (1pm to 7pm)
Fax : 2542 2902 z E-mail : iifncts@iifncts.org z Website : www.iifncts.org
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No. 8 z August 2013

Indian Foundry Journal

Seminar on
Casting Quality
Control Process
oint nitiati e of
ndo a an eta ca ting
ector to enefit
o ra
oundr C u ter

There is immense scope for development of Indian foundry industry.


They need to constantly update and grow to cater the increasing
casting demand from various sectors, said Chief Guest Mr. Mitsuyo
Kawaguchi, Honourable Consul General of Japan, at a seminar
organised by Kiswok Industries, Kolkata in association with Sintokogio,
Japan. The seminar organised on July 30, 2013, at the premises of
Kiswoks foundry, focused on Quality Control process of casting.
However, Mr. Kawaguchi stressed on the need for quality improvement
of Indian castings to be at par with global standard. He informed that
Japan is one of the countries in the world who specially care for ecofriendly production technology.
According to Mr. Kawaguchi, more technological collaboration/tieups among Indian and Japanese foundries for benefit of both are
required. He also informed that Japanese foundry sector is growing at
fast pace, but in compliance with environmental norms.
The Consul General stated that he was very happy to see six Japanese
companies participating in the IFEX 2013 exhibition in Kolkata in January
this year.

in India took its birth in the Eastern part of the country. In his opinion,
Kiswok is an example of state-of-the-art Indian foundry and other
foundries may find them the Role Model.
He referred to the traditional Indo-Japan friendship. He also mentioned
commemoration of 60th year of relationship between the two countries
and the scheduled visit of Japanese king and queen to India this year.
Technologically advanced Japan, a super economic power in the world,
is expected to promote advancement in Indian foundry sub-sector, Mr.
Moitra said.
The Secretary General of the countrys apex body for foundry industry
said that this industry involves a large section of poor who need to be
economically upgraded. He referred to the role played by IIF-CET to
uplift foundry workforce through imparting technical education and
training.
According to Mr. Moitra, there is dearth of skilled manpower in foundry
sub-sector. Mechanisation is urgently needed in this basic
manufacturing industry. He opined that joint effort of Japan and India
could go a long way in developing the countrys metalcasting subsector.
Ms. Sayaka Kitamura, Economic Researcher & Advisor, Japanese
Consulate in Kolkata while addressing the inaugural session of the
seminar appreciated Kiswoks effort in organising such a seminar on a
very appropriate Theme.

Mr. Kawaguchi appreciated the joint efforts of Indian and Japanese


foundries for co-organising such a seminar that he hoped would bring
two countries closer.
Addressing the seminar, Mr. Suparno Moitra, Secretary General of IIF
appreciated Kiswoks endeavour to remind people that foundry industry

Mr. A. Guha, Past President of IIF in his address described Kiswok


Group as a trend setter from the Eastern India. He added that, Kiswok
is constantly upgrading their production technology and at the same
time they are working hard for development of Howrah foundry industry.
Referring to the recent visit of a team of 21 foundrymen from 19
foundries of Eastern India to 11 foundries in Japan, Mr. Guha observed
that post such delegation, information sharing of good practices had
been witnessed at those foundries.
Regarding the modular course exams on foundry technology,
conducted by IIF-CET in summer and winter, Mr. Guha urged shopfloor foundry personnel undergo such courses for their technical
knowledge and skill upgradation.
129
129

IInnddiiaann FFoouunnddrryy JJoouurrnnaall

Vol 59
59 zz No.
No. 88 zz August
August2013
2013
Vol

Mr. Raj Kejriwal, Managing Director of Kiswok Industries Pvt. Ltd. in his
address, highlighting the importance of foundry industry in Eastern
India, said that foundry business has been a major industry in this part
of India for the past century, and has been a major source of
employment and revenue for Government. Despite major hurdles like
organisational indifference, lack of infrastructure and skilled labour,
foundries continued to flourish in Howrah and surrounding areas, solely
due to the initiatives of individual entrepreneurs be it in marketing,
adoption of new technology, financial assistance etc.

Prof. Tsuyoshi Ohno of Sintokogio accompanied by his colleague


Mr. Sunil Sharma from Japan made an in-depth technical presentation
on Casting Quality Control Process. He highlighted the importance of
sand practice for production of sound castings. He listed out various
defects resulting from erroneous sand practice and suggested remedial
measures for the same. He also focused on the sand practices in
Howrah foundry belt and mentioned their advantages and disadvantages.
He also presented a case study on automated sand system in a
Japanese foundry.

Since a few years, Kiswok has been trying to combine the efforts of
these individual entrepreneurs to form a joint platform, which would
have a synergic effect and benefit for the entire foundry industry as a
whole, Mr. Kejriwal said.

Japanese Foundries to Set up


Facilities in India

Referring to the visit of a team, from Eastern India and led by Mr. Raj
Kejriwal, to 11 foundries in Japan in the recent past, he stated that it
was felt that Indian foundrymen should get themselves acquainted
with the foundry processes and systems practised in Japan. In his
opinion, visit to Japan foundries was an eye opener for the visiting
foundrymen destroying some common myths likez

Foundry is a polluting industry

It is also a labour-intensive process

Limited space is a constraint for expanding production capacity.

Two-three foundries in Japan are interested in

opening manufacturing facilities in Eastern India,


provided adequate infrastructure and other
requirements are available here. They will sign MoU
in this regard after visiting India, said Mr. Raj
Kejriwal, Managing Director, Kiswok Industries
speaking to the media on the sideline of the Seminar
on Casting Quality Control Process in Kolkata.

Dr. Rajiv Dey, Head of Department of Met. & Matls. Engineering,


Jadavpur University addressing a houseful of delegates said that former
Sheffield of India Howrah foundry cluster had lost its glory due to a
number of causes. Such type of events would create ample scope of
interaction with advanced countries like Japan which would surely
benefit Howrah foundry cluster in particular and Indian foundry industry
in general.

Mr. Arup Ray, Hon. Treasurer of The Institute of


Indian Foundrymen while meeting the Press said that
a team of Japanese foundry representatives would visit
6-7 foundries in eastern region of the country to
observe the existing facilities.

Mr. S. S. Kejriwal, Chairman of Kiswok Industries in his address assured


that Kiswok would be organising such seminars from time to time with
a view to exchanging technical know-how with advanced countries in
the world.

Mr. Ray further said that around Rs.400-500 crore


would be invested here by the Japanese foundries.

Technical proceedings of the seminar were released by the Chief Guest


along with other dignitaries.

According to Mr. Kejriwal, Japanese companies


would be able to get their castings produced in India
at 30/35 per cent reduced cost.

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Indian Foundry Journal

Call ffor
or PPaaper
erss
FCON (PUNE) 2013 A National Conference

Or
ganis
pt
er
Organis
ganiseed bbyy IIF Pune Cha
Chapt
pter
FUTURETE
CH
FUTURETECH
FOUNDR
Y TE
CHNOL
OGIES, MA
TERIALS & EQUIPMENT - FUTURE IN INDIA
FOUNDRY
TECHNOL
CHNOLOGIES,
MATERIALS
Indian Foundry Industry has taken significant stride in the last couple of decades and is looking forward to further
growth in coming years. It has already taken a position of dominance in the global map today.
To uphold this position, our foundries must quickly master the manufacturing technologies, materials and equipment
which were introduced, widely accepted and routinely practised elsewhere in the world, some time ago, but not
done so by us till date. For example, sand reclamation, robotic operations, manufacturing of CG. Iron, AD Iron,
squeeze casting technology etc. The reasons could be lack of awareness or non-availability of sufficient information
about them or even prohibitive costs when they were introduced.
At the same time, our foundrymen must keep themselves updated about globally emerging trends in new technologies,
new alloys, new equipment which are at the horizon thanks to the constant research and development efforts being
put in by the manufacturers and users worldwide.
We need to enlighten our foundrymen, both in ferrous and non-ferrous areas, about the current technologies, alloy
processes and equipment as well as globally emerging trends in the future.
Keeping the above in mind, the Pune Chapter of The Institute of Indian Foundrymen will be organising FCON (PUNE)
CH : FFoundr
oundr
echnol
ogie
quipment
2013, a two-day conference, on the Theme FUTURETE
FUTURETECH
oundryy TTechnol
echnologie
ogiess, Ma
Matterials & EEquipment
- FFutur
utur
uturee in India wherein invited domain experts in above-mentioned areas will discuss and present their views for
the benefit of the participants.
Da
Dattes:

23 rd and 24 th No
Novvember 2013

Venue:

The Pride Hot


el, Pune
Hotel,

Call ffor
or PPaaper
s: Papers are invited from the experts in the fields mentioned above and areas related to the Theme
ers:
of the seminar. IIF-Pune Chapter may be contacted in this regard.
Last Date of Receipt of Papers:

September 25, 2013

Saibal Sen

Shashank Kshirsagar

Mrs. S. S. Karkhanis

Chapter Chairman

Convener, FCON (PUNE) 2013

Chairperson, Papers Committee

THE INS
TITUTE OF INDIAN FFOUNDR
OUNDR
YMEN PUNE CHAPTER
INSTITUTE
OUNDRYMEN
104, Sharmad Residency, Shilavihar Colony,
Behind Hotel Olivia, Off Karve Road, Pune - 411 038.
Tel: 020 25437374 / 65004705. Telefax: 020 25422902
E-mail: iifpc@iifncts.org (Office timing: 1 pm to 7 pm)
133
Indian Foundry Journal

Vol 59

No. 8 z August 2013

CHROMITE SAND FROM SOUTH AFRICA

METAL MIN
MET
ALS & MINERALS LT
D.
METALS
LTD
Metalmin Metals & Minerals Ltd.
Suite 320, Dias Pier Building, Caudan Waterfront, Port Louis, Mauritius

Exporters & Miners Worldwide, having Excellent Washing


Applications:
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Replacement of Zircon Sand.


Low Thermal Expansion.
High Thermal Conductivity.
Good Refractoriness.
Low Rejections of Castings.
Used in Steel Melting as Nozzle Filling Compounds.
High Temperature uses in Refractory Industry.

Marketing Representatives

MINMETINDIA
2205 YARROW,
NAHAR AMRIT SHAKTI COMPLEX,CHANDIVALI
FARM ROAD,CHANDIVALI,POWAI,
MUMBAI - 400 072.
Tel. : +91-22-285 75 835 / 285 72 403
Cell:+91-9323280739 / 9619033290.

Stockists at :
Faridabad

Mandi Gobindgarh z Mumbai z Ahmedabad


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Vol 59

No. 8 z August 2013

Indian Foundry Journal

Government Schemes for Financial Assistance to SMEs


Small and medium enterprises (SME) are the backbone of Indian economy. SMEs play a very important role in the countrys economy. This sector
contributes a lot in the countrys GDP. In fact, progress of Indian economy is dependent on SME sectors growth.
However, these enterprises face dearth of capital. Availability of adequate owners capital is one of the major factors inhibiting the SME sector.
They are unable to attract external equity including venture capital funding due to high perceived risk, limited exit option and high transaction
cost.
There are several schemes of Government agencies through which small and medium-scale enterprises could raise their funds. In foundry subsector, where SMEs are majority, such schemes could be much helpful for raising capital for their business operations. The schemes are as
follows:

Gr
o wth Ca
pit
al & EEquity
quity As
sist
anc
Gro
Capit
pital
Assist
sistanc
ancee
Who is it for

Existing Small and Medium Businesses in need of Capital for Growth.


Their Needs

They would like to have adequate capital to meet the growth aspirations of business, but without diluting ownership.

They would like to make investments in Marketing, Brand Building, Creation of Distribution Network, Technical Know-how, R&D,
Software Purchase, etc but the lenders are not comfortable with such intangible assets.

They would like to raise finance on the strength of business and backing of cash flows rather than Asset Cover/ Collateral
Security. They would also like to have a longer initial moratorium on principal instalments to ensure greater chances of success
for ventures.
Scheme Det
ails
Details
Growth Capital and Equity Assistance Scheme provides assistance in form of Mezzanine/ Convertible Instruments, Subordinated
Debt and Equity (in deserving cases). This quasi-assistance has a higher moratorium on repayment and a flexible structuring.
K ey Bene
fit
Benefit
fitss

Bridge the gap in means of finance for scaling up/ expansion/ modernisation projects.

Access long-term structured assistance especially for investments in intangible assets.

Leverage Equity / Sub-Debt Assistance from SIDBI for raising higher debt funds.

Avoid complexities of Enterprise Valuation, Exit Issues etc associated with Equity Investments.
Security (in ca
-ba
s)
casse of Debt
Debt-ba
-bass e d Instrument
Instruments)

Charge on available assets of the beneficiary unit and assets created out of SIDBI assistance.

Personal guarantee of the promoters.

CGTMSE Coverage, wherever applicable.


Eligibility

An MSME as per the definition of Government of India (MSMED Act) and

SIDBIs existing customers (meeting internal rating criteria)


or
Units with past 3 years of profitability and 2 years of satisfactory banking credit track record (meeting internal credit rating
criteria)
Acceptable external rating from CRISIL, ICRA, D&B, SMERA etc would be desirable.

SIDBI V
entur
pit
al LLttd. FFund
und Scheme
Ventur
enturee Ca
Capit
pital
India Opportunities Fund
India Opportunities Fund is close ended fund with a life of 10 years established in August 2011. The contributors of IOF include leading Indian
Public Sector Banks and Insurance Companies. IOF is a sector agnostic fund focused mainly on growth capital needs of Indias growing and
unlisted MSMEs operating in emerging sectors such as light engineering, clean-tech, agro-based industries, logistics, infrastructure, educational
services, IT/ITES etc. IOF will also invest in early as well as late stage companies selectively.
135
Indian Foundry Journal

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No. 8 z August 2013

India Opportunities Fund is registered with Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) as a Venture Capital Fund and has been structured
as a unit scheme to make primarily equity or equity-related investments in the growth-oriented businesses established in India. The Fund
seeks to achieve attractive risk-adjusted returns for its contributors through long-term capital appreciation.
The Fund will seek a strategic stake in the funded companies with board representation and other rights as venture capital investor.
INVESTMENT CRITERIA
INDIA OPPOR
TUNITY FUND is looking for investment in projects offering potential for attractive growth and earnings. Key criteria for
OPPORTUNITY
project selection are

Strong and committed core team


team:: The Fund will look for businesses managed by a team with a demonstrated performance track
record, commitment and energy.

Gr
owth pot
ential
Gro
potential
ential:: The Fund will like to invest in promising businesses having potential for sustainable high growth.

Long-t
erm ccomp
omp
etitiv
dv
ant
age: The Fund will prefer to invest in innovative business operations with a sustainable competitive
ong-term
ompetitiv
etitivee aadv
dvant
antage:
advantage.

Viabl
Viablee busine
businesss plan
plan:: The venture should have a viable business plan which offers above average profitability leading to attractive
return on investment.

A Clear exit plan


plan:: The Fund, being of limited life, will seek to invest in ventures offering a strategy for clear exit within a reasonable
time period. The exit could be by way of IPO, offer for sale, merger and acquisition or sale to a strategic or a financial investors.

Listing on SME Exchange


SMEs can now list on SME exchange & raise equity as per relaxed norms for SMEs.
Complete details on criteria, benefits of listing are available on
http://www.bsesme.com/aboutpublicissue.aspx
More information is available from Mr. A. K. Anand at IIF Delhi office at fic@indianfoundry.org /iiffic@bol.net.in

Task FFor
or
tudie
action Cost
orcc e SStudie
tudiess Expor
Exportt TTrrans
ansaction
Sugge
stions Sought fr
om IIF Member
Suggestions
from
Memberss
Govt. of India has constituted a Task Force on Transaction cost of Exports under the chairmanship of Director General of Foreign Trade,
Ministry of Commerce & Industry.
Foundry sub-sectors nodal ministry DIPP (Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion), Ministry of Commerce & Industry has sought
specific suggestions on the following issues:
1.

To identify reasons for high transaction cost in exports.

2.

To identify areas where Indian exporters face administrative impediments that lead to increase in transaction cost.

4.

Compare procedural complexities in India with major competing countries.

5.

Suggest steps for removal of procedural complexities as compared to global best practices.

6.

Suggest steps to move towards transparent and increasingly paperless processing through digital platform.
IIF members may send their valuable suggestions/comments on the above issues to :
Mr. A.K. Anand at IIF Delhi Office to
policy@indianfoundry.org or fic@indianfoundry.org

136
Vol 59

No. 8 z August 2013

Indian Foundry Journal

V s on

or s ops rainin s

ondu ted e ent y y eno ned Fa u ty


z

ELEMENTARY METALLURGY FOR


FOUNDRYMEN (1-DVD ) CET/DVD/MET-1

Price :
(Inclusive of Postage)

: Rs. 850/-

OPERATING ASPECTS ON THE USE OF


RESIN BINDERS & NO-BAKE EQUIPMENT
(2- DVDs) CET/DVD/NO-BAKE-1

Price :
(Inclusive of Postage)
z

Price :
(Inclusive of Postage)

SAND-RELATED DEFECTS AND THEIR


REMEDIES IN PRODUCING QUALITY
CASTING (1 DVD)
: Rs.850/-

SAFETY OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE


IN INDUCTION MELTING SYSTEM
(2 DVDS )
Price :

: Rs. 1150/-

(Inclusive of Postage)

TECHNOLOGY OF DUCTILE IRON & DEFECT

: Rs. Rs.1150/-

NEWLY RELEASED

ANALYSIS of SG IRON CASTINGS


(2- DVDs) CET/DVD/DI-1
Price :
(Inclusive of Postage)
z

: Rs. 1,550/-

AUSTEMPERED DUCTILE IRON (ADI) AND


COMPACTED GRAPHITE IRON (CGI) CET/
DVD/DI-2

Price :
(Inclusive of Postage)

Price :
(Inclusive of Postage)
z

: Rs. 850/-

SUBJECTIVE MOULDING PROCESS FOR


IMPROVEMENT IN METHODING (2 DVDS)
CET/DVD/METHOD-1

: Rs. 1150/-

CASTING SIMULATION TO INCREASE


THE YIELD AND REDUCE REJECTIONS IN
CASTINGS ARUN PANDION (1 DVD)
(Inclusive of Postage)

: Rs. 1150/-

METALLURGY MADE EASY FOR FOUNDRYMEN (1 DVD)


Price :
(Inclusive of Postage)

: Rs.850/-

Price :

Price :

FOUNDRY PROCESS OF CORE AND


MOULD MAKING RELEVANT TO DUCTILE
AND GREY IRON CASTINGS (1 DVD)
(Inclusive of Postage)

: Rs. 850/

CASTING DEFECTS AND REMEDIES (DUCTILE


IRON, GREY IRON & STEEL CASTINGS)
(2 DVDS) (CET/DVD/CAST-DEFECT-1)
(Inclusive of Postage)

: Rs.850/-

Price :

Price :
z

PRACTICL PATHWAY TO REJECTION


CONTROL IN GREY AND DUCTILE IRON
CASTING PRODUCTION (1 DVD)
(Inclusive of Postage)

METALLURGICAL ASPECTS OF
METHODING FOR STEEL & DUCTILE
IRON CASTINGS
(Inclusive of Postage)

: Rs.850/-

Price :

Price :
(Inclusive of Postage)

SELECTION INSTALLATION AND


MAINTENANCE OF REFRACTORY
LINING IN CORELESS INDUCTION
FURNACES (1 DVD)

: Rs.850/-

: Rs.850/-

ANALYSIS OF CASTING DEFECTS IN FOUNDRY


BY CAE TAPAN ROY (1 DVD)
Price :
(Inclusive of Postage)

: Rs.850/-

137
Indian Foundry Journal

Vol 59

No. 8 z August 2013

M/s. Graphite & Mineral Products


M/s. GRS Graphite Pvt. Ltd.
Specialist in Natural Graphite PPowder/Extra
owder/Extra LLow
ow Ash Coal Dust PPowder
owder

MANUFACTURER & STOCKIST


FOUNDRY MINERALS & CHEMICALS
z

z
z
z
z
z
z

Natural & Synthetic grade of Graphite


Powder & Flakes upto 99%
Slag Coagulator.
Bentonite Powder (Sodium Base & Calcium Base)
Zircon Sand and Zircon Flour (I.R.F. Grade)
Chromite Sand & Flour
D. Sulphur & D. Phos
Calcium Carbide

Range of Natural Graphite Powder


Fixed Carbon
40-45%

Mesh
-200

Mesh
-100

50-55%

-200

-100

60-65%

-200

-100

70-75%

-200

-100

80-85%

-200

-100

Fineness

95%
Passing
through
-100,
-200 &
-300
Mesh

CARBURISERS
z
z
z
z
z
z
z

Graphite Granules (F.C. : 98-99%, Sulphur -0.05%)


Calcined Anthracite Coal (F.C. : 95% Max, Sulphur-0.5% Max)
Calcined Petroleum Coke (F.C. : 98-99%)
Raw Petroleum Coke (F.C. : 85-90%)
Coconut Shell Charcoal (F.C. : 70%, Sulphur-Nil)
Met Coke (Range F.C. : 50% to 70%) As Per Requirement
Carbon Stick (F.C. : 85-90%, Sulphur-0.5% Max)

(All the above Materials are available in LLumps,


umps, FFines
ines & Granules FForms)
orms)
City Office (Cor
respondence Office)
(Correspondence
8, Lyons Range, Ground Floor,
Kolkata 700 001
Phone : (Office) 033-2230-5613
E-mail : graphitemineral@gmail.com
sanju_chow@yahoo.com
rajeev.7512@yahoo.co.in
Website : www.indiamart.com/gmp/

Head Office & W


arehouse
Warehouse
44A, Jheel Road, Bamungachhi,
Howrah 711106,
West Bengal
Phone : 033-2645-3157/6541-4363
Telefax : 033-2645-3157
Mobile : 09830055381/09831088378

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Indian Foundry Journal

NEWS & TRENDS


Major Export of Castings from India

Business & Trade

Go
o v ed
Govv ernment Appr
Appro
Sop
.2000 Cr
or
o
Sopss of Rs
Rs.2000
Cror
oree tto
Expor
or
Exportt Sect
Sector
Recently, Finance Minister, Govt. of India
approved additional funds of Rs.2000 crore
as interest sops for clearing dues and rise in
interest subvention rate for the export sector.
Nearly Rs.1550 crore would be required to
clear existing dues and remaining Rs.450 crore
would be used towards increase in interest
subvention rate from 2% to 3%.
Hike in rate of interest subvention would apply
to all sectors under the existing scheme. The
Government is looking at expanding interest
subvention scheme for more sectors. New
products would be included based on necessity
and fund. The Government would also consider
enhancement of fund under Market Access
Initiative and Market Development Assistance
to help exporters explore new markets and
also for strengthening their presence in existing
ones. Board of Trade would shortly review the
domestic and international trade scenario.

Pr
Preesent Crude and
Non-Oil Impor
Importts
Scenario of India
Oil Imports

US $ million

July 2013

12709.4

July 2012

13816.9

April-July 2013

54584.3

April-July 2012

53174.3

Non-oil Imports

US $ million

July 2013

25393.2

July 2012

26802.6

April-July 2013

106154.0

April-July 2012

103153.6

(Source : Ministry of Commerce & Industry)

(US$ Million)
HS Code

Commodity

73030030

Spun Pipe

201.93

181.29

115.17

73071120
73071190
73259992
73251000
73259100
73259999
84811000
84814000
84819090
84833000

SG Iron Cast Fittings


Other Non-Malleable Cast Iron
Drain Covers
Other Articles of Non-Malleable Cast Iron
Grinding Balls & SMLR Articles for Mills
Other Cast Articles of Iron or Steel N.E.S
Pressure-Reducing Valves
Safety/Relief Valves
Parts of the Items under HDG 8481
Bearing Housings,
not incorporating Bearings
Others
Flexible Coupling
Others
Parts of the Items of HDG 8483
Industrial Valves (excl. PRV & TCV)
Other Cast Articles of
Alloy Steel Malleable

27.83
1.93
45.03
101.6
148.79
202.3
29.43
18.29
266.66

25.44
10.18
88.09
110.45
115.85
242.73
26.77
16.49
253.21

18.55
6.68
43.83
80.13
87.45
186.41
14.05
10.96
194.41

32.31
36.46
10.16
29.37
99.62
601.63

31.17
49.90
15.46
34.76
83.16
459.30

23.52
24.13
10.80
33.37
58.39
273.12

137.49

120.56

69.31

145.33
24.17
9.89
4.12

145.15
15.87
9.34
19.25

105.49
15.62
4.93
18.82

84835090
84836010
84836090
84839000
84818030
73259920

73259930
84099112
84099114
84099912
Tot
al
otal

Other Cast Articles Stainless


Steel Malleable
Pistons
Piston Assemblies
Pistons

2012-13 2011-12 2010-11

2174.34 2054. 4 2 1 3 9 5 . 1 4
(Source : DGCIS)

Declining TTrrend of Expor


om India ($ billion)
Exportt fr
from

(Source : BS 1st August 2013)

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Indian Foundry Journal

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No. 8 z August 2013

NEWS & TRENDS

MSIL tto
o FFor
or
o LLCV
CV
oraa y int
into
Segment

Automobile

Car Sales in June 2013 in India


Company

June
2013
(Unit
s)
(Units)

June
2012
(Unit
s)
(Units)

%
Change

Passenger Vehicles

196,732

-4.82

607,469

-7.24

Commercial Vehicles

56,197

64,928

13.45

168,333

-8.12

Three-Wheelers

38,414

-8.71

108,603

-2.38

1,116,424

1,169,741

-4.56

3,490,677

-0.82

Two-Wheelers
Tot
al
otal

1,407,767 1,483,443 -5.10

Apr-June
%
2 0 1 3 Change
(Unit
s)
(Units)

4,375,082 -2.10

Source : SIAM

Per Cent Change in Production of Commercial


Vehicles in India : Company-wise
Company

June 2013
(% Change)

April-June 2013
(% Change)

2012-13
(% Change)

Tata Motors

-10.52

8.33

-17.97

Ashok Leyland

-48.97

-16.66

8.56

M&M*

-7.06

0.59

7.12

Eicher

-15.61

-11.48

-7.93

Total Industry

-15.36

0.05

-10.48

Source : FE 26th July 2013

*Includes M&M Buses,

Passenger Vehicle Sales in July 2013 :


Company-wise
Company

July
2013
(Unit
s)
(Units)

June
2013
(Unit
s)
(Units)

%
Change

July
2012
(Unit
s)
(Units)

%
Change

Maruti Suzuki

75,145

77,002

-2.41

71,024

5.80

Hyundai

25,965

30,610

-15.17

27,585

-5.87

Mahindra

15,530

17,232

-9.87

22,011

-29.44

Toyota Kirloskar

11,515

11,010

4.58

14,574

-20.98

Honda Cars

11,223

9,297

20.71

4,386

155.88

Tata Motors

10,824

11,804

-8.30

26,240

58.75

Source : FE, 2

nd

August 2013

Maruti Suzuki India Ltd. (MSIL) would foray


into light commercial vehicle (LCV) segment
over the next two years. The vehicle would be
developed on the platform of Suzuki Motor
Corporations Carry, which is sold in China,
Indonesia and Pakistan.
The LCV would be available in both diesel and
CNG variants. This would be a pure goods
carrier. The diesel engine for the LCV would be
produced locally. Distribution strategy is yet
to be finalised. Their plan to enter into LCV
segment is their inclination towards
diversification of portfolio in the situation of
slowdown in passenger car market.

MS
SL
ansion Plan
MSSL
SLs Exp
Expansion
Announc
Announceed
Motherson Sumi Systems (MSSL), an auto
component maker, have recently announced
their plans towards investment of Rs.800 crore
in four/five new manufacturing plants this year.
They have earmarked Rs.650 crore for
overseas markets like Germany, China and the
US where they have received several new
orders from automakers like Volkswagen.
They are adding only one new plant in Gujarat
in India for Ford and would expand capacity at
other locations in Bangalore, Chennai and
Tapukara in Rajasthan. They have also
procured land for a new plant in Gujarat for
Maruti and some other new plants would also
come up in near future. The company has
more than 130 plants globally. Nearly 83% of
their revenues are coming from overseas
operations.

TKML tto
o FFoll
oll
ow Pr
oduction
ollo
Production
Holidays
Toyota Kirloskar Motor (TKML) has decided to
reduce output following production holidays
upto eight days in a month at their plant at
Bidadi near Bangalore in order to lower
inventory levels.
They have an inventory of 3000 cars at their
factory due to lower sales. In May 2013, the
company sold 10,023 units, indicating a

142
Vol 59

No. 8 z August 2013

Indian Foundry Journal

decline of 35% from May 2012; in June 2013,


they sold 13,805 units, resulting in 19% fall
year-on-year and in July 2013, only 14,470

units were sold by them, showing a fall of 10%


from July 2012.

Aut
o Comp
anie
er
oduction Holida
Auto
Companie
aniess Obs
Obser
ervv ed Pr
Production
Holidayy s in 2013
Company

Days

Month

Reason

Tata Motors (Trucks)

Jan

Alignment of Production

-Do-

11

March

Shutdown for Maintenance

M&M (Tractors)

March

Alignment of Production

Maruti Suzuki

June

Alignment of Production

-Do-

June

Shutdown for Maintenance

M&M (Automotive)

1-8

July

Alignment of Production

Source : BS 6th August 2013

Metal

Cl
osur
da
al
Closur
osuree of Out
Outda
datted Met
Metal
Ca
pacity in China
Cap
China, one of the top global producers and
consumers of metal, has planned to close
outdated capacity since 2009 as part of their
efforts to reduce energy consumption and
emissions. This year, deadline of closure is
September 2013.
Ministrys order for closure of outdated
capacities are as follows :
Copper
: 654,400 tonnes
Aluminium
: 260,000 tonnes
Lead
: 807,000 tonnes
Zinc
: 146,200 tonnes
Ministrys plan for closure of total outdated
capacities in 2013 are as follows :
Copper
: 665,000 tonnes
Aluminium
: 273,000 tonnes
Lead
: 879,000 tonnes
Zinc
: 143,000 tonnes

Mining

India to be Iron Ore


Impor
Importter in 2013-14
India, which was the third largest exporter of
iron ore in the world in recent past, is set to

become an importer of iron ore in 2013-14


due to lower production, ban on mining in
some States and higher duties. According to
the President, Federation of Indian Mineral
Industries (FIMI), the situation could be
improved with rapid clearances by the
Government as well as reversing fiscal policies
to pre-2010 level. He emphasised on the
prosperity of the mining sector in India.
Increase in export duty and rise in railway
freight had impacted the industry adversely.
Duty on iron ore exports had been increased
to 30% in two years since December 2009.
As a result, exports of iron ore have declined
to 18 million tonnes from more than 100
million tonnes in 2010-11. It might fall further
to nearly 10 million tonnes in 2013-14,
making the country a net importer of the raw
material.
At present, iron ore in the form of lumps and
pellets is being imported. In 2012-13, India
has imported nearly 3 million tonnes of lumps
and pellets. Imports during 2013-14 are
forecast at 20-24 million tonnes. This is a
strange situation for India with huge resources
and surplus production capacity of the raw
material.
Ministry of Mines, Government of India is
seeking a reduction in iron ore export duty
due to a sharp fall in overseas shipments which

plunged more than 80% in three years.

Rio Tinto to Set up


Annealing Plant in Gujarat
Rio Tinto, a company of UK is planning to set
up a metal powder annealing plant at Bharuch
in Gujarat. Annealing is a heat treatment
process to alter a material to increase ductility
to make it more workable. Investment and
timeframe of the project is yet to be decided.
Global demand for metal powders is driven
mainly by automotive sector, as
manufacturers are increasing usage of metal
powder in order to reduce automobile weight
and increase fuel efficiency. Metal powders are
also used in fabrication of home appliances,
power tool components and also as food
supplements.

Scarcity of Sand due to Ban


on Sand Mining to Affect
Foundr
er
oundryy Op
Oper
eraations
Recently, apex environmental tribunal of India
National Green Tribunal (NGT) has banned
mining of sand from riverside without
environmental clearance, as they observed that
removal of sand and other minerals from
riverbeds is causing serious threat to the flow
of rivers, forests and the environment. Further,
illegal mining was also causing tax losses to
the Government. Illegal sand mining has been
reported in Andhra Pradesh, Bihar and
Maharashtra.
As restrictions on sand mining is getting more
and more stringent to curb illegal mining and
also to save environment, foundry operations
might be slowed down due to scarcity of
foundry sand. In Allahabad, sand mining
operations recently came to a halt, since the
mining companies do not have environmental
clearances. Only a few mines are operating
legally in Allahabad. Thus, the foundries are
not getting the required quantity/quality of
foundry sand at reasonable prices affecting heir
operations and competitiveness severely.
143

Indian Foundry Journal

Vol 59

No. 8 z August 2013

Steel

S t eel Out
put Gr
o wth in
Output
Gro
India Lags Behind World
Aver
age in June 2013
erage
Average steel production growth rate in the
world in June 2013 at 1.9% is more than
double that of India. Steel production in India
is 6.450 million tonnes in June 2013
compared to 6.392 million tonnes a year ago,
indicating a growth rate of 0.9%.
Global steel production is 132 million tonnes
in June 2013 in comparison to 129.229
million tonnes in June 2012. In the first six
months of 2013, growth rate of steel
production in India was 2.5% at 39.36 million
tonnes while world average growth rate of
steel production was only 2% at 789.79
million tonnes.
In June 2013, steel production of China was
64.66 million tonnes, whereas that of Japan
was only 9.3 million tonnes, South Korea 5.5
million tonnes. In European Union, steel
production in Germany was 3.7 million tonnes,
Italy 2.2 million tonnes and France 1.4 million
tonnes in June 2013. Crude steel production
in Turkey in June 2013 was 3 million tonnes,
indicating an increase of 0.5% from production
of June 2012.
In June 2013, steel production in Russia was
5.7 million tonnes showing a dip of 0.8%,
Ukraine 3.1 million tonnes, US is 7.2 million
tonnes, lower by 0.2% from June 2012. Steel
production in Brazil in June 2013 is 2.8 million
tonnes, indicating an increase of 2.7%. Crude
steel capacity utilisation ratio in June 2013
declined to 79.2% from 79.6% in May 2013.

JSW SStteel tto


o Set up a SStteel
Plant in Oris
Orisssa
JSW Steel is exploring the possibility of
establishing a steel plant in Kendrapara district
of Orissa with an investment of nearly
Rs.15,000 crore. Initially, production capacity
would be 3 million tonnes per annum. Two of
their group companies Jindal Stainless and
Jindal Steel & Power are running their steel
operations in Kalinga Nagar and Angul in Orissa.

JSW Steel is the flagship company of $11


billion JSW Group foraying into steel, energy,
infrastructure and cement. Their operational
steel plants are in Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and
Maharashtra with combined steel-making
capacity of 14.3 million tonnes per annum.

Me
sc
o SStt eel tto
o Incr
Mesc
sco
Increea se
Plant Ca
pacity in Oris
Cap
Orisssa
Mesco Steel is interested in increasing steelmaking capacity in Orissa to 3.5 million tonnes
per annum from the present level of 1.2
million tonnes per annum with an investment
of Rs.8000 crore. Phase two of the project
would be completed in next five years.
The company had already invested Rs.2500
crore in the first phase of 1.2 million tonnes
steel plant in Kalinganagar Industrial Estate in
Jajpur district in Orissa. State Government
have assured them of linkage of raw material
supply for the plant.

megawatt (MW) nuclear power plant either


solely or in collaboration with Nuclear Power
Corporation (NPC) to reduce dependence on
power distribution companies and formed a
team with department of atomic energy for
exploration of all options for the project. A
Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) would
be signed shortly. Generation capacity of the
plant would be 700x2 megawatt.
Railways aim at becoming self-reliant in
energy. They have two thermal power plants
of combined capacity of nearly 2300
megawatt. They are also planning to produce
157 megawatt power from wind energy with
an investment of nearly Rs.1100 crore.
First phase of their captive power plant at
Nabi Nagar in Bihar would be operational by
May 2014 whose total capacity is 1000
megawatt. A 2x660 megawatt thermal
power plant would also be commissioned in
Purulia in West Bengal under the joint venture
of National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC)
and Railways.

Usha Mar
tin tto
o JJoin
oin with HPCL tto
Martin
o Inv
.2000
Inveest Rs
Rs.2000
Aichi SStteel Corpor
Corporaation of Cr
or
or Pip
eline
eliness
Cror
oree ffor
Pipeline
Ja
pan
Jap
Hindustan Petroleum Corporation (HPCL) is
Usha Martin, a steel wire rope maker would
market specialised co-branded long steel
products for the automotive sector with Aichi
Steel Corporation of Japan.
They are aiming at increasing the steel
products meant for auto sector to 60% of
total steel production of 1 million tonne
capacity to be achieved by first quarter of
2014-15. At present, they are selling
automotive steel of 55% of 0.6 million tonne
capacity.
Product development with Aichi would be done
in next three years. The company is also
negotiating with Maruti and Tata Hitachi for
such specialised steel.

Energy

Indian Railways to Set up


1400 MW Nuclear Power
Plant
Indian Railways is planning to set up a 1400

planning to invest more than Rs.2000 crore


to add nearly 900 kilometre pipeline network
over the next three years. Three pipelines
would be built connecting Rewari, Haryana
to Kanpur, U.P.; Mangalore to Bangalore in
Karnataka and Awa to Salwas in Rajasthan.
Rewari-Kanpur multi-product pipeline would
be of nearly 440 km with capacity of 8 million
tonnes per annum. Mangalore-Bangalore LPG
pipeline would be of 410 km with capacity of
3.10 million tonnes per annum whereas AwaSalwas pipeline would run for 92 km
transporting upto 2.30 million tonnes per
annum of fuel.
The company currently has a pipeline network
of nearly 2500 km with capacity of more than
20 million tonnes per annum. They have
already proposed to lay a LPG pipeline from
Mahul Refineries to evacuate LPG to Uran.
Proposed Uran-Chakan pipeline would be an
extension of Mahul-Uran pipeline.

144
Vol 59

No. 8 z August 2013

Indian Foundry Journal

INDIAN FOUNDRY DIRECTORY-CUM- BUYERS GUIDE 2013


The Institute of Indian Foundrymen (IIF) will be bringing out the 10th updated Edition of Indian Foundry Directory cum
Buyers Guide 2013 in early 2013.
It is opportunity to get companys updated profile listed in the New Directory FREE OF COST.
The new Indian Foundry Directory 2013 will be brought out both in printed and CD versions which will be very user-friendly
with exhaustive data on the industry with sections on Casting Units, Casting Buyers, Foundry Materials and Equipment
Suppliers, Foundry Consultants and Service Providers and also other useful information.
The Directory will be an excellent and valuable reference documents for use by Casting Manufacturers, Foundry Materials
and Equipment Suppliers, Casting Buyers foreign and domestic, Consultants, Various Government Agencies and Other
Service Providers related to foundry industry.
The Directory will be widely circulated to member associations of WFO, Trade sections of Foreign Consulates and EEPC and
other associations that will provide business opportunity for listed members.
The work regarding updating of database for the new Directory is in progress. Companies are requested to send their updated
profiles to the following address in the relevant format ( Uploaded at http://www.foundryinfo-india.org/directory_form.aspx)
as soon as possible for compilation and listing in the latest edition of the proposed Directory FREE of cost. Prompt response
would facilitate the Institute in bringing out a very useful Directory.
Filled-in forms may be sent to : A.K. Anand, Director, The Institute of Indian Foundrymen, 67, Tughlakabad Institutional
Area, New Delhi-110062, E-mail: iiffic@bol.net.in / fic@indianfoundry.org

National Directory of Aluminium Industries 2013


Published
Aluminium Association of India (AAI) has published National Directory of Aluminium Industries 2013.
The Directory contains information on the following :
1. List of Publications
2. Aluminium - the Versatile Metal
3. Challenges and Priorities for Indian
Aluminium Industry D Bhattacharya Hon. President, Aluminium Association of
India, Managing Director, Hindalco
Industries Ltd. and Vice-Chairman,
Novelis Inc
4. Primary Producers
5. Alloy Manufacturers

6. Auto Component Manufacturers


7. Automobile and Automobile Body
Manufacturers
8. Cable and Conductor Manufacturers and
Suppliers
9. Casting and Forging Industries
10. Component Manufacturers
11. Consultants, Service providers, Traders
12. Equipment Manufacturers and Suppliers
13. Extrusion Industries
14. Fabricators

P
AAI Members : Hard copy Rs.2,000/-

of

15. Fluxes, Chemicals, Filter and Special


Material Manufacturers
16. Indian Associations
17. Overseas Aluminium Associations
18. Packaging Container and Can
Manufacturers
19. Powder Manufacturers
20. Rolled Products and Foil Manufacturers
21. State Road Transport Corporations
22. Utensil Manufacturers

Soft Copy Rs.1,000/-

Non-Members : Hard copy Rs.2,500/-

Soft Copy Rs.1,500/-

The Directory is available from :

Asso

of I

#118, Ramanashree Arcade, 1 Floor, 18, M.G. Road, Bangalore 560 001,
E-mail: aluminium@eth.net, aai@aluminium-india.org
st

145
Indian Foundry Journal

Vol 59

No. 8 z August 2013

DOCTOR AT YOUR DOOR

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OFFERING RANGE OF SERVICES
z
Improvement of Yield of Existing Castings
z
Green Sand System
z
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z
Reducing Casting Rejections
z
Solution Regarding Foundry-Related Problems
z
Revamping of Existing Facilities
z
Solution of Cupola-Related Problems
z
Shop-Floor Training
z
Establishing New/Green-Field Project
For details, contact :
LALIT APARTMENT
306 DUM DUM ROAD, FLAT NO. : 10 (TULSI MANJARI AREA)
KOLKATA- 700074, WEST BENGAL
CONTACT : 09830342891 (M), E-mail : cast_1963@rediffmail.com
146
Vol 59

No. 8 z August 2013

Indian Foundry Journal

147
Indian Foundry Journal

Vol 59

No. 8 z August 2013

QUALITY MATERIALS FOR STEEL AND FOUNDRY INDUSTRY

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or stee and

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(Divn. of Polo Queen Industrial and Fintech Limited)


303-305, A to Z Industrial Premises, G.K.Marg, Lower Parel,
Mumbai - 400013
Tel.: +91-22-2493 5421, Fax: +91-22-6661 5902, 2493 5420
E-mail: uagarwal@tradiummaterials.com, commercial2277@yahoo.com

148
Vol 59

No. 8 z August 2013

Indian Foundry Journal

For
thc
oming EEvvent
orthc
thcoming
entss
12th International Stainless and
Special Steel Summit
September 3-5, 2013
The Sheraton Park Lane, London, UK
Details are available from :
Website : www.metalbulletin.com

53rd International Foundry


Conference 2013
September 11-13, 2013
Portoroz, Slovenia
Details are available from :
Website : www.drustvo-livarjev.si
th

7 World Seminar on Investment


Casting ISIC -Tokyo 2013
September 11-13, 2013
Tokyo, Japan
Details are available from :
E-mail :nishiyama@foundry.jp
Website : foundry.jpn.com

13 th Global Foundry Sourcing


Conference 2013
September 12, 2013
Grand Regency Hotel, Qingdao, China
Details are available from :
E-mail : info@fsc86.com
Website : www.fsc86.com

Asia-Pacific Diecasting Industry


Development Forum 2013
September 12-15, 2013
Dongguan, Guangdong province of China
Theme : Development Trends and New
Technologies of Die-Casting Industry
Topics to be Covered:
z R&D of equipment and technology for
die-casting, low pressure die-casting,
squeeze casting, counter-pressure
casting and semi-solid processing
z Development and application of diecasting alloy
z Die design and manufacturing technology
z Die materials
z Production procedure control and casting
quality control
z Inspection facilities and technologies
Smelting technology of alloys and
development and application of smelting
equipment
z Development and application of diecasting coatings

Casting surface treatment technology


and equipment
z Computer numerical simulation
technology
z Environmental protection and work safety
technology
z Enterprise administration and marketing etc.
Details are available from :
Foundry Institution of Chinese Mechanical
Engineering Society
E-mail : zhujiahui@@foundrynations.com
Website : www.diecastexpo.cn
z

EMO Hannover 2013


September 16-21, 2013
Hannover, Germany
Details are available from :
Hannover Milano Fairs India Pvt. Ltd.
E-mail : info@hmf-india.com
Website : www.hmf-india.com

28th International Aluminium


Conference
S eptember 17-19, 2013
Geneva, Switzerland
Details are available from :
Website : www.metalbulletin.com

MetEx India 2013


Sept
ember 26, 2013
September
Bangalore
Details are available from :
Website : www.metex-india.com

Aluminium India 2013


October 3-5, 2013
Bombay Exhibition Centre, Mumbai
Details are available from :
Website : www. aluminium-messe.com

ALUEXPO 2013
3rd Aluminium Technologies,
Machinery and Products Trade Fair
October 3-6, 2013
Istanbul, Turkey
Details are available from :
Website : www.aluexpo.com

60th Annual ICI Technical


Conference & Expo
October 6-9, 2013
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
Details are available from :

Investment Casting Institute, USA


Attn.: Mr. Michael C. Perry, Executive
Director
E-mail : mperry@investmentcasting.org
Website : www.investmentcasting.org

Metalex Vietnam 2013


October 10-12, 2013
Ho Chi Minh City
City,, Vietnam
Details are available from :
Website : www.castool.com

ALEXASIA 2013
ALEX 2013 Aluminium Extrusion
ogy
echnology
Technol
z GDC TECH 2013 Gravity Dieechnol
ogy
Ca
sting TTechnol
Casting
echnology
October 17-19, 2013, Mumbai
Concurr
ent EEvv ent
Concurrent
entss
z CEO Conclave z Buyers-Sellers Day
z HiTek Cafe z Business Meets
Exhibition Coverage :
zAluminium ExtrusionszGravity DieCastingszAl Finishing z Aluminium in
Construction,  Transport and Solar
Applications
Organiser :
Aluminium Extruders Council (ALEX)
Details are available from :
Website : www.alexasia2013.com
z

CIFE 2013
10th China Beijing International
Foundry Industry Expo
October 16-18, 2013
China International Exhibition Center, Beijing, China
Details are available from :
E-mail : haiwen@vip.163.com
Website : www.bciffe.com

Australian Foundry Institute


Conference 2013
October 20-23, 2013
Joondalup, Western Australia
Details are available from :
E-mail : wa.secretary@afiaustralia.org

parts2clean 2013
11th Leading International Trade
Fair for Industrial Parts and Surface
Cleaning
October 22-24, 2013
Stuttgart, Germany
Details are available from :
Website : www.parts2clean.de
149

Indian Foundry Journal

Vol 59

No. 8 zAugust 2013

INDIA COMPOSITES SHOW 2013


International Exhibition & Conference
on Composite & Advanced Materials
Industry
October 24-26, 2013
Pragati Maidan, New Delhi

Concurren
urrentt Event :
Conc
urren
India Composites Conference 2013
Focus Ar
Aree a s
z Transportation zWind & Renewable Energy
z Marine z Aeronautics z Automotive
z Infrastructure z Design & Innovation
z Robotisation z Automation
Details are available from :
Website : IndiaCompositesShow.com

29th International Ferro Alloys


Conference
November 10-12, 2013
Barcelona, Spain
Details are available from :
Website : www.metalbulletin.com

CAEMEX 2013
SAE-China Congress & China
Automotive Engineering and
Manufacturing Exhibition 2013
November 26-28, 2013
China National Convention Center, Beijing
Det
ails ar
ailabl
om :
Details
aree av
availabl
ailablee fr
from
Website : www.caemex.cn

Engimach 2013
November 27- December 1, 2013
University Ground, Ahmedabad, Gujarat
Details are available from :
Website : www.engimach.com

EuroMold 2013
December 3-6, 2013
Messe Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany
Details are available from :
Website : www.biztradeshows.com

IPVS 2013
Industrial Pumps, Valves and
Systems Trade Fair 2013
December 5-7, 2013
Codissia Trade Fair Centre, Coimbatore
Details are available from :
Website : www.ipvs.in

Euroguss 2014
10th International Trade Fair for Die
Casting - Technology, Processes,
Products
January 14-16, 2014
Nuremberg, Germany
Details are available from :
Website : www.euroguss.de

62nd Indian Foundry Congress


Februar y 7-9, 2014
Ahmedabad
Details are available from :
E-mail : info@ifcindia.net
Website : www.ifcindia.net

Expo Aluminio 2014


April 1-3, 2014
Brazil
Det
ails ar
ailabl
om :
Details
aree av
availabl
ailablee fr
from
Website : www.expoaluminio.com.br

Hannover Messe 2014


April 7-11, 2014
Hanno
ermany
Hannovv er
er,, G
Germany
Focus Ar
Aree a s :
z Industrial Automation z Energy
z MobiliTec z Digital Factory zIndustrial Supply
z Industrial GreenTec zResearch & Technology
Details are available from :
Website : www.hannovermesse.de

PaintExpo 2014
Leading International Trade Fair for
Industrial Coating Technology
April 8-11, 2014
Exhibition Centre, Karlsruhe, Germany
Organizer: FairFair GmbH
Details are available from :
Website : www.paintexpo.com

118th Metalcasting Congress


April 8-11, 2014
Renaissance Hotel & Convention Center
Schaumburg, Illinois
Details are available from :
Mr. Dave Krugman
AFS PR and Marketing Coordinator
E-mail : dkrugman@afsinc.org
Website : www.afsinc.org

Rapid. Tech 2014


International Trade Fair and Users
Conference for Rapid Technologies
May 14-15, 2014
Exhibition Centre, Erfurt, Germany

Organizer: Messe Erfurt GmbH


Details are available from :
Website : www.rapidtech.de

71st World Foundry Congress 2014


May 19-21, 2014
Bilbao, Spain
Details are available from:
Website : www.wfc2014.com

35th International Conference on


Metallurgical and Materials
Engineering
ICMME 2014
May 29-31, 2014
Tokyo, Japan
Details are available from :
Website : www.waset.org

Metef-Foundeq 2014
June 11-14, 2014
Verona, Italy
Details are available from :
Website : www.foundeq.com

parts2clean 2014
Leading International Trade Fair for
Industrial Parts and Surface
Cleaning
June 24-26, 2014
Exhibition Centre, Stuttgart, Germany
Organizer: Deutsche Messe AG
Details are available from :
Website : www.parts2clean.com

MMMM 2014
10th International Exhibition and
Conference
September 4-7, 2014
Pragati Maidan, New Delhi
Details are available from :
Website : www.mmmm-expo.com
Aluminium 2014
October 7-9, 2014
Messe Dusseldorf, Germany
Details are available from :
Website : www.aluminiummesse.com

IFCE 2014
5th International Foundry Congress
and Exhibition
December 2014
Lahore, Pakistan
Details are available from :
Website : www.pfa.org.pk

150
Vol 59

No. 8 z August 2013

Indian Foundry Journal

I
I

a nesite ased asic a

eutra

ammin

erami

oated

e Fi in

urnin

r on ur in

an in

ompounds o various base aterials


anually

an e
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anu a turers
upp iers o
in Patc in and oil oatin
asses or Induction Furnaces

ass or Induction Furnace

y en

z
z

ot ermi

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mai

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I
I

F
I

ai a e in u

mes

I
I

and sma

I
F

mes

uantity supp ies a o er India

PATIDAR MINECHEM
alarav A art ent
Suryoday Society
oc ardt os ital
alavad oad a ot
obile
ail atidar inec e
redi ail co

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Indian Foundry Journal

We Undertake Designing and Complete Commissioning with Total Instrumentation of

ig Efficienc
E T

E T

i ided

a t Cu o a

Metal Temperature at the Spout : 1450C-1520C

Steel Addition upto 40%

Coke Consumption : 8% of metal

Melting Rate : 0.9 tonne / Sq.Ft/Hr

Operating Hoursupto 24 hrs. without water cooling


For Details, Contact:

E
43, Shakuntal, Opp. Kothrud Bus Stand
Karve Road, Kothrud, Pune - 411038
Phone: (020) 25439651, 09422010392
E-mail: ananz@vsnl.com

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Machinery for Sale


Investment casting foundry having 75 kw Inductotherm-Induction Furnace, Mayur
Engineering, Rajkot-Moulding Machines, Patel Furnace, Baroda-Shot Blasting Machine,
Complete Plant with all types of Fettling, Grinding, Coating Machines for sale.
Also offer business for 8 tonnes finished casting every month to the buyer.
Interested buyers, please contact :
r
E

irti ot ari
ai
annu

ri u

or
ri u

itting

ai at

co

ndu tria Cor oration

#89-18-45, Morumpudi Junction,


Rajahmundry - 533103, A.P, India.
Ph.: +91 883 2426845, 47, z Fax: +91 883 2430819
Website : www.spfic.com, www.ssengrindia.com

156
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No. 8 z August 2013

Indian Foundry Journal

Gautam Group of Companies


P o

E-

11/12, Mec oni House 369, Bhandar ar Road,


Matunga (C.R.), MUMBAI - 400 019.
(022) 2404 2754 / 2409 6297 F
(022) 2403 2047

hrd@gautamcasting.com

www.gautamcasting.com

APPOINTMENTS

G
R

s fo

For an ISO/TS : 16949 Certified

I o &D

2P

I o Fo

) DISA P

We are a leading Raj ot-based ISO/TS:16949:2009 certified manufacturer of Grey Iron (Cast Iron) Ductile Iron (S. G.
Iron) Castings with machining facilities to supply fully finished parts / machined components to various OE Manufacturers
of Automotive, Tractors, Pumps, Engines, alves, Materials Handling E uipments, ibration Damper for heavy electrical
lines and other industries. We also produce single-piece Castings / Counter Weights upto 5000 g. Our current capacity
is apprx. 1500 MT per month.
Now we are increasing our capacity and installing new (3rd) Automotive Foundry Plant with DISA - ARPA 1300 and ARPA
450 moulding lines and a new Machine Shop with HMC, MC CNC Machines in Raj ot with a capacity of 1800 MT per
month which will be commissioned by December 2013. Thereafter, our total capacity will be approx. 3300 MT per month
from 1st January 2014.

We have re uirement of the following personnel for our existing plants and new (3rd) plant:
1.
2.
4.
6.
8.
10.
1.
3.
5.

FOUNDRY DIVISION

RA KOT

General Manager / DGM :- To loo after the functions of entire Foundry


Quality Control Managers (Sr. / Jr)
3. Production Manager
Process Control Engineer
5. Melting In-Charge
Methods Engineer / Draughtsman
7. Maintenance Engineers
Machine Moulding Operators
9. Engineers for Casting Development
Contract Teams Manpower for Fettling Moulding.

MACHINING DIVISION

RA KOT

Production Managers (Sr. / Jr.)


2. Quality Control Engineers
CNC Shop Supervisors
4. Purchase Manager
Machine Operators (for MC / HMC / Conventional Machines)

Candidates having ade uate ualifications B.E. / B. Tech / Diploma / ITI, as per the functional needs of the post
and experience in respective fields with nowledge of ISO/TS Quality Management System, Development /
Implementation of CP, CPK, PPAP, Six Sigma, 5S, CAD/CAM, Tooling and Manufacturing Process, etc., may
please apply immediately with C and photographs to :
HR D

Go

of Co

11/12, Mec oni House 369, Bhandar ar Road, Matunga (C.R.), Mumbai 400 019.
Phones : (022) 2404 2754 / 2409 6297, Fax : (022) 2403 2047.
E-mail: hrd@gautamcasting.com
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Indian Foundry Journal

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Jaycee astalloys P td an IS
S
is leadin
anu acturer and Su lier o rey Iron S Iron astin s
to
s li e a indra
a indra td
u bai and o ali S ara n ineers td
o ali and scorts td
Faridabad
e Foundry is e ui ed it i a
and ii
ual rac Induction Furnaces Inductot er
a e
e
are also e ui ed it co lete Sand Plant ouldin
ac ines S ectro eter etc e also ave ell e ui ed
ac ine S o it
ac ines
Foundry ead
andidate s ould ave a de ree in etallur ical ec anical n ineerin a sound no led e o rey Iron and S
Iron anu acturin and s ould be ully conversant it Foundry s o loor ractices includin sand e s ould ave
an e erience o
years and co etency to ead t e o erations inde endently A e rou
years is
desirable
i t In
ar e Foundry
no led e o all inco in Foundry a
aterials includin Sand Alloys icro ec anical estin S ectro etc
ana er
ua ity ssuran e
i lo a raduate n ineer avin an e erience o
years in uality ontrol in rey Iron Foundry s ould also
ave no led e o IS
S syste and co lete a areness o uality re uire ents o
s

Interested Candidates may write to :

Jay ee

asta oys

td

ed ross oad a adur ar


aryana
ail sales ayceeindia co

ear

el i

158
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No. 8 z August 2013

Indian Foundry Journal

R equir
erienc
of
or GPT Ca
stings LLttd.
equireed Exp
Experienc
erienceed Pr
Prof
ofeessionals FFor
Castings
GPT Castings Ltd. is a manufacturing unit engaged in manufacturing SG cast iron shoulders for Indian Railways. The Company is part of GPT
Group which is a fast-growing business conglomerate involved in key sectors such as Infrastructure, Civil construction, Manufacturing,
Healthcare & Education with a group turnover exceeding Rs. 500 crore. We are on the outlook for the following positions with experience in
SG Ir
on FFoundr
oundr
Iron
oundryy for our unit located at Barjor
Barjoraa (near Durgapur):
Ref. No.
Positions
Eligibility
on FFoundr
oundr y)
Heaa d (SG Ir
Iron
Dip/Graduate Engineer from Mechanical/ Metallurgical discipline with 15-20 years
GPT/Cast/01 He
of techno-commercial work experience capable of leading, directing and controlling
all activities of SG Iron Foundry such as Moulding /Melting /Methoding /Quality of
output, ensuring profitability and business growth. Salary Negotiable. Location:
Durgapur, West Bengal
GPT/Cast/02 Senior Level Executive
Graduate with 5-10 years of work experience in marketing of ductile iron and graded
(Marketing)
SG iron castings (Foundry Related Product). MBA in Marketing preferable; Salary
Negotiable; Location: Durgapur/Kolkata, West Bengal
GPT/Cast/03 Senior Level Executive
Dip/Graduate Engineer in Mechanical/ Metallurgical discipline with 5-10 years of
(Product Development)
relevant experience and exposure in marketing of ductile iron and graded SG iron
castings ; Salary Negotiable; Location: Durgapur/Kolkata, West Bengal
Interested candidates should apply with CV and passport size photograph or mail us at
career@gptgroup.co.in or post to HR at
JC-25, Sector-III, Salt Lake City, Kolkata-700098, Telephone: 91-33-40507000/1

A fast growing Pvt. Ltd. Co. having PAN-India presence requires following staff
for its Head Office at Mumbai, for supply and distribution of Mineral raw materials
for the Foundry Industry, especially Sand Casting, Investment Casting and Coatings.
Marketing Manager 1 Post
Asst. Manager 1 Post
Candidates with metallurgical/ mechanical background and experience in foundry
industry shall be preferred. Candidates should be willing to travel. Attractive
remuneration package for deserving candidates.
Please email your resume in strict confidence to:
skghomumbai@gmail.com
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ADVERTISERS INDEX
62nd IFC ............................................................................................................................. 59
ABP Induction Systems Pvt. Ltd. ........................................................................6
Anfaa Masbak Pvt. Ltd. ....................................................................................... 152
Ajoy Syscon Pvt. Ltd. ........................................................................................ 12,13
APJ India .................................................................................................................................8
B.P. Engineers ............................................................................................................. 152
Baroda Machinery Mfgrs. Pvt. Ltd. ......................................................... 82,83

Lanik Ceramic Foam Filters India ................................................................ 111


Mangalore Minerals Pvt. Ltd. ......................................................................... 108
Megatherm Electronics Pvt. Ltd. ...................................................................... 94
Metal Power Analytical (I) Pvt. Ltd. .............................................................. 91
Metal Power (India) Pvt. Ltd. .......................................................................... 162
Minmetindia ................................................................................................................... 134
MTD Foundry Material Pvt. Ltd. ........................................................................ 64

Bull Machines Pvt. Ltd. ........................................................................................... 81

Neoairtech India Pvt. Ltd. ..................................................................................... 60

Ceraflux India Pvt. Ltd. ........................................................................................ 109

Patidar Minechem ................................................................................................... 153

Coatings & Coatings (I) Pvt. Ltd. ...................................................................... 11

Phoolchand Bhagatsingh .................................................................................... 114

Chennai Metco ........................................................................................................... 153

Polo Quin Minchems ............................................................................................. 148

Daka Monolithics Pvt. Ltd. ......................................................................................3

Refcoat Industries ...................................................................................................... 58

DISA India Ltd. ................................................................................................................ 84

Rhino Machines Pvt. Ltd. ........................................................................................ 67

D rentrup Feuerfestprodukte ....................................................................... 110

Royals Enterprises ................................................................................................... 154

EHP INDIA ...................................................................................................................... 124

Saru Aikoh Chemicals Ltd. ................................................................................... 68

Electro Power Engineers ........................................................................................ 66

Sarvamangala Engineers Pvt. Ltd. .................................................................. 92

Electrotherm (India) Ltd. ..................................................................... 2nd Cover

Sayanee Engineering Enterprise ....................................................................... 96

Foundry Friends ........................................................................................................ 155

SQ Enterprises Pvt. Ltd. .......................................................................................... 63

Gargi Engg. Enterprises Pvt. Ltd. ...................................................................... 15

Sinto Bharat Manufacturing Pvt. Ltd. .......................................................... 10

Gargi Huttenes-Albertus Pvt. Ltd. ...................................................................... 4

Snam Alloys Pvt. Ltd. ............................................................................................... 62

Gargi Industries ............................................................................................................. 20

Spectra Analytical Pvt. Ltd. ............................................................................. 148

Gautam Group of Companies ......................................................................... 157

SPS Intrad Pvt.Ltd. ................................................................................................. 132

GPT Castings Ltd. .................................................................................................... 159

Sree Abirami Equipments .................................................................................. 161

Graphite & Mineral Products .......................................................................... 138

Sree Sakthi Equipments Co. ............................................................................ 112

Gujarat Forgings Pvt. Ltd. ................................................................................. 156

Sri Pumps & Fittings Indsl. Corpn. .............................................................. 156

Hunter India ................................................................................................................ 107

Sri Vivegha Engineering Pvt. Ltd. .................................................................. 123

Imerys Minerals (India) Pvt. Ltd. ..................................................... 3rd Cover

Standard Alloys Industries .................................................................................... 80

Indo Power Engineers ............................................................................................ 147

Suyash Solutions Pvt. Ltd. .................................................................................... 95

Inductotherm (India) Pvt Ltd. .......................................................... 4th Cover

Swastik Castings Pvt. Ltd. ................................................................................. 158

Industrial Minerals .................................................................................................. 131

The Advertiser (skghomumbai@gmail.com) .................................................................................... 159

International Steel Equipments ..................................................................... 140

VAP Induction (India) Pvt. Ltd. .......................................................................... 16

IVP Limited ....................................................................................................................... 18

V-Smart Thermotech Pvt. Ltd. .......................................................................... 79

Jaycee Castalloys (P) Ltd. ................................................................................ 158

Vacunair Engg. Co. Pvt. Ltd. ........................................................................... 151

Joglekar Refractories Pvt. Ltd. ..................................................................... 151

Versatile Equipments Pvt. Ltd. ........................................................................... 93

Kastwel Foundries ........................................................................................................... 9

Vijayesh Instruments Pvt. Ltd. ........................................................................ 146

Kelsons Metallurgical Equipment ............................................................... 126

VME Axmann Giesserei Pvt. Ltd. .................................................................. 128

Kelsons Testing Equipment .................................................................................. 88

Wesman .............................................................................................................................. 19

Kolkata Casting Clinic ........................................................................................... 146

Wesman Simpson Tech. Pvt. Ltd. ................................................................... 17

Krishna Ceramic Industries ...................................................................... 65,155

Yakhishola Automation ....................................................................................... 116

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