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IMPACT OF PARTICIPATIVE LEADERSHIP ON MOTIVATION OF

EMPLOYEES IN MISSION SCHOOLS IN OYI LOCAL


GOVERNMENT

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study
The issue of leadership styles is a major and basic concern for all
organizations and institutions in various countries. Different
countries around the world have been attempting to highlight and
stress the concept of efficient leadership styles in various ways in
their organizational daily activities, programs, and performance, for
example, England and Nigeria. There is rapid and increasing
awareness in various sectors and fields in line with a sharp
increase in the number of teachers, including the educational
institutions such as universities, colleges, schools and others which
are indirectly related to the educational domain (MoE, 2011). The
Education and Training Policy set aims and objectives, which was
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to: produce skilled man power with the necessary quality and
quantity

to

meet

the

national

socio-economic

development

requirement, to bring up citizens who understand, respect and


defend the constitution, a citizen who respects democratic values
and human rights moreover with good work culture and ethics
(MOE, 1994).
In today's complex and changing environment leadership is a highly
valued commodity. Because the effectiveness of a leader is a major
determinant of success or failure of an organization, group or even a
country (Fiedler, 1996), the concept of leadership has gained a lot of
attention from managers to researchers worldwide. Leadership can
be defined as social process in which the leader seeks the
participation of subordinates in order to reach organizational goals
and objectives (Omolayo, 2000). A review of the available literature
indicates that there is a wide variety of different theoretical
approaches to explain leadership process (Northouse, 2010).
According to Rost (1991) there are almost 220 definitions of

leadership and over 40 leadership styles. Leadership styles refer to


the way leaders behave towards or treat (giving direction and
motivating) the individuals they are leading to achieve objectives
(Ehrhart, 2004). Leadership styles can vary from a very classical
autocratic approach to a very creative and participative approach
(Mosadeghrad and Yarmohammadian, 2006). Some of the most
studied leadership styles are charismatic, participative, situational,
transactional,

and

transformational

leadership

(Mosadeghrad

2003).
The main reason for the wide variety of leadership styles is the
changing nature of leadership. Changes in social values, culture,
technology and political system are impacting the leadership
process in all industry sectors. It is important to realize that,
leadership styles which were considered effective in certain time or
situation can lose their effectiveness once social value, time or
cultures changes. One the best example for this fact is Fredric
Taylor's scientific management theory which was considered very

effective in 1900's but is now considered as inhuman and


ineffective.
Because of the wide variety of leadership style and due to the
changing nature of leadership choosing the right leadership style is
one of the most difficult issues that organizations have to face.
Although the concept of leadership has been the subject of
extensive amount of theoretical and empirical research and
unheralded work in humanistic psychology has made it possible to
generalize the leadership process across different cultures and time,
leadership is still considered as one of the most observed and least
understood phenomena on earth.

Several researchers have defined leadership style in different


countries and contexts. (Chandan, 1987) define leadership style is
the ingredient of personality embodied in leaders that causes
subordinates to follow them. Okumbe, (1998) on the other hand
defines leadership styles is particular behaviors applied by a leader
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to

motivate

subordinates

to

achieve

the

objectives

of

the

organization. In view of the foregoing, leadership style were defined


in various ways. It refers to the underlying needs of the leader that
motivate his behavior. It is the manifestation of the dominant
pattern of behavior of a leader (Olaniyan, 1999; Okurumeh, 2001).
It is also a process through which principal influences a teacher or
group others in the attainment of educational goals (Akinwumiju
and Olaniyan, 1996; Adeyemi, 2006).

Participative leadership is a style of leadership that assumes "the


decision-making process of the group ought to be the central focus
for leaders" (Leithwood, Jantzi, & Steinbach, 1999). Two schools of
thought as to why participative leadership is important are one, it
will enhance organizational effectiveness and, two, it supports
democratic principles (Leithwood, Jantzi, & Steinbach, 1999).
Therefore, the Leadership style of a principal depends on the

leaders behaviors. This behavior is the main foundation for


choosing efficient leadership style (Douglas, 1996).
Scholar has proposed path goal theory to explain leadership.
According to (House, 1998) in the path goal theory, a leader does
the following: clarifies and sets goals together with the subordinates
and properly communicates to them. Besides, delegates duties to
subordinates according to their abilities, skills, knowledge and
experience. The leader further helps the subordinates to find the
best path for achieving the desired goals. Defines positions and task
roles by removing barriers to performance and promotes group
cohesiveness and team effort. The leader finally increases personal
opportunities for satisfaction and improved work performance by
reducing

stress,

making

external

controls

and

people s

expectations clearer. In supporting this theory, (Ajayi and Ayodele,


2001) the behaviour of the leader is acceptable to the subordinates
only if they continue to see the leader as a source of personal
opportunities to improve performance and satisfaction. But, some
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leaders seem to find it difficult to effectively administer their schools


(Gronn, 2000). Therefore, it is imperative that they learn and
understand the importance of the styles that enhance positive
performance in the schools. As such, leadership style occupies an
important position in school administration as the principal who
controls

schools

resources

used

them

resulted

in

positive

achievement of educational goals (Adeyemi, 2004). Basically, such


achievements in secondary schools are dependent on three
identifiable leadership styles namely; autocratic, democratic and
laissez-faire (Lunenberg &Ornstein, 1991).Thus, it is no doubt that
there is mounting pressure by styles of leadership among principals
of secondary schools in Oyi

L.G.A. It seems however that many

principals have not considered their styles of leadership as


determinants

of

employeesperformance

in

their

schools.

Employeesperformance is could be described in various ways.


(Robert and Tim, 1998) as the act of accomplishing or executing a
given tasks. On the other hand (Obilade ,1999) defined teachers

performance as the duties performed by a teacher at a particular


period in the school system in achieving educational goals Whereas,
( Akinyemi 1993; Okeniyi, 1995) defined it as the ability of teachers
to combine relevant inputs for the enhancement of teaching and
learning processes. However, (Meindl,1995) argued that employees
performance is determined by the workers level of participation in
the day to day running of the organization.

Supporting this argument, (Adepoju ,1996) asserted that variables


of employees performance such as effective teaching, lesson note
preparation, effective use of scheme of work, effective supervision,
monitoring of students work and disciplinary ability are virtues
which teachers should uphold effectively in the school system. In
this regard, the employees performance could be measured through
annual report of his/ her activities in terms of performance in
teaching, lesson preparation, and lesson presentation, mastery of
subject matter, competence, employees commitment to job and

extra-curricular activities. Other areas of assessment include


effective leadership, supervision of students work; motivation,
class control and discipline of the students are the virtues that
teachers should uphold effectively in mission schools.

As such, (Ibukun, 1997) argued that the main task of the principal
is to create a conducive atmosphere for the teachers to be able to
achieve

desired

changes

in

students.

He

noted

that

employeesperform effectively under different leadership styles. Due


to this, the principal was expected encourage effective performance
of their teachers by identifying their needs and trying to satisfying
or meeting them. Supporting this argument (Ijaiya, 2000) remarked
that teachers in Nigeria express a desire for more participation in
decision-making. Therefore, the concern of this study is to find out
the impact of participative leadership on motivation of employees in
mission schools in Oyi Local Government.

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Statement of the Problem


As noted that principals, as instructional leader, focus on helping
employees performance and make academic instruction as their
schools top priority. In one way (MoE ,2010) argued that principals
need to have the theoretical knowledge, skill and adequate
experiences in school leadership and management and/or should
have a profile of possession of various trainings on school
leadership and management so as to play active and effective
leadership style in school improvement programs.
Therefore, Principals as educational leader play a pivotal role in the
success of the school. In build a strong culture of collaboration and
creative

problem

implementation
leadership

solving,

mechanism,

quality

that

set
and

takes

appropriate
possess

an

responsibility

curriculum
instructional
for

students

achievement, develop and Communicate plans for effective teaching,


among all staff members. The central theme and problem of this
study is that, we often think of a manager or leader is expected to

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exhibit a right behaviour towards employees or subordinates. Yet it


is realised that in most organisations, work schedule are taskfocused and routine, with no flexibility, and yet decisions and
policies are imposed on subordinates. In such organisations where
the leadership perceives employees as mere hands to get job done,
employees would pretend to do well due to the standards and
measure being assigned to them. For employees to accomplish their
work, managers must encourage individuals who reports to them,
co-workers, and supervisors or customers. Because of this for
effective and efficient organisations leadership, the human factor
must be critically looked out from the employee performance.
Therefore, the above situation and the general experience in
organizations and schools prompted the researcher to conduct a
study on investigate the impact of participative leadership on
motivation of employees in mission schools in Oyi local government
area of Anambra State.

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Objectives of the Study


The general objective of this study was to investigate the impact of
participative leadership on motivation of employees in mission
schools in Oyi local government area of Anambra State.
The specific objectives of the study were to:
1-

To study factors impacting motivation and job satisfaction of


employees.

2-

To study the relationship between participative leadership


and motivation of employees.

3-

To study the relationship between participative leadership job


satisfaction of employees.

Research Question
In addressing this problem, the following research questions were
raised:
1-

What are the significant factors impacting motivation and job


satisfaction of employees?

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2-

What is the significant relationship between participative


leadership and motivation of employees?

3-

What is the significant relationship between participative


leadership job satisfaction of employees?

Significance of the Study


This study is important because according to some researchers, it is
believed that organisations that are over managed and under-led
inhibit organisation from growth and change. It is also important
that behaviours of leaders in an organisation always have a stronger
impact on the employee in several ways. However, employees values,
attitudes, and leadership styles play a very important role in
enhancing employee performance, and these can be carefully be
adjusted to produce a strong impact on employee performance.

The findings of this research have deep significance for the


enhancement

of employees performance and

satisfaction

by

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prioritizing inside and outside performance in the study areas.


Specifically the result of this research has the following importance
for the school principals, teachers, students and other and other
employees in mission schools.
First, it may help the school leaders to be aware of the styles
against the level of teacher performance and the practitioners
principals to exercise efficient leadership styles so as to
improve employees performance.

Second, it may help the school leadership to revisit and enrich


with new knowledge, theories, methodologies and practical
behaviors leaders need in secondary schools and other
institutions of learning in general and Oyi mission schools in
particular for their motivating approach to make the employees
more effective.
Thirdly, it may give the clear picture of leadership style on
employees level of performance for decision-maker, higher
officials of the regional, zonal education office. Fourth the
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school principal who is in mount exposure to different


pressures both internal and external has to constantly review
own leadership style as effective guide in performing his/ her
task.
Lastly it may serve as the reference and may call for further indepth researchers on the topic, particularly leadership style
and employeesmotivation in organizations and institutions.

Scope of the Study


The study was delimited in both content wise and geographically.
The contents were delimited based on path goal theory of
leadership. Therefore, employees performance which are the act of
scheming, Therefore, the participative leadership style variable was
conceptualized as the leadership style and incorporated in the
study to see the existing employees level of performances through
communication with teaching staff, involvement of employees in
decision-making and delegation of duties.

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Geographically the scope of this study was delimited to mission


schools in Oyi Local Government. This means it does not include to
other secondary schools and primary schools found under the
study area. Therefore, the finding of this research was specifically
focused for mission schools of Oyi Local Government without
considering primary one or private secondary schools.
Limitations of the study
Even though the research could attained its objectives, there were
some unpreventable limitations. First, while there are various
models of leadership style, due to the limit of time, finance and
material resources; this research was not incorporating all models
to see employees performance. The investigation is run by focusing
on one leadership styles and employees performance. Styles, which
are prepared based on House (1968) path goal theory of leadership.
In addition because of the limits mentioned above, this research
was conducted on mission school teachers of Oyi local government.
Therefore, to generalize the result for both primary and secondary

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school teachers, the study would have involved more participants


from both school levels. Furthermore, the lack of similar research
works on the issue investigated in the study area impedes/delay on
the researcher from consulting more findings in the literature as
well as in the discussion part. .

Operational definition of key Terms


Autocratic style: is a style that leaders communicate irregularly to
teaching staff with limited involvement in decision-making and less
delegation.
Democratic style: is a style that leaders regularly communicate
with teaching staff and to participate them in decision-making for
more delegation of duties.
Mission schools; A mission school or missionary school is a
religious

school

originally

developed

and

run

by

Christian

missionaries, Jewish and Buddhist. The mission school was


commonly

used

in

the

colonial

era

for

the

purposes

of
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Westernization of local peoples. These may be day schools or


residential schools (as in the Canadian Indian residential school
system). Mission schools were established in India as early as the
16th century. They eventually appeared on almost every continent,
and persisted in some regions to the late 20th century. These
schools often adopted an evangelical and "heavily denominational"
approach to religious education, with the intention of producing
new teachers and religious leaders to propagate Christianity among
the local population. They also provided academic and vocational
training, and usually discouraged the traditional practices of the
local people.
LaissezFaire style: is a style that leaders advocates minimal
supervision and moderate involvement in the instructional process.
Leadership style is the patterns of behaviors, which a leader adopts
to influence the behaviors of his/her followers
Principals leadership Style: Refers to the pattern or way of doing
things by the principal in pursuit of his or her duties. In this study,
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leadership styles are looked at in terms of: the way principals


involve teachers in decision-making; the way they communicate and
the way they delegate duties to teachers. The way the principals
behave in line of decision-making, communication and delegation is
hypothesized to determine teacher performance in mission schools
of Oyi local government in one-way or the other Employees
performance: Refers to identification with, and involvement in the
teaching occupation. In this study, the teacher performance
considered as the act of scheming, lesson planning, and assessment
of students through giving tests, exercises and participation in cocurricular activities of the schools.
Motivational Leadership: is an art form where a leader implements
a model and strategy for influencing people to follow them. They are
interested in building a safe and trusting environment, as well as
ensuring the company is positioned to be successful in the
marketplace. Motivational leaderships core principles explain that
the leader must first have in place strong ethics, clear vision,
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definable values, authentic communication, and be genuinely


motivated to promote collaboration and positive energy throughout
the company.
Participative leadership: is a managerial style that invites input
from employees on all company decisions. The staff is given
pertinent information regarding company issues, and a majority
vote determines the course of action the company will take.

CHAPTER TWO
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
This chapter provides a theoretical review of the leadership theories
focusing on the impacts of participative and transformational
leadership on motivation, job satisfaction and innovations. The
literature review starts with defining the concept of leadership

21

followed by presenting different classifications of leadership styles.


After that each leadership styles are explained and two leadership
styles (participative and transformational leadership) are selected as
the basis for study's comparison. After discussing the chosen
leadership styles the impact of each leadership style on employee's
motivation, Job satisfaction and innovation are reviewed. This is
followed by, a sections which aim to address the common issues
and barriers of participative leadership. Finally a framework for
proper application of participative leadership is retrieved from
various theoretical and empirical studies.

2.1 Conceptual Framework


"Leadership is present in all cultures and has existed for as long as
people have interacted"(Rukmani, Ramesh and Jayakrishnan,
2010). A review of leadership literature reveals there are many
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different theoretical approaches to explain leadership process


(Northouse, 2010). According to Rost (1991) there are almost 220
definitions of leadership. Van Wart (2003) argues there are
limitations on doing scientific leadership research because it is hard
to find appropriate definitions of leadership. Therefore establishing
a normative framework of leadership is a difficult task. In order to
develop an understanding of the concept of leadership some of the
current definitions of leadership are presented below:
"Leadership is a process in which leaders try to influence the
activities of an

individual or a group of individuals in

order to guide them towards goal

achievement

in

given

situations" (Akanwa, 1997).


"Leadership is a process whereby an individual influences a
group of individuals to achieve a common goal" (Northouse,
2004).
"Leadership is a process whereby intentional influence is
exerted over other people to guide, structure, and facilitate

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activities and relationships in a group or an organization."


(Yukl, 2009).
"Leadership can be defined as social process in which the
leader seeks the participation of subordinates in order to reach
organizational goals and objectives" (Omolayo, 2000).
Although many definitions exist, Northouse (2004) argues that most
of def+initions share certain characteristics which are described
below:
1- Leadership is a process.
2- Leadership is an influence
3- Leadership requires action to a group
4- Leadership achieves goals
Due to the importance of the concept of leadership, extensive
amount of research have been done in order to find effective
leadership for different situations. "Effective leadership is the extent
to which a leader continually and progressively leading and
directing his/her followers to the agreed destination which is
defined by the whole group" (Omolayo, 2000). The work of scholars
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in the past decades has caused the evolvement of many 'schools of


thoughts' or leadership styles. According to Omolayo (2007)
leadership style is the pattern of behaviors engaged in by the leader
when dealing with employees which ranges from Great Man and
Trait theories to participative leadership. The main reason for
the wide variety of leadership styles is the subject of leadership
itself. Leadership is an evolving subject and as our social and
organizational values change over time theories for effective
leadership styles can change and new leadership theories can
emerge (Bolden, Gosling, Marturano and Dennison, 2003).

In order to continue with this theoretical study it is crucial to


develop an understanding of the wide variety of leadership style that
scholars have presented in the past decades. For this purpose,
some of the most common leadership styles are described using two
leadership classifications presented by Lewin, Lippit and White
(1939) and Jing and Avery (2008). Afterwards, the presented

25

leadership styles will be categorized into vertical and horizontal


leadership theories (Burns, 1978) and two leadership styles
(transformational and participative) are selected as the base for this
comparative research.
2.2 Leadership classifications
Because of the wide variety of leadership theories various scholars
have used systems for classifying different leadership styles to help
leaders in understanding and choosing the right leadership style. In
this section two major classification method are presented to
provide and understanding of the main leadership styles.
2.2.1 Autocratic, democratic and laissez-fair
One of the earliest classifications of leadership style was presented
Lewin, Lippit and White (1939) who have identified three main
leadership styles: autocratic, democratic and laissez-faire. In this
classification autocratic and laissez-faire are considered as two
extreme

leadership

behaviors

and

democratic

leadership

is

considered as a moderate leadership style


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2.2.2

Four Paradigm of leadership

Since the early classification of leadership many leadership theories


have been presented by scholars. In the past decades autocratic
leadership evolved to theories such as classical and transactional
leadership. Studies about employee's motivation and learning have
led to development of transformational leadership and democratic
leadership style has evolved to theories such as participative
leadership. One of the most recent classification of leadership

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theories was presented by Avery (2004) who has classified the most
used leadership styles into four paradigms (Avery, 2004; Jing and
Avery, 2008): classical, transactional, visionary/ transformational
and organic/ participative.

In order to reach a clear understanding of the subject it is


important

to

discuss

the

characteristics,

advantages

and

disadvantages of each paradigm.

2.2.2.1 Classical leadership:

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Classical leadership is probably the best-known paradigm that is


still used today. In this style of leadership, the leader or a group of
leaders dominate the regular followers. The followers do not
question leader's actions because they either fear or respect the
leader. The leader is power-retentive, decision-based, authoritarian
and most importantly accountable for the outcomes. In this
leadership style followers make relatively little contribution to the
organization. These leaders make the final decision without no real
internal dialog and they use command and control from top to down
to manipulate employees the get the tasks done. The success of this
leadership style is very dependent to the personal characteristic of
the leaders themselves. The classical theory of leadership views
leaders as supernatural, charismatic and dominant individuals. In
these theory leaders are born as a leader with a certain set of
characteristics. Physical vitality and stamina, Intelligence and
action-oriented judgment, Eagerness to accept responsibility, Task
competence, Understanding of followers and their needs, Skill in

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dealing with people, Need for achievement, Capacity to motivate


people, Courage and resolution e.t.c

It is obvious that these leadership qualities have been proven to be


effective for some leaders in history. Charismatic leaders are usually
leaders who have inherited or attained these qualities history is
field with name like Gandy, Winston Churchill and Martin Luther
King whom had change history with their leadership qualities.
However the main problem with the early theories of classical
leadership is that these set of qualities are very rarely found in one
individual. Moreover, the classical theories of leadership try to
minimize the effect of the situation and claim that there is definite
set of qualities which works in every situation form the battlefield to
the teams in organizations. Doyle and Smith (2001) argue that
these qualities are not enough for every situation and some
qualities might even hinder leader's success in certain situations.
They argue that classical theories of leadership tend to mix very

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different characteristics. For example some of Gardners qualities


are aspects of a person's behavior, some are skills, and others can
be considered intellectual ability. Furthermore, the list is not
exhaustive and it is possible that individuals posses other
leadership qualities different form the list (Doyle and Smith, 2001).

2.2.2.2 Transactional Leadership:


The second paradigm is transactional leadership which represents
the traditional influence model found within most human groups
(Bass, 1990) and is mainly based on exchange between the leader
and followers. These leaders have to recognize follower's needs and
manage their internal and external environment to influence
followers using rewards, punishment and agreement systems. These
leaders are considered in a better position than the followers and
they suppose to have information, skills and expertise that the
followers might lack. Transactional Leaders are held responsible for
rewards, monitoring, finding problems and taking corrective actions
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before the problem causes serious difficulties for the organization


(Doyle and Smith, 2001). Transactional leadership has received a
great deal of criticism over the years. One of its main problems is
the low level of motivation of the employees. Organizations that use
this leadership style usually face a high rate of absenteeism and
problem employees. The main reason for these problems is that
transactional leadership focuses on the base level of Maslow's
(1954) hierarchy of needs and fails to recognize the importance of
upper level of needs and this can prevent employees from growth. It
is important to mention that while inspiration is not typically the
goal in this type of leadership style, offering incentive can be helpful
in raising employee's motivation. This
The Impact of participative leadership on employee's motivation, job
satisfaction and innovation type of leadership style works best in
task oriented relationships especially when the task is routine and
has to be done as soon as possible. However, it is not a good match
for a creative work place.

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2.2.2.3 Transformational leadership:


The third paradigm is visionary/transformational leadership. The
modern

motivational

theories

together

with

problems

with

transactional and classical leadership style convinced various


organizations to move toward intrinsic motivational techniques
(Chang, 2002) and this has led to emergence of leadership theories
such as transformational Leadership. This style of leadership is
mainly based on the emotional relationship between leaders and
employees. Transformational leader inspires employees to see the
bigger picture and follow the vision presented by the leader to
perform beyond normal procedures. According to Burns (1978),
"transformational leaders are looking into followers potential
motivations by exploring common objectives and linking them to
followers". In other words, transformational leaders try to satisfy
Maslow's hierarchy of needs with focus on intrinsic needs rather
than extrinsic ones. Yammarino and Dubinsky (1994) described
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transformational leaders as "individuals who increase confidence,


awareness, interest and motivation in the followers by moving the
followers interest from their personal existence to the existence of
The Impact of participative leadership on employee's motivation, job
satisfaction and innovation the organization/group". In order to
gain the support of their followers, transformational leaders use
four main characteristic which are described below:
1. Idealized

influence:

Transformational

idealized

influence

by

improving

Leaders
their

manifest

performance,

maintaining consistency in their behavior, and participating in


risks with their followers. (Kelloway et al, 2002).
2. Individual consideration: Transformational leaders

pay

individual attention to their followers by acting as coach and


providing support to followers (Kelloway et al, 2002). Through
the process of individual consideration followers are supported
by leaders; meanwhile, leaders are concerned about their
personal need and feelings (Podsakoff et al, 1990).

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3. Intellectual simulation: Transformational leaders try to assist


their followers to develop new ideas, motivate them to take
alternative routes to problem (Kelloway et al, 2002).
4. Inspirational Motivation: "Transformational leaders try to
motivate and arouse enthusiasm in followers by bringing
significance and purpose to the work being done, introducing
new challenges, and maintaining motivation" (Kelloway et al,
2002).
This leadership style solves most of the motivational problem
caused by earlier leadership theories. This model can create an
enthusiastic work atmosphere and it can increase the level of
innovation in organizations. Another notable advantage is the
potential of this leadership style to create future leaders from
followers.
There are various disadvantages to the transformational leadership
theory. Transformational leadership is very much based on the
ability of the leader to inspire followers and to align their interest
toward organizational goals. The problem is leaders may not have
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the force of character to achieve this. Another main problem of


transformational leadership is its anti democratic characteristic
because even though the leader's main focus is selling the vision to
followers at the end of day followers have to follow leader's vision.
According to air force colonel Homrig (2001) transformational
leadership is a sharp, but double-edged sword. If the leaders have a
potential

immoral

and

unethical

dimension

it

could

have

devastating effect on naive and unsuspecting followers. One of the


classical examples of this dilemma is Hitler. Hitler can be
considered as a charismatic character which appealed to the values
of the German people and offered a transcendent vision and
frequently encouraged his followers. However, his goal led to the
ruin rather than the betterment of his followers. The same problem
applies to organization. It is important to realize that if the leader
has a hidden agenda and tries to manipulate the followers it can
destroy the trust which is necessary for this style of leadership (Hay,
2006). According to Czaja if the followers see the mission itself as

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immoral

or

even

trivial,

they

may

rebel

or

simply

cease

participation.

Another notable disadvantage is continuous reinforcement of vision.


This requires frequent and close communication with followers to
show that they are playing an important role for creation of
something good that is bigger than they themselves. If followers
begin to feel that their part is not important they might lose interest
in the vision.

2.2.2.4. Participative leadership:


The fourth paradigm participative leadership also referred to as
organic leadership is defined as leadership style which involves
employees across different levels of the hierarchy in decisionmaking

(Spreitzer,

2005).

Participative

leaders

involve

their

subordinates in the decision making process. These leaders pay


attention to subordinates values and seek their input on important
37

decisions. In this leadership style there is no formal distinction


between

leaders

and

followers.

Participative

leader

can

be

considered as a temporal coordinator for the group of like-minded


people. Participative leader is a facilitator that shares the same
vision and values with subordinates. According to Bass (1981)
"participative leadership is associated with consensus, consultation,
delegation, and involvement". The main task of the Participative
leadership is consulting with subordinates and evaluating their
opinions and suggestions before making the final decision (Mullins,
2005).
The main vehicle for the success of participative leaders is their use
of participative decision making (PDM) which allows employees
across all levels in the organization to be involved in the final
decision. Various studies suggest that participative decision-making
(PDM) offers a variety of potential benefits some of these benefits
are the following:

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1. it can increase employee's Job satisfaction (Smylie, Lazarus,


and Brownlee-Conyers, 1996)
2. it can increase the level of innovation in the organizations
(Somech, 2006)
3. it can increase the quality of the decision (e.g., Scully,
Kirkpatrick, and Locke, 1995)
4. it can contribute to the quality of employee's work life (e.g.,
Somech, 2002)
5. it can increase employees motivation (e.g., Locke and Latham,
1990)
6. it can increase the level of employee's commitment (e.g.,
Armenakis, Harris, and Mossholder, 1993; Yammarino and
Naughton, 1992),
Since this leadership style is the main focus of this study, the next
two sections will provide a brief history of participative leadership
together with recent development of this leadership style.
2.3 History of participative leadership style
Participation as a management style was first suggested in an
experiment conducted by Americas National Research Council at a

39

large telephone-parts factory called the Hawthorne Plant near


Chicago in 1924. The Hawthorne experiment also know as
Hawthorne effect showed that small groups of workers had
produced more and were more satisfied from their work when they
felt their work environment is supportive (Economist, 2009). In the
1940s Fleishman expanded this view of supervisory. Fleishman
study focused on how leadership behaviors affect small groups and
the result led to the development of the concepts of employee
orientation (Fleishman, 1953).

In 1950's Likert continued Fleishman work and conducted an


empirical research on the state of Michigan using the leader
behavior description questionnaire (LBDQ). He administered the
questionnaire
manufacturing

to

samples
companies,

of

individuals

student

in

leaders

the
and

military,
college

administrators (Likert, 1961). The main focus of the study was to


determine the principles of leadership that led to productivity and

40

job satisfaction. The studies resulted in two main leadership


behaviors;

employee

orientation

and

production

orientation.

Leaders with an employee orientation showed more concern for


interpersonal relations with subordinates. On the other hand
leaders with production orientation focused more on the task or the
technical aspects of the job. The conclusion of the study indicated
that employee orientation delivers better

results than close

supervision (Helms, 2009). Building on Likert's findings, Davis


(1968) developed the supportive model in which the manager's
primary role is to provide psychological support rather than
economic support to his employees at work to create growth. He
concluded that when subordinates feel a sense of participation and
task involvement, they will take responsibility, and try to contribute
to the organization's objectives. Davis's research suggested that
there is a tendency toward more democratic management styles
within

industry

and

participative

models

are

replacing

the

41

authoritarian models in many types of organizations, including the


military, business and government.
After 1960 various studies suggested that participative leadership
style

may

correlate

with

productivity

and

organizational

performance. These studies include Harbison and Myers (1960)


research which concluded that a more democratic leadership style
maybe necessary for managing productively in advanced industrial
systems. An empirical study done by Heller (1971) on 15 large
American companies (260 senior managers) concluded that power
sharing between bosses and subordinates (in terms of delegation
and participation) is necessary for organizations. Vroom and Yetton
(1973) study which was focused on the situational approach
leadership also suggested that there is likelihood that the
participative style may increase productivity.
2.2.4 Modern Participative leadership
Since

1980

various

scholars

have

studied

the

concept

of

participative leadership. Researchers argue that due to the complex

42

changing environment previous styles of leadership seem to hinder


organizational performance hence there is a need for new leadership
styles based on participative principles to be able to cope with the
rapid rate of changes (Trevino et al., 2003; Fulmer, 2005;
Kakabadse et al., 2009). According to Rok (2009) in order to have
effective leadership the leader should influence/ inspire people
toward group goals through individual motivation rather than
coercion. Therefore the Modern concept of leadership should be
conceived as a set of values and behaviors exhibited by the leader to
encourage participation, commitment and development of the
followers. Because openness to new ideas is an essential element in
order to encourage participation of followers there is a growing need
for more participative culture of leadership. The modern leader not
only leads or involves, but also should be more responsive to
feedback from others and should try to integrate the core
sustainability agenda with hearts and minds of all followers (Rok,
2009).

43

The main reasons for the need for participative leaders are the
changes in cultures, environment and politics. An interesting study
done by Hay group (2011) claims because of factors such as
globalization,

climate

change,

demographic

change,

individualization and digital lifestyle, organizational principles such


as leadership, corporate environment and organizational structures
will dramatically change by 2030 Fletcher (2004) argues that the
principles of leadership are already changing and leadership
paradigm has shifted from individual to collective, control to
learning, self to self-in-relation and power over to power with.
Jordan (2011) predicts that because of the regarded changed
"future leaders of successful organizations should focus on
cultivating a participative decision making environment".
Theoretical Framework
Management writers and practitioners have offered numerous
suggestions on how to improve organizational effectiveness through

44

management practices. Some of these centre on the need for


competent managers and appropriate management techniques in
restoring and maintaining corporate and national success. Koontz,
(1961) recognised managerial know how as the crucial element for
economic growth. The great economist Schumpeter referred to
managers and entrepreneurs as engine of growth. Peter Drucker, a
well-known management consultant, calls management the lifegiving organ of the enterprises body (Glueck, 1980). Ansoff (1988)
believed that development of conducive corporate policy and the
return to the basis of good management practice will produce
spectacular results for organisations. The relative success of Japan
has been attributed to her distinctive management styles and
techniques that mirror her cultural background (Negandi, Eshgli
and Yuen, 1985; Ouchi, 1981; Pascale and Anthos 1984; Wood, Hall
and Asumi, 1983; and Yoshida, 1989).

45

Unameka (1981) holds that the transformation of the developing


economy into industrialized economy requires fashioning out a very
liberal policy toward the adaptation of management methods,
philosophies, techniques and practices that are known to help the
attainment of high productivity levels in the industrialized nations.
Perhaps, a better approach to understanding the process by which
organizations attain success is to examine the basic elements of
management functions, the principles and practices governing
effective utilization of human, money, material, technology and time
resources. The management functions developed by Guilick (1937)
from Fayols (1949) planning, forecasting, commanding, directing,
coordinating and controlling still have universal application and
acceptance despite strong attacks by some management writers like
Mintzberg, (1975). Prodle and Bennett (1975) have argued that mere
performance of these functions does not make managers effective
unless they achieve results within the constraints and opportunities
of the culture and environment. This emphasises the relative

46

effectiveness of appropriate management practices of organizational


growth and survival. Management scholars and practitioners have
developed a variety of techniques to assist managers in achieving
results. Such techniques include time management, delegation of
authority,
forecasting,

strategic
financial

planning,
analyses,

management
quantitative

by

objectives,

techniques

and

manpower development (Drucker, 1974; Gardner, 1965).

Bello (1986) emphasized the need for professional managers in


African countries to utilize these modern management techniques.
Inegbenobor (1987) also attributed the ineffectiveness of Nigerian
organisations to inappropriateness of management techniques in
use. He believe that development in Japan, China, Indonesia,
Malaysia,

and

other

countries

witnessing

accelerated

industrialisation is due to their ability to adapt organization and


management practices to their cultures.
Empirical Studies

47

Studies on management practices are either prescriptive (Fayol,


1949),

or

descriptive

(Mintzberg,

1975).

The

analysis

of

management practices may rest on development o models (Boyalziz,


1982; Farmer and Richman, 1964; Iyanda, 1987; Koontz, 1972;
Neghandi,

and

Estafen,

1965)

or

systematic

observation

andresearch into the types of people in management jobs (Morse


and Wanger, 1976). Although, the practice of management dated
back to pre-historical time, asystematic study of management
commenced in the 19th century. Since this period, attempts have
been made by practitioners and writers from different disciplines to
develop principles and practices that underline organizational
effectiveness.

The variety of approaches to management thought has led to what


Koontz (1961) described as management Theory Jungle. To cut
through the jungle and bring light to some issues and problems of
management theory, management writers like (Koontz, 1978;

48

Stoner, 1978, Haynes, Massie and Wallace, 1975) have classified the
various contributions into schools of thought. Haynes, Massie and
Wallance (1975) regarded the early management writers who
attempted to establish a set of organizational principles that
appeared to them as universal in application as the classical school.
The Social Scientists who questioned the assumptions of the
classical school between 1930 and 1960 on the basis of empirical
research and considered human elements as the most important
factor in the work place are known as the organic Scholl (Stoner
1978). With lines drawn between the conflicting theories, studies
led by Burns and Stalkers (1961).

Woodward (1965), Lawrence and Lorsch (1967) revealed that the


two extremes are neither completely valid nor invalid but that
organizational theory must include what Mary Parker Follet called
the Law of Situation (Haynes, et al 1975). Stoner, Freeman and
Gilbert

(1995)

extended

the

approach

to

management

of

49

organisations by developing the dynamic engagement approach.


This theory is based and the premise that time and human
relationships

are

forcing

management

to

rethink

traditional

approaches in the face of constant rapid changes. Six different


themes about management of organisations that emerged under the
umbrella of dynamic engagements are:
- New Organizational Environment. The idea that environment
does not comprise fixed and impersonal forces. Rather, it is a
complex, dynamic web of people interacting with one another.
- Ethics and Social Responsibility. Paying attention to values that
guide people in their organisations, the corporate culture and value
held by people
outside the organisation.
- Globalisation. Recognizing that the world is at the doorstep of
managers.

50

- Investing and Re-inventing Organisation. Continually searching


for waysto unleash the creative potential of employees and
managers rereengineering.
-

Culture

and

Multi-Culturalism.

Recognizing

the

various

perspectives and values that people of different cultural background


bring into their organizations.
- Quality Management. Integrating Total Quality Management
(TQM) culture into the operations of organisations.
In

Khandwallas

(1979)

study

of

103

Canadian

companies

participative management style, was significantly associated with an


index of subjectively rated effectiveness based on five criteria. Some
Indian

researchers also

indicated

that

participative

style

is

associated with staff productivity and job satisfaction (Singh,


Warner and Das, 1979). Stogdills (1974) conducted a survey to
determine relationship between leadership, job and follower ship
satisfaction and correlations, for three of the scale, which are used
to measure consideration and initiating structures. Two of the
scales produced quite similar results, there were low to moderate
51

positive correlation between both consideration and initiating


structures and job performance, high positive correlation between
consideration and the satisfaction measures and moderately
positive correlation between initiating structure and satisfaction
measures. The third scale, the Supervisory Behaviour Description
Questionnaire yielded similar results to the other two. In the case of
consideration, however, the result for initiating structure differed
markedly with low negative correlation being found in the case of
both the performance and the satisfaction measures.
The foregoing research results have suggested that leadership styles
may

influence

performance

irrespective

of

national

culture

(Brownwell and Dunck, 1991; Shaw et al, 1996; and Law et al


1995). However, recent researchers have suggested the need for
organisations to adopt their management practices to the culture in
which they operate (Newman and Nollen, 1996). Participation was
found as an important dimension of work unit management among
firms in US. (Denison and Mishra, 1995; Morris and Pavett, 1992).
productivity. Tow sets of leadership were compared; person
52

oriented leadership and work oriented leadership. The survey


indicated that under certain circumstances both persons oriented
and work oriented leadership behaviour may be related positively to
group productivity but equally, in other circumstances, neither may
be.
Fisher

and

Edward

(1988)

carried

out

meta-analysis

of

consideration and initiating structure. Meta-analysis is a statistical


technique, which allows the averaging of correlation coefficients
from different studies. The researchers derived separate mean
The efficiency of participation in Mexico was doubtful (Morris and
Pavett, 1992).
CHAPTER THREE
METHODOLOGY
PARTICIPANTS
A total of 100 participants comprising 50 males and 50
females were used for the study. The participants were selected by
using simple random sample technique.

The participants were

53

selected from the employees in mission schools in oyi local


government.

The

participants

had

minimum

educational

qualification of N.C.E and their age range was between 23 and 54.
INSTRUMENT
A 13-item questionnaire designed to identify the impact of
participative leadership on motivation of employees was used. The
items were prepared by the researchers.

The questionnaire has

dichotomous response format of Yes and No.


The items were validated on a facial base. Three lecturers
selected from the department of psychology who served as expert
judges were used. The items were validated on a facial base surface
based on the 2/3 agreement of the ratings of the judges. Therefore
any item rejected or accepted by 2/3 the judges is rejected or
accepted respectively.
In addition, a pilot study was carried out, 30 people were randomly
selected from Bishop Crowther seminary school Awka south were
used. Data obtained yielded a split-half reliability co-efficient of

54

0.45. The calculated value was compared with the r-critical value of
0.36 at P<.05 which yielded a significant outcome.

PROCEDURE
A total of 120 copies of the questionnaire were distributed
within a period of three weeks to select participants for this study.
The researcher approached the participants in their houses and
offices. Simple random sampling was used to select houses and
offices used for the study.
However, the researcher approached the participants, introduced
himself and his purpose. After which, rapport and confidentiality
were generated and questionnaire administered.
With this exercise, out of the 120 copies that were administered,
only 100 copies were correctly filled and returned were used for
data analysis.

55

DESIGN/STATISTICS
A survey research design was adopted and the sample selected
from the targeted population was given copies of the questionnaire
to measure their response.
Chi-square was used to analyze the data to test the observed
Impact Of Participative Leadership On Motivation Of Employees.

56

CHAPTER FOUR
RESULTS
TABLE 1.
Summary table of chi-square on the difference between observed and expected
frequencies on marital infidelity as a factor.
ITEM I: Problems imposed by marital infidelity among couples can lead to
divorce.
Yes
97

Responses
No
3

DF

X2

88.36

<.001

From the table one above chi-square calculated value of 88.36 is greater than
chi critical value of 10.83 at p less than <.001 indicating a significant outcome.
Hence hypothesis one which stated that There will be no significant
influence of marital infidelity as a factor in divorce is hereby rejected. This
means that marital infidelity play a remarkable role as a factor in divorce.

57

TABLE II:
Summary table of chi-square on the difference between observed and expected
frequencies on family income as a factor.

ITEM II
Quarrels over the amount of family income can influence divorce among couple.
Yes
98

Responses
No
2

DF

X2

92.16

<.001

From the table two above chi calculated value of 92.16 is greater than chi
critical value of 10.83 at p less than <.001 indicating a significant outcome.
Hence hypothesis two which stated that There will be a significant
influence of income as a factor in divorce is hereby rejected. This means that
income play a remarkable role as a factor in divorce.

TABLE III
58

Summary table of chi-square on the difference between observed and expected


frequencies on the marriage of many wives as a factor.
ITEM 3
Quarrels arising from the marriage of many wives by a man (Polygamy) can
influence divorce.
Yes
98

Responses
No
2

DF

X2

92.16

<.001

From the table three above chi calculated value of 92.16 is greater than the
chi critical value of 10.83 at p less <.001 indicating a significant outcome.
Hence hypothesis three which stated that There will be no significant
influence of polygamy as a factor in divorce is hereby rejected. This means that
polygamy play a remarkable role as a factor in divorce.

59

S/NO
ITEM
(2)
Misunderstanding between a young partner and an
old partner over cultural norms can influence
divorce
(3)
Where there is lack of understanding and love
among couples can easily influence divorce
(4)
Misunderstanding based on different religious
practices or belief held by each couple can easily
influence divorce
(7)
Age at the time of marriage, most especially where
the husband is much older than the wife can
influence divorce
(8)
Quarrels arising from inability of the couple to
produce children can influence divorce
(9)
Differences in knowledge based on level of
education can influence divorce
(10) Lack of paid employment of one partner in a
marriage as a factor influences divorce

X2
P
84.64 <.001
77.44 <.001
12.96 <.001
81

<.001

70.56 <.001
81

<.001

5.76

<.001

The calculated chi value is greater than the critical value of 10.3 showing that all
the factors play remarkable role to divorce.

CHAPTER FIVE
DISCUSSION
The findings of this study revealed that the first hypothesis tested which
stated that There will be no significant influence of marital infidelity as a factor in
60

divorce was not accepted. This means that marital infidelity was found to yield a
significant outcome, indicating that marital infidelity plays a remarkable role in
divorce among couple.
This finding is in line with the views of Otite and Ogiowo (1979), where
they postulated that some causes of divorce ranges from childlessness, cruelty,
undue interference from mother In-law, marital infidelity and poverty. They also
asserted that sexual deprivation is among the factors that can influence divorce.
From all these investigations, one may observe that marital infidelity is an
important factor in divorce.
The second hypothesis tested in this study, which stated that There will be
no significant influence of income as a factor in divorce, is also rejected. This
mans that income was found to yield a significant outcome, indicating that income
play a remarkable role in divorce among couple.
This is also in line with the views of (Haralambos, 1990) who posited that
the higher a womans individual income, the greater here chances of divorce,
perhaps because with greater income, women are not economically dependent on
their husbands because conflict over inequitable work and family role increases
marital tension.

61

He further posited that low income places strain on marriage especially on


the husband who failed to live up to his role as a father, husband and a breadwinner
(Haralambos, 1980).
From these investigations, one may also observe that income is a very
important factor in divorce.
The third hypothesis which stated that There will be no significant
influence of polygamy as a factor in divorce, is rejected. This also means that
polygamy was found to yield significant outcome indicating that polygamy play a
remarkable role in divorce.
This third hypothesis is supported by Wallerstein and Kurdek (1989). They
posited that a polygamous man on the other hand, may view wives as bed-partners
than life partners, and if this is the case, keeping the marriage intact may be less
important to him.
However, from these investigations, one can observe that polygamy play a
remarkable role in divorce.

IMPLICATIONS OF THE STUDY


62

The findings of this study have shown that marital infidelity, income and
polygamy are the major causes of divorce.
So from the findings, it is obvious that when marital infidelity, quarrels over
income, polygamy and other numerous factors are present in a marriage, that
divorce becomes inevitable.
In addition, the study will be an eye opener to married couples, marriage
counselors, and religious leaders on factors that promote divorce. It will also serve
as an empirical work for similar study. Above all, with the findings of this study,
married couples having known what could cause divorce will desist from them
now they are aware of it.
LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
Major constraint of this study was finance. Due to lack of money, only few
samples were used. In addition, the study fails to use a true sample Enugu South
due to time factor and other constraints.
SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER STUDY
Further researchers should look at other factors that can cause divorce such
as personality factors, hereditary factors and so on. In addition to that, they should
increase their sample to have a full representation of the population.
Furthermore, experts should also look at ways to curb high rate of divorce in our
society today by working with these factors that have been revealed ad mediators.
63

SUMMARY
The findings of this study are summarized thus:
A significant influence of marital infidelity among couple as a factor in
divorce was observed.
A significant influence of income as a factor in divorce among couple was
observed.
A significant influence of polygamy as a factor in divorce among couple was
also observed.
CONCLUSION
Based on the findings of this study, the researcher hereby concludes that
divorce can be influenced by marital infidelity, income and polygamy.

CHAPTER THREE
Method
This chapter discussed the participants, instruments procedure,
and design and statistics, used in the study.
64

Participants
The population of this study comprised of married women, trading
in Eke Awka, Anambra state, Nigeria. Convenient sampling
technique was used t select (294) married women out of (339)
women the researcher met during the administration of the
questionnaire. Their ages ranged from 28 years to 63 years. The
mea and standard deviation of their ages were 39.24 years and 4.67
years respectively.
INSTRUMENTS
Three instruments utilized in this study were.
Life satisfaction scale (LSs): by Diener, Larsen and Griffin (195). A
5item designed to measure global cognitive judgments of ones life
satisfaction

(measure

of

either

positive

or

negative

affect).

Participants indicate how much agree or disagree with each of the 5


items using a 7-point scale that ranges strongly agree t I strongly
disagrees. Diener, Diener &Diener (195) in the world poll, in which
there was an Evaluating life satisfaction measures found correlation
across waves of the data for one-year intervals (N=336 nation pair),
and a. 91 correlation across a fur-year interval (N=74 nations).
Measures of wife abuse: by Rodenborg and fantuzzo (1993) A 60
item scale subscales that measures the frequency of physical,
65

sexual, psychological and abusive behaviors. It has an internal


consistency Total scale 93. Physical abuse 81
Index f self esteem (ISE) 25 items scale which was developed by
Hudson (1982) designed to measure self-perception and selfevaluative component f self concept Onighaiye (1986) validated it for
the use of professionals in Nigeria He obtained 0.46 in concurrent
validity
Validity/Reliability
The researcher combined the three questionnaire t his supervisor
who voted the instruments for face, construct and content validity.
The researcher there after took copies of the questionnaire to
Ezzamgbo

community

secondary

school

Ebonyi

state

and

administered the total of thirty-seven (37) copies to the teachers and


then used but thirty-three (33) was properly answered and was
used to ascertain the alpha reliability of coefficient of 078 for
emotional intelligence scale, 0.72 for sell efficacy scale and .67 for
occupational stress scale.
Procedure
The researcher met with the married female traders of the visit to
them. Copies f the questionnaire administered to the participants.
The researcher in consequence, directed respondents on how to
66

answer the questions in the scale properly. The researcher assumed


the role of a teacher by literally explaining the content of the
questions especially to those that cannot read and write well. While
some

copies

of

administered

questionnaire

were

collected

immediately after completion, other copies were retrieved after some


days. The number of items contained in each of these scales
accounted for the delay in the completion of the scale. After wards,
the researcher subjected the data collected to SPSS for analyses of
the result.
Design and statistics
The study; that evaluated the relationship between satisfaction with
life, self-esteem and violence against women. Correlational design
was adopted for the study and the data was analyzed using pearson
moment product correlation statistics.

67

CHATER FOUR
Result
The result of the statistical analysis of the data obtained in the
study is presented in tables 1 and2. Table 1 shows the summary of
correlation between satisfaction with life and violence against
women.
Table1: summary table of correlation between satisfaction with life
and violence against women.

Factor

Mean

Std.

R. cat

P. value

Satisfactio

131

Deviation
0.47

.18

0.4

122

n with life
Violence

72.65

11.05

against
women

** Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (two tailed)


68

The result obtained (table1) indicated that satisfaction with life had
a significant relationship r (N=122) = 18** p= 0.05 with violence
against women. This implies that satisfaction with life (high or low)
has a role to play in the violence against women among married
female traders: accordingly the hypothesis is confirmed.
Table2: summary of correlation between self-esteem and violence
against women.
Factor

Mean

Std.

R. cat

P. value

Self-

1.17

deviation
0.38

.224

0.01

122

esteem
Violence

72.65

11.05

against
women

** Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (two tailed)


The result obtained (table2) indicate that there was a significant
relationship between self-esteem r (N=122) =,224, p> 0.05 and
violence against women among married female traders.
Consequently, the hypothesis was also confirmed. It is clear that
both

variables

(satisfaction

with

life

and

self-esteem)

were

determined by domestic violence perpetrated upon married women


69

by their partner. Thus, both variables had a positive relationship


with violence against women.
CHAPTER FIVE
Discussion and conclusion
Discussion
The study examined the relationship between satisfaction with life,
self-esteem and domestic violence against women.
Twp hypothesis were tested. The first hypothesis which stated that
satisfaction with life among married will significantly correlate with
domestic violence was confirmed. The result of this study supported
the work of Anyaegbunam (2013) who found that domestic violence
has a significance effect on mental health among married people. It
is also consistent with the findings of Hussain, Loxton, and
Rahman (2013) who found that IPV was associated with a range of
mental health issues including depression, PTSD, anxiety, selfharm, and sleep disorders in most studies, these effects were also
observed using validated measurements tools IPV was also found to
be associated with poor physical health including poor functional
health, somatic disorders, chronic disorders and chronic pain,
gynaccological problems and increased risk of STLs. An increased

70

risk of HIV was reported to be associated with a history of sexual


abuse and violence.
The second hypothesis which stated that self-esteem among
married women will significantly correlate with domestic violence
was confirmed. This outcome is in tandem with the findings of
Coskun, Erdal ad Mustafa (20090 they found that self-esteem is
positively correlated with confrontation, emotional expression and
self-disclosure and life satisfaction. More so, the result that selfesteem significantly correlated with violence against women could
be attributed to the fact that a strong sense of efficacy enhances
human accomplishment and personal well-being in many ways
including the ability to cope with stress. People with low self-esteem
on the other hand may have the tendency to look at things as if
they are tougher than they really are. Supporting the positive
correlation of self-esteem with violence against women. Olubunmi,
Olatunji, and Abiola (2014) found that the consequences of
domestic violence included among others; loss of self-esteem, poor
health and psychological depression. Again, Sehar and Anila (2012)
found that simple regression analysis showed that domestic
violence significantly affected psychological wellbeing of women,
particularly their satisfaction with life. More so, Mozhdeh, Mehdi,
Marzieh and Jorg (2012) found that self-esteem was substantially
lower when sexual violence was indicated.
71

Conclusion
It is pertinent to adapt to recommendations of previous studies and
work on the factory observed to be causing domestic violence
among partners and encourage the behaviors that are observed to
reduce violence among couples.

Implication of the study


The fact that when man is unable to economically support his wife,
and maintain control, he may resort to substance abuse and violent
crime as means of expressing of being in charge. Therefore,
government should formulate certain policies that will reduce
violence against women.
Recommendation
a. More

research

consequencial

should
factors

be
of

carried
violence

satisfaction with life and self-esteem.


b. The church should employ the

out

to

against
services

unveil

other

women

than

of

qualified

psychologist in their marriage tribunals and during pre-

72

marriage classes to aid in teaching intending couples how to


manage their homes.
c. The government should place bill and make it a law guiding
marriage institutions and ensure that there are enforcement
and compliances among married people.
d. Again, domestic violence should be regarded as crime s that
perpetrators should be dealt with according to law questions
their actions they tend to perpetuate it with every ease over
any little provocations
Limitations of the study
Some of the limitations encountered in the study include:
a. The research interest was restricted to just traders in Eke Awka.
Result from similar investigation using civilized institutions in the
country, may not confirm the resent findings.
b. Generalization of this study across the whole married women in
Nigeria without restricting it to Awka may be a prejudiced
conclusion.
c. The number of subjects is too minute to compare the number of
married men in Anambra thereby making emphasis of the findings
limited. Therefore the result of this study should be taken with
caution in line with this limitations
Suggestions for further studies
More efforts is needed to boost the sample size while conducting
similar study. Demographic variables such as: religion, age and level
f academic exposure should be studied as control variations in
similar studies, the inclusion of such variable will help create more
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knowledge in this area of study. Also future studies should be


widened beyond the span f this study, thus the study should be
replicated in formal institutions.

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