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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION
Background to the study
In recent years, e-learning system has become a promising technology for
educational purposes. These revolutions are rapidly reaching into maturity, and
their deployment provides a fully probability for the new patterns of work, life,
and play in both academic and professional environments. Several studies have
noted that e-learning allows learners to take lessons in their own pace, expend
times in their own choosing, and in sequence that they prefer. Moreover, elearning system now can combine with ubiquitous computing and mobile
technologies to provide much broader scope for innovative learning experiences
that can take place in a variety of outdoor and indoor settings (Anglin,2006).
Thus, through the novel technologies and the network connectivity, e-learning
enables learners to interact simultaneously with both the physical world and
digital information for a new way of thinking and operating.
According to Haw and Hadfield (2011), E-learning refers to the use of
various kinds of electronic media and information and communication
technologies (ICT) in education. E-learning is an inclusive terminology that
encompasses all forms of educational technology that electronically or
technologically support learning and teaching. Depending on whether a particular
aspect, component or delivery method is given emphasis, e-learning may be
termed technology-enhanced learning (TEL), computer-based training (CBT),
internet-based training (IBT), web-based training (WBT), online education,
virtual education, or digital educational collaboration.
E-learning includes numerous types of media that deliver text, audio, images,
animation, and streaming video, and includes technology applications and
processes such as audio or video tape, satellite TV, CD-ROM, and computerbased learning, as well as local intranet/extranet and web-based learning.
Information and communication systems, whether free-standing or based on
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either local networks or the Internet in networked learning, underlay many elearning processes. E-learning can occur in or out of the classroom. It can be
self-paced, asynchronous learning or may be instructor-led, synchronous
learning. E-learning is suited to distance learning and flexible learning, but it
can also be used in conjunction with face-to-face teaching, in which case the
term blended learning is commonly used.
Statement of problem

It is commonly thought that new technologies make a big difference in Many


proponents of e-learning believe that everyone must be equipped with basic
knowledge of technology, as well as use it as a medium to reach educational oal.
One can feel or see the images are moving. In the context of learning. Animation
assists learners to visualize a dynamic process, which, otherwise may be difficult
to visualize. Animation might thereby reduce the cognitive load (Rieber, 1990).
In Kehoe's (1996) review of studies on animation in education, visual aids are
found to have a positive effect on learning if certain conditions (explanative
text, sensitive tests, explanative illustrations, inexperienced learners) are
met (Mayes 1989).
As conceptions of development, learning, and teaching have moved toward more
constructivist approaches to instruction, teachers have begun placing more
emphasis on direct experience, interactions between teachers and students and
between students and students for creating understanding (Kauchak & Eggen,
1998). At the same time, developing technology has led to video research to
demonstrate the links between the pedagogical thinking and actual practice of
teachers (Hennessy & Deany, 2009). For example, selected video episodes
focusing on the learner have been used extensively over the past few years for
helping teachers understand the teaching of mathematics (Santagata & Guarino,
2011; Towers, 2007) and science and English (Rosaen et al., 2010; Roth et al.,
2011).
E-learning is an inclusive terminology for all forms of educational
technology that electronically or technologically support learning and teaching.
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Bernard Luskin advocates that the "e" should be interpreted to mean "exciting,
energetic, enthusiastic, emotional, extended, excellent, and educational" in
addition to "electronic." This broad interpretation focuses on new applications
and developments, and also brings learning and media psychology into
consideration.
The worldwide e-learning industry was estimated to be over $48 billion in
2000 according to conservative estimates. Developments in internet and
multimedia technologies are the basic enabler of e-learning, with consulting,
content, technologies, services and support being identified as the five key
sectors of the e-learning industry. Information and communication technologies
(ICT) are used extensively by young people.
E-learning has given people in college accessibility to data, wherever one
looks data of e-learning is there, there are many different sometimes mobile
devices as well as their many ways that these benefit people around the globe
anytime, anywhere access to data. This can improve interactions between
students and their instructors for their classes, this can allow students with tools
which they can use for different purposes and use independently supports
problem base actions(Bailey, Tettegah, & Bradley, 2006; Moreno & OrteganoLayne, 2007; Tettegah, 2005). There are also ways that it can deter people from
actually learning as pointed out, it may make it easier to chat taking someone
away from learning and into talking to someone through Face book it also gives
them the ability to cheat through online test and quizzes having the ability to look
for the answer using Google it always a possibility. This also can give tech-savvy
students an advantage over non-technical students. Over all e-learning through
technology will most likely be seen more and more in todays college
environment. Approaches to e-learning require a focus on students providing
them with tools to support their shared activities and problem based
activities(Good & Brophy, 1997).

Objective of the study


The main objective of this study is to find out about the use of
3d computer animation technology in e learning.
The present study aims to
1. facilitate the development of information technology
2. reveal the use and technology of wireless network to the user.
3. provide alternative way of attaining education
4. implement a system which reduce examination mal- practice
Significance of the study
E-learning provides benefit for the organizations and individuals involved
it reduces the cost of learning, examination and result processing institutions, it
create access thereby enables people from any part of the world to be educated Elearning also functions in improving standard of education which Helps to
eliminate inadequate like examination malpractice .
Scope of the study
Design and implementation of e- learning (A case study of computer
Science and information and technology, NOUN), this project is a tutorial and
design with VB
Limitation of the study
The rate of technology is moving at rapid speed and not everybody
Understand how some of the tools used for this education process are used. Some
people find it difficult to afford this form of learning and measurement,
especially towards the cost of accessing the internet.

CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
Visual Representation
Visual representations are maps, charts, diagrams, static graphics, computer
animations, hypertext and multimedia that are incorporated into instruction.
Visual representations relate to the components of the subject matter (Goodman,
1968). They show a spatial relation and may refer to the concrete objects and
real-world relations, or, by analogy, to abstract concepts and conceptual relations
(Winn, 1989).Maps is an example of the former, which refers to the real-world
relations. The real territory, such as buildings, mountains and lakes, describes
them. For useful navigation, they are reduced in scale and correspond to the
virtual distances among the features of the territory (Schlichtmann, 1985).
Diagrams often illustrate abstract domains of reference (Winn, 1989). Charts
represent the procedural steps and exclude physical objects. The joining lines
help create a sequence of the steps. Animation refers to a series of computer
screens that illustrate movement (Hannafin & Rieber, 1989).
Animation provides visual and spatial information. Hypermedia, characterized as
a generic term covering hypertext, multimedia, and related applications,
involves the chunking of information into nodes that could be selected
dynamically (Dillon & Gabbard, 1998). Multimedia corresponds to using more
than one sense modality (Mayer & Sims, 1994). Multimedia learning occurs
when students utilize information presented in two or more modalities such as
visually presented animation and verbally presented narration to construct
knowledge (Mayer & Sims, 1994). Generally people understand the information
presented by the visuals better; it is well said "a picture is worth a thousand
words. Understanding occurs when a visual interacts with the psychological
process active in the person who receives it (Salomon, 1979). It requires that

perceptual and cognitive processes act on the representative elements of visuals


and become influenced by them (Winn, 1991).
Effect of visual representation on human cognitive system
There is substantial confirmation that creating visual spatial structures improves
peoples ability to recall and understand (Bellezza, 1983, 1986: Decker &
Wheatley, 1982; Clark & Pavio, 1991; Mayer 2001). Bellezza (1986) concluded
that subjects recalled more words when they were presented with visual
presentation because the visuals were encoded as intact images in memory and
were retrieved intact in response to cue words. The visuals were helpful in
organizing the information in the brain and cues served a connection between
stored information and thus retrieved it effectively (Kulhavy, Lee & Caterino,
1985). It is expected that creating structural arrangements improves recall and
comprehension of information in visuals by helping students organize the
information (Winn, Li & Schill, 1991).
When the information is visually presented, it is encoded as it is presented.
Meaning is then assigned to it, and it is connected with previous information
already in store (Hirtle & Jonides, 1985). Careful Spatial construction makes it
easier for people to organize the visual representation meaningfully (Winn, Li &
Schill 1991). Many questions regarding the interaction between a visual
representation and the human cognitive system relate to time. Background
knowledge and presentation of the information and graphics can be associated
with the construction of a mental model in the human brain (cf. Pinker, 1990). It
can be helpful in reducing cognitive load (Bruning, Schraw & Ronning, 1998).
Dual coding makes it simpler to recall and understand the information. Dual
coding theory (Pavio, 1986) provides theoretical support for the use of visuals.
According to this theory, words and visuals stimulate autonomously and encode
the information separately in long term memory.

Graphics for Instruction


Graphics are used when teaching specific lesson content such as facts, concepts,
processes, procedures, and principles in computer delivered instruction. Mayer
(2001) summarizes the following principles for use of graphics for teaching
different content types. Process information is effectively visualized with
animations. Here is an image that illustrates how plants are regenerated from
tissue culture.
Static Graphics
Graphics have played key roles in scientific textbooks for centuries (Brooks,
Nolan & Gallagher, 2001). They have been used to stimulate interest in students
and increase their involvement for instructional purposes. There has been a
considerable amount of research on the process of knowledge acquisition by
means of text and graphics (Anglin, Towers, & Levie, 1981; Levie & Lentz,
1982; and Willows & Houghton, 1987). There is a general consent on the
beneficial contribution of graphics with the related text information for the
readers (Morrison, Ross, & Kemp, 2001). Graphics are a good source of visual
communication and can deliver the textual message effectively (Levie & Lentz,
1982).
Graphics capture the attention of the learner by arranging the components
spatially and they thereby use particular capacities of human visual system for
perception of spatial configurations (Schnotz, 1993). Instructional material
consists of written texts and graphics such as maps, charts, graphs, diagrams, etc
(Schnotz, 1993). The purpose of graphical displays in text is not a mere accessory
to texts or to decorate the text and thus appeal the readers. Rather, graphics to
illustrate abstract concepts, organize complex sets of information, integrate new
knowledge into existing knowledge structures, facilitate retention of European
Journal of Computer Science and Information Technology information, and
foster the process as of thinking and problem solving which are effective aids for
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learning (Schnotz, 1993). Comprehension of graphics is a process of constructing


meaning, which learners acquire within an active processing framework and the
prior experience with the stimuli (Schnotz & Kulhavy, 1994). Task expectations
and ability make a difference in how the individuals learn (Schnotz & Kulhavy,
1994). Graphics can serve various functions like depicting data, explaining
complex relationships, organizing information, improving memory for facts, and
influencing problem solving. These functions are not inherent in graphics,
however, but result from the way in which such graphics are processed
cognitively (Schnotz & Kulhavy, 1994).
Diagrams and Illustrations
In science instruction, diagrams are often used to present the information (Lowe,
1993). Larkin & Simon (1987) have supported the effect of diagrams on learning
with the empirical studies emphasizing the advantages of constructing a mental
representation and cognitive processing because of diagrams (Glenberg &
Langston, 1992; Winn, Li, & Schill, 1991; Dwyer's, 1970, 1972). An analysis on
the effectiveness of different types of illustrations (realistic drawings, simple line
drawings, and photographs) concluded that, if the time available is appropriate
and sufficient simple line drawings tend to be most effective. If the learning
environment is self-paced, then the learner takes more advantage in the realistic
pictures.
Animations
There are several instructional opportunities that can be explored with the change
in the representation form from static graphics to graphical computer simulations.
Animation is one of those components (Rieber, 1990). In several studies
involving scientific subject areas, Mayer (2001) has pointed to the importance of
animation. Animation facilitates descriptive and procedural learning (Rieber,
1990; Lih-Juan ChanLin, 2000; Mayer, 2001). Animation is an important
component in designing interactive multimedia which creates a visual interest
and makes scientific learning more appealing and enjoyable for learners (Lih8

Juan ChanLin, 2000). Furthermore, animation is one such component which can
be part of computer based instruction and which cannot be combined with any
other media (Rieber,1990). Animation adds two unique components as compared
to the static graphic motion and trajectory (Klien, 1987). Animated visuals
explain the visual and spatial information when these two components are used
effectively. The pace of animations, when controlled by the learners, allows the
users to view the motion and replay as many times as desired.
This series of actions allows students to explore the different strings of actions
(Klein, 1985). Through computer-based instruction, a student constantly creates,
manipulates, and interacts within a dynamic conversation of his own creation.
S/he constructs mental models (Klein, 1985). Other information delivery media
have important similarities and distinctions that may make a difference for the
learner. Animations are created symbols which differentiate the real life events
but create an opportunity for the learner to interact and move from being a
passive information receiver to an active interact or (Klein, 1985). Animation and
simulation features have been used in engineering (Wozny, 1978), physics
(diSessa, 1982) and mathematics (Hooper, 1982; Wegman, 1974). These have
made effective contribution to instruction by conveying the information through
the help of its interactivity and special effects (Hellet, 1999).
There are many variables which can affect learning with Wyzts Playground, a
multimedia tool, was created for animation research in fourth grade mathematics.
This tool emulates and simulates the real-life scenario of building a playground,
and creates an environment that engages the students in active learning (Johnson
& Neil- Jones, 1999). This study used interactive videodiscs to discover the
nature and proportion of the different learning activities exhibited by group 12-13
year old student to ascertain that the repeated use of disc improved their problem
solving skills. The study found that well designed applications could enhance
learning (Blissett & Atkins, 1993). Reports by Hamel & Ryan-Jones (1997)
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reviewed the use of state of the art graphic and animation for instructional
material, and laid a set of guidelines for using interactive graphics:
Interactive graphics, especially 3-D graphics, views the object in ways that
enhance
three dimensional interpretations by producing more accurate depth information.
It directs attention to important parts of the objects.
It uses interactive graphics, with hints on viewing strategies.
It presents procedures that enhance visual learning.
It includes practice of the procedure in the instructional sequence.
Theoretical Framework and Review of Relevant Literature
The theoretical framework for this study was grounded in Banduras (1986)
social cognitive theory of learning. He points out in his discussion that modeling
is the most common mode of learning new behaviors. The learning may take
varied forms, including new behavior patterns, judgmental standards, cognitive
competencies, and generative rules for creating behaviors (p. 49). Moreno and
Ortegano-Layne (2007) supported this view by noting that people learn from
directly observing (real) people as well as by indirectly observing people in real
or fictitious situations like motion pictures, television, plays, and books. Previous
research has indicated that preservice teachers have chosen classroom scenarios
as their preferred method of instruction over more traditional teacher education
methods.
According to experiential models of learning, when students are presented with a
classroom scenario demonstrating how the learned principles can be applied to
the teaching practice, relevant aspects of the scenario are selected by matching
the encoded principles with observed/described classroom behaviors and the
example is integrated with students past experiential knowledge. (Moreno &
Ortegano-Layne, 2007, p. 452) In addition, students are more likely to apply
theoretical knowledge in future situations when they are presented with authentic
classroom situations in narrative, video, or animation ( Bransford & Schwartz,
1999). Goldman, Pea, Barron, and Derry (2007) presented theoretical
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frameworks for conducting video research with the major emphasis on collecting
and selecting video data for research that would extend our way of knowing
about and sharing learning, teaching, and educational processes (p. ix).
Advancing technologies enable educators to capture more of the complexity in
classrooms with the challenge of fairly presenting the underlying representations
(Miller & Zbou, 2007).
However, researchers must ensure that the representations are accurate by relying
on expert opinion or coding of specific behaviors (Goldman et al., 2007). The
research study described in this paper focused on the blending of current teaching
and learning theory with technology advances in the form of computer animation
vignettes to make lessons more effective and significant in students learning
activities (Bailey et al., 2006; Schank, 1997). Given previous success in the use
of the videos for teaching classroom management theory and strategies and the
quest for developing more effective and efficient ways to teach preservice
teachers, this information was important for determining continued and future
development of this type of resource for teaching and learning.
In uses of computer graphics imagery variations in visual fidelity (including
form, texture, color, and animated behavior) have been shown to be factors
influencing task performance and the level of engagement (Cho et al., 2003;
Fishcher, Bartz, & Strasser, 2005; Pellacini & Ferwada, 2002; Shim & Kim 2003;
Vinayagamoorthy, Brogni, Gillies, Slater, & Steed, 2004; Youngblut, 2007).
Finally, the capacity to alter visual fidelity in synthetic imagery provides the
authors of educational content the potential opportunity to adjust content to either
enhance or minimize degrees of ambiguity according to the desired learning level
goals (McLaughlin, Smith, & Brown, 2010).
Gap in Literature

Sseveral authors have published recent papers highlighting the hidden costs of
bringing e-learning to new countries higher education systems, from the cost of
putting in place a widely accessible national telecommunications infrastructure
(Bates, 2001) to those costs associated with the establishment of national
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accreditation agencies for e-learning programs and institutions (Bollag, 2001).


However, as many educational scholars have pointed out, the earliest examples of
e-learning practice significantly pre-date the invention of the Web, beginning
with the invention of email in the early 1970s and continuing with the
establishment of innovative virtual schools in the early 1990s (Barbour and
Reeves, 2009; Harasim, 2000). Consequently, most educational scholars have
rejected the synonymous use of the terms e-learning and online learning, and
promoted instead the development of more inclusive e-learning definitions, such
as the use of new information and communication technologies in education
(Bates, 2001). This movement to come to some practical consensus about scope
of e-learning suggests a significant step in the collocation, and hence
development, of future e-learning research. In the late 1990s and early 2000s,
interest in e-learning, both scholarly and commercial, increased substantially,
particularly in the United States, Canada, and Australia. Studies of American
students in virtual programs at both the elementary and secondary level led
researchers to tout e-learnings many benefits, including but not limited to its
flexibility in geography and scheduling, its ability to address various learning
styles, and its overall expansion of educational access to people in remote
communities (Kellogg and Politoski, 2002; Cavenaugh et al, 2006).
While some of these studies have since been criticized for not being based on
robust enough research (Barbour and Reeves, 2009), the general impression of,
and evidence for e-learning as Paradigmatic shift in the field of education
(Harasim 2000) remains basically intact. Student in tertiary institution suffers a
lot of setback in external exams due to the type of teaching system which they
receive. They dont have access to the internet and lack knowledge of what is
obtainable in the society. Therefore the present study aims to
1. facilitate the development of information technology
2. reveal the use and technology of wireless network to the user.
3. provide alternative way of attaining education
4. implement a system which reduce examination mal- practice

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CHAPTER THREE
SYSTEM ANALYSIS AND METHODOLOGY

Introduction
In the analysis of the existing system, the information gathered were analyzed
and restricted in a more relevant and useful data. Data analysis that was gotten
was based on the identification of the basic needs and also the structure of
project. The data gatherer shows that they are analyze restructured in a way that
the subsystem were system achieve efficiently. Learning facilities were provided
in this e-learning system which helps greatly in learning package .There are also
facilities for testing of knowledge.
Methodology of data collection
After achieving software requirement, the next step was to source for
information relative to the subject. Information gathering can be gotten through
different sources.
1. Checking of result and calculating of great point together with credit load.
2. Testing the ability of students.
3. Knowing the reasons and importance of e-learning.
4. Specifically in computer.
5. Opportunity of reading e-books with other relevant articles.
6. Personal observation.
Objectives of the existing system
The objective of the system is to develop a good E-Learning system that will help
in teaching and acquiring knowledge in technology to the students.

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Information flow chart.


Input analysis
The student login forum is the input of the new system, the course
registration, and the result checking and computer science courses these
types of forums are gotten through the case study (Noun Computer Science).
PROCESS ANALYSIS
This is the process whereby you check for the correct answer and if you are
unable to supply the answer, the software will then provide the correct
answer for you.
Output analysis
E-learning is the major part of the output analysis.
Problem of the current system.
E-Learning plays a major role in education because without E-learning it
will be very hard for people to understand and learn fast. Qualified teachers
are very scarce. So there should be a system that can be used to train student
in terms of learning.

Design standards
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The new system is design to work with the standard software development
procedure .It is software structural that designed to meet up with students
requirements and also has a structure that can detect every activity that takes
place in the system. This e-learning is placed in VB 6.0 codes access the
performance of students.
Output specification and design
The output from the system is in the VB 6.0 Potable Document File (pdf) format
page and it is open for everybody that wants to have access to it and can also be
printed out any time.
Input specification and design
The input to the system comes from three forms .the first one is the quiz form,
secondly the checking of result and the last one is the computer science books.

Question form

Computer science books


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Result checking
File design
SQL was used in the design .There are four tables used in the design the student
login, the admin login, the question structure, and forum structure

Student loging database structure

Admin login
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Field Name

Field Type

Collation

Id-

Int(11)

Question

Varcher(60)

Utf-general-ci

Option 1

Varcher(60)

Utf-general-ci

Option2

Varcher(60)

Utf-general-ci

Option3

Varcher(60)

Utf-general-ci

Option4

Varcheer(60)

Utf-general-ci

Question structure

Field name

Field type

Collation

Id-

Int(50)

Utf-general-ci

Name

Varcher

Utf-general-ci

Question

Varcher

Utf-general-ci

class forum structure


Procedure chart

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System Flowchart

Input data

Input from
keyboard
Report
CPU
Disk
Output data
storage
System Flowchart
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System requirements
The new system was develop using the following software
which can make it to function effectively
1. Intel core 13 computer system
2. 252 KB RAM
3. At least 40 GB hard disk
4. Enhanced keyboard
5. Color monitor
6. Uninterrupted power supple
Software requirements
The software was developed using the following
1. Visual Basic 6.0
2. Window XP
3. Graphical application
Operational requirment
Visual Basic application is needed so that the new system can
function effectively.
Personal requirement
A computer system that has visual basic installed in it.
PROGRAM FLOW CHART

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Program flow Chart

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program flowchart

CHAPTER FOUR
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Conclusion
The presented wide spectra of definitions and classifications of animations and
simulations indicates their importance, especially in the field of education.
Many objectives of the teaching/learning process could be easily achieved with
properly use of well prepared animations and simulations. Animations and
simulations are irreplaceable didactic tool when we are talking about promotion
of higher level of interactivity in the educational process of any form, whether
traditional or distance. The other benefits of the increased use of animations and
simulation in education include: deeper and better retention of student
understanding of concept, mastery of a skill or strategy or acquisition of
knowledge. Animations and simulations could support constructivistic learning
through learning by doing, and can be use for discovery learning, experiental
learning, problem-based learning, etc.
The

main

challenges

that

remains

open

are:

complexity

of

animations/simulations, student navigation through animation/simulation,


including feedback, adaptability of students and teachers, proper use of
animations/simulation according the teaching and learning methods, forms and
techniques, adequate use of animations/simulation according the educational
goals and objectives, etc. In the completion of this project work, the
following achievements was made;
1. Design and development of a computerized tutor.
2. Checking result was also design to help students check their results and
also know their CGPA. You can as well test students ability by
answering the quiz question.

3. Computer science courses were also included to enable students to read


courses and E-books.
4. The need of Visual basic is to design an application.
E-learning system as developed in this project will assist the user to test the
knowledge of people around and means of accessing the understanding
increases. With the advent of information in our developing and developed
world, learning facilities are now on the increase .E-learning has added a lot of
advantages to the training institutes as it teaches student and test their
knowledge and add a lot of advantages to education standard as it reduces
examination malpractice in our country.
Recommendation
E-learning should be use as part of teaching standard in education to enable the
student to acquire more knowledge.
Justifications for the new system
The organization and individuals benefit a lot from e-learnings because it
provides student with the opportunity to learn fast and have a good knowledge with
e-learning one can have access to the internet to be more acquainted globally
which makes learning more obtainable, affordable.

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