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RepublicofthePhilippines
SUPREMECOURT
Manila
ENBANC
G.R.No.L30281August2,1978
THEPEOPLEOFTHEPHILIPPINES,plaintiff,
vs.
CELESTINOGARILLOYORJELaliasCELING(deceased)andFEDERICOFERNANDEZYARELLANOAlias
PUTOL,accused.
T.R.Dominguezforappellant.
OfficeoftheSolicitorGeneralforappellee.

CONCEPCIONJR.,J.:
Automatic review of the decision rendered by the Circuit Criminal Court of Rizal in Case No. CCCVII55 (P.C.
8163), finding the accused Celestino Garillo y Orjel alias Celing and Federico Fernandez y Arellano alias Putol
guilty of the crime of Robbery with Homicide and sentencing each of them to suffer the penalty of Death to
indemnify the heirs of the offended party the amount of P12,000.00, jointly and severally, and to pay the costs.
CelestinoGarilloyOrjelalias Celing died in the National Penitentiary at Muntinglupa, Rizal on August 16, 1970
andhisappealwasdismissedbytheCourtDecember9,1970.1
ItisofrecordthatLimTaoSingwastheownerandoperatoroftheExcelIceDropFactorylocatedatNo.2504
TaftAvenue,PasayCity.Hisuncle,LimPingSuyassistedhiminthemanagementofsaidfactory.Thefactorywas
housedinatwostoreybuilding,theupperfloorofwhichwasusedbyLimTaoSingashissleepingquarters.The
groundfloorcontainedthefactoryequipmentandthesleepingquartersofsomeofthefactoryworkers.LimPing
Suyresidedelsewhereandwenttothefactoryonlyinthedaytime.
In the early evening of October 31, 1968, Lim Tao Sing and Lim Ping Suy counted their money, amounting to
P3,200.00whichhadbeensetasidefortheoperatingexpensesofthefactory,suchaswages,houserentals,and
lightandwaterbills.Theyalsoexaminedthejewelry,consistingofanecklace,abracelet,agoldring,adiamond
ring,andotherkindsofrings,allvaluedatP1,800.00,whichLimPingSuyboughtforhisnephewandwhichthe
latterhadintendedtosendasgiftstohischildreninChina.Afterwards,theyputthemoneyandjewelryinsidea
trunkwhichLimTaoSingkeptinhisbedroom.LimPingSuythenleftforhome.
IntheeveningofNovember1,1968,AllSaints'Day,HenryBarilloandAlejandroBucoaliasTangkad,workersin
the factory slept, as usual, on the ground floor of the factory. The room was well lighted with flourescent lamps
because the generator of the factory operated for twenty four hours. At about 11:00 o'clock that night, Henry
Barillowokeupbecausehefeltthathewasbeingtiedup.Trueenough,HenryBarillosawhisowncoworkersat
theplant,Tangkad,tyinghimup,whileanotherpersonwaspointingagunathim(Barillo).Barilloalsosawthree
more persons, two of whom were armed with knives, emerging from a hole which the culprits made on the
plywood wall and then enter the factory. Barillo was ordered to lie face downwards but he saw three men,
includingTangkad,goupstairstotheroomoccupiedbyLimTaoSing.Alittlelater,heheardashot,followedby
themoansofLimTaoSing.Soonthereafter,hesawthemencomingdownstairs.Theylefttheplaceinahurry,all
ofthemrunning.
About an hour later, Barillo saw, through the hole in the wall, one Norberto, an ice drop vendor, whom Barillo
requestedtocallforthepolice.TwopolicemenarrivedandBarillowasuntiedThenBarilloandapolicemanwent
upstairs.TheyfoundtheroomofLimransackedandLimTaoSingdeadandcoveredwithamosquitonetsoaked
withhisownblood.Theysawthebox,whichhadcontainedthemoneyandjewelry,destroyedandemptiedofits
contents.

ThebodyofthedeceasedLimTaoSingwasbroughttotheNBImorgueforautopsyandthemedicalexaminer
reportedthatLimTaoSingdiedofmultiplestabwoundsinthebody.2
Three persons, Celestino Garillo y Orjel alias Celing, Alejandro Buco y Valdez alias Tangkad, and Federico
Fernandezalias Putol, were arrested and charged with the commission of the crime of Robbery with Homicide.
Threeothersuspectsremainedatlarge.GarilloandFernandezpleadednotguiltywhileAlejandroBucoyValdez
aliasTangkadenteredapleaofguiltyandwassentencedbythecourttosufferthepenaltyofreclusionperpetua.
3 Garillo and Fernandez were subsequently found guilty of the crime charged and sentenced to suffer the death penalty.

Garillo died in prison and his appeal was subsequently dismissed by this Court. Hence, We are concerned only with the
caseofFernandez.

No doubt, there was a conspiracy to rob the Excel Ice Drop Factory. Alejandro Buco y Baldez alias Tangkad
admittedthattheplantorobtheChinamanwhoownsandoperatestheExcelIceDropFactorywashatchedup
and proposed to him by Gaudencio Garillo alias Gauding, Celestino Garillo alias Celing, Roberto Quinto alias
Berto,andGuillermoaliasEmotinthemorningofNovember1,1968.4ThedeceasedCelestinoGarilloyOrjelalias
Celing likewise admitted that the plan to rob the said Chinaman was proposed to him by Gauden, Berto and Emot. 5 The
accusedFedericoFernandezyArellanoaliasPutolwasalsoawareofthesaidplan.Hedenies,however,thathewasaco
conspirator,claimingthathewasmerelytoldoftheplantorobtheicedropfactorythathewasfurthertoldbythemthatif
hedidnotwanttogowiththeminrobbingtheChinaman,heshouldmerelykeepquietandtheywillgivehimsomething,to
whichheansweredthatitwasuptothemthathewasaskedtoaccompanytheminordertoactaslookoutorguardoutside
(bantay sa labas) to which he added because he was afraid of Alejandro Buco y Valdez alias Tangkad who has a tatoo
"SimaronOxo"inhishands,butthathelefttheplacewhentheconspiratorsstartedtodestroyaportionofthewallofthe
icedropfactory.6

CounseldeoficiocontendsthatitisobviousfromtheevidencethattheaccusedFernandezwasnotapartytothe
plan to commit the robbery since he was merely told of the plan and that he never agreed to participate in the
commission thereof as shown by his leaving the place when the conspirators started to break the factory's wall
preparatory to their entering the premises and that if Fernandez had made a pretense, in the beginning, of
joiningtheconspiratorsasalookoutorguardoutside,itwasbecauseofhisfearofdispleasingthemastermind,
AlejandroBucoaliasTangkad,whowasamemberofthenotoriousOXOgangandhadatattoomarkSimaron
Oxo"inhishands.
Thedisclaimerofparticipationintheconspiracyanddesistanceinthecommissionthereofis,however,negated
bythestatementofFernandezthathefledtoBarrioBicutan,Taguig,Rizalveryearlyinthemorningofthenext
dayandthencetoAngeles,Pampangawherehestayedinahousetogetherwithsomeoftheconspirators.His
statementreads,asfollows:
tIyobangnalamankunganoangnangyarisabinalakopinagusapanninyongholdapsa
intsiksaloobngpabrikangicedrop?
sAngnalamankopoaypinataynilaangintsik,dahilsahulisiCeling(CelestinoGarillo)
natumakboatsinabisaakinnahuagakongmaingayatnapataynaminangintsik.
tNgmalamanmoangnangyari,anoangiyongginawa?
sKinabukasanngumagangumagapumintaakokayDado(DiosdadoParaisoyFlores,
26, lab., add Bo. Bicutan, Tagig, Rizal), sa kanila sa Bicutan Tagig, Rizal at akin
ipinagtapat ang nangyari. Ang ginawa niya ay isinama ako sa Angeles, Pampanga at
iniwanan ako ruon para don na ako magtabas ng tubo, dahil ngayon ng tabasan ng
tubo.
tMagkanoangnapartemosaholdapnaisinagawaninyo?
sWalapo,dahilngmagkitakitakaminiBertoatGodingsaAngeles,Pampangaatakin
tinanongkunganonaangnangyariangsinabiponilasaakinaywalangnakuhadahil
pumutokangbarilatnapatayangintsikdahilsalumaban.
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tSinonamanangnagsamakayGodingatBertosaAngeles,Pampanga?
sSiBertosiBertoangnagsamakayGoding,dahilbayawnoDado(DiosdadoParaiso)
atmeonokapatidniBertoangamintinuluyan.(SeeExh.M,pp.78,Orig.Record).
IfFernandezwereinnocentasheclaimedtobe,thereisnoreasonforhimtorunawayandhidetogetherwith
someoftheconspirators."Thewickedfleewhennooneischasingthem.Butthegodlyareboldaslions.7

TheevidencethuspresentedprovesconspiracyandthattheaccusedFedericoFernandeznotonlyknewofthe
plantorobLimTaoSing,butalsoparticipatedinitscommissionbypreviousandsimultaneousacts(byactingas
lookoutorguardoutside)whichlenttotheaccomplishmentofthecriminalintent.Althoughthesaidaccusedmay
nothaveforeseenthekillingofthevictimanddidnottakepartinitsexecution,heis,nevertheless,guiltyofthe
crimeofrobberywithhomicide.Theruleisthatwhenhomicidetakesplaceasaconsequenceoforonoccasion
of a robbery, all those who took part in the robbery shag be guilty as principals of the crime of robbery with
homicide,unlessthereisproofthattheyhavetriedtopreventthekilling. 8Here,thereisnothingintherecordwhich
wouldshowthattheaccusedFernandezeverattemptedtopreventthehomicide.

Thesaidaccusedis,therefore,guiltyofthecrimeofrobberywithhomicide,coveredbyArticle294,No.1,ofthe
Revised Penal Code. The trial Court found that the commission of the crime was attended by the aggravating
circumstancesofnighttime,superiorstrength,evidentpremeditation,andtreachery.
Evidentpremeditation,however,ifnotconsidered.IsanaggravatingcircumstancesincrimesOfrobberybecause
the same is inherent in the crime, especially where it is committed by various persons since there must be an
agreementandtheplottershavetomeditateandreflectonthemannerofcarryingoutthecrimeandtheyhaveto
actcoordinatelyinordertosucceed.Inthecrimeofrobberywithhomicide,thereshouldbeevidentpremeditation
tokillbesidesstealing,inorderthatitcanbeconsideredasanaggravatingcircumstance. 9 In the instant case, it
hasnotbeenproventhattheaccused,beforecommittingthecrime,plannedanddecided,notonlytosteal,butalsotokill
LimTaoSing.Hence,evidentpremeditationcannotbeconsideredasanaggravatingcircumstanceinthiscase.

Abuseofsuperiorstrengthcannotalsobeappreciatedintheinstantcaseintheabsenceofproofoftherelative
physical strength of the aggressors and the victim and that the assailants took advantage of their combined
strengthinordertoconsummatetheoffense.10
Treachery is likewise absent in this case since the attack was made upon the impulse of the moment, as a
sequenceoftheunexpectedturnofevents. 11 It appears that while Tangkad, Celing, Gauden, and Berto were in the
secondfloor,usedbyLimTaoSingashissleepingquarters,thegunheldbyGaudenhitatableandmisfired.Asaresult,
LimTaoSingrosefromhisbedholdingabolo.So,someoftheaccusedstabbedhim.12

But,nocturnityispresentsincetheaccusedpurposelysoughtthecoverofdarknessofthenightincommittingthe
crime.However,thisaggravatingcircumstanceisoffsetbythemitigatingcircumstancethatappellantsufferssome
physicaldefectwhichthusrestrictshismeansofaction,defense,orcommunicationwithhisfellowbeings,towit:
appellant'srighthandismissingasaconsequenceofanaccidentinvolvingkuwitis"whichoccurredonNewYear's
eveof1966.13
Premises considered, the judgment imposed upon the accused Fernandez should be reduced to reclusion
perpetua.
WHEREFORE,modifiedasthusindicatedtheappealeddecisionisherebyaffirmedinanotherrespects.
SOORDERED.
Fernando,Barredo,Makasiar,Aquino,Santos,FernandezandGuerrero,JJ.,concur.
Castro,J.,concursintheresult.
TeehankeeandAntonio,JJ.,tooknopart.

SeparateOpinions

MUOZPALMA,J.,dissenting:
TheevidenceoftheprosecutiontowhichJudgeOnofreA.VillaluzoftheCriminalCircuitCourtofRizalreferred
for his findings that Federico Fernandez was a coprincipal in the commission of the robbery and killing of the
chinaman Lim Tao Sing, consist solely of the oral testimony of the alleged lone eyewitness Henry Barillo, the
extrajudicialstatementofoneoftheaccusedCelestinoGarillomarkedasExhibit"D"andthatofappellantherein
FedericoFernandezmarkedasExhibit"M". 1Thus,thetrialjudgestatedinter alia in his decision that: (a) "after tying
Henry Barillo, the accused Celestino Garillo, armed with a balisong, Federico Fernandez and Roberto Guinto, both were
armed, entered the said factory" (p. 11 of decision) (b) "the three accused in this case were positively Identified by the
witnessHenryBarillo"(p.23,Ibid.)and(c)"basedonthestatementsofthetwoaccused,markedasExhibits'D'and'M'the

saidaccused,CelestinoGarilloandFederico Fernandez acknowledged having committed the crime when all of them were
armedwithdeadlyweaponsandfirearms."(ibid.)(Emphasissupplied)

TheabovefindingsinsofarasFedericoFernandezisconcernedarenotborneoutbyevidencealludedtobyHis
Honor.
ThetestimonyoftheprosecutionwitnessBarillogivenduringthedirectaswellasthecrossexaminationshows
thatthiswitnesspositivelyIdentifiedonlytwooftheaccusedinthecase,namely,AlejandroBucoalias"Tangkad",
whopleadedguiltyandCelestinoGarilloalias"Celing"nowdeceased.2WhileitistruethatBarillodeclaredthataside
fromtheaccusedAlejandroBucoalias"Tangkad"whotiedhimwitharopeandaccusedCelestinoGarillowhopointedagun
athim,threeotherpersonsenteredthefactorythroughanopeningmadeontheplywoodwall,henevermentionedthename
ofappellantFedericoFernandezalias"Putol"asoneofthethreeotherpersonswhoenteredthefactorynordidhepointat
andIdentifyFernandezinopencourtasoneoftheperpetratorsofthecrimecharged.

LetusnowexamineandanalyzethedocumentaryevidenceExhibits"D"and"M",Exhibit"D"istheextrajudicial
statementoftheaccusednowdeceasedGarillo.Thepertinentportionsofthestatementarequotedhereunder:
xxxxxxxxx
T Kung gayon isalaysay mo sa iyong sariling pananalita kung papaano naganap ang
sinasabimongpagkakaholdupatpagkakapataysaintsik.
S Ang natatandaan ko, nuong pista ng patay, mga alas 9:00 ng gabi, pumunta sina
Gaudin ang pangalan na tunay niya, Gaudencio Garillo, Berto, tunay na pangalan,
Roberto Quinto, saka si Emot pangalan, Guillermo, hindi ko alam ang apilyido niya, sa
kinaroruonan,kosamaytambakansalikuranngterminalngLTBsaPasayInayanila
akonapumuntakamisapabrikangIceDropsaTaftAve.PasaySumamanamanako
sa kanila Nagdaan muna kami sa bahay nila Putol (Federico Fernandez) diyan sa
malapitsaZamoraSt.,ditorinsaPasayInabutannaminsiyaduon
TBagokasumamasatatlongkataongsinasabimo,sinaBerto,GaudenatEmotano
namanangsabinilasaiyonainyongpupuntahannuon?
SMayroondawintsiknahoholdapinnamin
TSakabilangpagkakaalammonagayonngaanginyonggagawin,sumamakaparin
sakanila,ganoonba?
SSumamanarinakosakanila.
TBagokayonakaratingsainyongpinuntahannapabrikangicedropsaTaftAve.,ano
namananginyongpinagusapansadean?
SBastasumamarawako,mayroonhoholdapin,silaangbahala.
TNgkayo'ydumatingsabahaynitongsiPutolnasinasabimo,anopaangsumunodna
pangyayari.
SNapagusapan namin duon kung ano ang gagawin ng bawat isa sa namin na pang
hoholdupNapagusapannaminduon,siTangkadangnakakaalamlahatnggagawin
PinuntahannanaminiyongpabrikangicedropSiTangkadnuon,nasaloobnangice
dropfactoryItongsiGauden,pumasoksabutasduonsamaylikodngbahayTapos,
sumunodnaakosakaniya:NandoonnakamisaloobngpabrikaInabutannanamansi
TangkadsaloobNgnandoonnakamininaGauden,Tangkad,sumunoditongsiBerto
sa loob Ngayon, apat na kami sa loob Naiwanan si Emot saka si Putol sa labas ng
pabrikaNakitanaminsaibabaangisangtao,nakagaposnaiyon
TNalalamanmobanamankungsinoangmaygawanito?
SNalamankonalangngnasaloobnakaminasiTangkadangnaggaposniyon.
xxxxxxxxx
TBagokayomagtungosapinangholdapanninyonaayonsaiyo,sinosinonamanang
nalalamanmongmaydalangmgapatalimnuon?
SSiGauden,maydalawangdala,isangbalisong,isangpaltik,kasiisangputoklangang
baril eh Si Tangkad, balisong din ang hawak, nakita ko iyon sa loob eh Si Berto may

dala rin balisong din iyon Ako, may dala rin balisong, bente nueve Si Emot hindi ko
alamkungmaydataSiPutol,wala,bastaduonlangsiyasalabas:
xxxxxxxxx
(6567,originalrecord)
Theforegoingdemonstratesthat(1)Fernandezdidnotentertheicedropfactorybutremainedoutsideduringthe
robbery,and(2)Fernandezwasnotatallarmedonthatoccasion.
Exhibit"M"istheextrajudicialstatementofappellantFernandezwhereinthelatternarratedabouttheplantorob
thechinamanintheicedropfactoryandnamedthefivepersonshatchingtheplanthathewasaskedtogowith
the group to stand guard outside the factory that they all went to the ice drop factory as named and he stood
outsideasinstructedthatwhilehiscompanionswerebreakingdownthewanhelefttheplaceandwenthome,
andsometimelaterheheardashot.QuotedhereunderarethepertinentportionsofExhibit"M"
xxxxxxxxx
TAnoangkaugnayanatnalamanmotungkolsasinasabimongholdupsaintsik?
S Ganito po iyan. Ako po ay pinuntahan nila sa bahay, dahil sa alam nila na palagi
akongistambaysaicedrapanmalapitpoangbahaykosaicedrapanSinabinilasaakin
na huholdapin ang intsik na katiwala sa pabrika ng ice drop. Halagang limang libo
(P5,000.00) raw po ang nakuha. Ang sabi nila kung ayaw ko man sumama ay basta
huagnalangakongmaingayatsilaangbahala.Bibigyannalangnilaako.Angsagotko
posakanilaaykayoangbahala.Umalisnasila.Pagkagabihanbumalikposilasaakin
sabahay,mgapagitanngapongalas11at12nggabi,Nobiembre1,1968.Papasukin
athuholdapinnangapoangintsiksaloobngpabrika.isinamapoakoparabantaysa
labasatsilaangpapasok.
T Bago ka magpatuloy sa iyong salaysay, sinusinong sila ang nais mong tukuyin na
siyang nagdaan sa iyo sa bahay at pinagusapan ang holdup sa intsik sa loob ng
pabrikangicedrop?
S Si Gaudencio, si Berto, ito po si Celing (Celestino Garillo y Orgel, 18, s, porter sa
Divisoria Market, add 551 E. De los Santos Ave., PC), si Imot at saka si Tangkad,
(declarant pointing to Alejandro Buco y Valdez, @ "CIMARON", 32, m. lab., address,
BakawanSt.,PasongTamo,MakatiRizal).Lima(5)posilanglahatatbilangpanganim
(6)ako.
TDito sa lima (5) na nagpunta sa iyo sa bahay at nagsabi sa iyo na huholdapin ang
intsiksaloobngpabrikangicedropatikawaypinagsasamapaparabantay,ilanang
iyongtalagangkilala?
S Sila pong lahat ay kilala ko, dahil sa madalas ho silang magpunta sa pabrika
hanggangsakamipoaymagkakilakilala.
TItobarinlima(5)naiyongbinanggitsaunaangsiyangsinasabimongbumaliksaiyo
sabahaynggabirinngNobiembre1,1968,pistangmgapatayparaisagawaanghold
up na binalak o pinagusapan ng tanghali ng araw ng pista ng patay Nobiembre 1,
1968?
SSilarinponglahat.
T Ipagpatuloy mo ang iyong salaysay, tumigil ka sa ikaw ay isinama para bantay sa
labasatsilaangpapasok.
SOpo.Ngsinisiraponilaangdingdingngpabrikangicedrop,angginawakopoumuwi
ako sa bahay namin. Hindi nagtagal nadinig ko pumutok. Ngayon pagkaraan po ng
putok na iyon ay nakita kong nagtakbuhan sila. Sa tabi po ng bahay sila nagdaan.
UmakyatsilasapaderdahilsaradonapoangpintopapuntangZamora.Hindikonapo
nalamankungsaansilamganagpunta.
TIyobangnalamankunganoangnangyarisabinalakopinagusapanninyongholdup
saintsiksaloobngpabrikangicedrop?
S Ang nalalaman ko po ay pinatay nila ang intsik dahil sa huli si Celing (Celestino
Garillo) na tumakbo at sinabi sa akin na huag akong maingay at napatay namin ang

intsik.
xxxxxxxxx
(pp.7778,originalrecord)
NowhereintheforegoingnarrationofFedericoFernandezdidheeveradmitthathewasarmedonthatoccasion,
orthatheenteredthefactorywiththegroup,asstatedinthetrialcourt'sdecision.
On what then can the conviction of appellant Fernandez stand? There is proof of the corpusdelicti that is, the
robbingandkillingofthechinamanyes,thatistruebutwhatevidencelinksFernandeztothecrimecommitted?
Iagreewithappellant'sdeoficiocounsel,Atty.TeodoroR.Dominguez,thatthereisnoneunderthelaw.
AsthereisnothinginthetestimonygivenincourtbythewitnessHenryBarillowhichdirectlyorindirectlyconnects
FedericoFernandeztotherobberyandkillingoftheicedropfactoryowner,allthatWehavearetheextrajudicial
statementsExhibits"D"and"M",andWemayevenincludeExhibit"L"whichisthestatementoftheotheraccused
AlejandroBuco.
DefensecounselcorrectlyarguesinhisbriefthatExhibits"D"and"L"are"incompetentandinadmissibleevidence
againsthisclient,FedericoFernandez"(p.17ofbrief)invokingthemaximres inter alias acta alteri nocere non
debetembodiedinsection25,Rule130oftheRulesofCourtwhichprovides:
The rights of a party cannot be Prejudiced by an act, declaration, or omission of another, and
proceedingsagainstonecannotaffectanother,exceptashereinafterprovided.
Itisasettledrule.hatanextrajudicialconfessionmadebyadefendantisadmissibleagainsthimbutnotagainst
his codefendant as to whom said confession is hearsay evidence for he had no opportunity to examine the
former.3
AndonthepremisethatappellantFernandezisallegedtobeacoconspirator,Wehavetherulethattheactor
declarationofaconspiratorrelatingtotheconspiracyoritsexistencemaybegiveninevidenceagainsttheco
conspiratoraftertheconspiracyisshownbyevidenceotherthansuchactordeclaration.4
InorderthatExhibits"D"and"L"maybeadmittedasevidenceagainstappellantFernandezasacoconspiratorit
isnecessarythattherebeproofoftheconspiracyindependentofsaidextrajudicialstatementsherethereisno
suchindependentproofandinitsabsence,noconvictioncanstandsimplyonthebasisofsaidstatements.5
AnotherpointnottobeoverlookedisthattheaccusedGarillowhiletestifyingincourtinhisdefensedeniedthat
heimplicatedFedericoFernandezinhisstatement,Exhibit"D".6
Verily, it is well to repeat here what the Court pronounced in People vs. Custodio that "considering the far
reaching consequences of criminal conspiracy, the same degree of proof required for establishing the crime is
requiredtosupportafindingofitspresence,thatis,itmustbeshowntoexistasclearlyandconvincinglyasthe
commissionoftheoffenseitself."7
Finally, there is the supposed "confession", Exhibit "M" wherein according to the trial Judge, the appellant
Fernandezacknowledgedhavingcommittedthecrime."
InmyviewExhibit"M"isnottobegiventheweightandevidentiaryvalueofanextrajudicialconfessionofguilt.As
alreadyindicatedearlier,FernandeznarratedinExhibit"M"theplanoffivepersonstorobtheowneroftheice
dropfactoryandthathewasaskedtoaccompanythosepersonsandtoactasguardoutsidethefactoryandon
theparticulareveningtheyallwenttotheplace.Butthatwasallinsofarashewasconcerned,foraccordingto
appellantwhilehewasstandingoutsidethefactoryandthefivepersonswerebreakingopenthewallheleftthe
placeandwenthome.Thisisanactofvoluntarydesistance.
The distinctive feature of a confession is that it must be an acknowledgment of guilt without any
exculpatingstatementsorexplanation.However,iftheprosecutionundertakestoprovestatements
of the accused as his confession, any exculpating statements which he made at the time are
admissibleinhisfavor.(Bramvs.UnitedStates,168U.S.532,42L.ed.56816S.Ct.183,citedin
Martin,RulesofCourtinthePhilippines,Vol.5,1974Ed.,p.251)
There is in every design or plan to commit a crime a place of repentance or locus penitentiae
wherebytheoneplanningtocommititmayabandontheIdeaandthusavoidcriminalliability.Thisis
truewhereoneofthepersonswhohasenteredintoaconspiracy,necessarilyinvolvinganovertact,
abandonstheplanbeforetheactifdone.(15AmJur333,p.22citingU.S.v.Britton,108U.S.199,
27L.ed.698,2S.Ct.531Statev.Webb,216Mo378,115S.W.998,20L.R.A.(N.S.)1142,129
Am.St.Rep.518,16Ann.Cas518)

Article6,paragraph3oftheRevisedPenalCodeexemptsfromliabilitythosewhospontaneouslydesistfromthe
commissionofafelony.
The voluntary desistance of appellant herein from the criminal act of assisting his coaccused before the crime
wascommittedwarranthisacquittal.
Onelastpoint.ThemainOpinionoftheCourtheavilyreliesonthestatementofappellantFernandezinExhibit
"M" that he went to Barrio Bicutan, Taguig, Rizal very early in the morning of the next day and thereafter to
Angeles, Pampanga where he stayed in a house together with the other accused, Berto and Gauden, as
indicativeofhisguilt.
It is the better rule however that evidence of flight is not substantive evidence of guilt 8 that it is merely a
circumstancetendingtoestablishguilt,notinitselfconclusive,norcanitcreatealegalpresumptionofguilt.9

IntheabsenceofseparateadmissibleevidencetendingtoestablishtheguiltofappellantFedericoFernandez,his
departureforAngeles,Pampangaisatthemostacircumstantialevidencebutinsufficientinitselftowarranthis
conviction.
ACCORDINGLY,IvotefortheacquittalofFedericoFernandez.

SeparateOpinions
MUOZPALMA,J.,dissenting:
TheevidenceoftheprosecutiontowhichJudgeOnofreA.VillaluzoftheCriminalCircuitCourtofRizalreferred
forhisfindingsthatFedericoFernandezwasacoprincipalinthecommissionoftherobberyandkillingofthe
chinamanLimTaoSing,consistsolelyoftheoraltestimonyoftheallegedloneeyewitnessHenryBarillo,the
extrajudicialstatementofoneoftheaccusedCelestinoGarillomarkedasExhibit"D"andthatofappellantherein
FedericoFernandezmarkedasExhibit"M".1Thus,thetrialjudgestatedinteraliainhisdecisionthat:(a)"aftertying
HenryBarillo,theaccusedCelestinoGarillo,armedwithabalisong,FedericoFernandezandRobertoGuinto,bothwere
armed,enteredthesaidfactory"(p.11ofdecision)(b)"thethreeaccusedinthiscasewerepositivelyIdentifiedbythe
witnessHenryBarillo"(p.23,Ibid.)and(c)"basedonthestatementsofthetwoaccused,markedasExhibits'D'and'M'the
saidaccused,CelestinoGarilloandFedericoFernandezacknowledgedhavingcommittedthecrimewhenallofthemwere
armedwithdeadlyweaponsandfirearms."(ibid.)(Emphasissupplied)

TheabovefindingsinsofarasFedericoFernandezisconcernedarenotborneoutbyevidencealludedtobyHis
Honor.
ThetestimonyoftheprosecutionwitnessBarillogivenduringthedirectaswellasthecrossexaminationshows
thatthiswitnesspositivelyIdentifiedonlytwooftheaccusedinthecase,namely,AlejandroBucoalias"Tangkad",
whopleadedguiltyandCelestinoGarilloalias"Celing"nowdeceased.2WhileitistruethatBarillodeclaredthataside
fromtheaccusedAlejandroBucoalias"Tangkad"whotiedhimwitharopeandaccusedCelestinoGarillowhopointedagun
athim,threeotherpersonsenteredthefactorythroughanopeningmadeontheplywoodwall,henevermentionedthename
ofappellantFedericoFernandezalias"Putol"asoneofthethreeotherpersonswhoenteredthefactorynordidhepointat
andIdentifyFernandezinopencourtasoneoftheperpetratorsofthecrimecharged.

LetusnowexamineandanalyzethedocumentaryevidenceExhibits"D"and"M",Exhibit"D"istheextrajudicial
statementoftheaccusednowdeceasedGarillo.Thepertinentportionsofthestatementarequotedhereunder:
xxxxxxxxx
TKunggayonisalaysaymosaiyongsarilingpananalitakungpapaanonaganapang
sinasabimongpagkakaholdupatpagkakapataysaintsik.
SAngnatatandaanko,nuongpistangpatay,mgaalas9:00nggabi,pumuntasina
Gaudinangpangalannatunayniya,GaudencioGarillo,Berto,tunaynapangalan,
RobertoQuinto,sakasiEmotpangalan,Guillermo,hindikoalamangapilyidoniya,sa
kinaroruonan,kosamaytambakansalikuranngterminalngLTBsaPasayInayanila
akonapumuntakamisapabrikangIceDropsaTaftAve.PasaySumamanamanako
sakanilaNagdaanmunakamisabahaynilaPutol(FedericoFernandez)diyansa
malapitsaZamoraSt.,ditorinsaPasayInabutannaminsiyaduon
TBagokasumamasatatlongkataongsinasabimo,sinaBerto,GaudenatEmotano
namanangsabinilasaiyonainyongpupuntahannuon?

SMayroondawintsiknahoholdapinnamin
TSakabilangpagkakaalammonagayonngaanginyonggagawin,sumamakaparin
sakanila,ganoonba?
SSumamanarinakosakanila.
TBagokayonakaratingsainyongpinuntahannapabrikangicedropsaTaftAve.,ano
namananginyongpinagusapansadean?
SBastasumamarawako,mayroonhoholdapin,silaangbahala.
TNgkayo'ydumatingsabahaynitongsiPutolnasinasabimo,anopaangsumunodna
pangyayari.
SNapagusapannaminduonkunganoanggagawinngbawatisasanaminnapang
hoholdupNapagusapannaminduon,siTangkadangnakakaalamlahatnggagawin
PinuntahannanaminiyongpabrikangicedropSiTangkadnuon,nasaloobnangice
dropfactoryItongsiGauden,pumasoksabutasduonsamaylikodngbahayTapos,
sumunodnaakosakaniya:NandoonnakamisaloobngpabrikaInabutannanamansi
TangkadsaloobNgnandoonnakamininaGauden,Tangkad,sumunoditongsiBerto
saloobNgayon,apatnakamisaloobNaiwanansiEmotsakasiPutolsalabasng
pabrikaNakitanaminsaibabaangisangtao,nakagaposnaiyon
TNalalamanmobanamankungsinoangmaygawanito?
SNalamankonalangngnasaloobnakaminasiTangkadangnaggaposniyon.
xxxxxxxxx
TBagokayomagtungosapinangholdapanninyonaayonsaiyo,sinosinonamanang
nalalamanmongmaydalangmgapatalimnuon?
SSiGauden,maydalawangdala,isangbalisong,isangpaltik,kasiisangputoklangang
barilehSiTangkad,balisongdinanghawak,nakitakoiyonsaloobehSiBertomay
dalarinbalisongdiniyonAko,maydalarinbalisong,bentenueveSiEmothindiko
alamkungmaydataSiPutol,wala,bastaduonlangsiyasalabas:
xxxxxxxxx
(6567,originalrecord)
Theforegoingdemonstratesthat(1)Fernandezdidnotentertheicedropfactorybutremainedoutsideduringthe
robbery,and(2)Fernandezwasnotatallarmedonthatoccasion.
Exhibit"M"istheextrajudicialstatementofappellantFernandezwhereinthelatternarratedabouttheplantorob
thechinamanintheicedropfactoryandnamedthefivepersonshatchingtheplanthathewasaskedtogowith
thegrouptostandguardoutsidethefactorythattheyallwenttotheicedropfactoryasnamedandhestood
outsideasinstructedthatwhilehiscompanionswerebreakingdownthewanhelefttheplaceandwenthome,
andsometimelaterheheardashot.QuotedhereunderarethepertinentportionsofExhibit"M"
xxxxxxxxx
TAnoangkaugnayanatnalamanmotungkolsasinasabimongholdupsaintsik?
SGanitopoiyan.Akopoaypinuntahannilasabahay,dahilsaalamnilanapalagi
akongistambaysaicedrapanmalapitpoangbahaykosaicedrapanSinabinilasaakin
nahuholdapinangintsiknakatiwalasapabrikangicedrop.Halaganglimanglibo
(P5,000.00)rawpoangnakuha.Angsabinilakungayawkomansumamaaybasta
huagnalangakongmaingayatsilaangbahala.Bibigyannalangnilaako.Angsagotko
posakanilaaykayoangbahala.Umalisnasila.Pagkagabihanbumalikposilasaakin
sabahay,mgapagitanngapongalas11at12nggabi,Nobiembre1,1968.Papasukin
athuholdapinnangapoangintsiksaloobngpabrika.isinamapoakoparabantaysa
labasatsilaangpapasok.
TBagokamagpatuloysaiyongsalaysay,sinusinongsilaangnaismongtukuyinna
siyangnagdaansaiyosabahayatpinagusapanangholdupsaintsiksaloobng
pabrikangicedrop?

SSiGaudencio,siBerto,itoposiCeling(CelestinoGarilloyOrgel,18,s,portersa
DivisoriaMarket,add551E.DelosSantosAve.,PC),siImotatsakasiTangkad,
(declarantpointingtoAlejandroBucoyValdez,@"CIMARON",32,m.lab.,address,
BakawanSt.,PasongTamo,MakatiRizal).Lima(5)posilanglahatatbilangpanganim
(6)ako.
TDitosalima(5)nanagpuntasaiyosabahayatnagsabisaiyonahuholdapinang
intsiksaloobngpabrikangicedropatikawaypinagsasamapaparabantay,ilanang
iyongtalagangkilala?
SSilaponglahataykilalako,dahilsamadalashosilangmagpuntasapabrika
hanggangsakamipoaymagkakilakilala.
TItobarinlima(5)naiyongbinanggitsaunaangsiyangsinasabimongbumaliksaiyo
sabahaynggabirinngNobiembre1,1968,pistangmgapatayparaisagawaanghold
upnabinalakopinagusapanngtanghalingarawngpistangpatayNobiembre1,
1968?
SSilarinponglahat.
TIpagpatuloymoangiyongsalaysay,tumigilkasaikawayisinamaparabantaysa
labasatsilaangpapasok.
SOpo.Ngsinisiraponilaangdingdingngpabrikangicedrop,angginawakopoumuwi
akosabahaynamin.Hindinagtagalnadinigkopumutok.Ngayonpagkaraanpong
putoknaiyonaynakitakongnagtakbuhansila.Satabipongbahaysilanagdaan.
UmakyatsilasapaderdahilsaradonapoangpintopapuntangZamora.Hindikonapo
nalamankungsaansilamganagpunta.
TIyobangnalamankunganoangnangyarisabinalakopinagusapanninyongholdup
saintsiksaloobngpabrikangicedrop?
SAngnalalamankopoaypinataynilaangintsikdahilsahulisiCeling(Celestino
Garillo)natumakboatsinabisaakinnahuagakongmaingayatnapataynaminang
intsik.
xxxxxxxxx
(pp.7778,originalrecord)
NowhereintheforegoingnarrationofFedericoFernandezdidheeveradmitthathewasarmedonthatoccasion,
orthatheenteredthefactorywiththegroup,asstatedinthetrialcourt'sdecision.
OnwhatthencantheconvictionofappellantFernandezstand?Thereisproofofthecorpusdelictithatis,the
robbingandkillingofthechinamanyes,thatistruebutwhatevidencelinksFernandeztothecrimecommitted?
Iagreewithappellant'sdeoficiocounsel,Atty.TeodoroR.Dominguez,thatthereisnoneunderthelaw.
AsthereisnothinginthetestimonygivenincourtbythewitnessHenryBarillowhichdirectlyorindirectlyconnects
FedericoFernandeztotherobberyandkillingoftheicedropfactoryowner,allthatWehavearetheextrajudicial
statementsExhibits"D"and"M",andWemayevenincludeExhibit"L"whichisthestatementoftheotheraccused
AlejandroBuco.
DefensecounselcorrectlyarguesinhisbriefthatExhibits"D"and"L"are"incompetentandinadmissibleevidence
againsthisclient,FedericoFernandez"(p.17ofbrief)invokingthemaximresinteraliasactaalterinocerenon
debetembodiedinsection25,Rule130oftheRulesofCourtwhichprovides:
TherightsofapartycannotbePrejudicedbyanact,declaration,oromissionofanother,and
proceedingsagainstonecannotaffectanother,exceptashereinafterprovided.
Itisasettledrule.hatanextrajudicialconfessionmadebyadefendantisadmissibleagainsthimbutnotagainst
hiscodefendantastowhomsaidconfessionishearsayevidenceforhehadnoopportunitytoexaminethe
former.3
AndonthepremisethatappellantFernandezisallegedtobeacoconspirator,Wehavetherulethattheactor
declarationofaconspiratorrelatingtotheconspiracyoritsexistencemaybegiveninevidenceagainsttheco
conspiratoraftertheconspiracyisshownbyevidenceotherthansuchactordeclaration.4

InorderthatExhibits"D"and"L"maybeadmittedasevidenceagainstappellantFernandezasacoconspiratorit
isnecessarythattherebeproofoftheconspiracyindependentofsaidextrajudicialstatementsherethereisno
suchindependentproofandinitsabsence,noconvictioncanstandsimplyonthebasisofsaidstatements.5
AnotherpointnottobeoverlookedisthattheaccusedGarillowhiletestifyingincourtinhisdefensedeniedthat
heimplicatedFedericoFernandezinhisstatement,Exhibit"D".6
Verily,itiswelltorepeatherewhattheCourtpronouncedinPeoplevs.Custodiothat"consideringthefar
reachingconsequencesofcriminalconspiracy,thesamedegreeofproofrequiredforestablishingthecrimeis
requiredtosupportafindingofitspresence,thatis,itmustbeshowntoexistasclearlyandconvincinglyasthe
commissionoftheoffenseitself."7
Finally,thereisthesupposed"confession",Exhibit"M"whereinaccordingtothetrialJudge,theappellant
Fernandezacknowledgedhavingcommittedthecrime."
InmyviewExhibit"M"isnottobegiventheweightandevidentiaryvalueofanextrajudicialconfessionofguilt.As
alreadyindicatedearlier,FernandeznarratedinExhibit"M"theplanoffivepersonstorobtheowneroftheice
dropfactoryandthathewasaskedtoaccompanythosepersonsandtoactasguardoutsidethefactoryandon
theparticulareveningtheyallwenttotheplace.Butthatwasallinsofarashewasconcerned,foraccordingto
appellantwhilehewasstandingoutsidethefactoryandthefivepersonswerebreakingopenthewallheleftthe
placeandwenthome.Thisisanactofvoluntarydesistance.
Thedistinctivefeatureofaconfessionisthatitmustbeanacknowledgmentofguiltwithoutany
exculpatingstatementsorexplanation.However,iftheprosecutionundertakestoprovestatements
oftheaccusedashisconfession,anyexculpatingstatementswhichhemadeatthetimeare
admissibleinhisfavor.(Bramvs.UnitedStates,168U.S.532,42L.ed.56816S.Ct.183,citedin
Martin,RulesofCourtinthePhilippines,Vol.5,1974Ed.,p.251)
Thereisineverydesignorplantocommitacrimeaplaceofrepentanceorlocuspenitentiae
wherebytheoneplanningtocommititmayabandontheIdeaandthusavoidcriminalliability.Thisis
truewhereoneofthepersonswhohasenteredintoaconspiracy,necessarilyinvolvinganovertact,
abandonstheplanbeforetheactifdone.(15AmJur333,p.22citingU.S.v.Britton,108U.S.199,
27L.ed.698,2S.Ct.531Statev.Webb,216Mo378,115S.W.998,20L.R.A.(N.S.)1142,129
Am.St.Rep.518,16Ann.Cas518)
Article6,paragraph3oftheRevisedPenalCodeexemptsfromliabilitythosewhospontaneouslydesistfromthe
commissionofafelony.
Thevoluntarydesistanceofappellanthereinfromthecriminalactofassistinghiscoaccusedbeforethecrime
wascommittedwarranthisacquittal.
Onelastpoint.ThemainOpinionoftheCourtheavilyreliesonthestatementofappellantFernandezinExhibit
"M"thathewenttoBarrioBicutan,Taguig,Rizalveryearlyinthemorningofthenextdayandthereafterto
Angeles,Pampangawherehestayedinahousetogetherwiththeotheraccused,BertoandGauden,as
indicativeofhisguilt.
Itisthebetterrulehoweverthatevidenceofflightisnotsubstantiveevidenceofguilt8thatitismerelya
circumstancetendingtoestablishguilt,notinitselfconclusive,norcanitcreatealegalpresumptionofguilt.9

IntheabsenceofseparateadmissibleevidencetendingtoestablishtheguiltofappellantFedericoFernandez,his
departureforAngeles,Pampangaisatthemostacircumstantialevidencebutinsufficientinitselftowarranthis
conviction.
ACCORDINGLY,IvotefortheacquittalofFedericoFernandez.
Footnotes
1pp.64,6670,rollo
2Exh.A,p.53,OriginalRecord.
3p.153,rollo.
4Exh.D,p.65,OriginalRecord.
5Exh.L,p.74,OriginalRecord.

6Exh.M,p.77,Orig.Rec.,whichreads:
sGanitopoiyan.Akopoaypinuntahannilasabahay,dahilsaalamnilanapalagiakongistambaysa
icedrapanmalapitpoangbahaykosaiceqqqdrapanSinabinilasaakinnahuholdapinangintsik
nakatiwalasapabrikangicedrop.Halaganglimanglibo(P5,000.00)rawtoangmakukuha.Angsabi
nilakungayawkomansumamaaybastahuagnalangakongmaingayatsilaangbahala.Bibigyan
nalangnilaako.Angsagotkoposakanilaaykayoangbahala.Umalisnasila.Pagkagabihan
bumalikposilasaakinsabahaymgapagitanngapongalas11at12nggabi,Nobiembre1,1968.
Papasukinathuholdapinngapoangintsiksaloobngpabrika.Isinamapoakoparabantaysalabas
atsilaangpapasok.
xxxxxxxxx
Ipagpatuloymoangiyongsalaysay,tumigilkasaikaway
isinamaparabantaysalabasatsilaangpapasok.
sOpoNgsinisiraponilaangdingdingngpabrikangicedropangginawakopoumuwiakosabahay
naminHindiponagtagalnadinigkopumutok.Ngayonpagkaraanpongputoknaiyonaynakitakong
nagtakbuhansila.SatabipongbahaysilanagdaanUmakyatsilasapaderdahilsaradonapoang
pintopapuntangZamora.Hindikonaponalamankungsaansilamganagpunta."
7TheLivingBible,p.733,Proverbs28:1
8Peoplevs.Carunungan,109Phil.534.
9Peoplevs.Valeriano,90Phil.15.
10Aquino,TheRevisedPenalCode,1976ed.,p.350,354.
11Id.,p.372,citingPeoplevs.Vente,L8344,Feb.28,1957,100Phil.1099.
12SeeExhibitD.
13SeeExhibitM,P.3.
MUOZPALMA,J.,Footnotes:
1page23,CFIdecision,p.174,originalrecord.
2Seepp.410,1828,TSNofFebruary14,1969.
3Peoplevs.Amajul.etal.,perReyes,J.B.L.,J.1SCRA682,February28,1961,citingMoran's
CommentsontheRulesofCourt,1957Ed.Vol.III,p.109.SeealsoU.S.vs.Castillo,etal.,2Phil.
17U.S.vs.Paete,etal.,6Phil.105Peoplevs.Tabuche,etal.,46Phil.28Peoplevs.Durante,et
al.,47Phil.654Peoplevs.OrenciadaandCenita,47Phil.970andPeoplevs.Bandeetal.,50Phil.
37Moran,1970Ed.Vol.5,p.276.
4Section27,Rule130RulesofCourt.
5Peoplevs.Capadocia,etal.,perMakalintalJ.,August29,1966,17SCRA981Moran,supra,p.
254Martin,RulesofCourt,1974Ed.,Vol,5,p.237.
6TSN.February17,1969,p.22.
7PerAntonio,J.,October30,1972,47SCRA289,302,reiteratedinPeoplevs.Madera,etal.,May
31,1974,57SCRA349andPeoplevs.Tumalip,etal.,October28,1974,60SCRA303.
isdone."(15AmJur$333,p.22,citingU.S.v.Britton,108U.S.199,27L.ed.698,2S.Ct.531State
v.Webb216Mo378,115S.W.998,20L.R.A.(N.S.)1142,129Am.St.Rep.518,16Ann.Cas518)
822AC.J.S.sec.625,p.460.
9Ibid.,citingGa.Seayv.State,11S.E.2d54,63Ga.
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