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tps://books.google.com/books?

id=HykDAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA13
Hearn, E.J. (1997). Mechanics of Materials 1. An Introduction to the Mechanics o
f Elastic and Plastic Deformation of Solids and Structural Materials - Third Edi
tion. Chapter 9: Butterworth-Heinemann. pp. 199 203. ISBN 0-7506-3265-8.
NASA Tech Briefs, "Making a Metal-Lined Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessel",
1 Mar 2005.
Frietas, O., "Maintenance and Repair of Glass-Lined Equipment", Chemical Enginee
ring, 1 Jul 2007.
"High Pressure Vessels",D. Freyer and J. Harvey, 1998
ANSI/AIAA S-080-1998, Space Systems - Metallic Pressure Vessels, Pressurized Str
uctures, and Pressure Components, 5.1
Pushard, Doug (2005). "Domestic water collection systems also sometimes able to
function on gravity". Harvesth2o.com. Retrieved 2009-04-17.[verification needed]
Pushard, Doug. "Alternatives to pressure vessels in domestic water systems". Har
vesth2o.com. Retrieved 2009-04-17.
Puskarich, Paul (2009-05-01). "Strengthened Glass for Pipleine Systems" (PDF). M
IT. Retrieved 2009-04-17.
Beer, Ferdinand P.; Johnston, Jr., E. Russel; DeWolf, John T. "7.9". Mechanics o
f Materials (fourth ed.). McGraw-Hill. p. 463. ISBN 9780073659350.
For a sphere the thickness d = rP/2s, where r is the radius of the tank. The vol
ume of the spherical surface then is 4pr2d = 4pr3P/2s. The mass is determined by
multiplying by the density of the material that makes up the walls of the spher
ical vessel. Further the volume of the gas is (4pr3)/3. Combining these equation
s give the above results. The equations for the other geometries are derived in
a similar manner
Richard Budynas, J. Nisbett, Shigley's Mechanical Engineering Design, 8th ed., N
ew York:McGraw-Hill, ISBN 978-0-07-312193-2, pg 108
An International Code 2007 ASME Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code. The Americal Soci
ety of Mechanical Engineers. 2007.
MIT pressure vessel lecture
"AS 1200 Pressure Vessels". SAI Global. Retrieved 14 November 2011.
"AS_NZS 3788: 2006 Pressure equipment - In-service inspection". SAI Global. Retr
ieved September 4, 2015.
"Pressure Vessel Inspection Code: In-Service Inspection, Rating, Repair, and Alt
eration". API. June 2006.
."Gas cylinders - High pressure cylinders for the on-board storage of natura
l gas as a fuel for automotive vehicles". ISO. 2006-07-18. Retrieved 2009-04-17.
References
A.C. Ugural, S.K. Fenster, Advanced Strength and Applied Elasticity, 4th ed.
E.P. Popov, Engineering Mechanics of Solids, 1st ed.
Megyesy, Eugene F. "Pressure Vessel Handbook, 14th Edition." PV Publishing,
Inc. Oklahoma City, OK
Further reading
Megyesy, Eugene F. (2008, 14th ed.) Pressure Vessel Handbook. PV Publishing,
Inc.: Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA. www.pressurevesselhandbook.com Design handb
ook for pressure vessels based on the ASME code.
External links
Look up pressure vessel in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Pressure vessel.
Use of pressure vessels in oil and gas industry
Basic formulas for thin walled pressure vessels; with examples
Educational Excel spreadsheets for ASME head, shell and nozzle designs

ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel website


Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology
EU Pressure Equipment Directive website
EU Simple Pressure Vessel Directive
EU Classification
Pressure Vessel attachments http://oakridgebellows.com/metal-expansion-joint
s/technical-videos/lugs-on-pipe-and-vessels-new
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Pressure vessel
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Horizontal pressure vessel in steel
A pressure vessel is a container designed to hold gases or liquids at a pressure
substantially different from the ambient pressure.
The pressure differential is dangerous, and fatal accidents have occurred in the
history of pressure vessel development and operation. Consequently, pressure ve
ssel design, manufacture, and operation are regulated by engineering authorities
backed by legislation. For these reasons, the definition of a pressure vessel v
aries from country to country, but involves parameters such as maximum safe oper
ating pressure and temperature, and are engineered with a safety factor, corrosi
on allowance, minimum design temperature (for brittle fracture), and involve non
destructive testing, such as ultrasonic testing, radiography, and pressure tests
, usually involving water, also known as a hydrotest, but could be pneumatically
tested involving air or another gas. The preferred test is hydrostatic testing
because it's a much safer method of testing as it releases much less energy if f
racture were to occur (water does not rapidly increase its volume while rapid de
pressurization occurs, unlike gases like air, i.e. gasses fail explosively). In
the United States, as with many other countries, it is the law that vessels over
a certain size and pressure (15 PSIg) be built to Code, in the United States th
at Code is the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (BPVC), these vessels also r
equire an Authorized Inspector to sign off on every new vessel constructed and e
ach vessel has a nameplate with pertinent information about the vessel such as m
aximum allowable working pressure, maximum temperature, minimum design metal tem
perature, what company manufactured it, the date, its registration number (throu
gh the National Board), and ASME's official stamp for pressure vessels (U-stamp)
, making the vessel traceable and officially an ASME Code vessel.
Contents
1 History of pressure vessels
2 Pressure vessel features
2.1 Shape of a pressure vessel
2.2 Construction materials
2.3 Safety features
2.3.1 Leak before burst
2.3.2 Safety valves
2.4 Maintenance features
2.4.1 Pressure vessel closures
3 Uses
4 Alternatives to pressure vessels
5 Design

5.1 Scaling
5.1.1 Scaling of stress in walls of vessel
5.1.2 Spherical vessel
5.1.3 Cylindrical vessel with hemispherical ends
5.1.4 Cylindrical vessel with semi-elliptical ends
5.1.5 Gas storage
5.2 Stress in thin-walled pressure vessels
5.3 Winding angle of carbon fibre vessels
5.4 Operation standards
5.4.1 List of standards
6 See also
7 Notes
8 References
9 Further reading
10 External links
History of pressure vessels
A 10,000 psi (69 MPa) pressure vessel from 1919, wrapped with high tensile steel
banding and steel rods to secure the end caps.
The earliest documented design of pressure vessels is described in the book Code
x Madrid I, by Leonardo da Vinci, in 1495, where containers of pressurized air w
ere theorized to lift heavy weights underwater,[1] however vessels resembling wh
at are used today did not come about until the 1800s where steam was generated i
n boilers helping to spur the industrial revolution.[1] However, with poor mater
ial quality and manufacturing techniques along with improper knowledge of design
, operation and maintenance there was a large number of damaging and often fatal
explosions associated with these boilers and pressure vessels, with a death occ
urring on a nearly daily basis in the United States.[1] Local providences and st
ates in the US began enacting rules for constructing these vessels after some pa
rticularly devastating vessel failures occurred killing dozens of people at a ti
me, which made it difficult for manufacturers to keep up with the varied rules f
rom one location to another and the first pressure vessel code was developed sta
rting in 1911 and released in 1914, starting the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel
Code (BPVC).[1] In an early effort to design a tank capable of withstanding pre
ssures up to 10,000 psi (69 MPa), a 6-inch (150 mm) diameter tank was developed
in 1919 that was spirally-wound with two layers of high tensile strength steel w
ire to prevent sidewall rupture, and the end caps longitudinally reinforced with
lengthwise high-tensile rods.[2] The need for high pressure and temperature ves
sels for petroleum refineries and chemical plants gave rise to vessels joined wi
th welding instead of rivets (which were unsuitable for the pressures and temper
atures required) and in 1920s and 1930s the BPVC included welding as an acceptab
le means of construction, and welding is the main means of joining metal vessels
today.[1]
There have been many advancements in the field of pressure vessel engineering su
ch as advanced non-destructive examination, phased array ultrasonic testing and
radiography, new material grades with increased corrosion resistance and stronge
r materials, and new ways to join materials such as explosion welding (to attach
one metal sheet to another, usually a thin corrosion resistant metal like stain
less steel to a stronger metal like carbon steel), friction stir welding (which
attaches the metals together without melting the metal), advanced theories and m
eans of more accurately assessing the stresses encountered in vessels such as wi
th the use of Finite Element Analysis, allowing the vessels to be built safer an
d more efficiently. Today vessels in the USA require BPVC stamping but the BPVC
is not just a domestic code, many other countries have adopted the BPVC as their
official code. There are, however, other official codes in some countries (some
of which rely on portions of and reference the BPVC), Japan, Australia, Canada,
Britain, and Europe have their own codes. Regardless of the country nearly all
recognize the inherent potential hazards of pressure vessels and the need for st

andards and codes regulating their design and construction.


Pressure vessel features
Shape of a pressure vessel
Pressure vessels can theoretically be almost any
ons of spheres, cylinders, and cones are usually
cylinder with end caps called heads. Head shapes
ical or dished (torispherical). More complicated
uch harder to analyze for safe operation and are
onstruct.

shape, but shapes made of secti


employed. A common design is a
are frequently either hemispher
shapes have historically been m
usually far more difficult to c

Spherical gas container.


Cylindrical pressure vessel.
Picture of the bottom of an aerosol spray can.
Fire Extinguisher with rounded rectangle pressure vessel
Theoretically, a spherical pressure vessel has approximately twice the strength
of a cylindrical pressure vessel with the same wall thickness,[3] and is the ide
al shape to hold internal pressure.[1] However, a spherical shape is difficult t
o manufacture, and therefore more expensive, so most pressure vessels are cylind
rical with 2:1 semi-elliptical heads or end caps on each end. Smaller pressure v
essels are assembled from a pipe and two covers. For cylindrical vessels with a
diameter up to 600 mm (NPS of 24 in), it is possible to use seamless pipe for th
e shell, thus avoiding many inspection and testing issues, mainly the nondestruc
tive examination of radiography for the long seam if required. A disadvantage of
these vessels is that greater diameters are more expensive, so that for example
the most economic shape of a 1,000 litres (35 cu ft), 250 bars (3,600 psi) pres
sure vessel might be a diameter of 91.44 centimetres (36 in) and a length of 1.7
018 metres (67 in) including the 2:1 semi-elliptical domed end caps.
Construction materials
Composite overwrapped pressure vessel with titanium liner.
Many pressure vessels are made of steel. To manufacture a cylindrical or spheric
al pressure vessel, rolled and possibly forged parts would have to be welded tog
ether. Some mechanical properties of steel, achieved by rolling or forging, coul
d be adversely affected by welding, unless special precautions are taken. In add
ition to adequate mechanical strength, current standards dictate the use of stee
l with a high impact resistance, especially for vessels used in low temperatures
. In applications where carbon steel would suffer corrosion, special corrosion r
esistant material should also be used.
Some pressure vessels are made of composite materials, such as filament wound co
mposite using carbon fibre held in place with a polymer. Due to the very high te
nsile strength of carbon fibre these vessels can be very light, but are much mor
e difficult to manufacture. The composite material may be wound around a metal l
iner, forming a composite overwrapped pressure vessel.
Other very common materials include polymers such as PET in carbonated beverage
containers and copper in plumbing.
Pressure vessels may be lined with various metals, ceramics, or polymers to prev
ent leaking and protect the structure of the vessel from the contained medium. T
his liner may also carry a significant portion of the pressure load.[4][5]
Pressure Vessels may also be constructed from concrete (PCV) or other materials
which are weak in tension. Cabling, wrapped around the vessel or within the wall
or the vessel itself, provides the necessary tension to resist the internal pre

ssure. A "leakproof steel thin membrane" lines the internal wall of the vessel.
Such vessels can be assembled from modular pieces and so have "no inherent size
limitations".[6] There is also a high order of redundancy thanks to the large nu
mber of individual cables resisting the internal pressure.
Safety features
Leak before burst
Leak before burst describes a pressure vessel designed such that a crack in the
vessel will grow through the wall, allowing the contained fluid to escape and re
ducing the pressure, prior to growing so large as to cause fracture at the opera
ting pressure.
Many pressure vessel standards, including the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Co
de[citation needed] and the AIAA metallic pressure vessel standard, either requi
re pressure vessel designs to be leak before burst, or require pressure vessels
to meet more stringent requirements for fatigue and fracture if they are not sho
wn to be leak before burst.[7]
Safety valves
Example of a valve used for gas cylinders.
As the pressure vessel is designed to a pressure, there is typically a safety va
lve or relief valve to ensure that this pressure is not exceeded in operation.
Maintenance features
Pressure vessel closures
Pressure vessel closures are pressure retaining structures designed to provide q
uick access to pipelines, pressure vessels, pig traps, filters and filtration sy
stems. Typically pressure vessel closures allow maintenance personnel.
Uses
Pressure vessels are used in a variety of applications in both industry and the
private sector. They appear in these sectors as industrial compressed air receiv
ers and domestic hot water storage tanks. Other examples of pressure vessels are
diving cylinders, recompression chambers, distillation towers, pressure reactor
s, autoclaves, and many other vessels in mining operations, oil refineries and p
etrochemical plants, nuclear reactor vessels, submarine and space ship habitats,
pneumatic reservoirs, hydraulic reservoirs under pressure, rail vehicle airbrak
e reservoirs, road vehicle airbrake reservoirs, and storage vessels for liquifie
d gases such as ammonia, chlorine, and LPG (propane, butane).
A unique application of a pressure vessel is the passenger cabin of an airliner;
The outer skin carries both the aircraft maneuvering loads and the cabin pressu
rization loads.
A pressure tank connected to a water well and domestic hot water system.
A few pressure tanks, here used to hold propane.
An expansion vessel for heating systems.
A pressure vessel used as a kier.
A pressure vessel used for The Boeing Company s CST-100 spacecraft.
Alternatives to pressure vessels
Natural gas storage
Gas holder
Depending on the application and local circumstances, alternatives to pressure v

essels exist. Examples can be seen in domestic water collection systems, where t
he following may be used:
Gravity controlled systems[8] which typically consist of an unpressurized wa
ter tank at an elevation higher than the point of use. Pressure at the point of
use is the result of the hydrostatic pressure caused by the elevation difference
. Gravity systems produce 0.43 pounds per square inch (3.0 kPa) per foot of wate
r head (elevation difference). A municipal water supply or pumped water is typic
ally around 90 pounds per square inch (620 kPa).
Inline pump controllers or pressure-sensitive pumps.[9]
Design
Scaling
No matter what shape it takes, the minimum mass of a pressure vessel scales with
the pressure and volume it contains and is inversely proportional to the streng
th to weight ratio of the construction material (minimum mass decreases as stren
gth increases[10]).
Scaling of stress in walls of vessel
Pressure vessels are held together against the gas pressure due to tensile force
s within the walls of the container. The normal (tensile) stress in the walls of
the container is proportional to the pressure and radius of the vessel and inve
rsely proportional to the thickness of the walls.[11] Therefore, pressure vessel
s are designed to have a thickness proportional to the radius of tank and the pr
essure of the tank and inversely proportional to the maximum allowed normal stre
ss of the particular material used in the walls of the container.
Because (for a given pressure) the thickness of the walls scales with the radius
of the tank, the mass of a tank (which scales as the length times radius times
thickness of the wall for a cylindrical tank) scales with the volume of the gas
held (which scales as length times radius squared). The exact formula varies wit
h the tank shape but depends on the density, ?, and maximum allowable stress s o
f the material in addition to the pressure P and volume V of the vessel. (See be
low for the exact equations for the stress in the walls.)
Spherical vessel
For a sphere, the minimum mass of a pressure vessel is
M = 3 2 P V ? s {\displaystyle M={3 \over 2}PV{\rho \over \sigma }} M={3 \ov
er 2}PV{\rho \over \sigma },
where:
M {\displaystyle
P {\displaystyle
ssure),
V {\displaystyle
? {\displaystyle
s {\displaystyle
can tolerate.[12]

M} M is mass,
P} P is the pressure difference from ambient (the gauge pre
V} V is volume,
\rho } \rho is the density of the pressure vessel material,
\sigma } \sigma is the maximum working stress that material

Other shapes besides a sphere have constants larger than 3/2 (infinite cylinders
take 2), although some tanks, such as non-spherical wound composite tanks can a
pproach this.
Cylindrical vessel with hemispherical ends
This is sometimes called a "bullet"[citation needed] for its shape, although in
geometric terms it is a capsule.

For a cylinder with hemispherical ends,


M = 2 p R 2 ( R + W ) P ? s {\displaystyle M=2\pi R^{2}(R+W)P{\rho \over \si
gma }} M=2\pi R^{2}(R+W)P{\rho \over \sigma },
where
R is the radius
W is the middle cylinder width only, and the overall width is W + 2R
Cylindrical vessel with semi-elliptical ends
In a vessel with an aspect ratio of middle cylinder width to radius of 2:1,
M = 6 p R 3 P ? s {\displaystyle M=6\pi R^{3}P{\rho \over \sigma }} M=6\pi R
^{3}P{\rho \over \sigma }.
Gas storage
In looking at the first equation, the factor PV, in SI units, is in units of (pr
essurization) energy. For a stored gas, PV is proportional to the mass of gas at
a given temperature, thus
M = 3 2 n R T ? s {\displaystyle M={3 \over 2}nRT{\rho \over \sigma }} M={3
\over 2}nRT{\rho \over \sigma }. (see gas law)
The other factors are constant for a given vessel shape and material. So we can
see that there is no theoretical "efficiency of scale", in terms of the ratio of
pressure vessel mass to pressurization energy, or of pressure vessel mass to st
ored gas mass. For storing gases, "tankage efficiency" is independent of pressur
e, at least for the same temperature.
So, for example, a typical design for a minimum mass tank to hold helium (as a p
ressurant gas) on a rocket would use a spherical chamber for a minimum shape con
stant, carbon fiber for best possible ? / s {\displaystyle \rho /\sigma } \rho /
\sigma , and very cold helium for best possible M / p V {\displaystyle M/{pV}} M
/{pV}.
Stress in thin-walled pressure vessels
Stress in a shallow-walled pressure vessel in the shape of a sphere is
s ? = s l o n g = p r 2 t {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }=\sigma _{\rm {lon
g}}={\frac {pr}{2t}}} \sigma _{\theta }=\sigma _{{{\rm {long}}}}={\frac {pr}{2t}
},
where s ? {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }} \sigma _{\theta } is hoop stress, or
stress in the circumferential direction, s l o n g {\displaystyle \sigma _{long
}} \sigma _{{long}} is stress in the longitudinal direction, p is internal gauge
pressure, r is the inner radius of the sphere, and t is thickness of the sphere
wall. A vessel can be considered "shallow-walled" if the diameter is at least 1
0 times (sometimes cited as 20 times) greater than the wall depth.[13]
Stress in the cylinder body of a pressure vessel.
Stress in a shallow-walled pressure vessel in the shape of a cylinder is
s ? = p r t {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }={\frac {pr}{t}}} \sigma _{\thet
a }={\frac {pr}{t}},
s l o n g = p r 2 t {\displaystyle \sigma _{\rm {long}}={\frac {pr}{2t}}} \s
igma _{{{\rm {long}}}}={\frac {pr}{2t}},

where:
s ? {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }} \sigma _{\theta } is hoop stress, or s
tress in the circumferential direction
s l o n g {\displaystyle \sigma _{long}} \sigma _{{long}} is stress in the l
ongitudinal direction
p is internal gauge pressure
r is the inner radius of the cylinder
t is thickness of the cylinder wall.
Almost all pressure vessel design standards contain variations of these two form
ulas with additional empirical terms to account for wall thickness tolerances, q
uality control of welds and in-service corrosion allowances.
For example, the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (BPVC) (UG-27) formulas ar
e:[14]
Spherical shells:
s ? = s l o n g = p ( r + 0.2 t ) 2 t E {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }=\si
gma _{\rm {long}}={\frac {p(r+0.2t)}{2tE}}} \sigma _{\theta }=\sigma _{{{\rm {lo
ng}}}}={\frac {p(r+0.2t)}{2tE}}
Cylindrical shells:
s ? = p ( r + 0.6 t ) t E {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }={\frac {p(r+0.6t)
}{tE}}} \sigma _{\theta }={\frac {p(r+0.6t)}{tE}}
s l o n g = p ( r - 0.4 t ) 2 t E {\displaystyle \sigma _{\rm {long}}={\frac
{p(r-0.4t)}{2tE}}} \sigma _{{{\rm {long}}}}={\frac {p(r-0.4t)}{2tE}}
where E is the joint efficient, and all others variables as stated above.
The factor of safety is often included in these formulas as well, in the case of
the ASME BPVC this term is included in the material stress value when solving f
or pressure or thickness.
Winding angle of carbon fibre vessels
Wound infinite cylindrical shapes optimally take a winding angle of 54.7 degrees
, as this gives the necessary twice the strength in the circumferential directio
n to the longitudinal.[15]
Operation standards
Pressure vessels are designed to operate safely at a specific pressure and tempe
rature, technically referred to as the "Design Pressure" and "Design Temperature
". A vessel that is inadequately designed to handle a high pressure constitutes
a very significant safety hazard. Because of that, the design and certification
of pressure vessels is governed by design codes such as the ASME Boiler and Pres
sure Vessel Code in North America, the Pressure Equipment Directive of the EU (P
ED), Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS), CSA B51 in Canada, Australian Standards
in Australia and other international standards like Lloyd's, Germanischer Lloyd
, Det Norske Veritas, Socit Gnrale de Surveillance (SGS S.A.), Lloyd s Register Energy
Nederland (formerly known as Stoomwezen) etc.
Note that where the pressure-volume product is part of a safety standard, any in
compressible liquid in the vessel can be excluded as it does not contribute to t
he potential energy stored in the vessel, so only the volume of the compressible
part such as gas is used.
List of standards
EN 13445: The current European Standard, harmonized with the Pressure Equipm

ent Directive (97/23/EC). Extensively used in Europe.


ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section VIII: Rules for Construction of
Pressure Vessels.
BS 5500: Former British Standard, replaced in the UK by BS EN 13445 but reta
ined under the name PD 5500 for the design and construction of export equipment.
AD Merkbltter: German standard, harmonized with the Pressure Equipment Direct
ive.
EN 286 (Parts 1 to 4): European standard for simple pressure vessels (air ta
nks), harmonized with Council Directive 87/404/EEC.
BS 4994: Specification for design and construction of vessels and tanks in r
einforced plastics.
ASME PVHO: US standard for Pressure Vessels for Human Occupancy.
CODAP: French Code for Construction of Unfired Pressure Vessel.
AS/NZS 1200: Pressure equipment.[16]
AS/NZS 3788:2006[17]
API 510.[18]
ISO 11439: Compressed natural gas (CNG) cylinders[19]
IS 2825-1969 (RE1977)_code_unfired_Pressure_vessels.
FRP tanks and vessels.
AIAA S-080-1998: AIAA Standard for Space Systems - Metallic Pressure Vessels
, Pressurized Structures, and Pressure Components.
AIAA S-081A-2006: AIAA Standard for Space Systems - Composite Overwrapped Pr
essure Vessels (COPVs).
B51-09 Canadian Boiler, pressure vessel, and pressure piping code.
HSE guidelines for pressure systems.
Stoomwezen: Former pressure vessels code in the Netherlands, also known as R
ToD: Regels voor Toestellen onder Druk (Dutch Rules for Pressure Vessels).
See also
American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)
Bottled gas
Composite overwrapped pressure vessel
Compressed air energy storage
Compressed natural gas
Demister
Fire-tube boiler
Gas cylinder
Gasket
Head (vessel)
Minimum Design Metal Temperature (MDMT)
Pressure bomb - a device for measuring leaf water potentials
Rainwater harvesting
Relief valve
Safety valve
Shell and tube heat exchanger
Vapor-Liquid Separator or Knock-Out Drum
Vortex breaker
Water well
Water-tube boiler
Notes
Nilsen, Kyle. (2011) "Development of low pressure filter testing vessel and anal
ysis of electrospun nanofiber membranes for water treatment"
Ingenious Coal-Gas Motor Tank, Popular Science monthly, January 1919, page 27, S
canned by Google Books: https://books.google.com/books?id=HykDAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA13
Hearn, E.J. (1997). Mechanics of Materials 1. An Introduction to the Mechanics o
f Elastic and Plastic Deformation of Solids and Structural Materials - Third Edi
tion. Chapter 9: Butterworth-Heinemann. pp. 199 203. ISBN 0-7506-3265-8.

NASA Tech Briefs, "Making a Metal-Lined Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessel",


1 Mar 2005.
Frietas, O., "Maintenance and Repair of Glass-Lined Equipment", Chemical Enginee
ring, 1 Jul 2007.
"High Pressure Vessels",D. Freyer and J. Harvey, 1998
ANSI/AIAA S-080-1998, Space Systems - Metallic Pressure Vessels, Pressurized Str
uctures, and Pressure Components, 5.1
Pushard, Doug (2005). "Domestic water collection systems also sometimes able to
function on gravity". Harvesth2o.com. Retrieved 2009-04-17.[verification needed]
Pushard, Doug. "Alternatives to pressure vessels in domestic water systems". Har
vesth2o.com. Retrieved 2009-04-17.
Puskarich, Paul (2009-05-01). "Strengthened Glass for Pipleine Systems" (PDF). M
IT. Retrieved 2009-04-17.
Beer, Ferdinand P.; Johnston, Jr., E. Russel; DeWolf, John T. "7.9". Mechanics o
f Materials (fourth ed.). McGraw-Hill. p. 463. ISBN 9780073659350.
For a sphere the thickness d = rP/2s, where r is the radius of the tank. The vol
ume of the spherical surface then is 4pr2d = 4pr3P/2s. The mass is determined by
multiplying by the density of the material that makes up the walls of the spher
ical vessel. Further the volume of the gas is (4pr3)/3. Combining these equation
s give the above results. The equations for the other geometries are derived in
a similar manner
Richard Budynas, J. Nisbett, Shigley's Mechanical Engineering Design, 8th ed., N
ew York:McGraw-Hill, ISBN 978-0-07-312193-2, pg 108
An International Code 2007 ASME Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code. The Americal Soci
ety of Mechanical Engineers. 2007.
MIT pressure vessel lecture
"AS 1200 Pressure Vessels". SAI Global. Retrieved 14 November 2011.
"AS_NZS 3788: 2006 Pressure equipment - In-service inspection". SAI Global. Retr
ieved September 4, 2015.
"Pressure Vessel Inspection Code: In-Service Inspection, Rating, Repair, and Alt
eration". API. June 2006.
."Gas cylinders - High pressure cylinders for the on-board storage of natura
l gas as a fuel for automotive vehicles". ISO. 2006-07-18. Retrieved 2009-04-17.
References
A.C. Ugural, S.K. Fenster, Advanced Strength and Applied Elasticity, 4th ed.
E.P. Popov, Engineering Mechanics of Solids, 1st ed.
Megyesy, Eugene F. "Pressure Vessel Handbook, 14th Edition." PV Publishing,
Inc. Oklahoma City, OK
Further reading
Megyesy, Eugene F. (2008, 14th ed.) Pressure Vessel Handbook. PV Publishing,
Inc.: Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA. www.pressurevesselhandbook.com Design handb
ook for pressure vessels based on the ASME code.
External links
Look up pressure vessel in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Pressure vessel.
Use of pressure vessels in oil and gas industry
Basic formulas for thin walled pressure vessels; with examples
Educational Excel spreadsheets for ASME head, shell and nozzle designs
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel website
Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology
EU Pressure Equipment Directive website
EU Simple Pressure Vessel Directive
EU Classification

Pressure Vessel attachments http://oakridgebellows.com/metal-expansion-joint


s/technical-videos/lugs-on-pipe-and-vessels-new
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Pressure vessel
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Horizontal pressure vessel in steel
A pressure vessel is a container designed to hold gases or liquids at a pressure
substantially different from the ambient pressure.
The pressure differential is dangerous, and fatal accidents have occurred in the
history of pressure vessel development and operation. Consequently, pressure ve
ssel design, manufacture, and operation are regulated by engineering authorities
backed by legislation. For these reasons, the definition of a pressure vessel v
aries from country to country, but involves parameters such as maximum safe oper
ating pressure and temperature, and are engineered with a safety factor, corrosi
on allowance, minimum design temperature (for brittle fracture), and involve non
destructive testing, such as ultrasonic testing, radiography, and pressure tests
, usually involving water, also known as a hydrotest, but could be pneumatically
tested involving air or another gas. The preferred test is hydrostatic testing
because it's a much safer method of testing as it releases much less energy if f
racture were to occur (water does not rapidly increase its volume while rapid de
pressurization occurs, unlike gases like air, i.e. gasses fail explosively). In
the United States, as with many other countries, it is the law that vessels over
a certain size and pressure (15 PSIg) be built to Code, in the United States th
at Code is the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (BPVC), these vessels also r
equire an Authorized Inspector to sign off on every new vessel constructed and e
ach vessel has a nameplate with pertinent information about the vessel such as m
aximum allowable working pressure, maximum temperature, minimum design metal tem
perature, what company manufactured it, the date, its registration number (throu
gh the National Board), and ASME's official stamp for pressure vessels (U-stamp)
, making the vessel traceable and officially an ASME Code vessel.
Contents
1 History of pressure vessels
2 Pressure vessel features
2.1 Shape of a pressure vessel
2.2 Construction materials
2.3 Safety features
2.3.1 Leak before burst
2.3.2 Safety valves
2.4 Maintenance features
2.4.1 Pressure vessel closures
3 Uses
4 Alternatives to pressure vessels
5 Design
5.1 Scaling
5.1.1 Scaling of stress in walls of vessel
5.1.2 Spherical vessel
5.1.3 Cylindrical vessel with hemispherical ends
5.1.4 Cylindrical vessel with semi-elliptical ends

5.1.5 Gas storage


5.2 Stress in thin-walled pressure vessels
5.3 Winding angle of carbon fibre vessels
5.4 Operation standards
5.4.1 List of standards
6 See also
7 Notes
8 References
9 Further reading
10 External links
History of pressure vessels
A 10,000 psi (69 MPa) pressure vessel from 1919, wrapped with high tensile steel
banding and steel rods to secure the end caps.
The earliest documented design of pressure vessels is described in the book Code
x Madrid I, by Leonardo da Vinci, in 1495, where containers of pressurized air w
ere theorized to lift heavy weights underwater,[1] however vessels resembling wh
at are used today did not come about until the 1800s where steam was generated i
n boilers helping to spur the industrial revolution.[1] However, with poor mater
ial quality and manufacturing techniques along with improper knowledge of design
, operation and maintenance there was a large number of damaging and often fatal
explosions associated with these boilers and pressure vessels, with a death occ
urring on a nearly daily basis in the United States.[1] Local providences and st
ates in the US began enacting rules for constructing these vessels after some pa
rticularly devastating vessel failures occurred killing dozens of people at a ti
me, which made it difficult for manufacturers to keep up with the varied rules f
rom one location to another and the first pressure vessel code was developed sta
rting in 1911 and released in 1914, starting the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel
Code (BPVC).[1] In an early effort to design a tank capable of withstanding pre
ssures up to 10,000 psi (69 MPa), a 6-inch (150 mm) diameter tank was developed
in 1919 that was spirally-wound with two layers of high tensile strength steel w
ire to prevent sidewall rupture, and the end caps longitudinally reinforced with
lengthwise high-tensile rods.[2] The need for high pressure and temperature ves
sels for petroleum refineries and chemical plants gave rise to vessels joined wi
th welding instead of rivets (which were unsuitable for the pressures and temper
atures required) and in 1920s and 1930s the BPVC included welding as an acceptab
le means of construction, and welding is the main means of joining metal vessels
today.[1]
There have been many advancements in the field of pressure vessel engineering su
ch as advanced non-destructive examination, phased array ultrasonic testing and
radiography, new material grades with increased corrosion resistance and stronge
r materials, and new ways to join materials such as explosion welding (to attach
one metal sheet to another, usually a thin corrosion resistant metal like stain
less steel to a stronger metal like carbon steel), friction stir welding (which
attaches the metals together without melting the metal), advanced theories and m
eans of more accurately assessing the stresses encountered in vessels such as wi
th the use of Finite Element Analysis, allowing the vessels to be built safer an
d more efficiently. Today vessels in the USA require BPVC stamping but the BPVC
is not just a domestic code, many other countries have adopted the BPVC as their
official code. There are, however, other official codes in some countries (some
of which rely on portions of and reference the BPVC), Japan, Australia, Canada,
Britain, and Europe have their own codes. Regardless of the country nearly all
recognize the inherent potential hazards of pressure vessels and the need for st
andards and codes regulating their design and construction.
Pressure vessel features
Shape of a pressure vessel
Pressure vessels can theoretically be almost any shape, but shapes made of secti

ons of spheres, cylinders, and cones are usually


cylinder with end caps called heads. Head shapes
ical or dished (torispherical). More complicated
uch harder to analyze for safe operation and are
onstruct.

employed. A common design is a


are frequently either hemispher
shapes have historically been m
usually far more difficult to c

Spherical gas container.


Cylindrical pressure vessel.
Picture of the bottom of an aerosol spray can.
Fire Extinguisher with rounded rectangle pressure vessel
Theoretically, a spherical pressure vessel has approximately twice the strength
of a cylindrical pressure vessel with the same wall thickness,[3] and is the ide
al shape to hold internal pressure.[1] However, a spherical shape is difficult t
o manufacture, and therefore more expensive, so most pressure vessels are cylind
rical with 2:1 semi-elliptical heads or end caps on each end. Smaller pressure v
essels are assembled from a pipe and two covers. For cylindrical vessels with a
diameter up to 600 mm (NPS of 24 in), it is possible to use seamless pipe for th
e shell, thus avoiding many inspection and testing issues, mainly the nondestruc
tive examination of radiography for the long seam if required. A disadvantage of
these vessels is that greater diameters are more expensive, so that for example
the most economic shape of a 1,000 litres (35 cu ft), 250 bars (3,600 psi) pres
sure vessel might be a diameter of 91.44 centimetres (36 in) and a length of 1.7
018 metres (67 in) including the 2:1 semi-elliptical domed end caps.
Construction materials
Composite overwrapped pressure vessel with titanium liner.
Many pressure vessels are made of steel. To manufacture a cylindrical or spheric
al pressure vessel, rolled and possibly forged parts would have to be welded tog
ether. Some mechanical properties of steel, achieved by rolling or forging, coul
d be adversely affected by welding, unless special precautions are taken. In add
ition to adequate mechanical strength, current standards dictate the use of stee
l with a high impact resistance, especially for vessels used in low temperatures
. In applications where carbon steel would suffer corrosion, special corrosion r
esistant material should also be used.
Some pressure vessels are made of composite materials, such as filament wound co
mposite using carbon fibre held in place with a polymer. Due to the very high te
nsile strength of carbon fibre these vessels can be very light, but are much mor
e difficult to manufacture. The composite material may be wound around a metal l
iner, forming a composite overwrapped pressure vessel.
Other very common materials include polymers such as PET in carbonated beverage
containers and copper in plumbing.
Pressure vessels may be lined with various metals, ceramics, or polymers to prev
ent leaking and protect the structure of the vessel from the contained medium. T
his liner may also carry a significant portion of the pressure load.[4][5]
Pressure Vessels may also be constructed from concrete (PCV) or other materials
which are weak in tension. Cabling, wrapped around the vessel or within the wall
or the vessel itself, provides the necessary tension to resist the internal pre
ssure. A "leakproof steel thin membrane" lines the internal wall of the vessel.
Such vessels can be assembled from modular pieces and so have "no inherent size
limitations".[6] There is also a high order of redundancy thanks to the large nu
mber of individual cables resisting the internal pressure.
Safety features

Leak before burst


Leak before burst describes a pressure vessel designed such that a crack in the
vessel will grow through the wall, allowing the contained fluid to escape and re
ducing the pressure, prior to growing so large as to cause fracture at the opera
ting pressure.
Many pressure vessel standards, including the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Co
de[citation needed] and the AIAA metallic pressure vessel standard, either requi
re pressure vessel designs to be leak before burst, or require pressure vessels
to meet more stringent requirements for fatigue and fracture if they are not sho
wn to be leak before burst.[7]
Safety valves
Example of a valve used for gas cylinders.
As the pressure vessel is designed to a pressure, there is typically a safety va
lve or relief valve to ensure that this pressure is not exceeded in operation.
Maintenance features
Pressure vessel closures
Pressure vessel closures are pressure retaining structures designed to provide q
uick access to pipelines, pressure vessels, pig traps, filters and filtration sy
stems. Typically pressure vessel closures allow maintenance personnel.
Uses
Pressure vessels are used in a variety of applications in both industry and the
private sector. They appear in these sectors as industrial compressed air receiv
ers and domestic hot water storage tanks. Other examples of pressure vessels are
diving cylinders, recompression chambers, distillation towers, pressure reactor
s, autoclaves, and many other vessels in mining operations, oil refineries and p
etrochemical plants, nuclear reactor vessels, submarine and space ship habitats,
pneumatic reservoirs, hydraulic reservoirs under pressure, rail vehicle airbrak
e reservoirs, road vehicle airbrake reservoirs, and storage vessels for liquifie
d gases such as ammonia, chlorine, and LPG (propane, butane).
A unique application of a pressure vessel is the passenger cabin of an airliner;
The outer skin carries both the aircraft maneuvering loads and the cabin pressu
rization loads.
A pressure tank connected to a water well and domestic hot water system.
A few pressure tanks, here used to hold propane.
An expansion vessel for heating systems.
A pressure vessel used as a kier.
A pressure vessel used for The Boeing Company s CST-100 spacecraft.
Alternatives to pressure vessels
Natural gas storage
Gas holder
Depending on the application and local circumstances, alternatives to pressure v
essels exist. Examples can be seen in domestic water collection systems, where t
he following may be used:
Gravity controlled systems[8] which typically consist of an unpressurized wa
ter tank at an elevation higher than the point of use. Pressure at the point of

use is the result of the hydrostatic pressure caused by the elevation difference
. Gravity systems produce 0.43 pounds per square inch (3.0 kPa) per foot of wate
r head (elevation difference). A municipal water supply or pumped water is typic
ally around 90 pounds per square inch (620 kPa).
Inline pump controllers or pressure-sensitive pumps.[9]
Design
Scaling
No matter what shape it takes, the minimum mass of a pressure vessel scales with
the pressure and volume it contains and is inversely proportional to the streng
th to weight ratio of the construction material (minimum mass decreases as stren
gth increases[10]).
Scaling of stress in walls of vessel
Pressure vessels are held together against the gas pressure due to tensile force
s within the walls of the container. The normal (tensile) stress in the walls of
the container is proportional to the pressure and radius of the vessel and inve
rsely proportional to the thickness of the walls.[11] Therefore, pressure vessel
s are designed to have a thickness proportional to the radius of tank and the pr
essure of the tank and inversely proportional to the maximum allowed normal stre
ss of the particular material used in the walls of the container.
Because (for a given pressure) the thickness of the walls scales with the radius
of the tank, the mass of a tank (which scales as the length times radius times
thickness of the wall for a cylindrical tank) scales with the volume of the gas
held (which scales as length times radius squared). The exact formula varies wit
h the tank shape but depends on the density, ?, and maximum allowable stress s o
f the material in addition to the pressure P and volume V of the vessel. (See be
low for the exact equations for the stress in the walls.)
Spherical vessel
For a sphere, the minimum mass of a pressure vessel is
M = 3 2 P V ? s {\displaystyle M={3 \over 2}PV{\rho \over \sigma }} M={3 \ov
er 2}PV{\rho \over \sigma },
where:
M {\displaystyle
P {\displaystyle
ssure),
V {\displaystyle
? {\displaystyle
s {\displaystyle
can tolerate.[12]

M} M is mass,
P} P is the pressure difference from ambient (the gauge pre
V} V is volume,
\rho } \rho is the density of the pressure vessel material,
\sigma } \sigma is the maximum working stress that material

Other shapes besides a sphere have constants larger than 3/2 (infinite cylinders
take 2), although some tanks, such as non-spherical wound composite tanks can a
pproach this.
Cylindrical vessel with hemispherical ends
This is sometimes called a "bullet"[citation needed] for its shape, although in
geometric terms it is a capsule.
For a cylinder with hemispherical ends,
M = 2 p R 2 ( R + W ) P ? s {\displaystyle M=2\pi R^{2}(R+W)P{\rho \over \si
gma }} M=2\pi R^{2}(R+W)P{\rho \over \sigma },

where
R is the radius
W is the middle cylinder width only, and the overall width is W + 2R
Cylindrical vessel with semi-elliptical ends
In a vessel with an aspect ratio of middle cylinder width to radius of 2:1,
M = 6 p R 3 P ? s {\displaystyle M=6\pi R^{3}P{\rho \over \sigma }} M=6\pi R
^{3}P{\rho \over \sigma }.
Gas storage
In looking at the first equation, the factor PV, in SI units, is in units of (pr
essurization) energy. For a stored gas, PV is proportional to the mass of gas at
a given temperature, thus
M = 3 2 n R T ? s {\displaystyle M={3 \over 2}nRT{\rho \over \sigma }} M={3
\over 2}nRT{\rho \over \sigma }. (see gas law)
The other factors are constant for a given vessel shape and material. So we can
see that there is no theoretical "efficiency of scale", in terms of the ratio of
pressure vessel mass to pressurization energy, or of pressure vessel mass to st
ored gas mass. For storing gases, "tankage efficiency" is independent of pressur
e, at least for the same temperature.
So, for example, a typical design for a minimum mass tank to hold helium (as a p
ressurant gas) on a rocket would use a spherical chamber for a minimum shape con
stant, carbon fiber for best possible ? / s {\displaystyle \rho /\sigma } \rho /
\sigma , and very cold helium for best possible M / p V {\displaystyle M/{pV}} M
/{pV}.
Stress in thin-walled pressure vessels
Stress in a shallow-walled pressure vessel in the shape of a sphere is
s ? = s l o n g = p r 2 t {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }=\sigma _{\rm {lon
g}}={\frac {pr}{2t}}} \sigma _{\theta }=\sigma _{{{\rm {long}}}}={\frac {pr}{2t}
},
where s ? {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }} \sigma _{\theta } is hoop stress, or
stress in the circumferential direction, s l o n g {\displaystyle \sigma _{long
}} \sigma _{{long}} is stress in the longitudinal direction, p is internal gauge
pressure, r is the inner radius of the sphere, and t is thickness of the sphere
wall. A vessel can be considered "shallow-walled" if the diameter is at least 1
0 times (sometimes cited as 20 times) greater than the wall depth.[13]
Stress in the cylinder body of a pressure vessel.
Stress in a shallow-walled pressure vessel in the shape of a cylinder is
s ? = p r t {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }={\frac {pr}{t}}} \sigma _{\thet
a }={\frac {pr}{t}},
s l o n g = p r 2 t {\displaystyle \sigma _{\rm {long}}={\frac {pr}{2t}}} \s
igma _{{{\rm {long}}}}={\frac {pr}{2t}},
where:
s ? {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }} \sigma _{\theta } is hoop stress, or s
tress in the circumferential direction
s l o n g {\displaystyle \sigma _{long}} \sigma _{{long}} is stress in the l

ongitudinal direction
p is internal gauge pressure
r is the inner radius of the cylinder
t is thickness of the cylinder wall.
Almost all pressure vessel design standards contain variations of these two form
ulas with additional empirical terms to account for wall thickness tolerances, q
uality control of welds and in-service corrosion allowances.
For example, the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (BPVC) (UG-27) formulas ar
e:[14]
Spherical shells:
s ? = s l o n g = p ( r + 0.2 t ) 2 t E {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }=\si
gma _{\rm {long}}={\frac {p(r+0.2t)}{2tE}}} \sigma _{\theta }=\sigma _{{{\rm {lo
ng}}}}={\frac {p(r+0.2t)}{2tE}}
Cylindrical shells:
s ? = p ( r + 0.6 t ) t E {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }={\frac {p(r+0.6t)
}{tE}}} \sigma _{\theta }={\frac {p(r+0.6t)}{tE}}
s l o n g = p ( r - 0.4 t ) 2 t E {\displaystyle \sigma _{\rm {long}}={\frac
{p(r-0.4t)}{2tE}}} \sigma _{{{\rm {long}}}}={\frac {p(r-0.4t)}{2tE}}
where E is the joint efficient, and all others variables as stated above.
The factor of safety is often included in these formulas as well, in the case of
the ASME BPVC this term is included in the material stress value when solving f
or pressure or thickness.
Winding angle of carbon fibre vessels
Wound infinite cylindrical shapes optimally take a winding angle of 54.7 degrees
, as this gives the necessary twice the strength in the circumferential directio
n to the longitudinal.[15]
Operation standards
Pressure vessels are designed to operate safely at a specific pressure and tempe
rature, technically referred to as the "Design Pressure" and "Design Temperature
". A vessel that is inadequately designed to handle a high pressure constitutes
a very significant safety hazard. Because of that, the design and certification
of pressure vessels is governed by design codes such as the ASME Boiler and Pres
sure Vessel Code in North America, the Pressure Equipment Directive of the EU (P
ED), Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS), CSA B51 in Canada, Australian Standards
in Australia and other international standards like Lloyd's, Germanischer Lloyd
, Det Norske Veritas, Socit Gnrale de Surveillance (SGS S.A.), Lloyd s Register Energy
Nederland (formerly known as Stoomwezen) etc.
Note that where the pressure-volume product is part of a safety standard, any in
compressible liquid in the vessel can be excluded as it does not contribute to t
he potential energy stored in the vessel, so only the volume of the compressible
part such as gas is used.
List of standards
EN 13445: The current European Standard, harmonized with the Pressure Equipm
ent Directive (97/23/EC). Extensively used in Europe.
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section VIII: Rules for Construction of
Pressure Vessels.
BS 5500: Former British Standard, replaced in the UK by BS EN 13445 but reta
ined under the name PD 5500 for the design and construction of export equipment.

AD Merkbltter: German standard, harmonized with the Pressure Equipment Direct


ive.
EN 286 (Parts 1 to 4): European standard for simple pressure vessels (air ta
nks), harmonized with Council Directive 87/404/EEC.
BS 4994: Specification for design and construction of vessels and tanks in r
einforced plastics.
ASME PVHO: US standard for Pressure Vessels for Human Occupancy.
CODAP: French Code for Construction of Unfired Pressure Vessel.
AS/NZS 1200: Pressure equipment.[16]
AS/NZS 3788:2006[17]
API 510.[18]
ISO 11439: Compressed natural gas (CNG) cylinders[19]
IS 2825-1969 (RE1977)_code_unfired_Pressure_vessels.
FRP tanks and vessels.
AIAA S-080-1998: AIAA Standard for Space Systems - Metallic Pressure Vessels
, Pressurized Structures, and Pressure Components.
AIAA S-081A-2006: AIAA Standard for Space Systems - Composite Overwrapped Pr
essure Vessels (COPVs).
B51-09 Canadian Boiler, pressure vessel, and pressure piping code.
HSE guidelines for pressure systems.
Stoomwezen: Former pressure vessels code in the Netherlands, also known as R
ToD: Regels voor Toestellen onder Druk (Dutch Rules for Pressure Vessels).
See also
American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)
Bottled gas
Composite overwrapped pressure vessel
Compressed air energy storage
Compressed natural gas
Demister
Fire-tube boiler
Gas cylinder
Gasket
Head (vessel)
Minimum Design Metal Temperature (MDMT)
Pressure bomb - a device for measuring leaf water potentials
Rainwater harvesting
Relief valve
Safety valve
Shell and tube heat exchanger
Vapor-Liquid Separator or Knock-Out Drum
Vortex breaker
Water well
Water-tube boiler
Notes
Nilsen, Kyle. (2011) "Development of low pressure filter testing vessel and anal
ysis of electrospun nanofiber membranes for water treatment"
Ingenious Coal-Gas Motor Tank, Popular Science monthly, January 1919, page 27, S
canned by Google Books: https://books.google.com/books?id=HykDAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA13
Hearn, E.J. (1997). Mechanics of Materials 1. An Introduction to the Mechanics o
f Elastic and Plastic Deformation of Solids and Structural Materials - Third Edi
tion. Chapter 9: Butterworth-Heinemann. pp. 199 203. ISBN 0-7506-3265-8.
NASA Tech Briefs, "Making a Metal-Lined Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessel",
1 Mar 2005.
Frietas, O., "Maintenance and Repair of Glass-Lined Equipment", Chemical Enginee
ring, 1 Jul 2007.
"High Pressure Vessels",D. Freyer and J. Harvey, 1998

ANSI/AIAA S-080-1998, Space Systems - Metallic Pressure Vessels, Pressurized Str


uctures, and Pressure Components, 5.1
Pushard, Doug (2005). "Domestic water collection systems also sometimes able to
function on gravity". Harvesth2o.com. Retrieved 2009-04-17.[verification needed]
Pushard, Doug. "Alternatives to pressure vessels in domestic water systems". Har
vesth2o.com. Retrieved 2009-04-17.
Puskarich, Paul (2009-05-01). "Strengthened Glass for Pipleine Systems" (PDF). M
IT. Retrieved 2009-04-17.
Beer, Ferdinand P.; Johnston, Jr., E. Russel; DeWolf, John T. "7.9". Mechanics o
f Materials (fourth ed.). McGraw-Hill. p. 463. ISBN 9780073659350.
For a sphere the thickness d = rP/2s, where r is the radius of the tank. The vol
ume of the spherical surface then is 4pr2d = 4pr3P/2s. The mass is determined by
multiplying by the density of the material that makes up the walls of the spher
ical vessel. Further the volume of the gas is (4pr3)/3. Combining these equation
s give the above results. The equations for the other geometries are derived in
a similar manner
Richard Budynas, J. Nisbett, Shigley's Mechanical Engineering Design, 8th ed., N
ew York:McGraw-Hill, ISBN 978-0-07-312193-2, pg 108
An International Code 2007 ASME Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code. The Americal Soci
ety of Mechanical Engineers. 2007.
MIT pressure vessel lecture
"AS 1200 Pressure Vessels". SAI Global. Retrieved 14 November 2011.
"AS_NZS 3788: 2006 Pressure equipment - In-service inspection". SAI Global. Retr
ieved September 4, 2015.
"Pressure Vessel Inspection Code: In-Service Inspection, Rating, Repair, and Alt
eration". API. June 2006.
."Gas cylinders - High pressure cylinders for the on-board storage of natura
l gas as a fuel for automotive vehicles". ISO. 2006-07-18. Retrieved 2009-04-17.
References
A.C. Ugural, S.K. Fenster, Advanced Strength and Applied Elasticity, 4th ed.
E.P. Popov, Engineering Mechanics of Solids, 1st ed.
Megyesy, Eugene F. "Pressure Vessel Handbook, 14th Edition." PV Publishing,
Inc. Oklahoma City, OK
Further reading
Megyesy, Eugene F. (2008, 14th ed.) Pressure Vessel Handbook. PV Publishing,
Inc.: Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA. www.pressurevesselhandbook.com Design handb
ook for pressure vessels based on the ASME code.
External links
Look up pressure vessel in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Pressure vessel.
Use of pressure vessels in oil and gas industry
Basic formulas for thin walled pressure vessels; with examples
Educational Excel spreadsheets for ASME head, shell and nozzle designs
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel website
Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology
EU Pressure Equipment Directive website
EU Simple Pressure Vessel Directive
EU Classification
Pressure Vessel attachments http://oakridgebellows.com/metal-expansion-joint
s/technical-videos/lugs-on-pipe-and-vessels-new
[hide]

v t e
Containers
Aerosol spray Aluminium bottle Aluminum can Amphora Ampoule Antistatic bag B
ag-in-box Barrel Biodegradable bag Blister pack Bottle Box Box wine Bulk box Car
boy Carton Chub Clamshell Corrugated box design Crate Desiccator Drum Envelope F
lagon Flexible intermediate bulk container Foam food container Folding carton Fo
od storage container Growler Insulated shipping container Intermediate bulk cont
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Pressure vessel
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Horizontal pressure vessel in steel
A pressure vessel is a container designed to hold gases or liquids at a pressure
substantially different from the ambient pressure.
The pressure differential is dangerous, and fatal accidents have occurred in the
history of pressure vessel development and operation. Consequently, pressure ve
ssel design, manufacture, and operation are regulated by engineering authorities
backed by legislation. For these reasons, the definition of a pressure vessel v
aries from country to country, but involves parameters such as maximum safe oper
ating pressure and temperature, and are engineered with a safety factor, corrosi
on allowance, minimum design temperature (for brittle fracture), and involve non
destructive testing, such as ultrasonic testing, radiography, and pressure tests
, usually involving water, also known as a hydrotest, but could be pneumatically
tested involving air or another gas. The preferred test is hydrostatic testing
because it's a much safer method of testing as it releases much less energy if f
racture were to occur (water does not rapidly increase its volume while rapid de
pressurization occurs, unlike gases like air, i.e. gasses fail explosively). In
the United States, as with many other countries, it is the law that vessels over
a certain size and pressure (15 PSIg) be built to Code, in the United States th
at Code is the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (BPVC), these vessels also r
equire an Authorized Inspector to sign off on every new vessel constructed and e
ach vessel has a nameplate with pertinent information about the vessel such as m
aximum allowable working pressure, maximum temperature, minimum design metal tem
perature, what company manufactured it, the date, its registration number (throu
gh the National Board), and ASME's official stamp for pressure vessels (U-stamp)
, making the vessel traceable and officially an ASME Code vessel.
Contents
1 History of pressure vessels
2 Pressure vessel features
2.1 Shape of a pressure vessel
2.2 Construction materials
2.3 Safety features
2.3.1 Leak before burst
2.3.2 Safety valves
2.4 Maintenance features
2.4.1 Pressure vessel closures
3 Uses
4 Alternatives to pressure vessels
5 Design
5.1 Scaling
5.1.1 Scaling of stress in walls of vessel
5.1.2 Spherical vessel
5.1.3 Cylindrical vessel with hemispherical ends
5.1.4 Cylindrical vessel with semi-elliptical ends
5.1.5 Gas storage
5.2 Stress in thin-walled pressure vessels
5.3 Winding angle of carbon fibre vessels
5.4 Operation standards
5.4.1 List of standards

6 See also
7 Notes
8 References
9 Further reading
10 External links
History of pressure vessels
A 10,000 psi (69 MPa) pressure vessel from 1919, wrapped with high tensile steel
banding and steel rods to secure the end caps.
The earliest documented design of pressure vessels is described in the book Code
x Madrid I, by Leonardo da Vinci, in 1495, where containers of pressurized air w
ere theorized to lift heavy weights underwater,[1] however vessels resembling wh
at are used today did not come about until the 1800s where steam was generated i
n boilers helping to spur the industrial revolution.[1] However, with poor mater
ial quality and manufacturing techniques along with improper knowledge of design
, operation and maintenance there was a large number of damaging and often fatal
explosions associated with these boilers and pressure vessels, with a death occ
urring on a nearly daily basis in the United States.[1] Local providences and st
ates in the US began enacting rules for constructing these vessels after some pa
rticularly devastating vessel failures occurred killing dozens of people at a ti
me, which made it difficult for manufacturers to keep up with the varied rules f
rom one location to another and the first pressure vessel code was developed sta
rting in 1911 and released in 1914, starting the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel
Code (BPVC).[1] In an early effort to design a tank capable of withstanding pre
ssures up to 10,000 psi (69 MPa), a 6-inch (150 mm) diameter tank was developed
in 1919 that was spirally-wound with two layers of high tensile strength steel w
ire to prevent sidewall rupture, and the end caps longitudinally reinforced with
lengthwise high-tensile rods.[2] The need for high pressure and temperature ves
sels for petroleum refineries and chemical plants gave rise to vessels joined wi
th welding instead of rivets (which were unsuitable for the pressures and temper
atures required) and in 1920s and 1930s the BPVC included welding as an acceptab
le means of construction, and welding is the main means of joining metal vessels
today.[1]
There have been many advancements in the field of pressure vessel engineering su
ch as advanced non-destructive examination, phased array ultrasonic testing and
radiography, new material grades with increased corrosion resistance and stronge
r materials, and new ways to join materials such as explosion welding (to attach
one metal sheet to another, usually a thin corrosion resistant metal like stain
less steel to a stronger metal like carbon steel), friction stir welding (which
attaches the metals together without melting the metal), advanced theories and m
eans of more accurately assessing the stresses encountered in vessels such as wi
th the use of Finite Element Analysis, allowing the vessels to be built safer an
d more efficiently. Today vessels in the USA require BPVC stamping but the BPVC
is not just a domestic code, many other countries have adopted the BPVC as their
official code. There are, however, other official codes in some countries (some
of which rely on portions of and reference the BPVC), Japan, Australia, Canada,
Britain, and Europe have their own codes. Regardless of the country nearly all
recognize the inherent potential hazards of pressure vessels and the need for st
andards and codes regulating their design and construction.
Pressure vessel features
Shape of a pressure vessel
Pressure vessels can theoretically be almost any
ons of spheres, cylinders, and cones are usually
cylinder with end caps called heads. Head shapes
ical or dished (torispherical). More complicated
uch harder to analyze for safe operation and are
onstruct.

shape, but shapes made of secti


employed. A common design is a
are frequently either hemispher
shapes have historically been m
usually far more difficult to c

Spherical gas container.


Cylindrical pressure vessel.
Picture of the bottom of an aerosol spray can.
Fire Extinguisher with rounded rectangle pressure vessel
Theoretically, a spherical pressure vessel has approximately twice the strength
of a cylindrical pressure vessel with the same wall thickness,[3] and is the ide
al shape to hold internal pressure.[1] However, a spherical shape is difficult t
o manufacture, and therefore more expensive, so most pressure vessels are cylind
rical with 2:1 semi-elliptical heads or end caps on each end. Smaller pressure v
essels are assembled from a pipe and two covers. For cylindrical vessels with a
diameter up to 600 mm (NPS of 24 in), it is possible to use seamless pipe for th
e shell, thus avoiding many inspection and testing issues, mainly the nondestruc
tive examination of radiography for the long seam if required. A disadvantage of
these vessels is that greater diameters are more expensive, so that for example
the most economic shape of a 1,000 litres (35 cu ft), 250 bars (3,600 psi) pres
sure vessel might be a diameter of 91.44 centimetres (36 in) and a length of 1.7
018 metres (67 in) including the 2:1 semi-elliptical domed end caps.
Construction materials
Composite overwrapped pressure vessel with titanium liner.
Many pressure vessels are made of steel. To manufacture a cylindrical or spheric
al pressure vessel, rolled and possibly forged parts would have to be welded tog
ether. Some mechanical properties of steel, achieved by rolling or forging, coul
d be adversely affected by welding, unless special precautions are taken. In add
ition to adequate mechanical strength, current standards dictate the use of stee
l with a high impact resistance, especially for vessels used in low temperatures
. In applications where carbon steel would suffer corrosion, special corrosion r
esistant material should also be used.
Some pressure vessels are made of composite materials, such as filament wound co
mposite using carbon fibre held in place with a polymer. Due to the very high te
nsile strength of carbon fibre these vessels can be very light, but are much mor
e difficult to manufacture. The composite material may be wound around a metal l
iner, forming a composite overwrapped pressure vessel.
Other very common materials include polymers such as PET in carbonated beverage
containers and copper in plumbing.
Pressure vessels may be lined with various metals, ceramics, or polymers to prev
ent leaking and protect the structure of the vessel from the contained medium. T
his liner may also carry a significant portion of the pressure load.[4][5]
Pressure Vessels may also be constructed from concrete (PCV) or other materials
which are weak in tension. Cabling, wrapped around the vessel or within the wall
or the vessel itself, provides the necessary tension to resist the internal pre
ssure. A "leakproof steel thin membrane" lines the internal wall of the vessel.
Such vessels can be assembled from modular pieces and so have "no inherent size
limitations".[6] There is also a high order of redundancy thanks to the large nu
mber of individual cables resisting the internal pressure.
Safety features
Leak before burst
Leak before burst describes a pressure vessel designed such that a crack in the
vessel will grow through the wall, allowing the contained fluid to escape and re
ducing the pressure, prior to growing so large as to cause fracture at the opera

ting pressure.
Many pressure vessel standards, including the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Co
de[citation needed] and the AIAA metallic pressure vessel standard, either requi
re pressure vessel designs to be leak before burst, or require pressure vessels
to meet more stringent requirements for fatigue and fracture if they are not sho
wn to be leak before burst.[7]
Safety valves
Example of a valve used for gas cylinders.
As the pressure vessel is designed to a pressure, there is typically a safety va
lve or relief valve to ensure that this pressure is not exceeded in operation.
Maintenance features
Pressure vessel closures
Pressure vessel closures are pressure retaining structures designed to provide q
uick access to pipelines, pressure vessels, pig traps, filters and filtration sy
stems. Typically pressure vessel closures allow maintenance personnel.
Uses
Pressure vessels are used in a variety of applications in both industry and the
private sector. They appear in these sectors as industrial compressed air receiv
ers and domestic hot water storage tanks. Other examples of pressure vessels are
diving cylinders, recompression chambers, distillation towers, pressure reactor
s, autoclaves, and many other vessels in mining operations, oil refineries and p
etrochemical plants, nuclear reactor vessels, submarine and space ship habitats,
pneumatic reservoirs, hydraulic reservoirs under pressure, rail vehicle airbrak
e reservoirs, road vehicle airbrake reservoirs, and storage vessels for liquifie
d gases such as ammonia, chlorine, and LPG (propane, butane).
A unique application of a pressure vessel is the passenger cabin of an airliner;
The outer skin carries both the aircraft maneuvering loads and the cabin pressu
rization loads.
A pressure tank connected to a water well and domestic hot water system.
A few pressure tanks, here used to hold propane.
An expansion vessel for heating systems.
A pressure vessel used as a kier.
A pressure vessel used for The Boeing Company s CST-100 spacecraft.
Alternatives to pressure vessels
Natural gas storage
Gas holder
Depending on the application and local circumstances, alternatives to pressure v
essels exist. Examples can be seen in domestic water collection systems, where t
he following may be used:
Gravity controlled systems[8] which typically consist of an unpressurized wa
ter tank at an elevation higher than the point of use. Pressure at the point of
use is the result of the hydrostatic pressure caused by the elevation difference
. Gravity systems produce 0.43 pounds per square inch (3.0 kPa) per foot of wate
r head (elevation difference). A municipal water supply or pumped water is typic
ally around 90 pounds per square inch (620 kPa).
Inline pump controllers or pressure-sensitive pumps.[9]

Design
Scaling
No matter what shape it takes, the minimum mass of a pressure vessel scales with
the pressure and volume it contains and is inversely proportional to the streng
th to weight ratio of the construction material (minimum mass decreases as stren
gth increases[10]).
Scaling of stress in walls of vessel
Pressure vessels are held together against the gas pressure due to tensile force
s within the walls of the container. The normal (tensile) stress in the walls of
the container is proportional to the pressure and radius of the vessel and inve
rsely proportional to the thickness of the walls.[11] Therefore, pressure vessel
s are designed to have a thickness proportional to the radius of tank and the pr
essure of the tank and inversely proportional to the maximum allowed normal stre
ss of the particular material used in the walls of the container.
Because (for a given pressure) the thickness of the walls scales with the radius
of the tank, the mass of a tank (which scales as the length times radius times
thickness of the wall for a cylindrical tank) scales with the volume of the gas
held (which scales as length times radius squared). The exact formula varies wit
h the tank shape but depends on the density, ?, and maximum allowable stress s o
f the material in addition to the pressure P and volume V of the vessel. (See be
low for the exact equations for the stress in the walls.)
Spherical vessel
For a sphere, the minimum mass of a pressure vessel is
M = 3 2 P V ? s {\displaystyle M={3 \over 2}PV{\rho \over \sigma }} M={3 \ov
er 2}PV{\rho \over \sigma },
where:
M {\displaystyle
P {\displaystyle
ssure),
V {\displaystyle
? {\displaystyle
s {\displaystyle
can tolerate.[12]

M} M is mass,
P} P is the pressure difference from ambient (the gauge pre
V} V is volume,
\rho } \rho is the density of the pressure vessel material,
\sigma } \sigma is the maximum working stress that material

Other shapes besides a sphere have constants larger than 3/2 (infinite cylinders
take 2), although some tanks, such as non-spherical wound composite tanks can a
pproach this.
Cylindrical vessel with hemispherical ends
This is sometimes called a "bullet"[citation needed] for its shape, although in
geometric terms it is a capsule.
For a cylinder with hemispherical ends,
M = 2 p R 2 ( R + W ) P ? s {\displaystyle M=2\pi R^{2}(R+W)P{\rho \over \si
gma }} M=2\pi R^{2}(R+W)P{\rho \over \sigma },
where
R is the radius
W is the middle cylinder width only, and the overall width is W + 2R

Cylindrical vessel with semi-elliptical ends


In a vessel with an aspect ratio of middle cylinder width to radius of 2:1,
M = 6 p R 3 P ? s {\displaystyle M=6\pi R^{3}P{\rho \over \sigma }} M=6\pi R
^{3}P{\rho \over \sigma }.
Gas storage
In looking at the first equation, the factor PV, in SI units, is in units of (pr
essurization) energy. For a stored gas, PV is proportional to the mass of gas at
a given temperature, thus
M = 3 2 n R T ? s {\displaystyle M={3 \over 2}nRT{\rho \over \sigma }} M={3
\over 2}nRT{\rho \over \sigma }. (see gas law)
The other factors are constant for a given vessel shape and material. So we can
see that there is no theoretical "efficiency of scale", in terms of the ratio of
pressure vessel mass to pressurization energy, or of pressure vessel mass to st
ored gas mass. For storing gases, "tankage efficiency" is independent of pressur
e, at least for the same temperature.
So, for example, a typical design for a minimum mass tank to hold helium (as a p
ressurant gas) on a rocket would use a spherical chamber for a minimum shape con
stant, carbon fiber for best possible ? / s {\displaystyle \rho /\sigma } \rho /
\sigma , and very cold helium for best possible M / p V {\displaystyle M/{pV}} M
/{pV}.
Stress in thin-walled pressure vessels
Stress in a shallow-walled pressure vessel in the shape of a sphere is
s ? = s l o n g = p r 2 t {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }=\sigma _{\rm {lon
g}}={\frac {pr}{2t}}} \sigma _{\theta }=\sigma _{{{\rm {long}}}}={\frac {pr}{2t}
},
where s ? {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }} \sigma _{\theta } is hoop stress, or
stress in the circumferential direction, s l o n g {\displaystyle \sigma _{long
}} \sigma _{{long}} is stress in the longitudinal direction, p is internal gauge
pressure, r is the inner radius of the sphere, and t is thickness of the sphere
wall. A vessel can be considered "shallow-walled" if the diameter is at least 1
0 times (sometimes cited as 20 times) greater than the wall depth.[13]
Stress in the cylinder body of a pressure vessel.
Stress in a shallow-walled pressure vessel in the shape of a cylinder is
s ? = p r t {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }={\frac {pr}{t}}} \sigma _{\thet
a }={\frac {pr}{t}},
s l o n g = p r 2 t {\displaystyle \sigma _{\rm {long}}={\frac {pr}{2t}}} \s
igma _{{{\rm {long}}}}={\frac {pr}{2t}},
where:
s ? {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }} \sigma _{\theta } is hoop stress, or s
tress in the circumferential direction
s l o n g {\displaystyle \sigma _{long}} \sigma _{{long}} is stress in the l
ongitudinal direction
p is internal gauge pressure
r is the inner radius of the cylinder
t is thickness of the cylinder wall.

Almost all pressure vessel design standards contain variations of these two form
ulas with additional empirical terms to account for wall thickness tolerances, q
uality control of welds and in-service corrosion allowances.
For example, the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (BPVC) (UG-27) formulas ar
e:[14]
Spherical shells:
s ? = s l o n g = p ( r + 0.2 t ) 2 t E {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }=\si
gma _{\rm {long}}={\frac {p(r+0.2t)}{2tE}}} \sigma _{\theta }=\sigma _{{{\rm {lo
ng}}}}={\frac {p(r+0.2t)}{2tE}}
Cylindrical shells:
s ? = p ( r + 0.6 t ) t E {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }={\frac {p(r+0.6t)
}{tE}}} \sigma _{\theta }={\frac {p(r+0.6t)}{tE}}
s l o n g = p ( r - 0.4 t ) 2 t E {\displaystyle \sigma _{\rm {long}}={\frac
{p(r-0.4t)}{2tE}}} \sigma _{{{\rm {long}}}}={\frac {p(r-0.4t)}{2tE}}
where E is the joint efficient, and all others variables as stated above.
The factor of safety is often included in these formulas as well, in the case of
the ASME BPVC this term is included in the material stress value when solving f
or pressure or thickness.
Winding angle of carbon fibre vessels
Wound infinite cylindrical shapes optimally take a winding angle of 54.7 degrees
, as this gives the necessary twice the strength in the circumferential directio
n to the longitudinal.[15]
Operation standards
Pressure vessels are designed to operate safely at a specific pressure and tempe
rature, technically referred to as the "Design Pressure" and "Design Temperature
". A vessel that is inadequately designed to handle a high pressure constitutes
a very significant safety hazard. Because of that, the design and certification
of pressure vessels is governed by design codes such as the ASME Boiler and Pres
sure Vessel Code in North America, the Pressure Equipment Directive of the EU (P
ED), Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS), CSA B51 in Canada, Australian Standards
in Australia and other international standards like Lloyd's, Germanischer Lloyd
, Det Norske Veritas, Socit Gnrale de Surveillance (SGS S.A.), Lloyd s Register Energy
Nederland (formerly known as Stoomwezen) etc.
Note that where the pressure-volume product is part of a safety standard, any in
compressible liquid in the vessel can be excluded as it does not contribute to t
he potential energy stored in the vessel, so only the volume of the compressible
part such as gas is used.
List of standards
EN 13445: The current European Standard, harmonized with the Pressure Equipm
ent Directive (97/23/EC). Extensively used in Europe.
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section VIII: Rules for Construction of
Pressure Vessels.
BS 5500: Former British Standard, replaced in the UK by BS EN 13445 but reta
ined under the name PD 5500 for the design and construction of export equipment.
AD Merkbltter: German standard, harmonized with the Pressure Equipment Direct
ive.
EN 286 (Parts 1 to 4): European standard for simple pressure vessels (air ta
nks), harmonized with Council Directive 87/404/EEC.
BS 4994: Specification for design and construction of vessels and tanks in r

einforced plastics.
ASME PVHO: US standard for Pressure Vessels for Human Occupancy.
CODAP: French Code for Construction of Unfired Pressure Vessel.
AS/NZS 1200: Pressure equipment.[16]
AS/NZS 3788:2006[17]
API 510.[18]
ISO 11439: Compressed natural gas (CNG) cylinders[19]
IS 2825-1969 (RE1977)_code_unfired_Pressure_vessels.
FRP tanks and vessels.
AIAA S-080-1998: AIAA Standard for Space Systems - Metallic Pressure Vessels
, Pressurized Structures, and Pressure Components.
AIAA S-081A-2006: AIAA Standard for Space Systems - Composite Overwrapped Pr
essure Vessels (COPVs).
B51-09 Canadian Boiler, pressure vessel, and pressure piping code.
HSE guidelines for pressure systems.
Stoomwezen: Former pressure vessels code in the Netherlands, also known as R
ToD: Regels voor Toestellen onder Druk (Dutch Rules for Pressure Vessels).
See also
American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)
Bottled gas
Composite overwrapped pressure vessel
Compressed air energy storage
Compressed natural gas
Demister
Fire-tube boiler
Gas cylinder
Gasket
Head (vessel)
Minimum Design Metal Temperature (MDMT)
Pressure bomb - a device for measuring leaf water potentials
Rainwater harvesting
Relief valve
Safety valve
Shell and tube heat exchanger
Vapor-Liquid Separator or Knock-Out Drum
Vortex breaker
Water well
Water-tube boiler
Notes
Nilsen, Kyle. (2011) "Development of low pressure filter testing vessel and anal
ysis of electrospun nanofiber membranes for water treatment"
Ingenious Coal-Gas Motor Tank, Popular Science monthly, January 1919, page 27, S
canned by Google Books: https://books.google.com/books?id=HykDAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA13
Hearn, E.J. (1997). Mechanics of Materials 1. An Introduction to the Mechanics o
f Elastic and Plastic Deformation of Solids and Structural Materials - Third Edi
tion. Chapter 9: Butterworth-Heinemann. pp. 199 203. ISBN 0-7506-3265-8.
NASA Tech Briefs, "Making a Metal-Lined Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessel",
1 Mar 2005.
Frietas, O., "Maintenance and Repair of Glass-Lined Equipment", Chemical Enginee
ring, 1 Jul 2007.
"High Pressure Vessels",D. Freyer and J. Harvey, 1998
ANSI/AIAA S-080-1998, Space Systems - Metallic Pressure Vessels, Pressurized Str
uctures, and Pressure Components, 5.1
Pushard, Doug (2005). "Domestic water collection systems also sometimes able to
function on gravity". Harvesth2o.com. Retrieved 2009-04-17.[verification needed]
Pushard, Doug. "Alternatives to pressure vessels in domestic water systems". Har

vesth2o.com. Retrieved 2009-04-17.


Puskarich, Paul (2009-05-01). "Strengthened Glass for Pipleine Systems" (PDF). M
IT. Retrieved 2009-04-17.
Beer, Ferdinand P.; Johnston, Jr., E. Russel; DeWolf, John T. "7.9". Mechanics o
f Materials (fourth ed.). McGraw-Hill. p. 463. ISBN 9780073659350.
For a sphere the thickness d = rP/2s, where r is the radius of the tank. The vol
ume of the spherical surface then is 4pr2d = 4pr3P/2s. The mass is determined by
multiplying by the density of the material that makes up the walls of the spher
ical vessel. Further the volume of the gas is (4pr3)/3. Combining these equation
s give the above results. The equations for the other geometries are derived in
a similar manner
Richard Budynas, J. Nisbett, Shigley's Mechanical Engineering Design, 8th ed., N
ew York:McGraw-Hill, ISBN 978-0-07-312193-2, pg 108
An International Code 2007 ASME Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code. The Americal Soci
ety of Mechanical Engineers. 2007.
MIT pressure vessel lecture
"AS 1200 Pressure Vessels". SAI Global. Retrieved 14 November 2011.
"AS_NZS 3788: 2006 Pressure equipment - In-service inspection". SAI Global. Retr
ieved September 4, 2015.
"Pressure Vessel Inspection Code: In-Service Inspection, Rating, Repair, and Alt
eration". API. June 2006.
."Gas cylinders - High pressure cylinders for the on-board storage of natura
l gas as a fuel for automotive vehicles". ISO. 2006-07-18. Retrieved 2009-04-17.
References
A.C. Ugural, S.K. Fenster, Advanced Strength and Applied Elasticity, 4th ed.
E.P. Popov, Engineering Mechanics of Solids, 1st ed.
Megyesy, Eugene F. "Pressure Vessel Handbook, 14th Edition." PV Publishing,
Inc. Oklahoma City, OK
Further reading
Megyesy, Eugene F. (2008, 14th ed.) Pressure Vessel Handbook. PV Publishing,
Inc.: Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA. www.pressurevesselhandbook.com Design handb
ook for pressure vessels based on the ASME code.
External links
Look up pressure vessel in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Pressure vessel.
Use of pressure vessels in oil and gas industry
Basic formulas for thin walled pressure vessels; with examples
Educational Excel spreadsheets for ASME head, shell and nozzle designs
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel website
Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology
EU Pressure Equipment Directive website
EU Simple Pressure Vessel Directive
EU Classification
Pressure Vessel attachments http://oakridgebellows.com/metal-expansion-joint
s/technical-videos/lugs-on-pipe-and-vessels-new
[hide]
v t e
Containers
Aerosol spray Aluminium bottle Aluminum can Amphora Ampoule Antistatic bag B

ag-in-box Barrel Biodegradable bag Blister pack Bottle Box Box wine Bulk box Car
boy Carton Chub Clamshell Corrugated box design Crate Desiccator Drum Envelope F
lagon Flexible intermediate bulk container Foam food container Folding carton Fo
od storage container Growler Insulated shipping container Intermediate bulk cont
ainer Jar Jerrycan Juicebox Keg Kobako Multi-pack Padded mailer Pail Plastic bag
Plastic bottle Pressure vessel Popcorn bag Nuclear flask Retort pouch Sachet Se
lf-heating can Self-heating food packaging Shipping container Skin pack Spray bo
ttle Square milk jug Tin can Tobacco pouch Tube Unit load Vial Wooden box
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Pressure vessel
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Horizontal pressure vessel in steel
A pressure vessel is a container designed to hold gases or liquids at a pressure
substantially different from the ambient pressure.
The pressure differential is dangerous, and fatal accidents have occurred in the
history of pressure vessel development and operation. Consequently, pressure ve
ssel design, manufacture, and operation are regulated by engineering authorities
backed by legislation. For these reasons, the definition of a pressure vessel v
aries from country to country, but involves parameters such as maximum safe oper
ating pressure and temperature, and are engineered with a safety factor, corrosi
on allowance, minimum design temperature (for brittle fracture), and involve non
destructive testing, such as ultrasonic testing, radiography, and pressure tests
, usually involving water, also known as a hydrotest, but could be pneumatically
tested involving air or another gas. The preferred test is hydrostatic testing
because it's a much safer method of testing as it releases much less energy if f
racture were to occur (water does not rapidly increase its volume while rapid de
pressurization occurs, unlike gases like air, i.e. gasses fail explosively). In
the United States, as with many other countries, it is the law that vessels over
a certain size and pressure (15 PSIg) be built to Code, in the United States th
at Code is the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (BPVC), these vessels also r
equire an Authorized Inspector to sign off on every new vessel constructed and e
ach vessel has a nameplate with pertinent information about the vessel such as m
aximum allowable working pressure, maximum temperature, minimum design metal tem
perature, what company manufactured it, the date, its registration number (throu
gh the National Board), and ASME's official stamp for pressure vessels (U-stamp)
, making the vessel traceable and officially an ASME Code vessel.
Contents
1 History of pressure vessels
2 Pressure vessel features
2.1 Shape of a pressure vessel
2.2 Construction materials
2.3 Safety features
2.3.1 Leak before burst
2.3.2 Safety valves
2.4 Maintenance features
2.4.1 Pressure vessel closures
3 Uses
4 Alternatives to pressure vessels
5 Design
5.1 Scaling
5.1.1 Scaling of stress in walls of vessel
5.1.2 Spherical vessel
5.1.3 Cylindrical vessel with hemispherical ends
5.1.4 Cylindrical vessel with semi-elliptical ends
5.1.5 Gas storage
5.2 Stress in thin-walled pressure vessels
5.3 Winding angle of carbon fibre vessels
5.4 Operation standards
5.4.1 List of standards
6 See also
7 Notes
8 References
9 Further reading
10 External links

History of pressure vessels


A 10,000 psi (69 MPa) pressure vessel from 1919, wrapped with high tensile steel
banding and steel rods to secure the end caps.
The earliest documented design of pressure vessels is described in the book Code
x Madrid I, by Leonardo da Vinci, in 1495, where containers of pressurized air w
ere theorized to lift heavy weights underwater,[1] however vessels resembling wh
at are used today did not come about until the 1800s where steam was generated i
n boilers helping to spur the industrial revolution.[1] However, with poor mater
ial quality and manufacturing techniques along with improper knowledge of design
, operation and maintenance there was a large number of damaging and often fatal
explosions associated with these boilers and pressure vessels, with a death occ
urring on a nearly daily basis in the United States.[1] Local providences and st
ates in the US began enacting rules for constructing these vessels after some pa
rticularly devastating vessel failures occurred killing dozens of people at a ti
me, which made it difficult for manufacturers to keep up with the varied rules f
rom one location to another and the first pressure vessel code was developed sta
rting in 1911 and released in 1914, starting the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel
Code (BPVC).[1] In an early effort to design a tank capable of withstanding pre
ssures up to 10,000 psi (69 MPa), a 6-inch (150 mm) diameter tank was developed
in 1919 that was spirally-wound with two layers of high tensile strength steel w
ire to prevent sidewall rupture, and the end caps longitudinally reinforced with
lengthwise high-tensile rods.[2] The need for high pressure and temperature ves
sels for petroleum refineries and chemical plants gave rise to vessels joined wi
th welding instead of rivets (which were unsuitable for the pressures and temper
atures required) and in 1920s and 1930s the BPVC included welding as an acceptab
le means of construction, and welding is the main means of joining metal vessels
today.[1]
There have been many advancements in the field of pressure vessel engineering su
ch as advanced non-destructive examination, phased array ultrasonic testing and
radiography, new material grades with increased corrosion resistance and stronge
r materials, and new ways to join materials such as explosion welding (to attach
one metal sheet to another, usually a thin corrosion resistant metal like stain
less steel to a stronger metal like carbon steel), friction stir welding (which
attaches the metals together without melting the metal), advanced theories and m
eans of more accurately assessing the stresses encountered in vessels such as wi
th the use of Finite Element Analysis, allowing the vessels to be built safer an
d more efficiently. Today vessels in the USA require BPVC stamping but the BPVC
is not just a domestic code, many other countries have adopted the BPVC as their
official code. There are, however, other official codes in some countries (some
of which rely on portions of and reference the BPVC), Japan, Australia, Canada,
Britain, and Europe have their own codes. Regardless of the country nearly all
recognize the inherent potential hazards of pressure vessels and the need for st
andards and codes regulating their design and construction.
Pressure vessel features
Shape of a pressure vessel
Pressure vessels can theoretically be almost any
ons of spheres, cylinders, and cones are usually
cylinder with end caps called heads. Head shapes
ical or dished (torispherical). More complicated
uch harder to analyze for safe operation and are
onstruct.
Spherical gas container.
Cylindrical pressure vessel.

shape, but shapes made of secti


employed. A common design is a
are frequently either hemispher
shapes have historically been m
usually far more difficult to c

Picture of the bottom of an aerosol spray can.


Fire Extinguisher with rounded rectangle pressure vessel
Theoretically, a spherical pressure vessel has approximately twice the strength
of a cylindrical pressure vessel with the same wall thickness,[3] and is the ide
al shape to hold internal pressure.[1] However, a spherical shape is difficult t
o manufacture, and therefore more expensive, so most pressure vessels are cylind
rical with 2:1 semi-elliptical heads or end caps on each end. Smaller pressure v
essels are assembled from a pipe and two covers. For cylindrical vessels with a
diameter up to 600 mm (NPS of 24 in), it is possible to use seamless pipe for th
e shell, thus avoiding many inspection and testing issues, mainly the nondestruc
tive examination of radiography for the long seam if required. A disadvantage of
these vessels is that greater diameters are more expensive, so that for example
the most economic shape of a 1,000 litres (35 cu ft), 250 bars (3,600 psi) pres
sure vessel might be a diameter of 91.44 centimetres (36 in) and a length of 1.7
018 metres (67 in) including the 2:1 semi-elliptical domed end caps.
Construction materials
Composite overwrapped pressure vessel with titanium liner.
Many pressure vessels are made of steel. To manufacture a cylindrical or spheric
al pressure vessel, rolled and possibly forged parts would have to be welded tog
ether. Some mechanical properties of steel, achieved by rolling or forging, coul
d be adversely affected by welding, unless special precautions are taken. In add
ition to adequate mechanical strength, current standards dictate the use of stee
l with a high impact resistance, especially for vessels used in low temperatures
. In applications where carbon steel would suffer corrosion, special corrosion r
esistant material should also be used.
Some pressure vessels are made of composite materials, such as filament wound co
mposite using carbon fibre held in place with a polymer. Due to the very high te
nsile strength of carbon fibre these vessels can be very light, but are much mor
e difficult to manufacture. The composite material may be wound around a metal l
iner, forming a composite overwrapped pressure vessel.
Other very common materials include polymers such as PET in carbonated beverage
containers and copper in plumbing.
Pressure vessels may be lined with various metals, ceramics, or polymers to prev
ent leaking and protect the structure of the vessel from the contained medium. T
his liner may also carry a significant portion of the pressure load.[4][5]
Pressure Vessels may also be constructed from concrete (PCV) or other materials
which are weak in tension. Cabling, wrapped around the vessel or within the wall
or the vessel itself, provides the necessary tension to resist the internal pre
ssure. A "leakproof steel thin membrane" lines the internal wall of the vessel.
Such vessels can be assembled from modular pieces and so have "no inherent size
limitations".[6] There is also a high order of redundancy thanks to the large nu
mber of individual cables resisting the internal pressure.
Safety features
Leak before burst
Leak before burst describes a pressure vessel designed such that a crack in the
vessel will grow through the wall, allowing the contained fluid to escape and re
ducing the pressure, prior to growing so large as to cause fracture at the opera
ting pressure.
Many pressure vessel standards, including the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Co
de[citation needed] and the AIAA metallic pressure vessel standard, either requi
re pressure vessel designs to be leak before burst, or require pressure vessels

to meet more stringent requirements for fatigue and fracture if they are not sho
wn to be leak before burst.[7]
Safety valves
Example of a valve used for gas cylinders.
As the pressure vessel is designed to a pressure, there is typically a safety va
lve or relief valve to ensure that this pressure is not exceeded in operation.
Maintenance features
Pressure vessel closures
Pressure vessel closures are pressure retaining structures designed to provide q
uick access to pipelines, pressure vessels, pig traps, filters and filtration sy
stems. Typically pressure vessel closures allow maintenance personnel.
Uses
Pressure vessels are used in a variety of applications in both industry and the
private sector. They appear in these sectors as industrial compressed air receiv
ers and domestic hot water storage tanks. Other examples of pressure vessels are
diving cylinders, recompression chambers, distillation towers, pressure reactor
s, autoclaves, and many other vessels in mining operations, oil refineries and p
etrochemical plants, nuclear reactor vessels, submarine and space ship habitats,
pneumatic reservoirs, hydraulic reservoirs under pressure, rail vehicle airbrak
e reservoirs, road vehicle airbrake reservoirs, and storage vessels for liquifie
d gases such as ammonia, chlorine, and LPG (propane, butane).
A unique application of a pressure vessel is the passenger cabin of an airliner;
The outer skin carries both the aircraft maneuvering loads and the cabin pressu
rization loads.
A pressure tank connected to a water well and domestic hot water system.
A few pressure tanks, here used to hold propane.
An expansion vessel for heating systems.
A pressure vessel used as a kier.
A pressure vessel used for The Boeing Company s CST-100 spacecraft.
Alternatives to pressure vessels
Natural gas storage
Gas holder
Depending on the application and local circumstances, alternatives to pressure v
essels exist. Examples can be seen in domestic water collection systems, where t
he following may be used:
Gravity controlled systems[8] which typically consist of an unpressurized wa
ter tank at an elevation higher than the point of use. Pressure at the point of
use is the result of the hydrostatic pressure caused by the elevation difference
. Gravity systems produce 0.43 pounds per square inch (3.0 kPa) per foot of wate
r head (elevation difference). A municipal water supply or pumped water is typic
ally around 90 pounds per square inch (620 kPa).
Inline pump controllers or pressure-sensitive pumps.[9]
Design
Scaling
No matter what shape it takes, the minimum mass of a pressure vessel scales with

the pressure and volume it contains and is inversely proportional to the streng
th to weight ratio of the construction material (minimum mass decreases as stren
gth increases[10]).
Scaling of stress in walls of vessel
Pressure vessels are held together against the gas pressure due to tensile force
s within the walls of the container. The normal (tensile) stress in the walls of
the container is proportional to the pressure and radius of the vessel and inve
rsely proportional to the thickness of the walls.[11] Therefore, pressure vessel
s are designed to have a thickness proportional to the radius of tank and the pr
essure of the tank and inversely proportional to the maximum allowed normal stre
ss of the particular material used in the walls of the container.
Because (for a given pressure) the thickness of the walls scales with the radius
of the tank, the mass of a tank (which scales as the length times radius times
thickness of the wall for a cylindrical tank) scales with the volume of the gas
held (which scales as length times radius squared). The exact formula varies wit
h the tank shape but depends on the density, ?, and maximum allowable stress s o
f the material in addition to the pressure P and volume V of the vessel. (See be
low for the exact equations for the stress in the walls.)
Spherical vessel
For a sphere, the minimum mass of a pressure vessel is
M = 3 2 P V ? s {\displaystyle M={3 \over 2}PV{\rho \over \sigma }} M={3 \ov
er 2}PV{\rho \over \sigma },
where:
M {\displaystyle
P {\displaystyle
ssure),
V {\displaystyle
? {\displaystyle
s {\displaystyle
can tolerate.[12]

M} M is mass,
P} P is the pressure difference from ambient (the gauge pre
V} V is volume,
\rho } \rho is the density of the pressure vessel material,
\sigma } \sigma is the maximum working stress that material

Other shapes besides a sphere have constants larger than 3/2 (infinite cylinders
take 2), although some tanks, such as non-spherical wound composite tanks can a
pproach this.
Cylindrical vessel with hemispherical ends
This is sometimes called a "bullet"[citation needed] for its shape, although in
geometric terms it is a capsule.
For a cylinder with hemispherical ends,
M = 2 p R 2 ( R + W ) P ? s {\displaystyle M=2\pi R^{2}(R+W)P{\rho \over \si
gma }} M=2\pi R^{2}(R+W)P{\rho \over \sigma },
where
R is the radius
W is the middle cylinder width only, and the overall width is W + 2R
Cylindrical vessel with semi-elliptical ends
In a vessel with an aspect ratio of middle cylinder width to radius of 2:1,
M = 6 p R 3 P ? s {\displaystyle M=6\pi R^{3}P{\rho \over \sigma }} M=6\pi R

^{3}P{\rho \over \sigma }.


Gas storage
In looking at the first equation, the factor PV, in SI units, is in units of (pr
essurization) energy. For a stored gas, PV is proportional to the mass of gas at
a given temperature, thus
M = 3 2 n R T ? s {\displaystyle M={3 \over 2}nRT{\rho \over \sigma }} M={3
\over 2}nRT{\rho \over \sigma }. (see gas law)
The other factors are constant for a given vessel shape and material. So we can
see that there is no theoretical "efficiency of scale", in terms of the ratio of
pressure vessel mass to pressurization energy, or of pressure vessel mass to st
ored gas mass. For storing gases, "tankage efficiency" is independent of pressur
e, at least for the same temperature.
So, for example, a typical design for a minimum mass tank to hold helium (as a p
ressurant gas) on a rocket would use a spherical chamber for a minimum shape con
stant, carbon fiber for best possible ? / s {\displaystyle \rho /\sigma } \rho /
\sigma , and very cold helium for best possible M / p V {\displaystyle M/{pV}} M
/{pV}.
Stress in thin-walled pressure vessels
Stress in a shallow-walled pressure vessel in the shape of a sphere is
s ? = s l o n g = p r 2 t {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }=\sigma _{\rm {lon
g}}={\frac {pr}{2t}}} \sigma _{\theta }=\sigma _{{{\rm {long}}}}={\frac {pr}{2t}
},
where s ? {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }} \sigma _{\theta } is hoop stress, or
stress in the circumferential direction, s l o n g {\displaystyle \sigma _{long
}} \sigma _{{long}} is stress in the longitudinal direction, p is internal gauge
pressure, r is the inner radius of the sphere, and t is thickness of the sphere
wall. A vessel can be considered "shallow-walled" if the diameter is at least 1
0 times (sometimes cited as 20 times) greater than the wall depth.[13]
Stress in the cylinder body of a pressure vessel.
Stress in a shallow-walled pressure vessel in the shape of a cylinder is
s ? = p r t {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }={\frac {pr}{t}}} \sigma _{\thet
a }={\frac {pr}{t}},
s l o n g = p r 2 t {\displaystyle \sigma _{\rm {long}}={\frac {pr}{2t}}} \s
igma _{{{\rm {long}}}}={\frac {pr}{2t}},
where:
s ? {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }} \sigma _{\theta } is hoop stress, or s
tress in the circumferential direction
s l o n g {\displaystyle \sigma _{long}} \sigma _{{long}} is stress in the l
ongitudinal direction
p is internal gauge pressure
r is the inner radius of the cylinder
t is thickness of the cylinder wall.
Almost all pressure vessel design standards contain variations of these two form
ulas with additional empirical terms to account for wall thickness tolerances, q
uality control of welds and in-service corrosion allowances.
For example, the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (BPVC) (UG-27) formulas ar

e:[14]
Spherical shells:
s ? = s l o n g = p ( r + 0.2 t ) 2 t E {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }=\si
gma _{\rm {long}}={\frac {p(r+0.2t)}{2tE}}} \sigma _{\theta }=\sigma _{{{\rm {lo
ng}}}}={\frac {p(r+0.2t)}{2tE}}
Cylindrical shells:
s ? = p ( r + 0.6 t ) t E {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }={\frac {p(r+0.6t)
}{tE}}} \sigma _{\theta }={\frac {p(r+0.6t)}{tE}}
s l o n g = p ( r - 0.4 t ) 2 t E {\displaystyle \sigma _{\rm {long}}={\frac
{p(r-0.4t)}{2tE}}} \sigma _{{{\rm {long}}}}={\frac {p(r-0.4t)}{2tE}}
where E is the joint efficient, and all others variables as stated above.
The factor of safety is often included in these formulas as well, in the case of
the ASME BPVC this term is included in the material stress value when solving f
or pressure or thickness.
Winding angle of carbon fibre vessels
Wound infinite cylindrical shapes optimally take a winding angle of 54.7 degrees
, as this gives the necessary twice the strength in the circumferential directio
n to the longitudinal.[15]
Operation standards
Pressure vessels are designed to operate safely at a specific pressure and tempe
rature, technically referred to as the "Design Pressure" and "Design Temperature
". A vessel that is inadequately designed to handle a high pressure constitutes
a very significant safety hazard. Because of that, the design and certification
of pressure vessels is governed by design codes such as the ASME Boiler and Pres
sure Vessel Code in North America, the Pressure Equipment Directive of the EU (P
ED), Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS), CSA B51 in Canada, Australian Standards
in Australia and other international standards like Lloyd's, Germanischer Lloyd
, Det Norske Veritas, Socit Gnrale de Surveillance (SGS S.A.), Lloyd s Register Energy
Nederland (formerly known as Stoomwezen) etc.
Note that where the pressure-volume product is part of a safety standard, any in
compressible liquid in the vessel can be excluded as it does not contribute to t
he potential energy stored in the vessel, so only the volume of the compressible
part such as gas is used.
List of standards
EN 13445: The current European Standard, harmonized with the Pressure Equipm
ent Directive (97/23/EC). Extensively used in Europe.
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section VIII: Rules for Construction of
Pressure Vessels.
BS 5500: Former British Standard, replaced in the UK by BS EN 13445 but reta
ined under the name PD 5500 for the design and construction of export equipment.
AD Merkbltter: German standard, harmonized with the Pressure Equipment Direct
ive.
EN 286 (Parts 1 to 4): European standard for simple pressure vessels (air ta
nks), harmonized with Council Directive 87/404/EEC.
BS 4994: Specification for design and construction of vessels and tanks in r
einforced plastics.
ASME PVHO: US standard for Pressure Vessels for Human Occupancy.
CODAP: French Code for Construction of Unfired Pressure Vessel.
AS/NZS 1200: Pressure equipment.[16]
AS/NZS 3788:2006[17]

API 510.[18]
ISO 11439: Compressed natural gas (CNG) cylinders[19]
IS 2825-1969 (RE1977)_code_unfired_Pressure_vessels.
FRP tanks and vessels.
AIAA S-080-1998: AIAA Standard for Space Systems - Metallic Pressure Vessels
, Pressurized Structures, and Pressure Components.
AIAA S-081A-2006: AIAA Standard for Space Systems - Composite Overwrapped Pr
essure Vessels (COPVs).
B51-09 Canadian Boiler, pressure vessel, and pressure piping code.
HSE guidelines for pressure systems.
Stoomwezen: Former pressure vessels code in the Netherlands, also known as R
ToD: Regels voor Toestellen onder Druk (Dutch Rules for Pressure Vessels).
See also
American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)
Bottled gas
Composite overwrapped pressure vessel
Compressed air energy storage
Compressed natural gas
Demister
Fire-tube boiler
Gas cylinder
Gasket
Head (vessel)
Minimum Design Metal Temperature (MDMT)
Pressure bomb - a device for measuring leaf water potentials
Rainwater harvesting
Relief valve
Safety valve
Shell and tube heat exchanger
Vapor-Liquid Separator or Knock-Out Drum
Vortex breaker
Water well
Water-tube boiler
Notes
Nilsen, Kyle. (2011) "Development of low pressure filter testing vessel and anal
ysis of electrospun nanofiber membranes for water treatment"
Ingenious Coal-Gas Motor Tank, Popular Science monthly, January 1919, page 27, S
canned by Google Books: https://books.google.com/books?id=HykDAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA13
Hearn, E.J. (1997). Mechanics of Materials 1. An Introduction to the Mechanics o
f Elastic and Plastic Deformation of Solids and Structural Materials - Third Edi
tion. Chapter 9: Butterworth-Heinemann. pp. 199 203. ISBN 0-7506-3265-8.
NASA Tech Briefs, "Making a Metal-Lined Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessel",
1 Mar 2005.
Frietas, O., "Maintenance and Repair of Glass-Lined Equipment", Chemical Enginee
ring, 1 Jul 2007.
"High Pressure Vessels",D. Freyer and J. Harvey, 1998
ANSI/AIAA S-080-1998, Space Systems - Metallic Pressure Vessels, Pressurized Str
uctures, and Pressure Components, 5.1
Pushard, Doug (2005). "Domestic water collection systems also sometimes able to
function on gravity". Harvesth2o.com. Retrieved 2009-04-17.[verification needed]
Pushard, Doug. "Alternatives to pressure vessels in domestic water systems". Har
vesth2o.com. Retrieved 2009-04-17.
Puskarich, Paul (2009-05-01). "Strengthened Glass for Pipleine Systems" (PDF). M
IT. Retrieved 2009-04-17.
Beer, Ferdinand P.; Johnston, Jr., E. Russel; DeWolf, John T. "7.9". Mechanics o
f Materials (fourth ed.). McGraw-Hill. p. 463. ISBN 9780073659350.

For a sphere the thickness d = rP/2s, where r is the radius of the tank. The vol
ume of the spherical surface then is 4pr2d = 4pr3P/2s. The mass is determined by
multiplying by the density of the material that makes up the walls of the spher
ical vessel. Further the volume of the gas is (4pr3)/3. Combining these equation
s give the above results. The equations for the other geometries are derived in
a similar manner
Richard Budynas, J. Nisbett, Shigley's Mechanical Engineering Design, 8th ed., N
ew York:McGraw-Hill, ISBN 978-0-07-312193-2, pg 108
An International Code 2007 ASME Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code. The Americal Soci
ety of Mechanical Engineers. 2007.
MIT pressure vessel lecture
"AS 1200 Pressure Vessels". SAI Global. Retrieved 14 November 2011.
"AS_NZS 3788: 2006 Pressure equipment - In-service inspection". SAI Global. Retr
ieved September 4, 2015.
"Pressure Vessel Inspection Code: In-Service Inspection, Rating, Repair, and Alt
eration". API. June 2006.
."Gas cylinders - High pressure cylinders for the on-board storage of natura
l gas as a fuel for automotive vehicles". ISO. 2006-07-18. Retrieved 2009-04-17.
References
A.C. Ugural, S.K. Fenster, Advanced Strength and Applied Elasticity, 4th ed.
E.P. Popov, Engineering Mechanics of Solids, 1st ed.
Megyesy, Eugene F. "Pressure Vessel Handbook, 14th Edition." PV Publishing,
Inc. Oklahoma City, OK
Further reading
Megyesy, Eugene F. (2008, 14th ed.) Pressure Vessel Handbook. PV Publishing,
Inc.: Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA. www.pressurevesselhandbook.com Design handb
ook for pressure vessels based on the ASME code.
External links
Look up pressure vessel in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Pressure vessel.
Use of pressure vessels in oil and gas industry
Basic formulas for thin walled pressure vessels; with examples
Educational Excel spreadsheets for ASME head, shell and nozzle designs
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel website
Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology
EU Pressure Equipment Directive website
EU Simple Pressure Vessel Directive
EU Classification
Pressure Vessel attachments http://oakridgebellows.com/metal-expansion-joint
s/technical-videos/lugs-on-pipe-and-vessels-new
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Pressure vessel
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Horizontal pressure vessel in steel

A pressure vessel is a container designed to hold gases or liquids at a pressure


substantially different from the ambient pressure.
The pressure differential is dangerous, and fatal accidents have occurred in the
history of pressure vessel development and operation. Consequently, pressure ve
ssel design, manufacture, and operation are regulated by engineering authorities
backed by legislation. For these reasons, the definition of a pressure vessel v
aries from country to country, but involves parameters such as maximum safe oper
ating pressure and temperature, and are engineered with a safety factor, corrosi
on allowance, minimum design temperature (for brittle fracture), and involve non
destructive testing, such as ultrasonic testing, radiography, and pressure tests
, usually involving water, also known as a hydrotest, but could be pneumatically
tested involving air or another gas. The preferred test is hydrostatic testing
because it's a much safer method of testing as it releases much less energy if f
racture were to occur (water does not rapidly increase its volume while rapid de
pressurization occurs, unlike gases like air, i.e. gasses fail explosively). In
the United States, as with many other countries, it is the law that vessels over
a certain size and pressure (15 PSIg) be built to Code, in the United States th
at Code is the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (BPVC), these vessels also r
equire an Authorized Inspector to sign off on every new vessel constructed and e
ach vessel has a nameplate with pertinent information about the vessel such as m
aximum allowable working pressure, maximum temperature, minimum design metal tem
perature, what company manufactured it, the date, its registration number (throu
gh the National Board), and ASME's official stamp for pressure vessels (U-stamp)
, making the vessel traceable and officially an ASME Code vessel.
Contents
1 History of pressure vessels
2 Pressure vessel features
2.1 Shape of a pressure vessel
2.2 Construction materials
2.3 Safety features
2.3.1 Leak before burst
2.3.2 Safety valves
2.4 Maintenance features
2.4.1 Pressure vessel closures
3 Uses
4 Alternatives to pressure vessels
5 Design
5.1 Scaling
5.1.1 Scaling of stress in walls of vessel
5.1.2 Spherical vessel
5.1.3 Cylindrical vessel with hemispherical ends
5.1.4 Cylindrical vessel with semi-elliptical ends
5.1.5 Gas storage
5.2 Stress in thin-walled pressure vessels
5.3 Winding angle of carbon fibre vessels
5.4 Operation standards
5.4.1 List of standards
6 See also
7 Notes
8 References
9 Further reading
10 External links
History of pressure vessels
A 10,000 psi (69 MPa) pressure vessel from 1919, wrapped with high tensile steel
banding and steel rods to secure the end caps.

The earliest documented design of pressure vessels is described in the book Code
x Madrid I, by Leonardo da Vinci, in 1495, where containers of pressurized air w
ere theorized to lift heavy weights underwater,[1] however vessels resembling wh
at are used today did not come about until the 1800s where steam was generated i
n boilers helping to spur the industrial revolution.[1] However, with poor mater
ial quality and manufacturing techniques along with improper knowledge of design
, operation and maintenance there was a large number of damaging and often fatal
explosions associated with these boilers and pressure vessels, with a death occ
urring on a nearly daily basis in the United States.[1] Local providences and st
ates in the US began enacting rules for constructing these vessels after some pa
rticularly devastating vessel failures occurred killing dozens of people at a ti
me, which made it difficult for manufacturers to keep up with the varied rules f
rom one location to another and the first pressure vessel code was developed sta
rting in 1911 and released in 1914, starting the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel
Code (BPVC).[1] In an early effort to design a tank capable of withstanding pre
ssures up to 10,000 psi (69 MPa), a 6-inch (150 mm) diameter tank was developed
in 1919 that was spirally-wound with two layers of high tensile strength steel w
ire to prevent sidewall rupture, and the end caps longitudinally reinforced with
lengthwise high-tensile rods.[2] The need for high pressure and temperature ves
sels for petroleum refineries and chemical plants gave rise to vessels joined wi
th welding instead of rivets (which were unsuitable for the pressures and temper
atures required) and in 1920s and 1930s the BPVC included welding as an acceptab
le means of construction, and welding is the main means of joining metal vessels
today.[1]
There have been many advancements in the field of pressure vessel engineering su
ch as advanced non-destructive examination, phased array ultrasonic testing and
radiography, new material grades with increased corrosion resistance and stronge
r materials, and new ways to join materials such as explosion welding (to attach
one metal sheet to another, usually a thin corrosion resistant metal like stain
less steel to a stronger metal like carbon steel), friction stir welding (which
attaches the metals together without melting the metal), advanced theories and m
eans of more accurately assessing the stresses encountered in vessels such as wi
th the use of Finite Element Analysis, allowing the vessels to be built safer an
d more efficiently. Today vessels in the USA require BPVC stamping but the BPVC
is not just a domestic code, many other countries have adopted the BPVC as their
official code. There are, however, other official codes in some countries (some
of which rely on portions of and reference the BPVC), Japan, Australia, Canada,
Britain, and Europe have their own codes. Regardless of the country nearly all
recognize the inherent potential hazards of pressure vessels and the need for st
andards and codes regulating their design and construction.
Pressure vessel features
Shape of a pressure vessel
Pressure vessels can theoretically be almost any
ons of spheres, cylinders, and cones are usually
cylinder with end caps called heads. Head shapes
ical or dished (torispherical). More complicated
uch harder to analyze for safe operation and are
onstruct.

shape, but shapes made of secti


employed. A common design is a
are frequently either hemispher
shapes have historically been m
usually far more difficult to c

Spherical gas container.


Cylindrical pressure vessel.
Picture of the bottom of an aerosol spray can.
Fire Extinguisher with rounded rectangle pressure vessel
Theoretically, a spherical pressure vessel has approximately twice the strength

of a cylindrical pressure vessel with the same wall thickness,[3] and is the ide
al shape to hold internal pressure.[1] However, a spherical shape is difficult t
o manufacture, and therefore more expensive, so most pressure vessels are cylind
rical with 2:1 semi-elliptical heads or end caps on each end. Smaller pressure v
essels are assembled from a pipe and two covers. For cylindrical vessels with a
diameter up to 600 mm (NPS of 24 in), it is possible to use seamless pipe for th
e shell, thus avoiding many inspection and testing issues, mainly the nondestruc
tive examination of radiography for the long seam if required. A disadvantage of
these vessels is that greater diameters are more expensive, so that for example
the most economic shape of a 1,000 litres (35 cu ft), 250 bars (3,600 psi) pres
sure vessel might be a diameter of 91.44 centimetres (36 in) and a length of 1.7
018 metres (67 in) including the 2:1 semi-elliptical domed end caps.
Construction materials
Composite overwrapped pressure vessel with titanium liner.
Many pressure vessels are made of steel. To manufacture a cylindrical or spheric
al pressure vessel, rolled and possibly forged parts would have to be welded tog
ether. Some mechanical properties of steel, achieved by rolling or forging, coul
d be adversely affected by welding, unless special precautions are taken. In add
ition to adequate mechanical strength, current standards dictate the use of stee
l with a high impact resistance, especially for vessels used in low temperatures
. In applications where carbon steel would suffer corrosion, special corrosion r
esistant material should also be used.
Some pressure vessels are made of composite materials, such as filament wound co
mposite using carbon fibre held in place with a polymer. Due to the very high te
nsile strength of carbon fibre these vessels can be very light, but are much mor
e difficult to manufacture. The composite material may be wound around a metal l
iner, forming a composite overwrapped pressure vessel.
Other very common materials include polymers such as PET in carbonated beverage
containers and copper in plumbing.
Pressure vessels may be lined with various metals, ceramics, or polymers to prev
ent leaking and protect the structure of the vessel from the contained medium. T
his liner may also carry a significant portion of the pressure load.[4][5]
Pressure Vessels may also be constructed from concrete (PCV) or other materials
which are weak in tension. Cabling, wrapped around the vessel or within the wall
or the vessel itself, provides the necessary tension to resist the internal pre
ssure. A "leakproof steel thin membrane" lines the internal wall of the vessel.
Such vessels can be assembled from modular pieces and so have "no inherent size
limitations".[6] There is also a high order of redundancy thanks to the large nu
mber of individual cables resisting the internal pressure.
Safety features
Leak before burst
Leak before burst describes a pressure vessel designed such that a crack in the
vessel will grow through the wall, allowing the contained fluid to escape and re
ducing the pressure, prior to growing so large as to cause fracture at the opera
ting pressure.
Many pressure vessel standards, including the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Co
de[citation needed] and the AIAA metallic pressure vessel standard, either requi
re pressure vessel designs to be leak before burst, or require pressure vessels
to meet more stringent requirements for fatigue and fracture if they are not sho
wn to be leak before burst.[7]
Safety valves
Example of a valve used for gas cylinders.

As the pressure vessel is designed to a pressure, there is typically a safety va


lve or relief valve to ensure that this pressure is not exceeded in operation.
Maintenance features
Pressure vessel closures
Pressure vessel closures are pressure retaining structures designed to provide q
uick access to pipelines, pressure vessels, pig traps, filters and filtration sy
stems. Typically pressure vessel closures allow maintenance personnel.
Uses
Pressure vessels are used in a variety of applications in both industry and the
private sector. They appear in these sectors as industrial compressed air receiv
ers and domestic hot water storage tanks. Other examples of pressure vessels are
diving cylinders, recompression chambers, distillation towers, pressure reactor
s, autoclaves, and many other vessels in mining operations, oil refineries and p
etrochemical plants, nuclear reactor vessels, submarine and space ship habitats,
pneumatic reservoirs, hydraulic reservoirs under pressure, rail vehicle airbrak
e reservoirs, road vehicle airbrake reservoirs, and storage vessels for liquifie
d gases such as ammonia, chlorine, and LPG (propane, butane).
A unique application of a pressure vessel is the passenger cabin of an airliner;
The outer skin carries both the aircraft maneuvering loads and the cabin pressu
rization loads.
A pressure tank connected to a water well and domestic hot water system.
A few pressure tanks, here used to hold propane.
An expansion vessel for heating systems.
A pressure vessel used as a kier.
A pressure vessel used for The Boeing Company s CST-100 spacecraft.
Alternatives to pressure vessels
Natural gas storage
Gas holder
Depending on the application and local circumstances, alternatives to pressure v
essels exist. Examples can be seen in domestic water collection systems, where t
he following may be used:
Gravity controlled systems[8] which typically consist of an unpressurized wa
ter tank at an elevation higher than the point of use. Pressure at the point of
use is the result of the hydrostatic pressure caused by the elevation difference
. Gravity systems produce 0.43 pounds per square inch (3.0 kPa) per foot of wate
r head (elevation difference). A municipal water supply or pumped water is typic
ally around 90 pounds per square inch (620 kPa).
Inline pump controllers or pressure-sensitive pumps.[9]
Design
Scaling
No matter what shape it takes, the minimum mass of a pressure vessel scales with
the pressure and volume it contains and is inversely proportional to the streng
th to weight ratio of the construction material (minimum mass decreases as stren
gth increases[10]).
Scaling of stress in walls of vessel

Pressure vessels are held together against the gas pressure due to tensile force
s within the walls of the container. The normal (tensile) stress in the walls of
the container is proportional to the pressure and radius of the vessel and inve
rsely proportional to the thickness of the walls.[11] Therefore, pressure vessel
s are designed to have a thickness proportional to the radius of tank and the pr
essure of the tank and inversely proportional to the maximum allowed normal stre
ss of the particular material used in the walls of the container.
Because (for a given pressure) the thickness of the walls scales with the radius
of the tank, the mass of a tank (which scales as the length times radius times
thickness of the wall for a cylindrical tank) scales with the volume of the gas
held (which scales as length times radius squared). The exact formula varies wit
h the tank shape but depends on the density, ?, and maximum allowable stress s o
f the material in addition to the pressure P and volume V of the vessel. (See be
low for the exact equations for the stress in the walls.)
Spherical vessel
For a sphere, the minimum mass of a pressure vessel is
M = 3 2 P V ? s {\displaystyle M={3 \over 2}PV{\rho \over \sigma }} M={3 \ov
er 2}PV{\rho \over \sigma },
where:
M {\displaystyle
P {\displaystyle
ssure),
V {\displaystyle
? {\displaystyle
s {\displaystyle
can tolerate.[12]

M} M is mass,
P} P is the pressure difference from ambient (the gauge pre
V} V is volume,
\rho } \rho is the density of the pressure vessel material,
\sigma } \sigma is the maximum working stress that material

Other shapes besides a sphere have constants larger than 3/2 (infinite cylinders
take 2), although some tanks, such as non-spherical wound composite tanks can a
pproach this.
Cylindrical vessel with hemispherical ends
This is sometimes called a "bullet"[citation needed] for its shape, although in
geometric terms it is a capsule.
For a cylinder with hemispherical ends,
M = 2 p R 2 ( R + W ) P ? s {\displaystyle M=2\pi R^{2}(R+W)P{\rho \over \si
gma }} M=2\pi R^{2}(R+W)P{\rho \over \sigma },
where
R is the radius
W is the middle cylinder width only, and the overall width is W + 2R
Cylindrical vessel with semi-elliptical ends
In a vessel with an aspect ratio of middle cylinder width to radius of 2:1,
M = 6 p R 3 P ? s {\displaystyle M=6\pi R^{3}P{\rho \over \sigma }} M=6\pi R
^{3}P{\rho \over \sigma }.
Gas storage
In looking at the first equation, the factor PV, in SI units, is in units of (pr

essurization) energy. For a stored gas, PV is proportional to the mass of gas at


a given temperature, thus
M = 3 2 n R T ? s {\displaystyle M={3 \over 2}nRT{\rho \over \sigma }} M={3
\over 2}nRT{\rho \over \sigma }. (see gas law)
The other factors are constant for a given vessel shape and material. So we can
see that there is no theoretical "efficiency of scale", in terms of the ratio of
pressure vessel mass to pressurization energy, or of pressure vessel mass to st
ored gas mass. For storing gases, "tankage efficiency" is independent of pressur
e, at least for the same temperature.
So, for example, a typical design for a minimum mass tank to hold helium (as a p
ressurant gas) on a rocket would use a spherical chamber for a minimum shape con
stant, carbon fiber for best possible ? / s {\displaystyle \rho /\sigma } \rho /
\sigma , and very cold helium for best possible M / p V {\displaystyle M/{pV}} M
/{pV}.
Stress in thin-walled pressure vessels
Stress in a shallow-walled pressure vessel in the shape of a sphere is
s ? = s l o n g = p r 2 t {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }=\sigma _{\rm {lon
g}}={\frac {pr}{2t}}} \sigma _{\theta }=\sigma _{{{\rm {long}}}}={\frac {pr}{2t}
},
where s ? {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }} \sigma _{\theta } is hoop stress, or
stress in the circumferential direction, s l o n g {\displaystyle \sigma _{long
}} \sigma _{{long}} is stress in the longitudinal direction, p is internal gauge
pressure, r is the inner radius of the sphere, and t is thickness of the sphere
wall. A vessel can be considered "shallow-walled" if the diameter is at least 1
0 times (sometimes cited as 20 times) greater than the wall depth.[13]
Stress in the cylinder body of a pressure vessel.
Stress in a shallow-walled pressure vessel in the shape of a cylinder is
s ? = p r t {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }={\frac {pr}{t}}} \sigma _{\thet
a }={\frac {pr}{t}},
s l o n g = p r 2 t {\displaystyle \sigma _{\rm {long}}={\frac {pr}{2t}}} \s
igma _{{{\rm {long}}}}={\frac {pr}{2t}},
where:
s ? {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }} \sigma _{\theta } is hoop stress, or s
tress in the circumferential direction
s l o n g {\displaystyle \sigma _{long}} \sigma _{{long}} is stress in the l
ongitudinal direction
p is internal gauge pressure
r is the inner radius of the cylinder
t is thickness of the cylinder wall.
Almost all pressure vessel design standards contain variations of these two form
ulas with additional empirical terms to account for wall thickness tolerances, q
uality control of welds and in-service corrosion allowances.
For example, the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (BPVC) (UG-27) formulas ar
e:[14]
Spherical shells:
s ? = s l o n g = p ( r + 0.2 t ) 2 t E {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }=\si

gma _{\rm {long}}={\frac {p(r+0.2t)}{2tE}}} \sigma _{\theta }=\sigma _{{{\rm {lo


ng}}}}={\frac {p(r+0.2t)}{2tE}}
Cylindrical shells:
s ? = p ( r + 0.6 t ) t E {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }={\frac {p(r+0.6t)
}{tE}}} \sigma _{\theta }={\frac {p(r+0.6t)}{tE}}
s l o n g = p ( r - 0.4 t ) 2 t E {\displaystyle \sigma _{\rm {long}}={\frac
{p(r-0.4t)}{2tE}}} \sigma _{{{\rm {long}}}}={\frac {p(r-0.4t)}{2tE}}
where E is the joint efficient, and all others variables as stated above.
The factor of safety is often included in these formulas as well, in the case of
the ASME BPVC this term is included in the material stress value when solving f
or pressure or thickness.
Winding angle of carbon fibre vessels
Wound infinite cylindrical shapes optimally take a winding angle of 54.7 degrees
, as this gives the necessary twice the strength in the circumferential directio
n to the longitudinal.[15]
Operation standards
Pressure vessels are designed to operate safely at a specific pressure and tempe
rature, technically referred to as the "Design Pressure" and "Design Temperature
". A vessel that is inadequately designed to handle a high pressure constitutes
a very significant safety hazard. Because of that, the design and certification
of pressure vessels is governed by design codes such as the ASME Boiler and Pres
sure Vessel Code in North America, the Pressure Equipment Directive of the EU (P
ED), Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS), CSA B51 in Canada, Australian Standards
in Australia and other international standards like Lloyd's, Germanischer Lloyd
, Det Norske Veritas, Socit Gnrale de Surveillance (SGS S.A.), Lloyd s Register Energy
Nederland (formerly known as Stoomwezen) etc.
Note that where the pressure-volume product is part of a safety standard, any in
compressible liquid in the vessel can be excluded as it does not contribute to t
he potential energy stored in the vessel, so only the volume of the compressible
part such as gas is used.
List of standards
EN 13445: The current European Standard, harmonized with the Pressure Equipm
ent Directive (97/23/EC). Extensively used in Europe.
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section VIII: Rules for Construction of
Pressure Vessels.
BS 5500: Former British Standard, replaced in the UK by BS EN 13445 but reta
ined under the name PD 5500 for the design and construction of export equipment.
AD Merkbltter: German standard, harmonized with the Pressure Equipment Direct
ive.
EN 286 (Parts 1 to 4): European standard for simple pressure vessels (air ta
nks), harmonized with Council Directive 87/404/EEC.
BS 4994: Specification for design and construction of vessels and tanks in r
einforced plastics.
ASME PVHO: US standard for Pressure Vessels for Human Occupancy.
CODAP: French Code for Construction of Unfired Pressure Vessel.
AS/NZS 1200: Pressure equipment.[16]
AS/NZS 3788:2006[17]
API 510.[18]
ISO 11439: Compressed natural gas (CNG) cylinders[19]
IS 2825-1969 (RE1977)_code_unfired_Pressure_vessels.
FRP tanks and vessels.
AIAA S-080-1998: AIAA Standard for Space Systems - Metallic Pressure Vessels

, Pressurized Structures, and Pressure Components.


AIAA S-081A-2006: AIAA Standard for Space Systems - Composite Overwrapped Pr
essure Vessels (COPVs).
B51-09 Canadian Boiler, pressure vessel, and pressure piping code.
HSE guidelines for pressure systems.
Stoomwezen: Former pressure vessels code in the Netherlands, also known as R
ToD: Regels voor Toestellen onder Druk (Dutch Rules for Pressure Vessels).
See also
American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)
Bottled gas
Composite overwrapped pressure vessel
Compressed air energy storage
Compressed natural gas
Demister
Fire-tube boiler
Gas cylinder
Gasket
Head (vessel)
Minimum Design Metal Temperature (MDMT)
Pressure bomb - a device for measuring leaf water potentials
Rainwater harvesting
Relief valve
Safety valve
Shell and tube heat exchanger
Vapor-Liquid Separator or Knock-Out Drum
Vortex breaker
Water well
Water-tube boiler
Notes
Nilsen, Kyle. (2011) "Development of low pressure filter testing vessel and anal
ysis of electrospun nanofiber membranes for water treatment"
Ingenious Coal-Gas Motor Tank, Popular Science monthly, January 1919, page 27, S
canned by Google Books: https://books.google.com/books?id=HykDAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA13
Hearn, E.J. (1997). Mechanics of Materials 1. An Introduction to the Mechanics o
f Elastic and Plastic Deformation of Solids and Structural Materials - Third Edi
tion. Chapter 9: Butterworth-Heinemann. pp. 199 203. ISBN 0-7506-3265-8.
NASA Tech Briefs, "Making a Metal-Lined Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessel",
1 Mar 2005.
Frietas, O., "Maintenance and Repair of Glass-Lined Equipment", Chemical Enginee
ring, 1 Jul 2007.
"High Pressure Vessels",D. Freyer and J. Harvey, 1998
ANSI/AIAA S-080-1998, Space Systems - Metallic Pressure Vessels, Pressurized Str
uctures, and Pressure Components, 5.1
Pushard, Doug (2005). "Domestic water collection systems also sometimes able to
function on gravity". Harvesth2o.com. Retrieved 2009-04-17.[verification needed]
Pushard, Doug. "Alternatives to pressure vessels in domestic water systems". Har
vesth2o.com. Retrieved 2009-04-17.
Puskarich, Paul (2009-05-01). "Strengthened Glass for Pipleine Systems" (PDF). M
IT. Retrieved 2009-04-17.
Beer, Ferdinand P.; Johnston, Jr., E. Russel; DeWolf, John T. "7.9". Mechanics o
f Materials (fourth ed.). McGraw-Hill. p. 463. ISBN 9780073659350.
For a sphere the thickness d = rP/2s, where r is the radius of the tank. The vol
ume of the spherical surface then is 4pr2d = 4pr3P/2s. The mass is determined by
multiplying by the density of the material that makes up the walls of the spher
ical vessel. Further the volume of the gas is (4pr3)/3. Combining these equation
s give the above results. The equations for the other geometries are derived in

a similar manner
Richard Budynas, J. Nisbett, Shigley's Mechanical Engineering Design, 8th ed., N
ew York:McGraw-Hill, ISBN 978-0-07-312193-2, pg 108
An International Code 2007 ASME Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code. The Americal Soci
ety of Mechanical Engineers. 2007.
MIT pressure vessel lecture
"AS 1200 Pressure Vessels". SAI Global. Retrieved 14 November 2011.
"AS_NZS 3788: 2006 Pressure equipment - In-service inspection". SAI Global. Retr
ieved September 4, 2015.
"Pressure Vessel Inspection Code: In-Service Inspection, Rating, Repair, and Alt
eration". API. June 2006.
."Gas cylinders - High pressure cylinders for the on-board storage of natura
l gas as a fuel for automotive vehicles". ISO. 2006-07-18. Retrieved 2009-04-17.
References
A.C. Ugural, S.K. Fenster, Advanced Strength and Applied Elasticity, 4th ed.
E.P. Popov, Engineering Mechanics of Solids, 1st ed.
Megyesy, Eugene F. "Pressure Vessel Handbook, 14th Edition." PV Publishing,
Inc. Oklahoma City, OK
Further reading
Megyesy, Eugene F. (2008, 14th ed.) Pressure Vessel Handbook. PV Publishing,
Inc.: Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA. www.pressurevesselhandbook.com Design handb
ook for pressure vessels based on the ASME code.
External links
Look up pressure vessel in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Pressure vessel.
Use of pressure vessels in oil and gas industry
Basic formulas for thin walled pressure vessels; with examples
Educational Excel spreadsheets for ASME head, shell and nozzle designs
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel website
Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology
EU Pressure Equipment Directive website
EU Simple Pressure Vessel Directive
EU Classification
Pressure Vessel attachments http://oakridgebellows.com/metal-expansion-joint
s/technical-videos/lugs-on-pipe-and-vessels-new
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Pressure vessel
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Horizontal pressure vessel in steel
A pressure vessel is a container designed to hold gases or liquids at a pressure
substantially different from the ambient pressure.
The pressure differential is dangerous, and fatal accidents have occurred in the
history of pressure vessel development and operation. Consequently, pressure ve

ssel design, manufacture, and operation are regulated by engineering authorities


backed by legislation. For these reasons, the definition of a pressure vessel v
aries from country to country, but involves parameters such as maximum safe oper
ating pressure and temperature, and are engineered with a safety factor, corrosi
on allowance, minimum design temperature (for brittle fracture), and involve non
destructive testing, such as ultrasonic testing, radiography, and pressure tests
, usually involving water, also known as a hydrotest, but could be pneumatically
tested involving air or another gas. The preferred test is hydrostatic testing
because it's a much safer method of testing as it releases much less energy if f
racture were to occur (water does not rapidly increase its volume while rapid de
pressurization occurs, unlike gases like air, i.e. gasses fail explosively). In
the United States, as with many other countries, it is the law that vessels over
a certain size and pressure (15 PSIg) be built to Code, in the United States th
at Code is the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (BPVC), these vessels also r
equire an Authorized Inspector to sign off on every new vessel constructed and e
ach vessel has a nameplate with pertinent information about the vessel such as m
aximum allowable working pressure, maximum temperature, minimum design metal tem
perature, what company manufactured it, the date, its registration number (throu
gh the National Board), and ASME's official stamp for pressure vessels (U-stamp)
, making the vessel traceable and officially an ASME Code vessel.
Contents
1 History of pressure vessels
2 Pressure vessel features
2.1 Shape of a pressure vessel
2.2 Construction materials
2.3 Safety features
2.3.1 Leak before burst
2.3.2 Safety valves
2.4 Maintenance features
2.4.1 Pressure vessel closures
3 Uses
4 Alternatives to pressure vessels
5 Design
5.1 Scaling
5.1.1 Scaling of stress in walls of vessel
5.1.2 Spherical vessel
5.1.3 Cylindrical vessel with hemispherical ends
5.1.4 Cylindrical vessel with semi-elliptical ends
5.1.5 Gas storage
5.2 Stress in thin-walled pressure vessels
5.3 Winding angle of carbon fibre vessels
5.4 Operation standards
5.4.1 List of standards
6 See also
7 Notes
8 References
9 Further reading
10 External links
History of pressure vessels
A 10,000 psi (69 MPa) pressure vessel from 1919, wrapped with high tensile steel
banding and steel rods to secure the end caps.
The earliest documented design of pressure vessels is described in the book Code
x Madrid I, by Leonardo da Vinci, in 1495, where containers of pressurized air w
ere theorized to lift heavy weights underwater,[1] however vessels resembling wh
at are used today did not come about until the 1800s where steam was generated i
n boilers helping to spur the industrial revolution.[1] However, with poor mater

ial quality and manufacturing techniques along with improper knowledge of design
, operation and maintenance there was a large number of damaging and often fatal
explosions associated with these boilers and pressure vessels, with a death occ
urring on a nearly daily basis in the United States.[1] Local providences and st
ates in the US began enacting rules for constructing these vessels after some pa
rticularly devastating vessel failures occurred killing dozens of people at a ti
me, which made it difficult for manufacturers to keep up with the varied rules f
rom one location to another and the first pressure vessel code was developed sta
rting in 1911 and released in 1914, starting the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel
Code (BPVC).[1] In an early effort to design a tank capable of withstanding pre
ssures up to 10,000 psi (69 MPa), a 6-inch (150 mm) diameter tank was developed
in 1919 that was spirally-wound with two layers of high tensile strength steel w
ire to prevent sidewall rupture, and the end caps longitudinally reinforced with
lengthwise high-tensile rods.[2] The need for high pressure and temperature ves
sels for petroleum refineries and chemical plants gave rise to vessels joined wi
th welding instead of rivets (which were unsuitable for the pressures and temper
atures required) and in 1920s and 1930s the BPVC included welding as an acceptab
le means of construction, and welding is the main means of joining metal vessels
today.[1]
There have been many advancements in the field of pressure vessel engineering su
ch as advanced non-destructive examination, phased array ultrasonic testing and
radiography, new material grades with increased corrosion resistance and stronge
r materials, and new ways to join materials such as explosion welding (to attach
one metal sheet to another, usually a thin corrosion resistant metal like stain
less steel to a stronger metal like carbon steel), friction stir welding (which
attaches the metals together without melting the metal), advanced theories and m
eans of more accurately assessing the stresses encountered in vessels such as wi
th the use of Finite Element Analysis, allowing the vessels to be built safer an
d more efficiently. Today vessels in the USA require BPVC stamping but the BPVC
is not just a domestic code, many other countries have adopted the BPVC as their
official code. There are, however, other official codes in some countries (some
of which rely on portions of and reference the BPVC), Japan, Australia, Canada,
Britain, and Europe have their own codes. Regardless of the country nearly all
recognize the inherent potential hazards of pressure vessels and the need for st
andards and codes regulating their design and construction.
Pressure vessel features
Shape of a pressure vessel
Pressure vessels can theoretically be almost any
ons of spheres, cylinders, and cones are usually
cylinder with end caps called heads. Head shapes
ical or dished (torispherical). More complicated
uch harder to analyze for safe operation and are
onstruct.

shape, but shapes made of secti


employed. A common design is a
are frequently either hemispher
shapes have historically been m
usually far more difficult to c

Spherical gas container.


Cylindrical pressure vessel.
Picture of the bottom of an aerosol spray can.
Fire Extinguisher with rounded rectangle pressure vessel
Theoretically, a spherical pressure vessel has approximately twice the strength
of a cylindrical pressure vessel with the same wall thickness,[3] and is the ide
al shape to hold internal pressure.[1] However, a spherical shape is difficult t
o manufacture, and therefore more expensive, so most pressure vessels are cylind
rical with 2:1 semi-elliptical heads or end caps on each end. Smaller pressure v
essels are assembled from a pipe and two covers. For cylindrical vessels with a

diameter up to 600 mm (NPS of 24 in), it is possible to use seamless pipe for th


e shell, thus avoiding many inspection and testing issues, mainly the nondestruc
tive examination of radiography for the long seam if required. A disadvantage of
these vessels is that greater diameters are more expensive, so that for example
the most economic shape of a 1,000 litres (35 cu ft), 250 bars (3,600 psi) pres
sure vessel might be a diameter of 91.44 centimetres (36 in) and a length of 1.7
018 metres (67 in) including the 2:1 semi-elliptical domed end caps.
Construction materials
Composite overwrapped pressure vessel with titanium liner.
Many pressure vessels are made of steel. To manufacture a cylindrical or spheric
al pressure vessel, rolled and possibly forged parts would have to be welded tog
ether. Some mechanical properties of steel, achieved by rolling or forging, coul
d be adversely affected by welding, unless special precautions are taken. In add
ition to adequate mechanical strength, current standards dictate the use of stee
l with a high impact resistance, especially for vessels used in low temperatures
. In applications where carbon steel would suffer corrosion, special corrosion r
esistant material should also be used.
Some pressure vessels are made of composite materials, such as filament wound co
mposite using carbon fibre held in place with a polymer. Due to the very high te
nsile strength of carbon fibre these vessels can be very light, but are much mor
e difficult to manufacture. The composite material may be wound around a metal l
iner, forming a composite overwrapped pressure vessel.
Other very common materials include polymers such as PET in carbonated beverage
containers and copper in plumbing.
Pressure vessels may be lined with various metals, ceramics, or polymers to prev
ent leaking and protect the structure of the vessel from the contained medium. T
his liner may also carry a significant portion of the pressure load.[4][5]
Pressure Vessels may also be constructed from concrete (PCV) or other materials
which are weak in tension. Cabling, wrapped around the vessel or within the wall
or the vessel itself, provides the necessary tension to resist the internal pre
ssure. A "leakproof steel thin membrane" lines the internal wall of the vessel.
Such vessels can be assembled from modular pieces and so have "no inherent size
limitations".[6] There is also a high order of redundancy thanks to the large nu
mber of individual cables resisting the internal pressure.
Safety features
Leak before burst
Leak before burst describes a pressure vessel designed such that a crack in the
vessel will grow through the wall, allowing the contained fluid to escape and re
ducing the pressure, prior to growing so large as to cause fracture at the opera
ting pressure.
Many pressure vessel standards, including the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Co
de[citation needed] and the AIAA metallic pressure vessel standard, either requi
re pressure vessel designs to be leak before burst, or require pressure vessels
to meet more stringent requirements for fatigue and fracture if they are not sho
wn to be leak before burst.[7]
Safety valves
Example of a valve used for gas cylinders.
As the pressure vessel is designed to a pressure, there is typically a safety va
lve or relief valve to ensure that this pressure is not exceeded in operation.
Maintenance features
Pressure vessel closures

Pressure vessel closures are pressure retaining structures designed to provide q


uick access to pipelines, pressure vessels, pig traps, filters and filtration sy
stems. Typically pressure vessel closures allow maintenance personnel.
Uses
Pressure vessels are used in a variety of applications in both industry and the
private sector. They appear in these sectors as industrial compressed air receiv
ers and domestic hot water storage tanks. Other examples of pressure vessels are
diving cylinders, recompression chambers, distillation towers, pressure reactor
s, autoclaves, and many other vessels in mining operations, oil refineries and p
etrochemical plants, nuclear reactor vessels, submarine and space ship habitats,
pneumatic reservoirs, hydraulic reservoirs under pressure, rail vehicle airbrak
e reservoirs, road vehicle airbrake reservoirs, and storage vessels for liquifie
d gases such as ammonia, chlorine, and LPG (propane, butane).
A unique application of a pressure vessel is the passenger cabin of an airliner;
The outer skin carries both the aircraft maneuvering loads and the cabin pressu
rization loads.
A pressure tank connected to a water well and domestic hot water system.
A few pressure tanks, here used to hold propane.
An expansion vessel for heating systems.
A pressure vessel used as a kier.
A pressure vessel used for The Boeing Company s CST-100 spacecraft.
Alternatives to pressure vessels
Natural gas storage
Gas holder
Depending on the application and local circumstances, alternatives to pressure v
essels exist. Examples can be seen in domestic water collection systems, where t
he following may be used:
Gravity controlled systems[8] which typically consist of an unpressurized wa
ter tank at an elevation higher than the point of use. Pressure at the point of
use is the result of the hydrostatic pressure caused by the elevation difference
. Gravity systems produce 0.43 pounds per square inch (3.0 kPa) per foot of wate
r head (elevation difference). A municipal water supply or pumped water is typic
ally around 90 pounds per square inch (620 kPa).
Inline pump controllers or pressure-sensitive pumps.[9]
Design
Scaling
No matter what shape it takes, the minimum mass of a pressure vessel scales with
the pressure and volume it contains and is inversely proportional to the streng
th to weight ratio of the construction material (minimum mass decreases as stren
gth increases[10]).
Scaling of stress in walls of vessel
Pressure vessels are held together against the gas pressure due to tensile force
s within the walls of the container. The normal (tensile) stress in the walls of
the container is proportional to the pressure and radius of the vessel and inve
rsely proportional to the thickness of the walls.[11] Therefore, pressure vessel
s are designed to have a thickness proportional to the radius of tank and the pr

essure of the tank and inversely proportional to the maximum allowed normal stre
ss of the particular material used in the walls of the container.
Because (for a given pressure) the thickness of the walls scales with the radius
of the tank, the mass of a tank (which scales as the length times radius times
thickness of the wall for a cylindrical tank) scales with the volume of the gas
held (which scales as length times radius squared). The exact formula varies wit
h the tank shape but depends on the density, ?, and maximum allowable stress s o
f the material in addition to the pressure P and volume V of the vessel. (See be
low for the exact equations for the stress in the walls.)
Spherical vessel
For a sphere, the minimum mass of a pressure vessel is
M = 3 2 P V ? s {\displaystyle M={3 \over 2}PV{\rho \over \sigma }} M={3 \ov
er 2}PV{\rho \over \sigma },
where:
M {\displaystyle
P {\displaystyle
ssure),
V {\displaystyle
? {\displaystyle
s {\displaystyle
can tolerate.[12]

M} M is mass,
P} P is the pressure difference from ambient (the gauge pre
V} V is volume,
\rho } \rho is the density of the pressure vessel material,
\sigma } \sigma is the maximum working stress that material

Other shapes besides a sphere have constants larger than 3/2 (infinite cylinders
take 2), although some tanks, such as non-spherical wound composite tanks can a
pproach this.
Cylindrical vessel with hemispherical ends
This is sometimes called a "bullet"[citation needed] for its shape, although in
geometric terms it is a capsule.
For a cylinder with hemispherical ends,
M = 2 p R 2 ( R + W ) P ? s {\displaystyle M=2\pi R^{2}(R+W)P{\rho \over \si
gma }} M=2\pi R^{2}(R+W)P{\rho \over \sigma },
where
R is the radius
W is the middle cylinder width only, and the overall width is W + 2R
Cylindrical vessel with semi-elliptical ends
In a vessel with an aspect ratio of middle cylinder width to radius of 2:1,
M = 6 p R 3 P ? s {\displaystyle M=6\pi R^{3}P{\rho \over \sigma }} M=6\pi R
^{3}P{\rho \over \sigma }.
Gas storage
In looking at the first equation, the factor PV, in SI units, is in units of (pr
essurization) energy. For a stored gas, PV is proportional to the mass of gas at
a given temperature, thus
M = 3 2 n R T ? s {\displaystyle M={3 \over 2}nRT{\rho \over \sigma }} M={3
\over 2}nRT{\rho \over \sigma }. (see gas law)

The other factors are constant for a given vessel shape and material. So we can
see that there is no theoretical "efficiency of scale", in terms of the ratio of
pressure vessel mass to pressurization energy, or of pressure vessel mass to st
ored gas mass. For storing gases, "tankage efficiency" is independent of pressur
e, at least for the same temperature.
So, for example, a typical design for a minimum mass tank to hold helium (as a p
ressurant gas) on a rocket would use a spherical chamber for a minimum shape con
stant, carbon fiber for best possible ? / s {\displaystyle \rho /\sigma } \rho /
\sigma , and very cold helium for best possible M / p V {\displaystyle M/{pV}} M
/{pV}.
Stress in thin-walled pressure vessels
Stress in a shallow-walled pressure vessel in the shape of a sphere is
s ? = s l o n g = p r 2 t {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }=\sigma _{\rm {lon
g}}={\frac {pr}{2t}}} \sigma _{\theta }=\sigma _{{{\rm {long}}}}={\frac {pr}{2t}
},
where s ? {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }} \sigma _{\theta } is hoop stress, or
stress in the circumferential direction, s l o n g {\displaystyle \sigma _{long
}} \sigma _{{long}} is stress in the longitudinal direction, p is internal gauge
pressure, r is the inner radius of the sphere, and t is thickness of the sphere
wall. A vessel can be considered "shallow-walled" if the diameter is at least 1
0 times (sometimes cited as 20 times) greater than the wall depth.[13]
Stress in the cylinder body of a pressure vessel.
Stress in a shallow-walled pressure vessel in the shape of a cylinder is
s ? = p r t {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }={\frac {pr}{t}}} \sigma _{\thet
a }={\frac {pr}{t}},
s l o n g = p r 2 t {\displaystyle \sigma _{\rm {long}}={\frac {pr}{2t}}} \s
igma _{{{\rm {long}}}}={\frac {pr}{2t}},
where:
s ? {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }} \sigma _{\theta } is hoop stress, or s
tress in the circumferential direction
s l o n g {\displaystyle \sigma _{long}} \sigma _{{long}} is stress in the l
ongitudinal direction
p is internal gauge pressure
r is the inner radius of the cylinder
t is thickness of the cylinder wall.
Almost all pressure vessel design standards contain variations of these two form
ulas with additional empirical terms to account for wall thickness tolerances, q
uality control of welds and in-service corrosion allowances.
For example, the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (BPVC) (UG-27) formulas ar
e:[14]
Spherical shells:
s ? = s l o n g = p ( r + 0.2 t ) 2 t E {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }=\si
gma _{\rm {long}}={\frac {p(r+0.2t)}{2tE}}} \sigma _{\theta }=\sigma _{{{\rm {lo
ng}}}}={\frac {p(r+0.2t)}{2tE}}
Cylindrical shells:

s ? = p ( r + 0.6 t ) t E {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }={\frac {p(r+0.6t)


}{tE}}} \sigma _{\theta }={\frac {p(r+0.6t)}{tE}}
s l o n g = p ( r - 0.4 t ) 2 t E {\displaystyle \sigma _{\rm {long}}={\frac
{p(r-0.4t)}{2tE}}} \sigma _{{{\rm {long}}}}={\frac {p(r-0.4t)}{2tE}}
where E is the joint efficient, and all others variables as stated above.
The factor of safety is often included in these formulas as well, in the case of
the ASME BPVC this term is included in the material stress value when solving f
or pressure or thickness.
Winding angle of carbon fibre vessels
Wound infinite cylindrical shapes optimally take a winding angle of 54.7 degrees
, as this gives the necessary twice the strength in the circumferential directio
n to the longitudinal.[15]
Operation standards
Pressure vessels are designed to operate safely at a specific pressure and tempe
rature, technically referred to as the "Design Pressure" and "Design Temperature
". A vessel that is inadequately designed to handle a high pressure constitutes
a very significant safety hazard. Because of that, the design and certification
of pressure vessels is governed by design codes such as the ASME Boiler and Pres
sure Vessel Code in North America, the Pressure Equipment Directive of the EU (P
ED), Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS), CSA B51 in Canada, Australian Standards
in Australia and other international standards like Lloyd's, Germanischer Lloyd
, Det Norske Veritas, Socit Gnrale de Surveillance (SGS S.A.), Lloyd s Register Energy
Nederland (formerly known as Stoomwezen) etc.
Note that where the pressure-volume product is part of a safety standard, any in
compressible liquid in the vessel can be excluded as it does not contribute to t
he potential energy stored in the vessel, so only the volume of the compressible
part such as gas is used.
List of standards
EN 13445: The current European Standard, harmonized with the Pressure Equipm
ent Directive (97/23/EC). Extensively used in Europe.
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section VIII: Rules for Construction of
Pressure Vessels.
BS 5500: Former British Standard, replaced in the UK by BS EN 13445 but reta
ined under the name PD 5500 for the design and construction of export equipment.
AD Merkbltter: German standard, harmonized with the Pressure Equipment Direct
ive.
EN 286 (Parts 1 to 4): European standard for simple pressure vessels (air ta
nks), harmonized with Council Directive 87/404/EEC.
BS 4994: Specification for design and construction of vessels and tanks in r
einforced plastics.
ASME PVHO: US standard for Pressure Vessels for Human Occupancy.
CODAP: French Code for Construction of Unfired Pressure Vessel.
AS/NZS 1200: Pressure equipment.[16]
AS/NZS 3788:2006[17]
API 510.[18]
ISO 11439: Compressed natural gas (CNG) cylinders[19]
IS 2825-1969 (RE1977)_code_unfired_Pressure_vessels.
FRP tanks and vessels.
AIAA S-080-1998: AIAA Standard for Space Systems - Metallic Pressure Vessels
, Pressurized Structures, and Pressure Components.
AIAA S-081A-2006: AIAA Standard for Space Systems - Composite Overwrapped Pr
essure Vessels (COPVs).
B51-09 Canadian Boiler, pressure vessel, and pressure piping code.
HSE guidelines for pressure systems.

Stoomwezen: Former pressure vessels code in the Netherlands, also known as R


ToD: Regels voor Toestellen onder Druk (Dutch Rules for Pressure Vessels).
See also
American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)
Bottled gas
Composite overwrapped pressure vessel
Compressed air energy storage
Compressed natural gas
Demister
Fire-tube boiler
Gas cylinder
Gasket
Head (vessel)
Minimum Design Metal Temperature (MDMT)
Pressure bomb - a device for measuring leaf water potentials
Rainwater harvesting
Relief valve
Safety valve
Shell and tube heat exchanger
Vapor-Liquid Separator or Knock-Out Drum
Vortex breaker
Water well
Water-tube boiler
Notes
Nilsen, Kyle. (2011) "Development of low pressure filter testing vessel and anal
ysis of electrospun nanofiber membranes for water treatment"
Ingenious Coal-Gas Motor Tank, Popular Science monthly, January 1919, page 27, S
canned by Google Books: https://books.google.com/books?id=HykDAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA13
Hearn, E.J. (1997). Mechanics of Materials 1. An Introduction to the Mechanics o
f Elastic and Plastic Deformation of Solids and Structural Materials - Third Edi
tion. Chapter 9: Butterworth-Heinemann. pp. 199 203. ISBN 0-7506-3265-8.
NASA Tech Briefs, "Making a Metal-Lined Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessel",
1 Mar 2005.
Frietas, O., "Maintenance and Repair of Glass-Lined Equipment", Chemical Enginee
ring, 1 Jul 2007.
"High Pressure Vessels",D. Freyer and J. Harvey, 1998
ANSI/AIAA S-080-1998, Space Systems - Metallic Pressure Vessels, Pressurized Str
uctures, and Pressure Components, 5.1
Pushard, Doug (2005). "Domestic water collection systems also sometimes able to
function on gravity". Harvesth2o.com. Retrieved 2009-04-17.[verification needed]
Pushard, Doug. "Alternatives to pressure vessels in domestic water systems". Har
vesth2o.com. Retrieved 2009-04-17.
Puskarich, Paul (2009-05-01). "Strengthened Glass for Pipleine Systems" (PDF). M
IT. Retrieved 2009-04-17.
Beer, Ferdinand P.; Johnston, Jr., E. Russel; DeWolf, John T. "7.9". Mechanics o
f Materials (fourth ed.). McGraw-Hill. p. 463. ISBN 9780073659350.
For a sphere the thickness d = rP/2s, where r is the radius of the tank. The vol
ume of the spherical surface then is 4pr2d = 4pr3P/2s. The mass is determined by
multiplying by the density of the material that makes up the walls of the spher
ical vessel. Further the volume of the gas is (4pr3)/3. Combining these equation
s give the above results. The equations for the other geometries are derived in
a similar manner
Richard Budynas, J. Nisbett, Shigley's Mechanical Engineering Design, 8th ed., N
ew York:McGraw-Hill, ISBN 978-0-07-312193-2, pg 108
An International Code 2007 ASME Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code. The Americal Soci
ety of Mechanical Engineers. 2007.

MIT pressure vessel lecture


"AS 1200 Pressure Vessels". SAI Global. Retrieved 14 November 2011.
"AS_NZS 3788: 2006 Pressure equipment - In-service inspection". SAI Global. Retr
ieved September 4, 2015.
"Pressure Vessel Inspection Code: In-Service Inspection, Rating, Repair, and Alt
eration". API. June 2006.
."Gas cylinders - High pressure cylinders for the on-board storage of natura
l gas as a fuel for automotive vehicles". ISO. 2006-07-18. Retrieved 2009-04-17.
References
A.C. Ugural, S.K. Fenster, Advanced Strength and Applied Elasticity, 4th ed.
E.P. Popov, Engineering Mechanics of Solids, 1st ed.
Megyesy, Eugene F. "Pressure Vessel Handbook, 14th Edition." PV Publishing,
Inc. Oklahoma City, OK
Further reading
Megyesy, Eugene F. (2008, 14th ed.) Pressure Vessel Handbook. PV Publishing,
Inc.: Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA. www.pressurevesselhandbook.com Design handb
ook for pressure vessels based on the ASME code.
External links
Look up pressure vessel in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Pressure vessel.
Use of pressure vessels in oil and gas industry
Basic formulas for thin walled pressure vessels; with examples
Educational Excel spreadsheets for ASME head, shell and nozzle designs
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel website
Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology
EU Pressure Equipment Directive website
EU Simple Pressure Vessel Directive
EU Classification
Pressure Vessel attachments http://oakridgebellows.com/metal-expansion-joint
s/technical-videos/lugs-on-pipe-and-vessels-new
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Pressure vessel
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Horizontal pressure vessel in steel
A pressure vessel is a container designed to hold gases or liquids at a pressure
substantially different from the ambient pressure.
The pressure differential is dangerous, and fatal accidents have occurred in the
history of pressure vessel development and operation. Consequently, pressure ve
ssel design, manufacture, and operation are regulated by engineering authorities
backed by legislation. For these reasons, the definition of a pressure vessel v
aries from country to country, but involves parameters such as maximum safe oper
ating pressure and temperature, and are engineered with a safety factor, corrosi
on allowance, minimum design temperature (for brittle fracture), and involve non

destructive testing, such as ultrasonic testing, radiography, and pressure tests


, usually involving water, also known as a hydrotest, but could be pneumatically
tested involving air or another gas. The preferred test is hydrostatic testing
because it's a much safer method of testing as it releases much less energy if f
racture were to occur (water does not rapidly increase its volume while rapid de
pressurization occurs, unlike gases like air, i.e. gasses fail explosively). In
the United States, as with many other countries, it is the law that vessels over
a certain size and pressure (15 PSIg) be built to Code, in the United States th
at Code is the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (BPVC), these vessels also r
equire an Authorized Inspector to sign off on every new vessel constructed and e
ach vessel has a nameplate with pertinent information about the vessel such as m
aximum allowable working pressure, maximum temperature, minimum design metal tem
perature, what company manufactured it, the date, its registration number (throu
gh the National Board), and ASME's official stamp for pressure vessels (U-stamp)
, making the vessel traceable and officially an ASME Code vessel.
Contents
1 History of pressure vessels
2 Pressure vessel features
2.1 Shape of a pressure vessel
2.2 Construction materials
2.3 Safety features
2.3.1 Leak before burst
2.3.2 Safety valves
2.4 Maintenance features
2.4.1 Pressure vessel closures
3 Uses
4 Alternatives to pressure vessels
5 Design
5.1 Scaling
5.1.1 Scaling of stress in walls of vessel
5.1.2 Spherical vessel
5.1.3 Cylindrical vessel with hemispherical ends
5.1.4 Cylindrical vessel with semi-elliptical ends
5.1.5 Gas storage
5.2 Stress in thin-walled pressure vessels
5.3 Winding angle of carbon fibre vessels
5.4 Operation standards
5.4.1 List of standards
6 See also
7 Notes
8 References
9 Further reading
10 External links
History of pressure vessels
A 10,000 psi (69 MPa) pressure vessel from 1919, wrapped with high tensile steel
banding and steel rods to secure the end caps.
The earliest documented design of pressure vessels is described in the book Code
x Madrid I, by Leonardo da Vinci, in 1495, where containers of pressurized air w
ere theorized to lift heavy weights underwater,[1] however vessels resembling wh
at are used today did not come about until the 1800s where steam was generated i
n boilers helping to spur the industrial revolution.[1] However, with poor mater
ial quality and manufacturing techniques along with improper knowledge of design
, operation and maintenance there was a large number of damaging and often fatal
explosions associated with these boilers and pressure vessels, with a death occ
urring on a nearly daily basis in the United States.[1] Local providences and st
ates in the US began enacting rules for constructing these vessels after some pa

rticularly devastating vessel failures occurred killing dozens of people at a ti


me, which made it difficult for manufacturers to keep up with the varied rules f
rom one location to another and the first pressure vessel code was developed sta
rting in 1911 and released in 1914, starting the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel
Code (BPVC).[1] In an early effort to design a tank capable of withstanding pre
ssures up to 10,000 psi (69 MPa), a 6-inch (150 mm) diameter tank was developed
in 1919 that was spirally-wound with two layers of high tensile strength steel w
ire to prevent sidewall rupture, and the end caps longitudinally reinforced with
lengthwise high-tensile rods.[2] The need for high pressure and temperature ves
sels for petroleum refineries and chemical plants gave rise to vessels joined wi
th welding instead of rivets (which were unsuitable for the pressures and temper
atures required) and in 1920s and 1930s the BPVC included welding as an acceptab
le means of construction, and welding is the main means of joining metal vessels
today.[1]
There have been many advancements in the field of pressure vessel engineering su
ch as advanced non-destructive examination, phased array ultrasonic testing and
radiography, new material grades with increased corrosion resistance and stronge
r materials, and new ways to join materials such as explosion welding (to attach
one metal sheet to another, usually a thin corrosion resistant metal like stain
less steel to a stronger metal like carbon steel), friction stir welding (which
attaches the metals together without melting the metal), advanced theories and m
eans of more accurately assessing the stresses encountered in vessels such as wi
th the use of Finite Element Analysis, allowing the vessels to be built safer an
d more efficiently. Today vessels in the USA require BPVC stamping but the BPVC
is not just a domestic code, many other countries have adopted the BPVC as their
official code. There are, however, other official codes in some countries (some
of which rely on portions of and reference the BPVC), Japan, Australia, Canada,
Britain, and Europe have their own codes. Regardless of the country nearly all
recognize the inherent potential hazards of pressure vessels and the need for st
andards and codes regulating their design and construction.
Pressure vessel features
Shape of a pressure vessel
Pressure vessels can theoretically be almost any
ons of spheres, cylinders, and cones are usually
cylinder with end caps called heads. Head shapes
ical or dished (torispherical). More complicated
uch harder to analyze for safe operation and are
onstruct.

shape, but shapes made of secti


employed. A common design is a
are frequently either hemispher
shapes have historically been m
usually far more difficult to c

Spherical gas container.


Cylindrical pressure vessel.
Picture of the bottom of an aerosol spray can.
Fire Extinguisher with rounded rectangle pressure vessel
Theoretically, a spherical pressure vessel has approximately twice the strength
of a cylindrical pressure vessel with the same wall thickness,[3] and is the ide
al shape to hold internal pressure.[1] However, a spherical shape is difficult t
o manufacture, and therefore more expensive, so most pressure vessels are cylind
rical with 2:1 semi-elliptical heads or end caps on each end. Smaller pressure v
essels are assembled from a pipe and two covers. For cylindrical vessels with a
diameter up to 600 mm (NPS of 24 in), it is possible to use seamless pipe for th
e shell, thus avoiding many inspection and testing issues, mainly the nondestruc
tive examination of radiography for the long seam if required. A disadvantage of
these vessels is that greater diameters are more expensive, so that for example
the most economic shape of a 1,000 litres (35 cu ft), 250 bars (3,600 psi) pres

sure vessel might be a diameter of 91.44 centimetres (36 in) and a length of 1.7
018 metres (67 in) including the 2:1 semi-elliptical domed end caps.
Construction materials
Composite overwrapped pressure vessel with titanium liner.
Many pressure vessels are made of steel. To manufacture a cylindrical or spheric
al pressure vessel, rolled and possibly forged parts would have to be welded tog
ether. Some mechanical properties of steel, achieved by rolling or forging, coul
d be adversely affected by welding, unless special precautions are taken. In add
ition to adequate mechanical strength, current standards dictate the use of stee
l with a high impact resistance, especially for vessels used in low temperatures
. In applications where carbon steel would suffer corrosion, special corrosion r
esistant material should also be used.
Some pressure vessels are made of composite materials, such as filament wound co
mposite using carbon fibre held in place with a polymer. Due to the very high te
nsile strength of carbon fibre these vessels can be very light, but are much mor
e difficult to manufacture. The composite material may be wound around a metal l
iner, forming a composite overwrapped pressure vessel.
Other very common materials include polymers such as PET in carbonated beverage
containers and copper in plumbing.
Pressure vessels may be lined with various metals, ceramics, or polymers to prev
ent leaking and protect the structure of the vessel from the contained medium. T
his liner may also carry a significant portion of the pressure load.[4][5]
Pressure Vessels may also be constructed from concrete (PCV) or other materials
which are weak in tension. Cabling, wrapped around the vessel or within the wall
or the vessel itself, provides the necessary tension to resist the internal pre
ssure. A "leakproof steel thin membrane" lines the internal wall of the vessel.
Such vessels can be assembled from modular pieces and so have "no inherent size
limitations".[6] There is also a high order of redundancy thanks to the large nu
mber of individual cables resisting the internal pressure.
Safety features
Leak before burst
Leak before burst describes a pressure vessel designed such that a crack in the
vessel will grow through the wall, allowing the contained fluid to escape and re
ducing the pressure, prior to growing so large as to cause fracture at the opera
ting pressure.
Many pressure vessel standards, including the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Co
de[citation needed] and the AIAA metallic pressure vessel standard, either requi
re pressure vessel designs to be leak before burst, or require pressure vessels
to meet more stringent requirements for fatigue and fracture if they are not sho
wn to be leak before burst.[7]
Safety valves
Example of a valve used for gas cylinders.
As the pressure vessel is designed to a pressure, there is typically a safety va
lve or relief valve to ensure that this pressure is not exceeded in operation.
Maintenance features
Pressure vessel closures
Pressure vessel closures are pressure retaining structures designed to provide q
uick access to pipelines, pressure vessels, pig traps, filters and filtration sy
stems. Typically pressure vessel closures allow maintenance personnel.
Uses

Pressure vessels are used in a variety of applications in both industry and the
private sector. They appear in these sectors as industrial compressed air receiv
ers and domestic hot water storage tanks. Other examples of pressure vessels are
diving cylinders, recompression chambers, distillation towers, pressure reactor
s, autoclaves, and many other vessels in mining operations, oil refineries and p
etrochemical plants, nuclear reactor vessels, submarine and space ship habitats,
pneumatic reservoirs, hydraulic reservoirs under pressure, rail vehicle airbrak
e reservoirs, road vehicle airbrake reservoirs, and storage vessels for liquifie
d gases such as ammonia, chlorine, and LPG (propane, butane).
A unique application of a pressure vessel is the passenger cabin of an airliner;
The outer skin carries both the aircraft maneuvering loads and the cabin pressu
rization loads.
A pressure tank connected to a water well and domestic hot water system.
A few pressure tanks, here used to hold propane.
An expansion vessel for heating systems.
A pressure vessel used as a kier.
A pressure vessel used for The Boeing Company s CST-100 spacecraft.
Alternatives to pressure vessels
Natural gas storage
Gas holder
Depending on the application and local circumstances, alternatives to pressure v
essels exist. Examples can be seen in domestic water collection systems, where t
he following may be used:
Gravity controlled systems[8] which typically consist of an unpressurized wa
ter tank at an elevation higher than the point of use. Pressure at the point of
use is the result of the hydrostatic pressure caused by the elevation difference
. Gravity systems produce 0.43 pounds per square inch (3.0 kPa) per foot of wate
r head (elevation difference). A municipal water supply or pumped water is typic
ally around 90 pounds per square inch (620 kPa).
Inline pump controllers or pressure-sensitive pumps.[9]
Design
Scaling
No matter what shape it takes, the minimum mass of a pressure vessel scales with
the pressure and volume it contains and is inversely proportional to the streng
th to weight ratio of the construction material (minimum mass decreases as stren
gth increases[10]).
Scaling of stress in walls of vessel
Pressure vessels are held together against the gas pressure due to tensile force
s within the walls of the container. The normal (tensile) stress in the walls of
the container is proportional to the pressure and radius of the vessel and inve
rsely proportional to the thickness of the walls.[11] Therefore, pressure vessel
s are designed to have a thickness proportional to the radius of tank and the pr
essure of the tank and inversely proportional to the maximum allowed normal stre
ss of the particular material used in the walls of the container.
Because (for a given pressure) the thickness of the walls scales with the radius
of the tank, the mass of a tank (which scales as the length times radius times

thickness of the wall for a cylindrical tank) scales with the volume of the gas
held (which scales as length times radius squared). The exact formula varies wit
h the tank shape but depends on the density, ?, and maximum allowable stress s o
f the material in addition to the pressure P and volume V of the vessel. (See be
low for the exact equations for the stress in the walls.)
Spherical vessel
For a sphere, the minimum mass of a pressure vessel is
M = 3 2 P V ? s {\displaystyle M={3 \over 2}PV{\rho \over \sigma }} M={3 \ov
er 2}PV{\rho \over \sigma },
where:
M {\displaystyle
P {\displaystyle
ssure),
V {\displaystyle
? {\displaystyle
s {\displaystyle
can tolerate.[12]

M} M is mass,
P} P is the pressure difference from ambient (the gauge pre
V} V is volume,
\rho } \rho is the density of the pressure vessel material,
\sigma } \sigma is the maximum working stress that material

Other shapes besides a sphere have constants larger than 3/2 (infinite cylinders
take 2), although some tanks, such as non-spherical wound composite tanks can a
pproach this.
Cylindrical vessel with hemispherical ends
This is sometimes called a "bullet"[citation needed] for its shape, although in
geometric terms it is a capsule.
For a cylinder with hemispherical ends,
M = 2 p R 2 ( R + W ) P ? s {\displaystyle M=2\pi R^{2}(R+W)P{\rho \over \si
gma }} M=2\pi R^{2}(R+W)P{\rho \over \sigma },
where
R is the radius
W is the middle cylinder width only, and the overall width is W + 2R
Cylindrical vessel with semi-elliptical ends
In a vessel with an aspect ratio of middle cylinder width to radius of 2:1,
M = 6 p R 3 P ? s {\displaystyle M=6\pi R^{3}P{\rho \over \sigma }} M=6\pi R
^{3}P{\rho \over \sigma }.
Gas storage
In looking at the first equation, the factor PV, in SI units, is in units of (pr
essurization) energy. For a stored gas, PV is proportional to the mass of gas at
a given temperature, thus
M = 3 2 n R T ? s {\displaystyle M={3 \over 2}nRT{\rho \over \sigma }} M={3
\over 2}nRT{\rho \over \sigma }. (see gas law)
The other factors are constant for a given vessel shape and material. So we can
see that there is no theoretical "efficiency of scale", in terms of the ratio of
pressure vessel mass to pressurization energy, or of pressure vessel mass to st
ored gas mass. For storing gases, "tankage efficiency" is independent of pressur

e, at least for the same temperature.


So, for example, a typical design for a minimum mass tank to hold helium (as a p
ressurant gas) on a rocket would use a spherical chamber for a minimum shape con
stant, carbon fiber for best possible ? / s {\displaystyle \rho /\sigma } \rho /
\sigma , and very cold helium for best possible M / p V {\displaystyle M/{pV}} M
/{pV}.
Stress in thin-walled pressure vessels
Stress in a shallow-walled pressure vessel in the shape of a sphere is
s ? = s l o n g = p r 2 t {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }=\sigma _{\rm {lon
g}}={\frac {pr}{2t}}} \sigma _{\theta }=\sigma _{{{\rm {long}}}}={\frac {pr}{2t}
},
where s ? {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }} \sigma _{\theta } is hoop stress, or
stress in the circumferential direction, s l o n g {\displaystyle \sigma _{long
}} \sigma _{{long}} is stress in the longitudinal direction, p is internal gauge
pressure, r is the inner radius of the sphere, and t is thickness of the sphere
wall. A vessel can be considered "shallow-walled" if the diameter is at least 1
0 times (sometimes cited as 20 times) greater than the wall depth.[13]
Stress in the cylinder body of a pressure vessel.
Stress in a shallow-walled pressure vessel in the shape of a cylinder is
s ? = p r t {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }={\frac {pr}{t}}} \sigma _{\thet
a }={\frac {pr}{t}},
s l o n g = p r 2 t {\displaystyle \sigma _{\rm {long}}={\frac {pr}{2t}}} \s
igma _{{{\rm {long}}}}={\frac {pr}{2t}},
where:
s ? {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }} \sigma _{\theta } is hoop stress, or s
tress in the circumferential direction
s l o n g {\displaystyle \sigma _{long}} \sigma _{{long}} is stress in the l
ongitudinal direction
p is internal gauge pressure
r is the inner radius of the cylinder
t is thickness of the cylinder wall.
Almost all pressure vessel design standards contain variations of these two form
ulas with additional empirical terms to account for wall thickness tolerances, q
uality control of welds and in-service corrosion allowances.
For example, the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (BPVC) (UG-27) formulas ar
e:[14]
Spherical shells:
s ? = s l o n g = p ( r + 0.2 t ) 2 t E {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }=\si
gma _{\rm {long}}={\frac {p(r+0.2t)}{2tE}}} \sigma _{\theta }=\sigma _{{{\rm {lo
ng}}}}={\frac {p(r+0.2t)}{2tE}}
Cylindrical shells:
s ? = p ( r + 0.6 t ) t E {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }={\frac {p(r+0.6t)
}{tE}}} \sigma _{\theta }={\frac {p(r+0.6t)}{tE}}
s l o n g = p ( r - 0.4 t ) 2 t E {\displaystyle \sigma _{\rm {long}}={\frac
{p(r-0.4t)}{2tE}}} \sigma _{{{\rm {long}}}}={\frac {p(r-0.4t)}{2tE}}

where E is the joint efficient, and all others variables as stated above.
The factor of safety is often included in these formulas as well, in the case of
the ASME BPVC this term is included in the material stress value when solving f
or pressure or thickness.
Winding angle of carbon fibre vessels
Wound infinite cylindrical shapes optimally take a winding angle of 54.7 degrees
, as this gives the necessary twice the strength in the circumferential directio
n to the longitudinal.[15]
Operation standards
Pressure vessels are designed to operate safely at a specific pressure and tempe
rature, technically referred to as the "Design Pressure" and "Design Temperature
". A vessel that is inadequately designed to handle a high pressure constitutes
a very significant safety hazard. Because of that, the design and certification
of pressure vessels is governed by design codes such as the ASME Boiler and Pres
sure Vessel Code in North America, the Pressure Equipment Directive of the EU (P
ED), Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS), CSA B51 in Canada, Australian Standards
in Australia and other international standards like Lloyd's, Germanischer Lloyd
, Det Norske Veritas, Socit Gnrale de Surveillance (SGS S.A.), Lloyd s Register Energy
Nederland (formerly known as Stoomwezen) etc.
Note that where the pressure-volume product is part of a safety standard, any in
compressible liquid in the vessel can be excluded as it does not contribute to t
he potential energy stored in the vessel, so only the volume of the compressible
part such as gas is used.
List of standards
EN 13445: The current European Standard, harmonized with the Pressure Equipm
ent Directive (97/23/EC). Extensively used in Europe.
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section VIII: Rules for Construction of
Pressure Vessels.
BS 5500: Former British Standard, replaced in the UK by BS EN 13445 but reta
ined under the name PD 5500 for the design and construction of export equipment.
AD Merkbltter: German standard, harmonized with the Pressure Equipment Direct
ive.
EN 286 (Parts 1 to 4): European standard for simple pressure vessels (air ta
nks), harmonized with Council Directive 87/404/EEC.
BS 4994: Specification for design and construction of vessels and tanks in r
einforced plastics.
ASME PVHO: US standard for Pressure Vessels for Human Occupancy.
CODAP: French Code for Construction of Unfired Pressure Vessel.
AS/NZS 1200: Pressure equipment.[16]
AS/NZS 3788:2006[17]
API 510.[18]
ISO 11439: Compressed natural gas (CNG) cylinders[19]
IS 2825-1969 (RE1977)_code_unfired_Pressure_vessels.
FRP tanks and vessels.
AIAA S-080-1998: AIAA Standard for Space Systems - Metallic Pressure Vessels
, Pressurized Structures, and Pressure Components.
AIAA S-081A-2006: AIAA Standard for Space Systems - Composite Overwrapped Pr
essure Vessels (COPVs).
B51-09 Canadian Boiler, pressure vessel, and pressure piping code.
HSE guidelines for pressure systems.
Stoomwezen: Former pressure vessels code in the Netherlands, also known as R
ToD: Regels voor Toestellen onder Druk (Dutch Rules for Pressure Vessels).
See also

American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)


Bottled gas
Composite overwrapped pressure vessel
Compressed air energy storage
Compressed natural gas
Demister
Fire-tube boiler
Gas cylinder
Gasket
Head (vessel)
Minimum Design Metal Temperature (MDMT)
Pressure bomb - a device for measuring leaf water potentials
Rainwater harvesting
Relief valve
Safety valve
Shell and tube heat exchanger
Vapor-Liquid Separator or Knock-Out Drum
Vortex breaker
Water well
Water-tube boiler
Notes
Nilsen, Kyle. (2011) "Development of low pressure filter testing vessel and anal
ysis of electrospun nanofiber membranes for water treatment"
Ingenious Coal-Gas Motor Tank, Popular Science monthly, January 1919, page 27, S
canned by Google Books: https://books.google.com/books?id=HykDAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA13
Hearn, E.J. (1997). Mechanics of Materials 1. An Introduction to the Mechanics o
f Elastic and Plastic Deformation of Solids and Structural Materials - Third Edi
tion. Chapter 9: Butterworth-Heinemann. pp. 199 203. ISBN 0-7506-3265-8.
NASA Tech Briefs, "Making a Metal-Lined Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessel",
1 Mar 2005.
Frietas, O., "Maintenance and Repair of Glass-Lined Equipment", Chemical Enginee
ring, 1 Jul 2007.
"High Pressure Vessels",D. Freyer and J. Harvey, 1998
ANSI/AIAA S-080-1998, Space Systems - Metallic Pressure Vessels, Pressurized Str
uctures, and Pressure Components, 5.1
Pushard, Doug (2005). "Domestic water collection systems also sometimes able to
function on gravity". Harvesth2o.com. Retrieved 2009-04-17.[verification needed]
Pushard, Doug. "Alternatives to pressure vessels in domestic water systems". Har
vesth2o.com. Retrieved 2009-04-17.
Puskarich, Paul (2009-05-01). "Strengthened Glass for Pipleine Systems" (PDF). M
IT. Retrieved 2009-04-17.
Beer, Ferdinand P.; Johnston, Jr., E. Russel; DeWolf, John T. "7.9". Mechanics o
f Materials (fourth ed.). McGraw-Hill. p. 463. ISBN 9780073659350.
For a sphere the thickness d = rP/2s, where r is the radius of the tank. The vol
ume of the spherical surface then is 4pr2d = 4pr3P/2s. The mass is determined by
multiplying by the density of the material that makes up the walls of the spher
ical vessel. Further the volume of the gas is (4pr3)/3. Combining these equation
s give the above results. The equations for the other geometries are derived in
a similar manner
Richard Budynas, J. Nisbett, Shigley's Mechanical Engineering Design, 8th ed., N
ew York:McGraw-Hill, ISBN 978-0-07-312193-2, pg 108
An International Code 2007 ASME Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code. The Americal Soci
ety of Mechanical Engineers. 2007.
MIT pressure vessel lecture
"AS 1200 Pressure Vessels". SAI Global. Retrieved 14 November 2011.
"AS_NZS 3788: 2006 Pressure equipment - In-service inspection". SAI Global. Retr
ieved September 4, 2015.
"Pressure Vessel Inspection Code: In-Service Inspection, Rating, Repair, and Alt

eration". API. June 2006.


."Gas cylinders - High pressure cylinders for the on-board storage of natura
l gas as a fuel for automotive vehicles". ISO. 2006-07-18. Retrieved 2009-04-17.
References
A.C. Ugural, S.K. Fenster, Advanced Strength and Applied Elasticity, 4th ed.
E.P. Popov, Engineering Mechanics of Solids, 1st ed.
Megyesy, Eugene F. "Pressure Vessel Handbook, 14th Edition." PV Publishing,
Inc. Oklahoma City, OK
Further reading
Megyesy, Eugene F. (2008, 14th ed.) Pressure Vessel Handbook. PV Publishing,
Inc.: Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA. www.pressurevesselhandbook.com Design handb
ook for pressure vessels based on the ASME code.
External links
Look up pressure vessel in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Pressure vessel.
Use of pressure vessels in oil and gas industry
Basic formulas for thin walled pressure vessels; with examples
Educational Excel spreadsheets for ASME head, shell and nozzle designs
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel website
Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology
EU Pressure Equipment Directive website
EU Simple Pressure Vessel Directive
EU Classification
Pressure Vessel attachments http://oakridgebellows.com/metal-expansion-joint
s/technical-videos/lugs-on-pipe-and-vessels-new
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ag-in-box Barrel Biodegradable bag Blister pack Bottle Box Box wine Bulk box Car
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lagon Flexible intermediate bulk container Foam food container Folding carton Fo
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ainer Jar Jerrycan Juicebox Keg Kobako Multi-pack Padded mailer Pail Plastic bag
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Pressure vessel
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Horizontal pressure vessel in steel
A pressure vessel is a container designed to hold gases or liquids at a pressure
substantially different from the ambient pressure.
The pressure differential is dangerous, and fatal accidents have occurred in the
history of pressure vessel development and operation. Consequently, pressure ve
ssel design, manufacture, and operation are regulated by engineering authorities
backed by legislation. For these reasons, the definition of a pressure vessel v
aries from country to country, but involves parameters such as maximum safe oper
ating pressure and temperature, and are engineered with a safety factor, corrosi
on allowance, minimum design temperature (for brittle fracture), and involve non
destructive testing, such as ultrasonic testing, radiography, and pressure tests
, usually involving water, also known as a hydrotest, but could be pneumatically
tested involving air or another gas. The preferred test is hydrostatic testing
because it's a much safer method of testing as it releases much less energy if f
racture were to occur (water does not rapidly increase its volume while rapid de

pressurization occurs, unlike gases like air, i.e. gasses fail explosively). In
the United States, as with many other countries, it is the law that vessels over
a certain size and pressure (15 PSIg) be built to Code, in the United States th
at Code is the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (BPVC), these vessels also r
equire an Authorized Inspector to sign off on every new vessel constructed and e
ach vessel has a nameplate with pertinent information about the vessel such as m
aximum allowable working pressure, maximum temperature, minimum design metal tem
perature, what company manufactured it, the date, its registration number (throu
gh the National Board), and ASME's official stamp for pressure vessels (U-stamp)
, making the vessel traceable and officially an ASME Code vessel.
Contents
1 History of pressure vessels
2 Pressure vessel features
2.1 Shape of a pressure vessel
2.2 Construction materials
2.3 Safety features
2.3.1 Leak before burst
2.3.2 Safety valves
2.4 Maintenance features
2.4.1 Pressure vessel closures
3 Uses
4 Alternatives to pressure vessels
5 Design
5.1 Scaling
5.1.1 Scaling of stress in walls of vessel
5.1.2 Spherical vessel
5.1.3 Cylindrical vessel with hemispherical ends
5.1.4 Cylindrical vessel with semi-elliptical ends
5.1.5 Gas storage
5.2 Stress in thin-walled pressure vessels
5.3 Winding angle of carbon fibre vessels
5.4 Operation standards
5.4.1 List of standards
6 See also
7 Notes
8 References
9 Further reading
10 External links
History of pressure vessels
A 10,000 psi (69 MPa) pressure vessel from 1919, wrapped with high tensile steel
banding and steel rods to secure the end caps.
The earliest documented design of pressure vessels is described in the book Code
x Madrid I, by Leonardo da Vinci, in 1495, where containers of pressurized air w
ere theorized to lift heavy weights underwater,[1] however vessels resembling wh
at are used today did not come about until the 1800s where steam was generated i
n boilers helping to spur the industrial revolution.[1] However, with poor mater
ial quality and manufacturing techniques along with improper knowledge of design
, operation and maintenance there was a large number of damaging and often fatal
explosions associated with these boilers and pressure vessels, with a death occ
urring on a nearly daily basis in the United States.[1] Local providences and st
ates in the US began enacting rules for constructing these vessels after some pa
rticularly devastating vessel failures occurred killing dozens of people at a ti
me, which made it difficult for manufacturers to keep up with the varied rules f
rom one location to another and the first pressure vessel code was developed sta
rting in 1911 and released in 1914, starting the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel
Code (BPVC).[1] In an early effort to design a tank capable of withstanding pre

ssures up to 10,000 psi (69 MPa), a 6-inch (150 mm) diameter tank was developed
in 1919 that was spirally-wound with two layers of high tensile strength steel w
ire to prevent sidewall rupture, and the end caps longitudinally reinforced with
lengthwise high-tensile rods.[2] The need for high pressure and temperature ves
sels for petroleum refineries and chemical plants gave rise to vessels joined wi
th welding instead of rivets (which were unsuitable for the pressures and temper
atures required) and in 1920s and 1930s the BPVC included welding as an acceptab
le means of construction, and welding is the main means of joining metal vessels
today.[1]
There have been many advancements in the field of pressure vessel engineering su
ch as advanced non-destructive examination, phased array ultrasonic testing and
radiography, new material grades with increased corrosion resistance and stronge
r materials, and new ways to join materials such as explosion welding (to attach
one metal sheet to another, usually a thin corrosion resistant metal like stain
less steel to a stronger metal like carbon steel), friction stir welding (which
attaches the metals together without melting the metal), advanced theories and m
eans of more accurately assessing the stresses encountered in vessels such as wi
th the use of Finite Element Analysis, allowing the vessels to be built safer an
d more efficiently. Today vessels in the USA require BPVC stamping but the BPVC
is not just a domestic code, many other countries have adopted the BPVC as their
official code. There are, however, other official codes in some countries (some
of which rely on portions of and reference the BPVC), Japan, Australia, Canada,
Britain, and Europe have their own codes. Regardless of the country nearly all
recognize the inherent potential hazards of pressure vessels and the need for st
andards and codes regulating their design and construction.
Pressure vessel features
Shape of a pressure vessel
Pressure vessels can theoretically be almost any
ons of spheres, cylinders, and cones are usually
cylinder with end caps called heads. Head shapes
ical or dished (torispherical). More complicated
uch harder to analyze for safe operation and are
onstruct.

shape, but shapes made of secti


employed. A common design is a
are frequently either hemispher
shapes have historically been m
usually far more difficult to c

Spherical gas container.


Cylindrical pressure vessel.
Picture of the bottom of an aerosol spray can.
Fire Extinguisher with rounded rectangle pressure vessel
Theoretically, a spherical pressure vessel has approximately twice the strength
of a cylindrical pressure vessel with the same wall thickness,[3] and is the ide
al shape to hold internal pressure.[1] However, a spherical shape is difficult t
o manufacture, and therefore more expensive, so most pressure vessels are cylind
rical with 2:1 semi-elliptical heads or end caps on each end. Smaller pressure v
essels are assembled from a pipe and two covers. For cylindrical vessels with a
diameter up to 600 mm (NPS of 24 in), it is possible to use seamless pipe for th
e shell, thus avoiding many inspection and testing issues, mainly the nondestruc
tive examination of radiography for the long seam if required. A disadvantage of
these vessels is that greater diameters are more expensive, so that for example
the most economic shape of a 1,000 litres (35 cu ft), 250 bars (3,600 psi) pres
sure vessel might be a diameter of 91.44 centimetres (36 in) and a length of 1.7
018 metres (67 in) including the 2:1 semi-elliptical domed end caps.
Construction materials
Composite overwrapped pressure vessel with titanium liner.

Many pressure vessels are made of steel. To manufacture a cylindrical or spheric


al pressure vessel, rolled and possibly forged parts would have to be welded tog
ether. Some mechanical properties of steel, achieved by rolling or forging, coul
d be adversely affected by welding, unless special precautions are taken. In add
ition to adequate mechanical strength, current standards dictate the use of stee
l with a high impact resistance, especially for vessels used in low temperatures
. In applications where carbon steel would suffer corrosion, special corrosion r
esistant material should also be used.
Some pressure vessels are made of composite materials, such as filament wound co
mposite using carbon fibre held in place with a polymer. Due to the very high te
nsile strength of carbon fibre these vessels can be very light, but are much mor
e difficult to manufacture. The composite material may be wound around a metal l
iner, forming a composite overwrapped pressure vessel.
Other very common materials include polymers such as PET in carbonated beverage
containers and copper in plumbing.
Pressure vessels may be lined with various metals, ceramics, or polymers to prev
ent leaking and protect the structure of the vessel from the contained medium. T
his liner may also carry a significant portion of the pressure load.[4][5]
Pressure Vessels may also be constructed from concrete (PCV) or other materials
which are weak in tension. Cabling, wrapped around the vessel or within the wall
or the vessel itself, provides the necessary tension to resist the internal pre
ssure. A "leakproof steel thin membrane" lines the internal wall of the vessel.
Such vessels can be assembled from modular pieces and so have "no inherent size
limitations".[6] There is also a high order of redundancy thanks to the large nu
mber of individual cables resisting the internal pressure.
Safety features
Leak before burst
Leak before burst describes a pressure vessel designed such that a crack in the
vessel will grow through the wall, allowing the contained fluid to escape and re
ducing the pressure, prior to growing so large as to cause fracture at the opera
ting pressure.
Many pressure vessel standards, including the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Co
de[citation needed] and the AIAA metallic pressure vessel standard, either requi
re pressure vessel designs to be leak before burst, or require pressure vessels
to meet more stringent requirements for fatigue and fracture if they are not sho
wn to be leak before burst.[7]
Safety valves
Example of a valve used for gas cylinders.
As the pressure vessel is designed to a pressure, there is typically a safety va
lve or relief valve to ensure that this pressure is not exceeded in operation.
Maintenance features
Pressure vessel closures
Pressure vessel closures are pressure retaining structures designed to provide q
uick access to pipelines, pressure vessels, pig traps, filters and filtration sy
stems. Typically pressure vessel closures allow maintenance personnel.
Uses
Pressure vessels are used in a variety of applications in both industry and the
private sector. They appear in these sectors as industrial compressed air receiv
ers and domestic hot water storage tanks. Other examples of pressure vessels are
diving cylinders, recompression chambers, distillation towers, pressure reactor
s, autoclaves, and many other vessels in mining operations, oil refineries and p

etrochemical plants, nuclear reactor vessels, submarine and space ship habitats,
pneumatic reservoirs, hydraulic reservoirs under pressure, rail vehicle airbrak
e reservoirs, road vehicle airbrake reservoirs, and storage vessels for liquifie
d gases such as ammonia, chlorine, and LPG (propane, butane).
A unique application of a pressure vessel is the passenger cabin of an airliner;
The outer skin carries both the aircraft maneuvering loads and the cabin pressu
rization loads.
A pressure tank connected to a water well and domestic hot water system.
A few pressure tanks, here used to hold propane.
An expansion vessel for heating systems.
A pressure vessel used as a kier.
A pressure vessel used for The Boeing Company s CST-100 spacecraft.
Alternatives to pressure vessels
Natural gas storage
Gas holder
Depending on the application and local circumstances, alternatives to pressure v
essels exist. Examples can be seen in domestic water collection systems, where t
he following may be used:
Gravity controlled systems[8] which typically consist of an unpressurized wa
ter tank at an elevation higher than the point of use. Pressure at the point of
use is the result of the hydrostatic pressure caused by the elevation difference
. Gravity systems produce 0.43 pounds per square inch (3.0 kPa) per foot of wate
r head (elevation difference). A municipal water supply or pumped water is typic
ally around 90 pounds per square inch (620 kPa).
Inline pump controllers or pressure-sensitive pumps.[9]
Design
Scaling
No matter what shape it takes, the minimum mass of a pressure vessel scales with
the pressure and volume it contains and is inversely proportional to the streng
th to weight ratio of the construction material (minimum mass decreases as stren
gth increases[10]).
Scaling of stress in walls of vessel
Pressure vessels are held together against the gas pressure due to tensile force
s within the walls of the container. The normal (tensile) stress in the walls of
the container is proportional to the pressure and radius of the vessel and inve
rsely proportional to the thickness of the walls.[11] Therefore, pressure vessel
s are designed to have a thickness proportional to the radius of tank and the pr
essure of the tank and inversely proportional to the maximum allowed normal stre
ss of the particular material used in the walls of the container.
Because (for a given pressure) the thickness of the walls scales with the radius
of the tank, the mass of a tank (which scales as the length times radius times
thickness of the wall for a cylindrical tank) scales with the volume of the gas
held (which scales as length times radius squared). The exact formula varies wit
h the tank shape but depends on the density, ?, and maximum allowable stress s o
f the material in addition to the pressure P and volume V of the vessel. (See be
low for the exact equations for the stress in the walls.)

Spherical vessel
For a sphere, the minimum mass of a pressure vessel is
M = 3 2 P V ? s {\displaystyle M={3 \over 2}PV{\rho \over \sigma }} M={3 \ov
er 2}PV{\rho \over \sigma },
where:
M {\displaystyle
P {\displaystyle
ssure),
V {\displaystyle
? {\displaystyle
s {\displaystyle
can tolerate.[12]

M} M is mass,
P} P is the pressure difference from ambient (the gauge pre
V} V is volume,
\rho } \rho is the density of the pressure vessel material,
\sigma } \sigma is the maximum working stress that material

Other shapes besides a sphere have constants larger than 3/2 (infinite cylinders
take 2), although some tanks, such as non-spherical wound composite tanks can a
pproach this.
Cylindrical vessel with hemispherical ends
This is sometimes called a "bullet"[citation needed] for its shape, although in
geometric terms it is a capsule.
For a cylinder with hemispherical ends,
M = 2 p R 2 ( R + W ) P ? s {\displaystyle M=2\pi R^{2}(R+W)P{\rho \over \si
gma }} M=2\pi R^{2}(R+W)P{\rho \over \sigma },
where
R is the radius
W is the middle cylinder width only, and the overall width is W + 2R
Cylindrical vessel with semi-elliptical ends
In a vessel with an aspect ratio of middle cylinder width to radius of 2:1,
M = 6 p R 3 P ? s {\displaystyle M=6\pi R^{3}P{\rho \over \sigma }} M=6\pi R
^{3}P{\rho \over \sigma }.
Gas storage
In looking at the first equation, the factor PV, in SI units, is in units of (pr
essurization) energy. For a stored gas, PV is proportional to the mass of gas at
a given temperature, thus
M = 3 2 n R T ? s {\displaystyle M={3 \over 2}nRT{\rho \over \sigma }} M={3
\over 2}nRT{\rho \over \sigma }. (see gas law)
The other factors are constant for a given vessel shape and material. So we can
see that there is no theoretical "efficiency of scale", in terms of the ratio of
pressure vessel mass to pressurization energy, or of pressure vessel mass to st
ored gas mass. For storing gases, "tankage efficiency" is independent of pressur
e, at least for the same temperature.
So, for example, a typical design for a minimum mass tank to hold helium (as a p
ressurant gas) on a rocket would use a spherical chamber for a minimum shape con
stant, carbon fiber for best possible ? / s {\displaystyle \rho /\sigma } \rho /

\sigma , and very cold helium for best possible M / p V {\displaystyle M/{pV}} M
/{pV}.
Stress in thin-walled pressure vessels
Stress in a shallow-walled pressure vessel in the shape of a sphere is
s ? = s l o n g = p r 2 t {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }=\sigma _{\rm {lon
g}}={\frac {pr}{2t}}} \sigma _{\theta }=\sigma _{{{\rm {long}}}}={\frac {pr}{2t}
},
where s ? {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }} \sigma _{\theta } is hoop stress, or
stress in the circumferential direction, s l o n g {\displaystyle \sigma _{long
}} \sigma _{{long}} is stress in the longitudinal direction, p is internal gauge
pressure, r is the inner radius of the sphere, and t is thickness of the sphere
wall. A vessel can be considered "shallow-walled" if the diameter is at least 1
0 times (sometimes cited as 20 times) greater than the wall depth.[13]
Stress in the cylinder body of a pressure vessel.
Stress in a shallow-walled pressure vessel in the shape of a cylinder is
s ? = p r t {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }={\frac {pr}{t}}} \sigma _{\thet
a }={\frac {pr}{t}},
s l o n g = p r 2 t {\displaystyle \sigma _{\rm {long}}={\frac {pr}{2t}}} \s
igma _{{{\rm {long}}}}={\frac {pr}{2t}},
where:
s ? {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }} \sigma _{\theta } is hoop stress, or s
tress in the circumferential direction
s l o n g {\displaystyle \sigma _{long}} \sigma _{{long}} is stress in the l
ongitudinal direction
p is internal gauge pressure
r is the inner radius of the cylinder
t is thickness of the cylinder wall.
Almost all pressure vessel design standards contain variations of these two form
ulas with additional empirical terms to account for wall thickness tolerances, q
uality control of welds and in-service corrosion allowances.
For example, the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (BPVC) (UG-27) formulas ar
e:[14]
Spherical shells:
s ? = s l o n g = p ( r + 0.2 t ) 2 t E {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }=\si
gma _{\rm {long}}={\frac {p(r+0.2t)}{2tE}}} \sigma _{\theta }=\sigma _{{{\rm {lo
ng}}}}={\frac {p(r+0.2t)}{2tE}}
Cylindrical shells:
s ? = p ( r + 0.6 t ) t E {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }={\frac {p(r+0.6t)
}{tE}}} \sigma _{\theta }={\frac {p(r+0.6t)}{tE}}
s l o n g = p ( r - 0.4 t ) 2 t E {\displaystyle \sigma _{\rm {long}}={\frac
{p(r-0.4t)}{2tE}}} \sigma _{{{\rm {long}}}}={\frac {p(r-0.4t)}{2tE}}
where E is the joint efficient, and all others variables as stated above.
The factor of safety is often included in these formulas as well, in the case of
the ASME BPVC this term is included in the material stress value when solving f
or pressure or thickness.

Winding angle of carbon fibre vessels


Wound infinite cylindrical shapes optimally take a winding angle of 54.7 degrees
, as this gives the necessary twice the strength in the circumferential directio
n to the longitudinal.[15]
Operation standards
Pressure vessels are designed to operate safely at a specific pressure and tempe
rature, technically referred to as the "Design Pressure" and "Design Temperature
". A vessel that is inadequately designed to handle a high pressure constitutes
a very significant safety hazard. Because of that, the design and certification
of pressure vessels is governed by design codes such as the ASME Boiler and Pres
sure Vessel Code in North America, the Pressure Equipment Directive of the EU (P
ED), Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS), CSA B51 in Canada, Australian Standards
in Australia and other international standards like Lloyd's, Germanischer Lloyd
, Det Norske Veritas, Socit Gnrale de Surveillance (SGS S.A.), Lloyd s Register Energy
Nederland (formerly known as Stoomwezen) etc.
Note that where the pressure-volume product is part of a safety standard, any in
compressible liquid in the vessel can be excluded as it does not contribute to t
he potential energy stored in the vessel, so only the volume of the compressible
part such as gas is used.
List of standards
EN 13445: The current European Standard, harmonized with the Pressure Equipm
ent Directive (97/23/EC). Extensively used in Europe.
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section VIII: Rules for Construction of
Pressure Vessels.
BS 5500: Former British Standard, replaced in the UK by BS EN 13445 but reta
ined under the name PD 5500 for the design and construction of export equipment.
AD Merkbltter: German standard, harmonized with the Pressure Equipment Direct
ive.
EN 286 (Parts 1 to 4): European standard for simple pressure vessels (air ta
nks), harmonized with Council Directive 87/404/EEC.
BS 4994: Specification for design and construction of vessels and tanks in r
einforced plastics.
ASME PVHO: US standard for Pressure Vessels for Human Occupancy.
CODAP: French Code for Construction of Unfired Pressure Vessel.
AS/NZS 1200: Pressure equipment.[16]
AS/NZS 3788:2006[17]
API 510.[18]
ISO 11439: Compressed natural gas (CNG) cylinders[19]
IS 2825-1969 (RE1977)_code_unfired_Pressure_vessels.
FRP tanks and vessels.
AIAA S-080-1998: AIAA Standard for Space Systems - Metallic Pressure Vessels
, Pressurized Structures, and Pressure Components.
AIAA S-081A-2006: AIAA Standard for Space Systems - Composite Overwrapped Pr
essure Vessels (COPVs).
B51-09 Canadian Boiler, pressure vessel, and pressure piping code.
HSE guidelines for pressure systems.
Stoomwezen: Former pressure vessels code in the Netherlands, also known as R
ToD: Regels voor Toestellen onder Druk (Dutch Rules for Pressure Vessels).
See also
American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)
Bottled gas
Composite overwrapped pressure vessel
Compressed air energy storage
Compressed natural gas

Demister
Fire-tube boiler
Gas cylinder
Gasket
Head (vessel)
Minimum Design Metal Temperature (MDMT)
Pressure bomb - a device for measuring leaf water potentials
Rainwater harvesting
Relief valve
Safety valve
Shell and tube heat exchanger
Vapor-Liquid Separator or Knock-Out Drum
Vortex breaker
Water well
Water-tube boiler
Notes
Nilsen, Kyle. (2011) "Development of low pressure filter testing vessel and anal
ysis of electrospun nanofiber membranes for water treatment"
Ingenious Coal-Gas Motor Tank, Popular Science monthly, January 1919, page 27, S
canned by Google Books: https://books.google.com/books?id=HykDAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA13
Hearn, E.J. (1997). Mechanics of Materials 1. An Introduction to the Mechanics o
f Elastic and Plastic Deformation of Solids and Structural Materials - Third Edi
tion. Chapter 9: Butterworth-Heinemann. pp. 199 203. ISBN 0-7506-3265-8.
NASA Tech Briefs, "Making a Metal-Lined Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessel",
1 Mar 2005.
Frietas, O., "Maintenance and Repair of Glass-Lined Equipment", Chemical Enginee
ring, 1 Jul 2007.
"High Pressure Vessels",D. Freyer and J. Harvey, 1998
ANSI/AIAA S-080-1998, Space Systems - Metallic Pressure Vessels, Pressurized Str
uctures, and Pressure Components, 5.1
Pushard, Doug (2005). "Domestic water collection systems also sometimes able to
function on gravity". Harvesth2o.com. Retrieved 2009-04-17.[verification needed]
Pushard, Doug. "Alternatives to pressure vessels in domestic water systems". Har
vesth2o.com. Retrieved 2009-04-17.
Puskarich, Paul (2009-05-01). "Strengthened Glass for Pipleine Systems" (PDF). M
IT. Retrieved 2009-04-17.
Beer, Ferdinand P.; Johnston, Jr., E. Russel; DeWolf, John T. "7.9". Mechanics o
f Materials (fourth ed.). McGraw-Hill. p. 463. ISBN 9780073659350.
For a sphere the thickness d = rP/2s, where r is the radius of the tank. The vol
ume of the spherical surface then is 4pr2d = 4pr3P/2s. The mass is determined by
multiplying by the density of the material that makes up the walls of the spher
ical vessel. Further the volume of the gas is (4pr3)/3. Combining these equation
s give the above results. The equations for the other geometries are derived in
a similar manner
Richard Budynas, J. Nisbett, Shigley's Mechanical Engineering Design, 8th ed., N
ew York:McGraw-Hill, ISBN 978-0-07-312193-2, pg 108
An International Code 2007 ASME Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code. The Americal Soci
ety of Mechanical Engineers. 2007.
MIT pressure vessel lecture
"AS 1200 Pressure Vessels". SAI Global. Retrieved 14 November 2011.
"AS_NZS 3788: 2006 Pressure equipment - In-service inspection". SAI Global. Retr
ieved September 4, 2015.
"Pressure Vessel Inspection Code: In-Service Inspection, Rating, Repair, and Alt
eration". API. June 2006.
."Gas cylinders - High pressure cylinders for the on-board storage of natura
l gas as a fuel for automotive vehicles". ISO. 2006-07-18. Retrieved 2009-04-17.

References
A.C. Ugural, S.K. Fenster, Advanced Strength and Applied Elasticity, 4th ed.
E.P. Popov, Engineering Mechanics of Solids, 1st ed.
Megyesy, Eugene F. "Pressure Vessel Handbook, 14th Edition." PV Publishing,
Inc. Oklahoma City, OK
Further reading
Megyesy, Eugene F. (2008, 14th ed.) Pressure Vessel Handbook. PV Publishing,
Inc.: Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA. www.pressurevesselhandbook.com Design handb
ook for pressure vessels based on the ASME code.
External links
Look up pressure vessel in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Pressure vessel.
Use of pressure vessels in oil and gas industry
Basic formulas for thin walled pressure vessels; with examples
Educational Excel spreadsheets for ASME head, shell and nozzle designs
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel website
Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology
EU Pressure Equipment Directive website
EU Simple Pressure Vessel Directive
EU Classification
Pressure Vessel attachments http://oakridgebellows.com/metal-expansion-joint
s/technical-videos/lugs-on-pipe-and-vessels-new
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lagon Flexible intermediate bulk container Foam food container Folding carton Fo
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Pressure vessel
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Horizontal pressure vessel in steel
A pressure vessel is a container designed to hold gases or liquids at a pressure
substantially different from the ambient pressure.
The pressure differential is dangerous, and fatal accidents have occurred in the
history of pressure vessel development and operation. Consequently, pressure ve
ssel design, manufacture, and operation are regulated by engineering authorities
backed by legislation. For these reasons, the definition of a pressure vessel v
aries from country to country, but involves parameters such as maximum safe oper
ating pressure and temperature, and are engineered with a safety factor, corrosi
on allowance, minimum design temperature (for brittle fracture), and involve non
destructive testing, such as ultrasonic testing, radiography, and pressure tests
, usually involving water, also known as a hydrotest, but could be pneumatically
tested involving air or another gas. The preferred test is hydrostatic testing
because it's a much safer method of testing as it releases much less energy if f
racture were to occur (water does not rapidly increase its volume while rapid de
pressurization occurs, unlike gases like air, i.e. gasses fail explosively). In
the United States, as with many other countries, it is the law that vessels over
a certain size and pressure (15 PSIg) be built to Code, in the United States th
at Code is the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (BPVC), these vessels also r
equire an Authorized Inspector to sign off on every new vessel constructed and e

ach vessel has a nameplate with pertinent information about the vessel such as m
aximum allowable working pressure, maximum temperature, minimum design metal tem
perature, what company manufactured it, the date, its registration number (throu
gh the National Board), and ASME's official stamp for pressure vessels (U-stamp)
, making the vessel traceable and officially an ASME Code vessel.
Contents
1 History of pressure vessels
2 Pressure vessel features
2.1 Shape of a pressure vessel
2.2 Construction materials
2.3 Safety features
2.3.1 Leak before burst
2.3.2 Safety valves
2.4 Maintenance features
2.4.1 Pressure vessel closures
3 Uses
4 Alternatives to pressure vessels
5 Design
5.1 Scaling
5.1.1 Scaling of stress in walls of vessel
5.1.2 Spherical vessel
5.1.3 Cylindrical vessel with hemispherical ends
5.1.4 Cylindrical vessel with semi-elliptical ends
5.1.5 Gas storage
5.2 Stress in thin-walled pressure vessels
5.3 Winding angle of carbon fibre vessels
5.4 Operation standards
5.4.1 List of standards
6 See also
7 Notes
8 References
9 Further reading
10 External links
History of pressure vessels
A 10,000 psi (69 MPa) pressure vessel from 1919, wrapped with high tensile steel
banding and steel rods to secure the end caps.
The earliest documented design of pressure vessels is described in the book Code
x Madrid I, by Leonardo da Vinci, in 1495, where containers of pressurized air w
ere theorized to lift heavy weights underwater,[1] however vessels resembling wh
at are used today did not come about until the 1800s where steam was generated i
n boilers helping to spur the industrial revolution.[1] However, with poor mater
ial quality and manufacturing techniques along with improper knowledge of design
, operation and maintenance there was a large number of damaging and often fatal
explosions associated with these boilers and pressure vessels, with a death occ
urring on a nearly daily basis in the United States.[1] Local providences and st
ates in the US began enacting rules for constructing these vessels after some pa
rticularly devastating vessel failures occurred killing dozens of people at a ti
me, which made it difficult for manufacturers to keep up with the varied rules f
rom one location to another and the first pressure vessel code was developed sta
rting in 1911 and released in 1914, starting the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel
Code (BPVC).[1] In an early effort to design a tank capable of withstanding pre
ssures up to 10,000 psi (69 MPa), a 6-inch (150 mm) diameter tank was developed
in 1919 that was spirally-wound with two layers of high tensile strength steel w
ire to prevent sidewall rupture, and the end caps longitudinally reinforced with
lengthwise high-tensile rods.[2] The need for high pressure and temperature ves
sels for petroleum refineries and chemical plants gave rise to vessels joined wi

th welding instead of rivets (which were unsuitable for the pressures and temper
atures required) and in 1920s and 1930s the BPVC included welding as an acceptab
le means of construction, and welding is the main means of joining metal vessels
today.[1]
There have been many advancements in the field of pressure vessel engineering su
ch as advanced non-destructive examination, phased array ultrasonic testing and
radiography, new material grades with increased corrosion resistance and stronge
r materials, and new ways to join materials such as explosion welding (to attach
one metal sheet to another, usually a thin corrosion resistant metal like stain
less steel to a stronger metal like carbon steel), friction stir welding (which
attaches the metals together without melting the metal), advanced theories and m
eans of more accurately assessing the stresses encountered in vessels such as wi
th the use of Finite Element Analysis, allowing the vessels to be built safer an
d more efficiently. Today vessels in the USA require BPVC stamping but the BPVC
is not just a domestic code, many other countries have adopted the BPVC as their
official code. There are, however, other official codes in some countries (some
of which rely on portions of and reference the BPVC), Japan, Australia, Canada,
Britain, and Europe have their own codes. Regardless of the country nearly all
recognize the inherent potential hazards of pressure vessels and the need for st
andards and codes regulating their design and construction.
Pressure vessel features
Shape of a pressure vessel
Pressure vessels can theoretically be almost any
ons of spheres, cylinders, and cones are usually
cylinder with end caps called heads. Head shapes
ical or dished (torispherical). More complicated
uch harder to analyze for safe operation and are
onstruct.

shape, but shapes made of secti


employed. A common design is a
are frequently either hemispher
shapes have historically been m
usually far more difficult to c

Spherical gas container.


Cylindrical pressure vessel.
Picture of the bottom of an aerosol spray can.
Fire Extinguisher with rounded rectangle pressure vessel
Theoretically, a spherical pressure vessel has approximately twice the strength
of a cylindrical pressure vessel with the same wall thickness,[3] and is the ide
al shape to hold internal pressure.[1] However, a spherical shape is difficult t
o manufacture, and therefore more expensive, so most pressure vessels are cylind
rical with 2:1 semi-elliptical heads or end caps on each end. Smaller pressure v
essels are assembled from a pipe and two covers. For cylindrical vessels with a
diameter up to 600 mm (NPS of 24 in), it is possible to use seamless pipe for th
e shell, thus avoiding many inspection and testing issues, mainly the nondestruc
tive examination of radiography for the long seam if required. A disadvantage of
these vessels is that greater diameters are more expensive, so that for example
the most economic shape of a 1,000 litres (35 cu ft), 250 bars (3,600 psi) pres
sure vessel might be a diameter of 91.44 centimetres (36 in) and a length of 1.7
018 metres (67 in) including the 2:1 semi-elliptical domed end caps.
Construction materials
Composite overwrapped pressure vessel with titanium liner.
Many pressure vessels are made of steel. To manufacture a cylindrical or spheric
al pressure vessel, rolled and possibly forged parts would have to be welded tog
ether. Some mechanical properties of steel, achieved by rolling or forging, coul
d be adversely affected by welding, unless special precautions are taken. In add
ition to adequate mechanical strength, current standards dictate the use of stee

l with a high impact resistance, especially for vessels used in low temperatures
. In applications where carbon steel would suffer corrosion, special corrosion r
esistant material should also be used.
Some pressure vessels are made of composite materials, such as filament wound co
mposite using carbon fibre held in place with a polymer. Due to the very high te
nsile strength of carbon fibre these vessels can be very light, but are much mor
e difficult to manufacture. The composite material may be wound around a metal l
iner, forming a composite overwrapped pressure vessel.
Other very common materials include polymers such as PET in carbonated beverage
containers and copper in plumbing.
Pressure vessels may be lined with various metals, ceramics, or polymers to prev
ent leaking and protect the structure of the vessel from the contained medium. T
his liner may also carry a significant portion of the pressure load.[4][5]
Pressure Vessels may also be constructed from concrete (PCV) or other materials
which are weak in tension. Cabling, wrapped around the vessel or within the wall
or the vessel itself, provides the necessary tension to resist the internal pre
ssure. A "leakproof steel thin membrane" lines the internal wall of the vessel.
Such vessels can be assembled from modular pieces and so have "no inherent size
limitations".[6] There is also a high order of redundancy thanks to the large nu
mber of individual cables resisting the internal pressure.
Safety features
Leak before burst
Leak before burst describes a pressure vessel designed such that a crack in the
vessel will grow through the wall, allowing the contained fluid to escape and re
ducing the pressure, prior to growing so large as to cause fracture at the opera
ting pressure.
Many pressure vessel standards, including the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Co
de[citation needed] and the AIAA metallic pressure vessel standard, either requi
re pressure vessel designs to be leak before burst, or require pressure vessels
to meet more stringent requirements for fatigue and fracture if they are not sho
wn to be leak before burst.[7]
Safety valves
Example of a valve used for gas cylinders.
As the pressure vessel is designed to a pressure, there is typically a safety va
lve or relief valve to ensure that this pressure is not exceeded in operation.
Maintenance features
Pressure vessel closures
Pressure vessel closures are pressure retaining structures designed to provide q
uick access to pipelines, pressure vessels, pig traps, filters and filtration sy
stems. Typically pressure vessel closures allow maintenance personnel.
Uses
Pressure vessels are used in a variety of applications in both industry and the
private sector. They appear in these sectors as industrial compressed air receiv
ers and domestic hot water storage tanks. Other examples of pressure vessels are
diving cylinders, recompression chambers, distillation towers, pressure reactor
s, autoclaves, and many other vessels in mining operations, oil refineries and p
etrochemical plants, nuclear reactor vessels, submarine and space ship habitats,
pneumatic reservoirs, hydraulic reservoirs under pressure, rail vehicle airbrak
e reservoirs, road vehicle airbrake reservoirs, and storage vessels for liquifie
d gases such as ammonia, chlorine, and LPG (propane, butane).

A unique application of a pressure vessel is the passenger cabin of an airliner;


The outer skin carries both the aircraft maneuvering loads and the cabin pressu
rization loads.
A pressure tank connected to a water well and domestic hot water system.
A few pressure tanks, here used to hold propane.
An expansion vessel for heating systems.
A pressure vessel used as a kier.
A pressure vessel used for The Boeing Company s CST-100 spacecraft.
Alternatives to pressure vessels
Natural gas storage
Gas holder
Depending on the application and local circumstances, alternatives to pressure v
essels exist. Examples can be seen in domestic water collection systems, where t
he following may be used:
Gravity controlled systems[8] which typically consist of an unpressurized wa
ter tank at an elevation higher than the point of use. Pressure at the point of
use is the result of the hydrostatic pressure caused by the elevation difference
. Gravity systems produce 0.43 pounds per square inch (3.0 kPa) per foot of wate
r head (elevation difference). A municipal water supply or pumped water is typic
ally around 90 pounds per square inch (620 kPa).
Inline pump controllers or pressure-sensitive pumps.[9]
Design
Scaling
No matter what shape it takes, the minimum mass of a pressure vessel scales with
the pressure and volume it contains and is inversely proportional to the streng
th to weight ratio of the construction material (minimum mass decreases as stren
gth increases[10]).
Scaling of stress in walls of vessel
Pressure vessels are held together against the gas pressure due to tensile force
s within the walls of the container. The normal (tensile) stress in the walls of
the container is proportional to the pressure and radius of the vessel and inve
rsely proportional to the thickness of the walls.[11] Therefore, pressure vessel
s are designed to have a thickness proportional to the radius of tank and the pr
essure of the tank and inversely proportional to the maximum allowed normal stre
ss of the particular material used in the walls of the container.
Because (for a given pressure) the thickness of the walls scales with the radius
of the tank, the mass of a tank (which scales as the length times radius times
thickness of the wall for a cylindrical tank) scales with the volume of the gas
held (which scales as length times radius squared). The exact formula varies wit
h the tank shape but depends on the density, ?, and maximum allowable stress s o
f the material in addition to the pressure P and volume V of the vessel. (See be
low for the exact equations for the stress in the walls.)
Spherical vessel
For a sphere, the minimum mass of a pressure vessel is
M = 3 2 P V ? s {\displaystyle M={3 \over 2}PV{\rho \over \sigma }} M={3 \ov

er 2}PV{\rho \over \sigma },


where:
M {\displaystyle
P {\displaystyle
ssure),
V {\displaystyle
? {\displaystyle
s {\displaystyle
can tolerate.[12]

M} M is mass,
P} P is the pressure difference from ambient (the gauge pre
V} V is volume,
\rho } \rho is the density of the pressure vessel material,
\sigma } \sigma is the maximum working stress that material

Other shapes besides a sphere have constants larger than 3/2 (infinite cylinders
take 2), although some tanks, such as non-spherical wound composite tanks can a
pproach this.
Cylindrical vessel with hemispherical ends
This is sometimes called a "bullet"[citation needed] for its shape, although in
geometric terms it is a capsule.
For a cylinder with hemispherical ends,
M = 2 p R 2 ( R + W ) P ? s {\displaystyle M=2\pi R^{2}(R+W)P{\rho \over \si
gma }} M=2\pi R^{2}(R+W)P{\rho \over \sigma },
where
R is the radius
W is the middle cylinder width only, and the overall width is W + 2R
Cylindrical vessel with semi-elliptical ends
In a vessel with an aspect ratio of middle cylinder width to radius of 2:1,
M = 6 p R 3 P ? s {\displaystyle M=6\pi R^{3}P{\rho \over \sigma }} M=6\pi R
^{3}P{\rho \over \sigma }.
Gas storage
In looking at the first equation, the factor PV, in SI units, is in units of (pr
essurization) energy. For a stored gas, PV is proportional to the mass of gas at
a given temperature, thus
M = 3 2 n R T ? s {\displaystyle M={3 \over 2}nRT{\rho \over \sigma }} M={3
\over 2}nRT{\rho \over \sigma }. (see gas law)
The other factors are constant for a given vessel shape and material. So we can
see that there is no theoretical "efficiency of scale", in terms of the ratio of
pressure vessel mass to pressurization energy, or of pressure vessel mass to st
ored gas mass. For storing gases, "tankage efficiency" is independent of pressur
e, at least for the same temperature.
So, for example, a typical design for a minimum mass tank to hold helium (as a p
ressurant gas) on a rocket would use a spherical chamber for a minimum shape con
stant, carbon fiber for best possible ? / s {\displaystyle \rho /\sigma } \rho /
\sigma , and very cold helium for best possible M / p V {\displaystyle M/{pV}} M
/{pV}.
Stress in thin-walled pressure vessels
Stress in a shallow-walled pressure vessel in the shape of a sphere is

s ? = s l o n g = p r 2 t {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }=\sigma _{\rm {lon


g}}={\frac {pr}{2t}}} \sigma _{\theta }=\sigma _{{{\rm {long}}}}={\frac {pr}{2t}
},
where s ? {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }} \sigma _{\theta } is hoop stress, or
stress in the circumferential direction, s l o n g {\displaystyle \sigma _{long
}} \sigma _{{long}} is stress in the longitudinal direction, p is internal gauge
pressure, r is the inner radius of the sphere, and t is thickness of the sphere
wall. A vessel can be considered "shallow-walled" if the diameter is at least 1
0 times (sometimes cited as 20 times) greater than the wall depth.[13]
Stress in the cylinder body of a pressure vessel.
Stress in a shallow-walled pressure vessel in the shape of a cylinder is
s ? = p r t {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }={\frac {pr}{t}}} \sigma _{\thet
a }={\frac {pr}{t}},
s l o n g = p r 2 t {\displaystyle \sigma _{\rm {long}}={\frac {pr}{2t}}} \s
igma _{{{\rm {long}}}}={\frac {pr}{2t}},
where:
s ? {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }} \sigma _{\theta } is hoop stress, or s
tress in the circumferential direction
s l o n g {\displaystyle \sigma _{long}} \sigma _{{long}} is stress in the l
ongitudinal direction
p is internal gauge pressure
r is the inner radius of the cylinder
t is thickness of the cylinder wall.
Almost all pressure vessel design standards contain variations of these two form
ulas with additional empirical terms to account for wall thickness tolerances, q
uality control of welds and in-service corrosion allowances.
For example, the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (BPVC) (UG-27) formulas ar
e:[14]
Spherical shells:
s ? = s l o n g = p ( r + 0.2 t ) 2 t E {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }=\si
gma _{\rm {long}}={\frac {p(r+0.2t)}{2tE}}} \sigma _{\theta }=\sigma _{{{\rm {lo
ng}}}}={\frac {p(r+0.2t)}{2tE}}
Cylindrical shells:
s ? = p ( r + 0.6 t ) t E {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }={\frac {p(r+0.6t)
}{tE}}} \sigma _{\theta }={\frac {p(r+0.6t)}{tE}}
s l o n g = p ( r - 0.4 t ) 2 t E {\displaystyle \sigma _{\rm {long}}={\frac
{p(r-0.4t)}{2tE}}} \sigma _{{{\rm {long}}}}={\frac {p(r-0.4t)}{2tE}}
where E is the joint efficient, and all others variables as stated above.
The factor of safety is often included in these formulas as well, in the case of
the ASME BPVC this term is included in the material stress value when solving f
or pressure or thickness.
Winding angle of carbon fibre vessels
Wound infinite cylindrical shapes optimally take a winding angle of 54.7 degrees
, as this gives the necessary twice the strength in the circumferential directio
n to the longitudinal.[15]

Operation standards
Pressure vessels are designed to operate safely at a specific pressure and tempe
rature, technically referred to as the "Design Pressure" and "Design Temperature
". A vessel that is inadequately designed to handle a high pressure constitutes
a very significant safety hazard. Because of that, the design and certification
of pressure vessels is governed by design codes such as the ASME Boiler and Pres
sure Vessel Code in North America, the Pressure Equipment Directive of the EU (P
ED), Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS), CSA B51 in Canada, Australian Standards
in Australia and other international standards like Lloyd's, Germanischer Lloyd
, Det Norske Veritas, Socit Gnrale de Surveillance (SGS S.A.), Lloyd s Register Energy
Nederland (formerly known as Stoomwezen) etc.
Note that where the pressure-volume product is part of a safety standard, any in
compressible liquid in the vessel can be excluded as it does not contribute to t
he potential energy stored in the vessel, so only the volume of the compressible
part such as gas is used.
List of standards
EN 13445: The current European Standard, harmonized with the Pressure Equipm
ent Directive (97/23/EC). Extensively used in Europe.
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section VIII: Rules for Construction of
Pressure Vessels.
BS 5500: Former British Standard, replaced in the UK by BS EN 13445 but reta
ined under the name PD 5500 for the design and construction of export equipment.
AD Merkbltter: German standard, harmonized with the Pressure Equipment Direct
ive.
EN 286 (Parts 1 to 4): European standard for simple pressure vessels (air ta
nks), harmonized with Council Directive 87/404/EEC.
BS 4994: Specification for design and construction of vessels and tanks in r
einforced plastics.
ASME PVHO: US standard for Pressure Vessels for Human Occupancy.
CODAP: French Code for Construction of Unfired Pressure Vessel.
AS/NZS 1200: Pressure equipment.[16]
AS/NZS 3788:2006[17]
API 510.[18]
ISO 11439: Compressed natural gas (CNG) cylinders[19]
IS 2825-1969 (RE1977)_code_unfired_Pressure_vessels.
FRP tanks and vessels.
AIAA S-080-1998: AIAA Standard for Space Systems - Metallic Pressure Vessels
, Pressurized Structures, and Pressure Components.
AIAA S-081A-2006: AIAA Standard for Space Systems - Composite Overwrapped Pr
essure Vessels (COPVs).
B51-09 Canadian Boiler, pressure vessel, and pressure piping code.
HSE guidelines for pressure systems.
Stoomwezen: Former pressure vessels code in the Netherlands, also known as R
ToD: Regels voor Toestellen onder Druk (Dutch Rules for Pressure Vessels).
See also
American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)
Bottled gas
Composite overwrapped pressure vessel
Compressed air energy storage
Compressed natural gas
Demister
Fire-tube boiler
Gas cylinder
Gasket
Head (vessel)

Minimum Design Metal Temperature (MDMT)


Pressure bomb - a device for measuring leaf water potentials
Rainwater harvesting
Relief valve
Safety valve
Shell and tube heat exchanger
Vapor-Liquid Separator or Knock-Out Drum
Vortex breaker
Water well
Water-tube boiler
Notes
Nilsen, Kyle. (2011) "Development of low pressure filter testing vessel and anal
ysis of electrospun nanofiber membranes for water treatment"
Ingenious Coal-Gas Motor Tank, Popular Science monthly, January 1919, page 27, S
canned by Google Books: https://books.google.com/books?id=HykDAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA13
Hearn, E.J. (1997). Mechanics of Materials 1. An Introduction to the Mechanics o
f Elastic and Plastic Deformation of Solids and Structural Materials - Third Edi
tion. Chapter 9: Butterworth-Heinemann. pp. 199 203. ISBN 0-7506-3265-8.
NASA Tech Briefs, "Making a Metal-Lined Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessel",
1 Mar 2005.
Frietas, O., "Maintenance and Repair of Glass-Lined Equipment", Chemical Enginee
ring, 1 Jul 2007.
"High Pressure Vessels",D. Freyer and J. Harvey, 1998
ANSI/AIAA S-080-1998, Space Systems - Metallic Pressure Vessels, Pressurized Str
uctures, and Pressure Components, 5.1
Pushard, Doug (2005). "Domestic water collection systems also sometimes able to
function on gravity". Harvesth2o.com. Retrieved 2009-04-17.[verification needed]
Pushard, Doug. "Alternatives to pressure vessels in domestic water systems". Har
vesth2o.com. Retrieved 2009-04-17.
Puskarich, Paul (2009-05-01). "Strengthened Glass for Pipleine Systems" (PDF). M
IT. Retrieved 2009-04-17.
Beer, Ferdinand P.; Johnston, Jr., E. Russel; DeWolf, John T. "7.9". Mechanics o
f Materials (fourth ed.). McGraw-Hill. p. 463. ISBN 9780073659350.
For a sphere the thickness d = rP/2s, where r is the radius of the tank. The vol
ume of the spherical surface then is 4pr2d = 4pr3P/2s. The mass is determined by
multiplying by the density of the material that makes up the walls of the spher
ical vessel. Further the volume of the gas is (4pr3)/3. Combining these equation
s give the above results. The equations for the other geometries are derived in
a similar manner
Richard Budynas, J. Nisbett, Shigley's Mechanical Engineering Design, 8th ed., N
ew York:McGraw-Hill, ISBN 978-0-07-312193-2, pg 108
An International Code 2007 ASME Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code. The Americal Soci
ety of Mechanical Engineers. 2007.
MIT pressure vessel lecture
"AS 1200 Pressure Vessels". SAI Global. Retrieved 14 November 2011.
"AS_NZS 3788: 2006 Pressure equipment - In-service inspection". SAI Global. Retr
ieved September 4, 2015.
"Pressure Vessel Inspection Code: In-Service Inspection, Rating, Repair, and Alt
eration". API. June 2006.
."Gas cylinders - High pressure cylinders for the on-board storage of natura
l gas as a fuel for automotive vehicles". ISO. 2006-07-18. Retrieved 2009-04-17.
References
A.C. Ugural, S.K. Fenster, Advanced Strength and Applied Elasticity, 4th ed.
E.P. Popov, Engineering Mechanics of Solids, 1st ed.
Megyesy, Eugene F. "Pressure Vessel Handbook, 14th Edition." PV Publishing,

Inc. Oklahoma City, OK


Further reading
Megyesy, Eugene F. (2008, 14th ed.) Pressure Vessel Handbook. PV Publishing,
Inc.: Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA. www.pressurevesselhandbook.com Design handb
ook for pressure vessels based on the ASME code.
External links
Look up pressure vessel in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Pressure vessel.
Use of pressure vessels in oil and gas industry
Basic formulas for thin walled pressure vessels; with examples
Educational Excel spreadsheets for ASME head, shell and nozzle designs
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel website
Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology
EU Pressure Equipment Directive website
EU Simple Pressure Vessel Directive
EU Classification
Pressure Vessel attachments http://oakridgebellows.com/metal-expansion-joint
s/technical-videos/lugs-on-pipe-and-vessels-new
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Pressure vessel
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Horizontal pressure vessel in steel
A pressure vessel is a container designed to hold gases or liquids at a pressure
substantially different from the ambient pressure.
The pressure differential is dangerous, and fatal accidents have occurred in the
history of pressure vessel development and operation. Consequently, pressure ve
ssel design, manufacture, and operation are regulated by engineering authorities
backed by legislation. For these reasons, the definition of a pressure vessel v
aries from country to country, but involves parameters such as maximum safe oper
ating pressure and temperature, and are engineered with a safety factor, corrosi
on allowance, minimum design temperature (for brittle fracture), and involve non
destructive testing, such as ultrasonic testing, radiography, and pressure tests
, usually involving water, also known as a hydrotest, but could be pneumatically
tested involving air or another gas. The preferred test is hydrostatic testing
because it's a much safer method of testing as it releases much less energy if f
racture were to occur (water does not rapidly increase its volume while rapid de
pressurization occurs, unlike gases like air, i.e. gasses fail explosively). In
the United States, as with many other countries, it is the law that vessels over
a certain size and pressure (15 PSIg) be built to Code, in the United States th
at Code is the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (BPVC), these vessels also r
equire an Authorized Inspector to sign off on every new vessel constructed and e
ach vessel has a nameplate with pertinent information about the vessel such as m
aximum allowable working pressure, maximum temperature, minimum design metal tem
perature, what company manufactured it, the date, its registration number (throu
gh the National Board), and ASME's official stamp for pressure vessels (U-stamp)
, making the vessel traceable and officially an ASME Code vessel.

Contents
1 History of pressure vessels
2 Pressure vessel features
2.1 Shape of a pressure vessel
2.2 Construction materials
2.3 Safety features
2.3.1 Leak before burst
2.3.2 Safety valves
2.4 Maintenance features
2.4.1 Pressure vessel closures
3 Uses
4 Alternatives to pressure vessels
5 Design
5.1 Scaling
5.1.1 Scaling of stress in walls of vessel
5.1.2 Spherical vessel
5.1.3 Cylindrical vessel with hemispherical ends
5.1.4 Cylindrical vessel with semi-elliptical ends
5.1.5 Gas storage
5.2 Stress in thin-walled pressure vessels
5.3 Winding angle of carbon fibre vessels
5.4 Operation standards
5.4.1 List of standards
6 See also
7 Notes
8 References
9 Further reading
10 External links
History of pressure vessels
A 10,000 psi (69 MPa) pressure vessel from 1919, wrapped with high tensile steel
banding and steel rods to secure the end caps.
The earliest documented design of pressure vessels is described in the book Code
x Madrid I, by Leonardo da Vinci, in 1495, where containers of pressurized air w
ere theorized to lift heavy weights underwater,[1] however vessels resembling wh
at are used today did not come about until the 1800s where steam was generated i
n boilers helping to spur the industrial revolution.[1] However, with poor mater
ial quality and manufacturing techniques along with improper knowledge of design
, operation and maintenance there was a large number of damaging and often fatal
explosions associated with these boilers and pressure vessels, with a death occ
urring on a nearly daily basis in the United States.[1] Local providences and st
ates in the US began enacting rules for constructing these vessels after some pa
rticularly devastating vessel failures occurred killing dozens of people at a ti
me, which made it difficult for manufacturers to keep up with the varied rules f
rom one location to another and the first pressure vessel code was developed sta
rting in 1911 and released in 1914, starting the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel
Code (BPVC).[1] In an early effort to design a tank capable of withstanding pre
ssures up to 10,000 psi (69 MPa), a 6-inch (150 mm) diameter tank was developed
in 1919 that was spirally-wound with two layers of high tensile strength steel w
ire to prevent sidewall rupture, and the end caps longitudinally reinforced with
lengthwise high-tensile rods.[2] The need for high pressure and temperature ves
sels for petroleum refineries and chemical plants gave rise to vessels joined wi
th welding instead of rivets (which were unsuitable for the pressures and temper
atures required) and in 1920s and 1930s the BPVC included welding as an acceptab
le means of construction, and welding is the main means of joining metal vessels
today.[1]

There have been many advancements in the field of pressure vessel engineering su
ch as advanced non-destructive examination, phased array ultrasonic testing and
radiography, new material grades with increased corrosion resistance and stronge
r materials, and new ways to join materials such as explosion welding (to attach
one metal sheet to another, usually a thin corrosion resistant metal like stain
less steel to a stronger metal like carbon steel), friction stir welding (which
attaches the metals together without melting the metal), advanced theories and m
eans of more accurately assessing the stresses encountered in vessels such as wi
th the use of Finite Element Analysis, allowing the vessels to be built safer an
d more efficiently. Today vessels in the USA require BPVC stamping but the BPVC
is not just a domestic code, many other countries have adopted the BPVC as their
official code. There are, however, other official codes in some countries (some
of which rely on portions of and reference the BPVC), Japan, Australia, Canada,
Britain, and Europe have their own codes. Regardless of the country nearly all
recognize the inherent potential hazards of pressure vessels and the need for st
andards and codes regulating their design and construction.
Pressure vessel features
Shape of a pressure vessel
Pressure vessels can theoretically be almost any
ons of spheres, cylinders, and cones are usually
cylinder with end caps called heads. Head shapes
ical or dished (torispherical). More complicated
uch harder to analyze for safe operation and are
onstruct.

shape, but shapes made of secti


employed. A common design is a
are frequently either hemispher
shapes have historically been m
usually far more difficult to c

Spherical gas container.


Cylindrical pressure vessel.
Picture of the bottom of an aerosol spray can.
Fire Extinguisher with rounded rectangle pressure vessel
Theoretically, a spherical pressure vessel has approximately twice the strength
of a cylindrical pressure vessel with the same wall thickness,[3] and is the ide
al shape to hold internal pressure.[1] However, a spherical shape is difficult t
o manufacture, and therefore more expensive, so most pressure vessels are cylind
rical with 2:1 semi-elliptical heads or end caps on each end. Smaller pressure v
essels are assembled from a pipe and two covers. For cylindrical vessels with a
diameter up to 600 mm (NPS of 24 in), it is possible to use seamless pipe for th
e shell, thus avoiding many inspection and testing issues, mainly the nondestruc
tive examination of radiography for the long seam if required. A disadvantage of
these vessels is that greater diameters are more expensive, so that for example
the most economic shape of a 1,000 litres (35 cu ft), 250 bars (3,600 psi) pres
sure vessel might be a diameter of 91.44 centimetres (36 in) and a length of 1.7
018 metres (67 in) including the 2:1 semi-elliptical domed end caps.
Construction materials
Composite overwrapped pressure vessel with titanium liner.
Many pressure vessels are made of steel. To manufacture a cylindrical or spheric
al pressure vessel, rolled and possibly forged parts would have to be welded tog
ether. Some mechanical properties of steel, achieved by rolling or forging, coul
d be adversely affected by welding, unless special precautions are taken. In add
ition to adequate mechanical strength, current standards dictate the use of stee
l with a high impact resistance, especially for vessels used in low temperatures
. In applications where carbon steel would suffer corrosion, special corrosion r
esistant material should also be used.
Some pressure vessels are made of composite materials, such as filament wound co

mposite using carbon fibre held in place with a polymer. Due to the very high te
nsile strength of carbon fibre these vessels can be very light, but are much mor
e difficult to manufacture. The composite material may be wound around a metal l
iner, forming a composite overwrapped pressure vessel.
Other very common materials include polymers such as PET in carbonated beverage
containers and copper in plumbing.
Pressure vessels may be lined with various metals, ceramics, or polymers to prev
ent leaking and protect the structure of the vessel from the contained medium. T
his liner may also carry a significant portion of the pressure load.[4][5]
Pressure Vessels may also be constructed from concrete (PCV) or other materials
which are weak in tension. Cabling, wrapped around the vessel or within the wall
or the vessel itself, provides the necessary tension to resist the internal pre
ssure. A "leakproof steel thin membrane" lines the internal wall of the vessel.
Such vessels can be assembled from modular pieces and so have "no inherent size
limitations".[6] There is also a high order of redundancy thanks to the large nu
mber of individual cables resisting the internal pressure.
Safety features
Leak before burst
Leak before burst describes a pressure vessel designed such that a crack in the
vessel will grow through the wall, allowing the contained fluid to escape and re
ducing the pressure, prior to growing so large as to cause fracture at the opera
ting pressure.
Many pressure vessel standards, including the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Co
de[citation needed] and the AIAA metallic pressure vessel standard, either requi
re pressure vessel designs to be leak before burst, or require pressure vessels
to meet more stringent requirements for fatigue and fracture if they are not sho
wn to be leak before burst.[7]
Safety valves
Example of a valve used for gas cylinders.
As the pressure vessel is designed to a pressure, there is typically a safety va
lve or relief valve to ensure that this pressure is not exceeded in operation.
Maintenance features
Pressure vessel closures
Pressure vessel closures are pressure retaining structures designed to provide q
uick access to pipelines, pressure vessels, pig traps, filters and filtration sy
stems. Typically pressure vessel closures allow maintenance personnel.
Uses
Pressure vessels are used in a variety of applications in both industry and the
private sector. They appear in these sectors as industrial compressed air receiv
ers and domestic hot water storage tanks. Other examples of pressure vessels are
diving cylinders, recompression chambers, distillation towers, pressure reactor
s, autoclaves, and many other vessels in mining operations, oil refineries and p
etrochemical plants, nuclear reactor vessels, submarine and space ship habitats,
pneumatic reservoirs, hydraulic reservoirs under pressure, rail vehicle airbrak
e reservoirs, road vehicle airbrake reservoirs, and storage vessels for liquifie
d gases such as ammonia, chlorine, and LPG (propane, butane).
A unique application of a pressure vessel is the passenger cabin of an airliner;
The outer skin carries both the aircraft maneuvering loads and the cabin pressu
rization loads.
A pressure tank connected to a water well and domestic hot water system.

A few pressure tanks, here used to hold propane.


An expansion vessel for heating systems.
A pressure vessel used as a kier.
A pressure vessel used for The Boeing Company s CST-100 spacecraft.
Alternatives to pressure vessels
Natural gas storage
Gas holder
Depending on the application and local circumstances, alternatives to pressure v
essels exist. Examples can be seen in domestic water collection systems, where t
he following may be used:
Gravity controlled systems[8] which typically consist of an unpressurized wa
ter tank at an elevation higher than the point of use. Pressure at the point of
use is the result of the hydrostatic pressure caused by the elevation difference
. Gravity systems produce 0.43 pounds per square inch (3.0 kPa) per foot of wate
r head (elevation difference). A municipal water supply or pumped water is typic
ally around 90 pounds per square inch (620 kPa).
Inline pump controllers or pressure-sensitive pumps.[9]
Design
Scaling
No matter what shape it takes, the minimum mass of a pressure vessel scales with
the pressure and volume it contains and is inversely proportional to the streng
th to weight ratio of the construction material (minimum mass decreases as stren
gth increases[10]).
Scaling of stress in walls of vessel
Pressure vessels are held together against the gas pressure due to tensile force
s within the walls of the container. The normal (tensile) stress in the walls of
the container is proportional to the pressure and radius of the vessel and inve
rsely proportional to the thickness of the walls.[11] Therefore, pressure vessel
s are designed to have a thickness proportional to the radius of tank and the pr
essure of the tank and inversely proportional to the maximum allowed normal stre
ss of the particular material used in the walls of the container.
Because (for a given pressure) the thickness of the walls scales with the radius
of the tank, the mass of a tank (which scales as the length times radius times
thickness of the wall for a cylindrical tank) scales with the volume of the gas
held (which scales as length times radius squared). The exact formula varies wit
h the tank shape but depends on the density, ?, and maximum allowable stress s o
f the material in addition to the pressure P and volume V of the vessel. (See be
low for the exact equations for the stress in the walls.)
Spherical vessel
For a sphere, the minimum mass of a pressure vessel is
M = 3 2 P V ? s {\displaystyle M={3 \over 2}PV{\rho \over \sigma }} M={3 \ov
er 2}PV{\rho \over \sigma },
where:
M {\displaystyle M} M is mass,

P {\displaystyle
ssure),
V {\displaystyle
? {\displaystyle
s {\displaystyle
can tolerate.[12]

P} P is the pressure difference from ambient (the gauge pre


V} V is volume,
\rho } \rho is the density of the pressure vessel material,
\sigma } \sigma is the maximum working stress that material

Other shapes besides a sphere have constants larger than 3/2 (infinite cylinders
take 2), although some tanks, such as non-spherical wound composite tanks can a
pproach this.
Cylindrical vessel with hemispherical ends
This is sometimes called a "bullet"[citation needed] for its shape, although in
geometric terms it is a capsule.
For a cylinder with hemispherical ends,
M = 2 p R 2 ( R + W ) P ? s {\displaystyle M=2\pi R^{2}(R+W)P{\rho \over \si
gma }} M=2\pi R^{2}(R+W)P{\rho \over \sigma },
where
R is the radius
W is the middle cylinder width only, and the overall width is W + 2R
Cylindrical vessel with semi-elliptical ends
In a vessel with an aspect ratio of middle cylinder width to radius of 2:1,
M = 6 p R 3 P ? s {\displaystyle M=6\pi R^{3}P{\rho \over \sigma }} M=6\pi R
^{3}P{\rho \over \sigma }.
Gas storage
In looking at the first equation, the factor PV, in SI units, is in units of (pr
essurization) energy. For a stored gas, PV is proportional to the mass of gas at
a given temperature, thus
M = 3 2 n R T ? s {\displaystyle M={3 \over 2}nRT{\rho \over \sigma }} M={3
\over 2}nRT{\rho \over \sigma }. (see gas law)
The other factors are constant for a given vessel shape and material. So we can
see that there is no theoretical "efficiency of scale", in terms of the ratio of
pressure vessel mass to pressurization energy, or of pressure vessel mass to st
ored gas mass. For storing gases, "tankage efficiency" is independent of pressur
e, at least for the same temperature.
So, for example, a typical design for a minimum mass tank to hold helium (as a p
ressurant gas) on a rocket would use a spherical chamber for a minimum shape con
stant, carbon fiber for best possible ? / s {\displaystyle \rho /\sigma } \rho /
\sigma , and very cold helium for best possible M / p V {\displaystyle M/{pV}} M
/{pV}.
Stress in thin-walled pressure vessels
Stress in a shallow-walled pressure vessel in the shape of a sphere is
s ? = s l o n g = p r 2 t {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }=\sigma _{\rm {lon
g}}={\frac {pr}{2t}}} \sigma _{\theta }=\sigma _{{{\rm {long}}}}={\frac {pr}{2t}
},

where s ? {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }} \sigma _{\theta } is hoop stress, or


stress in the circumferential direction, s l o n g {\displaystyle \sigma _{long
}} \sigma _{{long}} is stress in the longitudinal direction, p is internal gauge
pressure, r is the inner radius of the sphere, and t is thickness of the sphere
wall. A vessel can be considered "shallow-walled" if the diameter is at least 1
0 times (sometimes cited as 20 times) greater than the wall depth.[13]
Stress in the cylinder body of a pressure vessel.
Stress in a shallow-walled pressure vessel in the shape of a cylinder is
s ? = p r t {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }={\frac {pr}{t}}} \sigma _{\thet
a }={\frac {pr}{t}},
s l o n g = p r 2 t {\displaystyle \sigma _{\rm {long}}={\frac {pr}{2t}}} \s
igma _{{{\rm {long}}}}={\frac {pr}{2t}},
where:
s ? {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }} \sigma _{\theta } is hoop stress, or s
tress in the circumferential direction
s l o n g {\displaystyle \sigma _{long}} \sigma _{{long}} is stress in the l
ongitudinal direction
p is internal gauge pressure
r is the inner radius of the cylinder
t is thickness of the cylinder wall.
Almost all pressure vessel design standards contain variations of these two form
ulas with additional empirical terms to account for wall thickness tolerances, q
uality control of welds and in-service corrosion allowances.
For example, the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (BPVC) (UG-27) formulas ar
e:[14]
Spherical shells:
s ? = s l o n g = p ( r + 0.2 t ) 2 t E {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }=\si
gma _{\rm {long}}={\frac {p(r+0.2t)}{2tE}}} \sigma _{\theta }=\sigma _{{{\rm {lo
ng}}}}={\frac {p(r+0.2t)}{2tE}}
Cylindrical shells:
s ? = p ( r + 0.6 t ) t E {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }={\frac {p(r+0.6t)
}{tE}}} \sigma _{\theta }={\frac {p(r+0.6t)}{tE}}
s l o n g = p ( r - 0.4 t ) 2 t E {\displaystyle \sigma _{\rm {long}}={\frac
{p(r-0.4t)}{2tE}}} \sigma _{{{\rm {long}}}}={\frac {p(r-0.4t)}{2tE}}
where E is the joint efficient, and all others variables as stated above.
The factor of safety is often included in these formulas as well, in the case of
the ASME BPVC this term is included in the material stress value when solving f
or pressure or thickness.
Winding angle of carbon fibre vessels
Wound infinite cylindrical shapes optimally take a winding angle of 54.7 degrees
, as this gives the necessary twice the strength in the circumferential directio
n to the longitudinal.[15]
Operation standards
Pressure vessels are designed to operate safely at a specific pressure and tempe
rature, technically referred to as the "Design Pressure" and "Design Temperature
". A vessel that is inadequately designed to handle a high pressure constitutes

a very significant safety hazard. Because of that, the design and certification
of pressure vessels is governed by design codes such as the ASME Boiler and Pres
sure Vessel Code in North America, the Pressure Equipment Directive of the EU (P
ED), Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS), CSA B51 in Canada, Australian Standards
in Australia and other international standards like Lloyd's, Germanischer Lloyd
, Det Norske Veritas, Socit Gnrale de Surveillance (SGS S.A.), Lloyd s Register Energy
Nederland (formerly known as Stoomwezen) etc.
Note that where the pressure-volume product is part of a safety standard, any in
compressible liquid in the vessel can be excluded as it does not contribute to t
he potential energy stored in the vessel, so only the volume of the compressible
part such as gas is used.
List of standards
EN 13445: The current European Standard, harmonized with the Pressure Equipm
ent Directive (97/23/EC). Extensively used in Europe.
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section VIII: Rules for Construction of
Pressure Vessels.
BS 5500: Former British Standard, replaced in the UK by BS EN 13445 but reta
ined under the name PD 5500 for the design and construction of export equipment.
AD Merkbltter: German standard, harmonized with the Pressure Equipment Direct
ive.
EN 286 (Parts 1 to 4): European standard for simple pressure vessels (air ta
nks), harmonized with Council Directive 87/404/EEC.
BS 4994: Specification for design and construction of vessels and tanks in r
einforced plastics.
ASME PVHO: US standard for Pressure Vessels for Human Occupancy.
CODAP: French Code for Construction of Unfired Pressure Vessel.
AS/NZS 1200: Pressure equipment.[16]
AS/NZS 3788:2006[17]
API 510.[18]
ISO 11439: Compressed natural gas (CNG) cylinders[19]
IS 2825-1969 (RE1977)_code_unfired_Pressure_vessels.
FRP tanks and vessels.
AIAA S-080-1998: AIAA Standard for Space Systems - Metallic Pressure Vessels
, Pressurized Structures, and Pressure Components.
AIAA S-081A-2006: AIAA Standard for Space Systems - Composite Overwrapped Pr
essure Vessels (COPVs).
B51-09 Canadian Boiler, pressure vessel, and pressure piping code.
HSE guidelines for pressure systems.
Stoomwezen: Former pressure vessels code in the Netherlands, also known as R
ToD: Regels voor Toestellen onder Druk (Dutch Rules for Pressure Vessels).
See also
American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)
Bottled gas
Composite overwrapped pressure vessel
Compressed air energy storage
Compressed natural gas
Demister
Fire-tube boiler
Gas cylinder
Gasket
Head (vessel)
Minimum Design Metal Temperature (MDMT)
Pressure bomb - a device for measuring leaf water potentials
Rainwater harvesting
Relief valve
Safety valve

Shell and tube heat exchanger


Vapor-Liquid Separator or Knock-Out Drum
Vortex breaker
Water well
Water-tube boiler
Notes
Nilsen, Kyle. (2011) "Development of low pressure filter testing vessel and anal
ysis of electrospun nanofiber membranes for water treatment"
Ingenious Coal-Gas Motor Tank, Popular Science monthly, January 1919, page 27, S
canned by Google Books: https://books.google.com/books?id=HykDAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA13
Hearn, E.J. (1997). Mechanics of Materials 1. An Introduction to the Mechanics o
f Elastic and Plastic Deformation of Solids and Structural Materials - Third Edi
tion. Chapter 9: Butterworth-Heinemann. pp. 199 203. ISBN 0-7506-3265-8.
NASA Tech Briefs, "Making a Metal-Lined Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessel",
1 Mar 2005.
Frietas, O., "Maintenance and Repair of Glass-Lined Equipment", Chemical Enginee
ring, 1 Jul 2007.
"High Pressure Vessels",D. Freyer and J. Harvey, 1998
ANSI/AIAA S-080-1998, Space Systems - Metallic Pressure Vessels, Pressurized Str
uctures, and Pressure Components, 5.1
Pushard, Doug (2005). "Domestic water collection systems also sometimes able to
function on gravity". Harvesth2o.com. Retrieved 2009-04-17.[verification needed]
Pushard, Doug. "Alternatives to pressure vessels in domestic water systems". Har
vesth2o.com. Retrieved 2009-04-17.
Puskarich, Paul (2009-05-01). "Strengthened Glass for Pipleine Systems" (PDF). M
IT. Retrieved 2009-04-17.
Beer, Ferdinand P.; Johnston, Jr., E. Russel; DeWolf, John T. "7.9". Mechanics o
f Materials (fourth ed.). McGraw-Hill. p. 463. ISBN 9780073659350.
For a sphere the thickness d = rP/2s, where r is the radius of the tank. The vol
ume of the spherical surface then is 4pr2d = 4pr3P/2s. The mass is determined by
multiplying by the density of the material that makes up the walls of the spher
ical vessel. Further the volume of the gas is (4pr3)/3. Combining these equation
s give the above results. The equations for the other geometries are derived in
a similar manner
Richard Budynas, J. Nisbett, Shigley's Mechanical Engineering Design, 8th ed., N
ew York:McGraw-Hill, ISBN 978-0-07-312193-2, pg 108
An International Code 2007 ASME Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code. The Americal Soci
ety of Mechanical Engineers. 2007.
MIT pressure vessel lecture
"AS 1200 Pressure Vessels". SAI Global. Retrieved 14 November 2011.
"AS_NZS 3788: 2006 Pressure equipment - In-service inspection". SAI Global. Retr
ieved September 4, 2015.
"Pressure Vessel Inspection Code: In-Service Inspection, Rating, Repair, and Alt
eration". API. June 2006.
."Gas cylinders - High pressure cylinders for the on-board storage of natura
l gas as a fuel for automotive vehicles". ISO. 2006-07-18. Retrieved 2009-04-17.
References
A.C. Ugural, S.K. Fenster, Advanced Strength and Applied Elasticity, 4th ed.
E.P. Popov, Engineering Mechanics of Solids, 1st ed.
Megyesy, Eugene F. "Pressure Vessel Handbook, 14th Edition." PV Publishing,
Inc. Oklahoma City, OK
Further reading
Megyesy, Eugene F. (2008, 14th ed.) Pressure Vessel Handbook. PV Publishing,

Inc.: Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA. www.pressurevesselhandbook.com Design handb


ook for pressure vessels based on the ASME code.
External links
Look up pressure vessel in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Pressure vessel.
Use of pressure vessels in oil and gas industry
Basic formulas for thin walled pressure vessels; with examples
Educational Excel spreadsheets for ASME head, shell and nozzle designs
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel website
Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology
EU Pressure Equipment Directive website
EU Simple Pressure Vessel Directive
EU Classification
Pressure Vessel attachments http://oakridgebellows.com/metal-expansion-joint
s/technical-videos/lugs-on-pipe-and-vessels-new
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Pressure vessel
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Horizontal pressure vessel in steel
A pressure vessel is a container designed to hold gases or liquids at a pressure
substantially different from the ambient pressure.
The pressure differential is dangerous, and fatal accidents have occurred in the
history of pressure vessel development and operation. Consequently, pressure ve
ssel design, manufacture, and operation are regulated by engineering authorities
backed by legislation. For these reasons, the definition of a pressure vessel v
aries from country to country, but involves parameters such as maximum safe oper
ating pressure and temperature, and are engineered with a safety factor, corrosi
on allowance, minimum design temperature (for brittle fracture), and involve non
destructive testing, such as ultrasonic testing, radiography, and pressure tests
, usually involving water, also known as a hydrotest, but could be pneumatically
tested involving air or another gas. The preferred test is hydrostatic testing
because it's a much safer method of testing as it releases much less energy if f
racture were to occur (water does not rapidly increase its volume while rapid de
pressurization occurs, unlike gases like air, i.e. gasses fail explosively). In
the United States, as with many other countries, it is the law that vessels over
a certain size and pressure (15 PSIg) be built to Code, in the United States th
at Code is the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (BPVC), these vessels also r
equire an Authorized Inspector to sign off on every new vessel constructed and e
ach vessel has a nameplate with pertinent information about the vessel such as m
aximum allowable working pressure, maximum temperature, minimum design metal tem
perature, what company manufactured it, the date, its registration number (throu
gh the National Board), and ASME's official stamp for pressure vessels (U-stamp)
, making the vessel traceable and officially an ASME Code vessel.
Contents
1 History of pressure vessels
2 Pressure vessel features

2.1 Shape of a pressure vessel


2.2 Construction materials
2.3 Safety features
2.3.1 Leak before burst
2.3.2 Safety valves
2.4 Maintenance features
2.4.1 Pressure vessel closures
3 Uses
4 Alternatives to pressure vessels
5 Design
5.1 Scaling
5.1.1 Scaling of stress in walls of vessel
5.1.2 Spherical vessel
5.1.3 Cylindrical vessel with hemispherical ends
5.1.4 Cylindrical vessel with semi-elliptical ends
5.1.5 Gas storage
5.2 Stress in thin-walled pressure vessels
5.3 Winding angle of carbon fibre vessels
5.4 Operation standards
5.4.1 List of standards
6 See also
7 Notes
8 References
9 Further reading
10 External links
History of pressure vessels
A 10,000 psi (69 MPa) pressure vessel from 1919, wrapped with high tensile steel
banding and steel rods to secure the end caps.
The earliest documented design of pressure vessels is described in the book Code
x Madrid I, by Leonardo da Vinci, in 1495, where containers of pressurized air w
ere theorized to lift heavy weights underwater,[1] however vessels resembling wh
at are used today did not come about until the 1800s where steam was generated i
n boilers helping to spur the industrial revolution.[1] However, with poor mater
ial quality and manufacturing techniques along with improper knowledge of design
, operation and maintenance there was a large number of damaging and often fatal
explosions associated with these boilers and pressure vessels, with a death occ
urring on a nearly daily basis in the United States.[1] Local providences and st
ates in the US began enacting rules for constructing these vessels after some pa
rticularly devastating vessel failures occurred killing dozens of people at a ti
me, which made it difficult for manufacturers to keep up with the varied rules f
rom one location to another and the first pressure vessel code was developed sta
rting in 1911 and released in 1914, starting the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel
Code (BPVC).[1] In an early effort to design a tank capable of withstanding pre
ssures up to 10,000 psi (69 MPa), a 6-inch (150 mm) diameter tank was developed
in 1919 that was spirally-wound with two layers of high tensile strength steel w
ire to prevent sidewall rupture, and the end caps longitudinally reinforced with
lengthwise high-tensile rods.[2] The need for high pressure and temperature ves
sels for petroleum refineries and chemical plants gave rise to vessels joined wi
th welding instead of rivets (which were unsuitable for the pressures and temper
atures required) and in 1920s and 1930s the BPVC included welding as an acceptab
le means of construction, and welding is the main means of joining metal vessels
today.[1]
There have been many advancements in the field of pressure vessel engineering su
ch as advanced non-destructive examination, phased array ultrasonic testing and
radiography, new material grades with increased corrosion resistance and stronge
r materials, and new ways to join materials such as explosion welding (to attach
one metal sheet to another, usually a thin corrosion resistant metal like stain

less steel to a stronger metal like carbon steel), friction stir welding (which
attaches the metals together without melting the metal), advanced theories and m
eans of more accurately assessing the stresses encountered in vessels such as wi
th the use of Finite Element Analysis, allowing the vessels to be built safer an
d more efficiently. Today vessels in the USA require BPVC stamping but the BPVC
is not just a domestic code, many other countries have adopted the BPVC as their
official code. There are, however, other official codes in some countries (some
of which rely on portions of and reference the BPVC), Japan, Australia, Canada,
Britain, and Europe have their own codes. Regardless of the country nearly all
recognize the inherent potential hazards of pressure vessels and the need for st
andards and codes regulating their design and construction.
Pressure vessel features
Shape of a pressure vessel
Pressure vessels can theoretically be almost any
ons of spheres, cylinders, and cones are usually
cylinder with end caps called heads. Head shapes
ical or dished (torispherical). More complicated
uch harder to analyze for safe operation and are
onstruct.

shape, but shapes made of secti


employed. A common design is a
are frequently either hemispher
shapes have historically been m
usually far more difficult to c

Spherical gas container.


Cylindrical pressure vessel.
Picture of the bottom of an aerosol spray can.
Fire Extinguisher with rounded rectangle pressure vessel
Theoretically, a spherical pressure vessel has approximately twice the strength
of a cylindrical pressure vessel with the same wall thickness,[3] and is the ide
al shape to hold internal pressure.[1] However, a spherical shape is difficult t
o manufacture, and therefore more expensive, so most pressure vessels are cylind
rical with 2:1 semi-elliptical heads or end caps on each end. Smaller pressure v
essels are assembled from a pipe and two covers. For cylindrical vessels with a
diameter up to 600 mm (NPS of 24 in), it is possible to use seamless pipe for th
e shell, thus avoiding many inspection and testing issues, mainly the nondestruc
tive examination of radiography for the long seam if required. A disadvantage of
these vessels is that greater diameters are more expensive, so that for example
the most economic shape of a 1,000 litres (35 cu ft), 250 bars (3,600 psi) pres
sure vessel might be a diameter of 91.44 centimetres (36 in) and a length of 1.7
018 metres (67 in) including the 2:1 semi-elliptical domed end caps.
Construction materials
Composite overwrapped pressure vessel with titanium liner.
Many pressure vessels are made of steel. To manufacture a cylindrical or spheric
al pressure vessel, rolled and possibly forged parts would have to be welded tog
ether. Some mechanical properties of steel, achieved by rolling or forging, coul
d be adversely affected by welding, unless special precautions are taken. In add
ition to adequate mechanical strength, current standards dictate the use of stee
l with a high impact resistance, especially for vessels used in low temperatures
. In applications where carbon steel would suffer corrosion, special corrosion r
esistant material should also be used.
Some pressure vessels are made of composite materials, such as filament wound co
mposite using carbon fibre held in place with a polymer. Due to the very high te
nsile strength of carbon fibre these vessels can be very light, but are much mor
e difficult to manufacture. The composite material may be wound around a metal l
iner, forming a composite overwrapped pressure vessel.

Other very common materials include polymers such as PET in carbonated beverage
containers and copper in plumbing.
Pressure vessels may be lined with various metals, ceramics, or polymers to prev
ent leaking and protect the structure of the vessel from the contained medium. T
his liner may also carry a significant portion of the pressure load.[4][5]
Pressure Vessels may also be constructed from concrete (PCV) or other materials
which are weak in tension. Cabling, wrapped around the vessel or within the wall
or the vessel itself, provides the necessary tension to resist the internal pre
ssure. A "leakproof steel thin membrane" lines the internal wall of the vessel.
Such vessels can be assembled from modular pieces and so have "no inherent size
limitations".[6] There is also a high order of redundancy thanks to the large nu
mber of individual cables resisting the internal pressure.
Safety features
Leak before burst
Leak before burst describes a pressure vessel designed such that a crack in the
vessel will grow through the wall, allowing the contained fluid to escape and re
ducing the pressure, prior to growing so large as to cause fracture at the opera
ting pressure.
Many pressure vessel standards, including the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Co
de[citation needed] and the AIAA metallic pressure vessel standard, either requi
re pressure vessel designs to be leak before burst, or require pressure vessels
to meet more stringent requirements for fatigue and fracture if they are not sho
wn to be leak before burst.[7]
Safety valves
Example of a valve used for gas cylinders.
As the pressure vessel is designed to a pressure, there is typically a safety va
lve or relief valve to ensure that this pressure is not exceeded in operation.
Maintenance features
Pressure vessel closures
Pressure vessel closures are pressure retaining structures designed to provide q
uick access to pipelines, pressure vessels, pig traps, filters and filtration sy
stems. Typically pressure vessel closures allow maintenance personnel.
Uses
Pressure vessels are used in a variety of applications in both industry and the
private sector. They appear in these sectors as industrial compressed air receiv
ers and domestic hot water storage tanks. Other examples of pressure vessels are
diving cylinders, recompression chambers, distillation towers, pressure reactor
s, autoclaves, and many other vessels in mining operations, oil refineries and p
etrochemical plants, nuclear reactor vessels, submarine and space ship habitats,
pneumatic reservoirs, hydraulic reservoirs under pressure, rail vehicle airbrak
e reservoirs, road vehicle airbrake reservoirs, and storage vessels for liquifie
d gases such as ammonia, chlorine, and LPG (propane, butane).
A unique application of a pressure vessel is the passenger cabin of an airliner;
The outer skin carries both the aircraft maneuvering loads and the cabin pressu
rization loads.
A pressure tank connected to a water well and domestic hot water system.
A few pressure tanks, here used to hold propane.
An expansion vessel for heating systems.

A pressure vessel used as a kier.


A pressure vessel used for The Boeing Company s CST-100 spacecraft.
Alternatives to pressure vessels
Natural gas storage
Gas holder
Depending on the application and local circumstances, alternatives to pressure v
essels exist. Examples can be seen in domestic water collection systems, where t
he following may be used:
Gravity controlled systems[8] which typically consist of an unpressurized wa
ter tank at an elevation higher than the point of use. Pressure at the point of
use is the result of the hydrostatic pressure caused by the elevation difference
. Gravity systems produce 0.43 pounds per square inch (3.0 kPa) per foot of wate
r head (elevation difference). A municipal water supply or pumped water is typic
ally around 90 pounds per square inch (620 kPa).
Inline pump controllers or pressure-sensitive pumps.[9]
Design
Scaling
No matter what shape it takes, the minimum mass of a pressure vessel scales with
the pressure and volume it contains and is inversely proportional to the streng
th to weight ratio of the construction material (minimum mass decreases as stren
gth increases[10]).
Scaling of stress in walls of vessel
Pressure vessels are held together against the gas pressure due to tensile force
s within the walls of the container. The normal (tensile) stress in the walls of
the container is proportional to the pressure and radius of the vessel and inve
rsely proportional to the thickness of the walls.[11] Therefore, pressure vessel
s are designed to have a thickness proportional to the radius of tank and the pr
essure of the tank and inversely proportional to the maximum allowed normal stre
ss of the particular material used in the walls of the container.
Because (for a given pressure) the thickness of the walls scales with the radius
of the tank, the mass of a tank (which scales as the length times radius times
thickness of the wall for a cylindrical tank) scales with the volume of the gas
held (which scales as length times radius squared). The exact formula varies wit
h the tank shape but depends on the density, ?, and maximum allowable stress s o
f the material in addition to the pressure P and volume V of the vessel. (See be
low for the exact equations for the stress in the walls.)
Spherical vessel
For a sphere, the minimum mass of a pressure vessel is
M = 3 2 P V ? s {\displaystyle M={3 \over 2}PV{\rho \over \sigma }} M={3 \ov
er 2}PV{\rho \over \sigma },
where:
M {\displaystyle
P {\displaystyle
ssure),
V {\displaystyle
? {\displaystyle
s {\displaystyle

M} M is mass,
P} P is the pressure difference from ambient (the gauge pre
V} V is volume,
\rho } \rho is the density of the pressure vessel material,
\sigma } \sigma is the maximum working stress that material

can tolerate.[12]
Other shapes besides a sphere have constants larger than 3/2 (infinite cylinders
take 2), although some tanks, such as non-spherical wound composite tanks can a
pproach this.
Cylindrical vessel with hemispherical ends
This is sometimes called a "bullet"[citation needed] for its shape, although in
geometric terms it is a capsule.
For a cylinder with hemispherical ends,
M = 2 p R 2 ( R + W ) P ? s {\displaystyle M=2\pi R^{2}(R+W)P{\rho \over \si
gma }} M=2\pi R^{2}(R+W)P{\rho \over \sigma },
where
R is the radius
W is the middle cylinder width only, and the overall width is W + 2R
Cylindrical vessel with semi-elliptical ends
In a vessel with an aspect ratio of middle cylinder width to radius of 2:1,
M = 6 p R 3 P ? s {\displaystyle M=6\pi R^{3}P{\rho \over \sigma }} M=6\pi R
^{3}P{\rho \over \sigma }.
Gas storage
In looking at the first equation, the factor PV, in SI units, is in units of (pr
essurization) energy. For a stored gas, PV is proportional to the mass of gas at
a given temperature, thus
M = 3 2 n R T ? s {\displaystyle M={3 \over 2}nRT{\rho \over \sigma }} M={3
\over 2}nRT{\rho \over \sigma }. (see gas law)
The other factors are constant for a given vessel shape and material. So we can
see that there is no theoretical "efficiency of scale", in terms of the ratio of
pressure vessel mass to pressurization energy, or of pressure vessel mass to st
ored gas mass. For storing gases, "tankage efficiency" is independent of pressur
e, at least for the same temperature.
So, for example, a typical design for a minimum mass tank to hold helium (as a p
ressurant gas) on a rocket would use a spherical chamber for a minimum shape con
stant, carbon fiber for best possible ? / s {\displaystyle \rho /\sigma } \rho /
\sigma , and very cold helium for best possible M / p V {\displaystyle M/{pV}} M
/{pV}.
Stress in thin-walled pressure vessels
Stress in a shallow-walled pressure vessel in the shape of a sphere is
s ? = s l o n g = p r 2 t {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }=\sigma _{\rm {lon
g}}={\frac {pr}{2t}}} \sigma _{\theta }=\sigma _{{{\rm {long}}}}={\frac {pr}{2t}
},
where s ? {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }} \sigma _{\theta } is hoop stress, or
stress in the circumferential direction, s l o n g {\displaystyle \sigma _{long
}} \sigma _{{long}} is stress in the longitudinal direction, p is internal gauge
pressure, r is the inner radius of the sphere, and t is thickness of the sphere
wall. A vessel can be considered "shallow-walled" if the diameter is at least 1

0 times (sometimes cited as 20 times) greater than the wall depth.[13]


Stress in the cylinder body of a pressure vessel.
Stress in a shallow-walled pressure vessel in the shape of a cylinder is
s ? = p r t {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }={\frac {pr}{t}}} \sigma _{\thet
a }={\frac {pr}{t}},
s l o n g = p r 2 t {\displaystyle \sigma _{\rm {long}}={\frac {pr}{2t}}} \s
igma _{{{\rm {long}}}}={\frac {pr}{2t}},
where:
s ? {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }} \sigma _{\theta } is hoop stress, or s
tress in the circumferential direction
s l o n g {\displaystyle \sigma _{long}} \sigma _{{long}} is stress in the l
ongitudinal direction
p is internal gauge pressure
r is the inner radius of the cylinder
t is thickness of the cylinder wall.
Almost all pressure vessel design standards contain variations of these two form
ulas with additional empirical terms to account for wall thickness tolerances, q
uality control of welds and in-service corrosion allowances.
For example, the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (BPVC) (UG-27) formulas ar
e:[14]
Spherical shells:
s ? = s l o n g = p ( r + 0.2 t ) 2 t E {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }=\si
gma _{\rm {long}}={\frac {p(r+0.2t)}{2tE}}} \sigma _{\theta }=\sigma _{{{\rm {lo
ng}}}}={\frac {p(r+0.2t)}{2tE}}
Cylindrical shells:
s ? = p ( r + 0.6 t ) t E {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }={\frac {p(r+0.6t)
}{tE}}} \sigma _{\theta }={\frac {p(r+0.6t)}{tE}}
s l o n g = p ( r - 0.4 t ) 2 t E {\displaystyle \sigma _{\rm {long}}={\frac
{p(r-0.4t)}{2tE}}} \sigma _{{{\rm {long}}}}={\frac {p(r-0.4t)}{2tE}}
where E is the joint efficient, and all others variables as stated above.
The factor of safety is often included in these formulas as well, in the case of
the ASME BPVC this term is included in the material stress value when solving f
or pressure or thickness.
Winding angle of carbon fibre vessels
Wound infinite cylindrical shapes optimally take a winding angle of 54.7 degrees
, as this gives the necessary twice the strength in the circumferential directio
n to the longitudinal.[15]
Operation standards
Pressure vessels are designed to operate safely at a specific pressure and tempe
rature, technically referred to as the "Design Pressure" and "Design Temperature
". A vessel that is inadequately designed to handle a high pressure constitutes
a very significant safety hazard. Because of that, the design and certification
of pressure vessels is governed by design codes such as the ASME Boiler and Pres
sure Vessel Code in North America, the Pressure Equipment Directive of the EU (P
ED), Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS), CSA B51 in Canada, Australian Standards
in Australia and other international standards like Lloyd's, Germanischer Lloyd

, Det Norske Veritas, Socit Gnrale de Surveillance (SGS S.A.), Lloyd s Register Energy
Nederland (formerly known as Stoomwezen) etc.
Note that where the pressure-volume product is part of a safety standard, any in
compressible liquid in the vessel can be excluded as it does not contribute to t
he potential energy stored in the vessel, so only the volume of the compressible
part such as gas is used.
List of standards
EN 13445: The current European Standard, harmonized with the Pressure Equipm
ent Directive (97/23/EC). Extensively used in Europe.
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section VIII: Rules for Construction of
Pressure Vessels.
BS 5500: Former British Standard, replaced in the UK by BS EN 13445 but reta
ined under the name PD 5500 for the design and construction of export equipment.
AD Merkbltter: German standard, harmonized with the Pressure Equipment Direct
ive.
EN 286 (Parts 1 to 4): European standard for simple pressure vessels (air ta
nks), harmonized with Council Directive 87/404/EEC.
BS 4994: Specification for design and construction of vessels and tanks in r
einforced plastics.
ASME PVHO: US standard for Pressure Vessels for Human Occupancy.
CODAP: French Code for Construction of Unfired Pressure Vessel.
AS/NZS 1200: Pressure equipment.[16]
AS/NZS 3788:2006[17]
API 510.[18]
ISO 11439: Compressed natural gas (CNG) cylinders[19]
IS 2825-1969 (RE1977)_code_unfired_Pressure_vessels.
FRP tanks and vessels.
AIAA S-080-1998: AIAA Standard for Space Systems - Metallic Pressure Vessels
, Pressurized Structures, and Pressure Components.
AIAA S-081A-2006: AIAA Standard for Space Systems - Composite Overwrapped Pr
essure Vessels (COPVs).
B51-09 Canadian Boiler, pressure vessel, and pressure piping code.
HSE guidelines for pressure systems.
Stoomwezen: Former pressure vessels code in the Netherlands, also known as R
ToD: Regels voor Toestellen onder Druk (Dutch Rules for Pressure Vessels).
See also
American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)
Bottled gas
Composite overwrapped pressure vessel
Compressed air energy storage
Compressed natural gas
Demister
Fire-tube boiler
Gas cylinder
Gasket
Head (vessel)
Minimum Design Metal Temperature (MDMT)
Pressure bomb - a device for measuring leaf water potentials
Rainwater harvesting
Relief valve
Safety valve
Shell and tube heat exchanger
Vapor-Liquid Separator or Knock-Out Drum
Vortex breaker
Water well
Water-tube boiler

Notes
Nilsen, Kyle. (2011) "Development of low pressure filter testing vessel and anal
ysis of electrospun nanofiber membranes for water treatment"
Ingenious Coal-Gas Motor Tank, Popular Science monthly, January 1919, page 27, S
canned by Google Books: https://books.google.com/books?id=HykDAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA13
Hearn, E.J. (1997). Mechanics of Materials 1. An Introduction to the Mechanics o
f Elastic and Plastic Deformation of Solids and Structural Materials - Third Edi
tion. Chapter 9: Butterworth-Heinemann. pp. 199 203. ISBN 0-7506-3265-8.
NASA Tech Briefs, "Making a Metal-Lined Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessel",
1 Mar 2005.
Frietas, O., "Maintenance and Repair of Glass-Lined Equipment", Chemical Enginee
ring, 1 Jul 2007.
"High Pressure Vessels",D. Freyer and J. Harvey, 1998
ANSI/AIAA S-080-1998, Space Systems - Metallic Pressure Vessels, Pressurized Str
uctures, and Pressure Components, 5.1
Pushard, Doug (2005). "Domestic water collection systems also sometimes able to
function on gravity". Harvesth2o.com. Retrieved 2009-04-17.[verification needed]
Pushard, Doug. "Alternatives to pressure vessels in domestic water systems". Har
vesth2o.com. Retrieved 2009-04-17.
Puskarich, Paul (2009-05-01). "Strengthened Glass for Pipleine Systems" (PDF). M
IT. Retrieved 2009-04-17.
Beer, Ferdinand P.; Johnston, Jr., E. Russel; DeWolf, John T. "7.9". Mechanics o
f Materials (fourth ed.). McGraw-Hill. p. 463. ISBN 9780073659350.
For a sphere the thickness d = rP/2s, where r is the radius of the tank. The vol
ume of the spherical surface then is 4pr2d = 4pr3P/2s. The mass is determined by
multiplying by the density of the material that makes up the walls of the spher
ical vessel. Further the volume of the gas is (4pr3)/3. Combining these equation
s give the above results. The equations for the other geometries are derived in
a similar manner
Richard Budynas, J. Nisbett, Shigley's Mechanical Engineering Design, 8th ed., N
ew York:McGraw-Hill, ISBN 978-0-07-312193-2, pg 108
An International Code 2007 ASME Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code. The Americal Soci
ety of Mechanical Engineers. 2007.
MIT pressure vessel lecture
"AS 1200 Pressure Vessels". SAI Global. Retrieved 14 November 2011.
"AS_NZS 3788: 2006 Pressure equipment - In-service inspection". SAI Global. Retr
ieved September 4, 2015.
"Pressure Vessel Inspection Code: In-Service Inspection, Rating, Repair, and Alt
eration". API. June 2006.
."Gas cylinders - High pressure cylinders for the on-board storage of natura
l gas as a fuel for automotive vehicles". ISO. 2006-07-18. Retrieved 2009-04-17.
References
A.C. Ugural, S.K. Fenster, Advanced Strength and Applied Elasticity, 4th ed.
E.P. Popov, Engineering Mechanics of Solids, 1st ed.
Megyesy, Eugene F. "Pressure Vessel Handbook, 14th Edition." PV Publishing,
Inc. Oklahoma City, OK
Further reading
Megyesy, Eugene F. (2008, 14th ed.) Pressure Vessel Handbook. PV Publishing,
Inc.: Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA. www.pressurevesselhandbook.com Design handb
ook for pressure vessels based on the ASME code.
External links
Look up pressure vessel in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Pressure vessel.


Use of pressure vessels in oil and gas industry
Basic formulas for thin walled pressure vessels; with examples
Educational Excel spreadsheets for ASME head, shell and nozzle designs
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel website
Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology
EU Pressure Equipment Directive website
EU Simple Pressure Vessel Directive
EU Classification
Pressure Vessel attachments http://oakridgebellows.com/metal-expansion-joint
s/technical-videos/lugs-on-pipe-and-vessels-new
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Pressure vessel
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Horizontal pressure vessel in steel
A pressure vessel is a container designed to hold gases or liquids at a pressure
substantially different from the ambient pressure.
The pressure differential is dangerous, and fatal accidents have occurred in the
history of pressure vessel development and operation. Consequently, pressure ve
ssel design, manufacture, and operation are regulated by engineering authorities
backed by legislation. For these reasons, the definition of a pressure vessel v
aries from country to country, but involves parameters such as maximum safe oper
ating pressure and temperature, and are engineered with a safety factor, corrosi
on allowance, minimum design temperature (for brittle fracture), and involve non
destructive testing, such as ultrasonic testing, radiography, and pressure tests
, usually involving water, also known as a hydrotest, but could be pneumatically
tested involving air or another gas. The preferred test is hydrostatic testing
because it's a much safer method of testing as it releases much less energy if f
racture were to occur (water does not rapidly increase its volume while rapid de
pressurization occurs, unlike gases like air, i.e. gasses fail explosively). In
the United States, as with many other countries, it is the law that vessels over
a certain size and pressure (15 PSIg) be built to Code, in the United States th
at Code is the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (BPVC), these vessels also r
equire an Authorized Inspector to sign off on every new vessel constructed and e
ach vessel has a nameplate with pertinent information about the vessel such as m
aximum allowable working pressure, maximum temperature, minimum design metal tem
perature, what company manufactured it, the date, its registration number (throu
gh the National Board), and ASME's official stamp for pressure vessels (U-stamp)
, making the vessel traceable and officially an ASME Code vessel.
Contents
1 History of pressure vessels
2 Pressure vessel features
2.1 Shape of a pressure vessel
2.2 Construction materials
2.3 Safety features
2.3.1 Leak before burst
2.3.2 Safety valves

2.4 Maintenance features


2.4.1 Pressure vessel closures
3 Uses
4 Alternatives to pressure vessels
5 Design
5.1 Scaling
5.1.1 Scaling of stress in walls of vessel
5.1.2 Spherical vessel
5.1.3 Cylindrical vessel with hemispherical ends
5.1.4 Cylindrical vessel with semi-elliptical ends
5.1.5 Gas storage
5.2 Stress in thin-walled pressure vessels
5.3 Winding angle of carbon fibre vessels
5.4 Operation standards
5.4.1 List of standards
6 See also
7 Notes
8 References
9 Further reading
10 External links
History of pressure vessels
A 10,000 psi (69 MPa) pressure vessel from 1919, wrapped with high tensile steel
banding and steel rods to secure the end caps.
The earliest documented design of pressure vessels is described in the book Code
x Madrid I, by Leonardo da Vinci, in 1495, where containers of pressurized air w
ere theorized to lift heavy weights underwater,[1] however vessels resembling wh
at are used today did not come about until the 1800s where steam was generated i
n boilers helping to spur the industrial revolution.[1] However, with poor mater
ial quality and manufacturing techniques along with improper knowledge of design
, operation and maintenance there was a large number of damaging and often fatal
explosions associated with these boilers and pressure vessels, with a death occ
urring on a nearly daily basis in the United States.[1] Local providences and st
ates in the US began enacting rules for constructing these vessels after some pa
rticularly devastating vessel failures occurred killing dozens of people at a ti
me, which made it difficult for manufacturers to keep up with the varied rules f
rom one location to another and the first pressure vessel code was developed sta
rting in 1911 and released in 1914, starting the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel
Code (BPVC).[1] In an early effort to design a tank capable of withstanding pre
ssures up to 10,000 psi (69 MPa), a 6-inch (150 mm) diameter tank was developed
in 1919 that was spirally-wound with two layers of high tensile strength steel w
ire to prevent sidewall rupture, and the end caps longitudinally reinforced with
lengthwise high-tensile rods.[2] The need for high pressure and temperature ves
sels for petroleum refineries and chemical plants gave rise to vessels joined wi
th welding instead of rivets (which were unsuitable for the pressures and temper
atures required) and in 1920s and 1930s the BPVC included welding as an acceptab
le means of construction, and welding is the main means of joining metal vessels
today.[1]
There have been many advancements in the field of pressure vessel engineering su
ch as advanced non-destructive examination, phased array ultrasonic testing and
radiography, new material grades with increased corrosion resistance and stronge
r materials, and new ways to join materials such as explosion welding (to attach
one metal sheet to another, usually a thin corrosion resistant metal like stain
less steel to a stronger metal like carbon steel), friction stir welding (which
attaches the metals together without melting the metal), advanced theories and m
eans of more accurately assessing the stresses encountered in vessels such as wi
th the use of Finite Element Analysis, allowing the vessels to be built safer an
d more efficiently. Today vessels in the USA require BPVC stamping but the BPVC

is not just a domestic code, many other countries have adopted the BPVC as their
official code. There are, however, other official codes in some countries (some
of which rely on portions of and reference the BPVC), Japan, Australia, Canada,
Britain, and Europe have their own codes. Regardless of the country nearly all
recognize the inherent potential hazards of pressure vessels and the need for st
andards and codes regulating their design and construction.
Pressure vessel features
Shape of a pressure vessel
Pressure vessels can theoretically be almost any
ons of spheres, cylinders, and cones are usually
cylinder with end caps called heads. Head shapes
ical or dished (torispherical). More complicated
uch harder to analyze for safe operation and are
onstruct.

shape, but shapes made of secti


employed. A common design is a
are frequently either hemispher
shapes have historically been m
usually far more difficult to c

Spherical gas container.


Cylindrical pressure vessel.
Picture of the bottom of an aerosol spray can.
Fire Extinguisher with rounded rectangle pressure vessel
Theoretically, a spherical pressure vessel has approximately twice the strength
of a cylindrical pressure vessel with the same wall thickness,[3] and is the ide
al shape to hold internal pressure.[1] However, a spherical shape is difficult t
o manufacture, and therefore more expensive, so most pressure vessels are cylind
rical with 2:1 semi-elliptical heads or end caps on each end. Smaller pressure v
essels are assembled from a pipe and two covers. For cylindrical vessels with a
diameter up to 600 mm (NPS of 24 in), it is possible to use seamless pipe for th
e shell, thus avoiding many inspection and testing issues, mainly the nondestruc
tive examination of radiography for the long seam if required. A disadvantage of
these vessels is that greater diameters are more expensive, so that for example
the most economic shape of a 1,000 litres (35 cu ft), 250 bars (3,600 psi) pres
sure vessel might be a diameter of 91.44 centimetres (36 in) and a length of 1.7
018 metres (67 in) including the 2:1 semi-elliptical domed end caps.
Construction materials
Composite overwrapped pressure vessel with titanium liner.
Many pressure vessels are made of steel. To manufacture a cylindrical or spheric
al pressure vessel, rolled and possibly forged parts would have to be welded tog
ether. Some mechanical properties of steel, achieved by rolling or forging, coul
d be adversely affected by welding, unless special precautions are taken. In add
ition to adequate mechanical strength, current standards dictate the use of stee
l with a high impact resistance, especially for vessels used in low temperatures
. In applications where carbon steel would suffer corrosion, special corrosion r
esistant material should also be used.
Some pressure vessels are made of composite materials, such as filament wound co
mposite using carbon fibre held in place with a polymer. Due to the very high te
nsile strength of carbon fibre these vessels can be very light, but are much mor
e difficult to manufacture. The composite material may be wound around a metal l
iner, forming a composite overwrapped pressure vessel.
Other very common materials include polymers such as PET in carbonated beverage
containers and copper in plumbing.
Pressure vessels may be lined with various metals, ceramics, or polymers to prev
ent leaking and protect the structure of the vessel from the contained medium. T

his liner may also carry a significant portion of the pressure load.[4][5]
Pressure Vessels may also be constructed from concrete (PCV) or other materials
which are weak in tension. Cabling, wrapped around the vessel or within the wall
or the vessel itself, provides the necessary tension to resist the internal pre
ssure. A "leakproof steel thin membrane" lines the internal wall of the vessel.
Such vessels can be assembled from modular pieces and so have "no inherent size
limitations".[6] There is also a high order of redundancy thanks to the large nu
mber of individual cables resisting the internal pressure.
Safety features
Leak before burst
Leak before burst describes a pressure vessel designed such that a crack in the
vessel will grow through the wall, allowing the contained fluid to escape and re
ducing the pressure, prior to growing so large as to cause fracture at the opera
ting pressure.
Many pressure vessel standards, including the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Co
de[citation needed] and the AIAA metallic pressure vessel standard, either requi
re pressure vessel designs to be leak before burst, or require pressure vessels
to meet more stringent requirements for fatigue and fracture if they are not sho
wn to be leak before burst.[7]
Safety valves
Example of a valve used for gas cylinders.
As the pressure vessel is designed to a pressure, there is typically a safety va
lve or relief valve to ensure that this pressure is not exceeded in operation.
Maintenance features
Pressure vessel closures
Pressure vessel closures are pressure retaining structures designed to provide q
uick access to pipelines, pressure vessels, pig traps, filters and filtration sy
stems. Typically pressure vessel closures allow maintenance personnel.
Uses
Pressure vessels are used in a variety of applications in both industry and the
private sector. They appear in these sectors as industrial compressed air receiv
ers and domestic hot water storage tanks. Other examples of pressure vessels are
diving cylinders, recompression chambers, distillation towers, pressure reactor
s, autoclaves, and many other vessels in mining operations, oil refineries and p
etrochemical plants, nuclear reactor vessels, submarine and space ship habitats,
pneumatic reservoirs, hydraulic reservoirs under pressure, rail vehicle airbrak
e reservoirs, road vehicle airbrake reservoirs, and storage vessels for liquifie
d gases such as ammonia, chlorine, and LPG (propane, butane).
A unique application of a pressure vessel is the passenger cabin of an airliner;
The outer skin carries both the aircraft maneuvering loads and the cabin pressu
rization loads.
A pressure tank connected to a water well and domestic hot water system.
A few pressure tanks, here used to hold propane.
An expansion vessel for heating systems.
A pressure vessel used as a kier.
A pressure vessel used for The Boeing Company s CST-100 spacecraft.
Alternatives to pressure vessels

Natural gas storage


Gas holder
Depending on the application and local circumstances, alternatives to pressure v
essels exist. Examples can be seen in domestic water collection systems, where t
he following may be used:
Gravity controlled systems[8] which typically consist of an unpressurized wa
ter tank at an elevation higher than the point of use. Pressure at the point of
use is the result of the hydrostatic pressure caused by the elevation difference
. Gravity systems produce 0.43 pounds per square inch (3.0 kPa) per foot of wate
r head (elevation difference). A municipal water supply or pumped water is typic
ally around 90 pounds per square inch (620 kPa).
Inline pump controllers or pressure-sensitive pumps.[9]
Design
Scaling
No matter what shape it takes, the minimum mass of a pressure vessel scales with
the pressure and volume it contains and is inversely proportional to the streng
th to weight ratio of the construction material (minimum mass decreases as stren
gth increases[10]).
Scaling of stress in walls of vessel
Pressure vessels are held together against the gas pressure due to tensile force
s within the walls of the container. The normal (tensile) stress in the walls of
the container is proportional to the pressure and radius of the vessel and inve
rsely proportional to the thickness of the walls.[11] Therefore, pressure vessel
s are designed to have a thickness proportional to the radius of tank and the pr
essure of the tank and inversely proportional to the maximum allowed normal stre
ss of the particular material used in the walls of the container.
Because (for a given pressure) the thickness of the walls scales with the radius
of the tank, the mass of a tank (which scales as the length times radius times
thickness of the wall for a cylindrical tank) scales with the volume of the gas
held (which scales as length times radius squared). The exact formula varies wit
h the tank shape but depends on the density, ?, and maximum allowable stress s o
f the material in addition to the pressure P and volume V of the vessel. (See be
low for the exact equations for the stress in the walls.)
Spherical vessel
For a sphere, the minimum mass of a pressure vessel is
M = 3 2 P V ? s {\displaystyle M={3 \over 2}PV{\rho \over \sigma }} M={3 \ov
er 2}PV{\rho \over \sigma },
where:
M {\displaystyle
P {\displaystyle
ssure),
V {\displaystyle
? {\displaystyle
s {\displaystyle
can tolerate.[12]

M} M is mass,
P} P is the pressure difference from ambient (the gauge pre
V} V is volume,
\rho } \rho is the density of the pressure vessel material,
\sigma } \sigma is the maximum working stress that material

Other shapes besides a sphere have constants larger than 3/2 (infinite cylinders
take 2), although some tanks, such as non-spherical wound composite tanks can a
pproach this.

Cylindrical vessel with hemispherical ends


This is sometimes called a "bullet"[citation needed] for its shape, although in
geometric terms it is a capsule.
For a cylinder with hemispherical ends,
M = 2 p R 2 ( R + W ) P ? s {\displaystyle M=2\pi R^{2}(R+W)P{\rho \over \si
gma }} M=2\pi R^{2}(R+W)P{\rho \over \sigma },
where
R is the radius
W is the middle cylinder width only, and the overall width is W + 2R
Cylindrical vessel with semi-elliptical ends
In a vessel with an aspect ratio of middle cylinder width to radius of 2:1,
M = 6 p R 3 P ? s {\displaystyle M=6\pi R^{3}P{\rho \over \sigma }} M=6\pi R
^{3}P{\rho \over \sigma }.
Gas storage
In looking at the first equation, the factor PV, in SI units, is in units of (pr
essurization) energy. For a stored gas, PV is proportional to the mass of gas at
a given temperature, thus
M = 3 2 n R T ? s {\displaystyle M={3 \over 2}nRT{\rho \over \sigma }} M={3
\over 2}nRT{\rho \over \sigma }. (see gas law)
The other factors are constant for a given vessel shape and material. So we can
see that there is no theoretical "efficiency of scale", in terms of the ratio of
pressure vessel mass to pressurization energy, or of pressure vessel mass to st
ored gas mass. For storing gases, "tankage efficiency" is independent of pressur
e, at least for the same temperature.
So, for example, a typical design for a minimum mass tank to hold helium (as a p
ressurant gas) on a rocket would use a spherical chamber for a minimum shape con
stant, carbon fiber for best possible ? / s {\displaystyle \rho /\sigma } \rho /
\sigma , and very cold helium for best possible M / p V {\displaystyle M/{pV}} M
/{pV}.
Stress in thin-walled pressure vessels
Stress in a shallow-walled pressure vessel in the shape of a sphere is
s ? = s l o n g = p r 2 t {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }=\sigma _{\rm {lon
g}}={\frac {pr}{2t}}} \sigma _{\theta }=\sigma _{{{\rm {long}}}}={\frac {pr}{2t}
},
where s ? {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }} \sigma _{\theta } is hoop stress, or
stress in the circumferential direction, s l o n g {\displaystyle \sigma _{long
}} \sigma _{{long}} is stress in the longitudinal direction, p is internal gauge
pressure, r is the inner radius of the sphere, and t is thickness of the sphere
wall. A vessel can be considered "shallow-walled" if the diameter is at least 1
0 times (sometimes cited as 20 times) greater than the wall depth.[13]
Stress in the cylinder body of a pressure vessel.
Stress in a shallow-walled pressure vessel in the shape of a cylinder is

s ? = p r t {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }={\frac {pr}{t}}} \sigma _{\thet


a }={\frac {pr}{t}},
s l o n g = p r 2 t {\displaystyle \sigma _{\rm {long}}={\frac {pr}{2t}}} \s
igma _{{{\rm {long}}}}={\frac {pr}{2t}},
where:
s ? {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }} \sigma _{\theta } is hoop stress, or s
tress in the circumferential direction
s l o n g {\displaystyle \sigma _{long}} \sigma _{{long}} is stress in the l
ongitudinal direction
p is internal gauge pressure
r is the inner radius of the cylinder
t is thickness of the cylinder wall.
Almost all pressure vessel design standards contain variations of these two form
ulas with additional empirical terms to account for wall thickness tolerances, q
uality control of welds and in-service corrosion allowances.
For example, the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (BPVC) (UG-27) formulas ar
e:[14]
Spherical shells:
s ? = s l o n g = p ( r + 0.2 t ) 2 t E {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }=\si
gma _{\rm {long}}={\frac {p(r+0.2t)}{2tE}}} \sigma _{\theta }=\sigma _{{{\rm {lo
ng}}}}={\frac {p(r+0.2t)}{2tE}}
Cylindrical shells:
s ? = p ( r + 0.6 t ) t E {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }={\frac {p(r+0.6t)
}{tE}}} \sigma _{\theta }={\frac {p(r+0.6t)}{tE}}
s l o n g = p ( r - 0.4 t ) 2 t E {\displaystyle \sigma _{\rm {long}}={\frac
{p(r-0.4t)}{2tE}}} \sigma _{{{\rm {long}}}}={\frac {p(r-0.4t)}{2tE}}
where E is the joint efficient, and all others variables as stated above.
The factor of safety is often included in these formulas as well, in the case of
the ASME BPVC this term is included in the material stress value when solving f
or pressure or thickness.
Winding angle of carbon fibre vessels
Wound infinite cylindrical shapes optimally take a winding angle of 54.7 degrees
, as this gives the necessary twice the strength in the circumferential directio
n to the longitudinal.[15]
Operation standards
Pressure vessels are designed to operate safely at a specific pressure and tempe
rature, technically referred to as the "Design Pressure" and "Design Temperature
". A vessel that is inadequately designed to handle a high pressure constitutes
a very significant safety hazard. Because of that, the design and certification
of pressure vessels is governed by design codes such as the ASME Boiler and Pres
sure Vessel Code in North America, the Pressure Equipment Directive of the EU (P
ED), Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS), CSA B51 in Canada, Australian Standards
in Australia and other international standards like Lloyd's, Germanischer Lloyd
, Det Norske Veritas, Socit Gnrale de Surveillance (SGS S.A.), Lloyd s Register Energy
Nederland (formerly known as Stoomwezen) etc.
Note that where the pressure-volume product is part of a safety standard, any in
compressible liquid in the vessel can be excluded as it does not contribute to t

he potential energy stored in the vessel, so only the volume of the compressible
part such as gas is used.
List of standards
EN 13445: The current European Standard, harmonized with the Pressure Equipm
ent Directive (97/23/EC). Extensively used in Europe.
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section VIII: Rules for Construction of
Pressure Vessels.
BS 5500: Former British Standard, replaced in the UK by BS EN 13445 but reta
ined under the name PD 5500 for the design and construction of export equipment.
AD Merkbltter: German standard, harmonized with the Pressure Equipment Direct
ive.
EN 286 (Parts 1 to 4): European standard for simple pressure vessels (air ta
nks), harmonized with Council Directive 87/404/EEC.
BS 4994: Specification for design and construction of vessels and tanks in r
einforced plastics.
ASME PVHO: US standard for Pressure Vessels for Human Occupancy.
CODAP: French Code for Construction of Unfired Pressure Vessel.
AS/NZS 1200: Pressure equipment.[16]
AS/NZS 3788:2006[17]
API 510.[18]
ISO 11439: Compressed natural gas (CNG) cylinders[19]
IS 2825-1969 (RE1977)_code_unfired_Pressure_vessels.
FRP tanks and vessels.
AIAA S-080-1998: AIAA Standard for Space Systems - Metallic Pressure Vessels
, Pressurized Structures, and Pressure Components.
AIAA S-081A-2006: AIAA Standard for Space Systems - Composite Overwrapped Pr
essure Vessels (COPVs).
B51-09 Canadian Boiler, pressure vessel, and pressure piping code.
HSE guidelines for pressure systems.
Stoomwezen: Former pressure vessels code in the Netherlands, also known as R
ToD: Regels voor Toestellen onder Druk (Dutch Rules for Pressure Vessels).
See also
American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)
Bottled gas
Composite overwrapped pressure vessel
Compressed air energy storage
Compressed natural gas
Demister
Fire-tube boiler
Gas cylinder
Gasket
Head (vessel)
Minimum Design Metal Temperature (MDMT)
Pressure bomb - a device for measuring leaf water potentials
Rainwater harvesting
Relief valve
Safety valve
Shell and tube heat exchanger
Vapor-Liquid Separator or Knock-Out Drum
Vortex breaker
Water well
Water-tube boiler
Notes
Nilsen, Kyle. (2011) "Development of low pressure filter testing vessel and anal
ysis of electrospun nanofiber membranes for water treatment"

Ingenious Coal-Gas Motor Tank, Popular Science monthly, January 1919, page 27, S
canned by Google Books: https://books.google.com/books?id=HykDAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA13
Hearn, E.J. (1997). Mechanics of Materials 1. An Introduction to the Mechanics o
f Elastic and Plastic Deformation of Solids and Structural Materials - Third Edi
tion. Chapter 9: Butterworth-Heinemann. pp. 199 203. ISBN 0-7506-3265-8.
NASA Tech Briefs, "Making a Metal-Lined Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessel",
1 Mar 2005.
Frietas, O., "Maintenance and Repair of Glass-Lined Equipment", Chemical Enginee
ring, 1 Jul 2007.
"High Pressure Vessels",D. Freyer and J. Harvey, 1998
ANSI/AIAA S-080-1998, Space Systems - Metallic Pressure Vessels, Pressurized Str
uctures, and Pressure Components, 5.1
Pushard, Doug (2005). "Domestic water collection systems also sometimes able to
function on gravity". Harvesth2o.com. Retrieved 2009-04-17.[verification needed]
Pushard, Doug. "Alternatives to pressure vessels in domestic water systems". Har
vesth2o.com. Retrieved 2009-04-17.
Puskarich, Paul (2009-05-01). "Strengthened Glass for Pipleine Systems" (PDF). M
IT. Retrieved 2009-04-17.
Beer, Ferdinand P.; Johnston, Jr., E. Russel; DeWolf, John T. "7.9". Mechanics o
f Materials (fourth ed.). McGraw-Hill. p. 463. ISBN 9780073659350.
For a sphere the thickness d = rP/2s, where r is the radius of the tank. The vol
ume of the spherical surface then is 4pr2d = 4pr3P/2s. The mass is determined by
multiplying by the density of the material that makes up the walls of the spher
ical vessel. Further the volume of the gas is (4pr3)/3. Combining these equation
s give the above results. The equations for the other geometries are derived in
a similar manner
Richard Budynas, J. Nisbett, Shigley's Mechanical Engineering Design, 8th ed., N
ew York:McGraw-Hill, ISBN 978-0-07-312193-2, pg 108
An International Code 2007 ASME Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code. The Americal Soci
ety of Mechanical Engineers. 2007.
MIT pressure vessel lecture
"AS 1200 Pressure Vessels". SAI Global. Retrieved 14 November 2011.
"AS_NZS 3788: 2006 Pressure equipment - In-service inspection". SAI Global. Retr
ieved September 4, 2015.
"Pressure Vessel Inspection Code: In-Service Inspection, Rating, Repair, and Alt
eration". API. June 2006.
."Gas cylinders - High pressure cylinders for the on-board storage of natura
l gas as a fuel for automotive vehicles". ISO. 2006-07-18. Retrieved 2009-04-17.
References
A.C. Ugural, S.K. Fenster, Advanced Strength and Applied Elasticity, 4th ed.
E.P. Popov, Engineering Mechanics of Solids, 1st ed.
Megyesy, Eugene F. "Pressure Vessel Handbook, 14th Edition." PV Publishing,
Inc. Oklahoma City, OK
Further reading
Megyesy, Eugene F. (2008, 14th ed.) Pressure Vessel Handbook. PV Publishing,
Inc.: Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA. www.pressurevesselhandbook.com Design handb
ook for pressure vessels based on the ASME code.
External links
Look up pressure vessel in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Pressure vessel.
Use of pressure vessels in oil and gas industry
Basic formulas for thin walled pressure vessels; with examples
Educational Excel spreadsheets for ASME head, shell and nozzle designs

ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel website


Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology
EU Pressure Equipment Directive website
EU Simple Pressure Vessel Directive
EU Classification
Pressure Vessel attachments http://oakridgebellows.com/metal-expansion-joint
s/technical-videos/lugs-on-pipe-and-vessels-new
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Pressure vessel
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Horizontal pressure vessel in steel
A pressure vessel is a container designed to hold gases or liquids at a pressure
substantially different from the ambient pressure.
The pressure differential is dangerous, and fatal accidents have occurred in the
history of pressure vessel development and operation. Consequently, pressure ve
ssel design, manufacture, and operation are regulated by engineering authorities
backed by legislation. For these reasons, the definition of a pressure vessel v
aries from country to country, but involves parameters such as maximum safe oper
ating pressure and temperature, and are engineered with a safety factor, corrosi
on allowance, minimum design temperature (for brittle fracture), and involve non
destructive testing, such as ultrasonic testing, radiography, and pressure tests
, usually involving water, also known as a hydrotest, but could be pneumatically
tested involving air or another gas. The preferred test is hydrostatic testing
because it's a much safer method of testing as it releases much less energy if f
racture were to occur (water does not rapidly increase its volume while rapid de
pressurization occurs, unlike gases like air, i.e. gasses fail explosively). In
the United States, as with many other countries, it is the law that vessels over
a certain size and pressure (15 PSIg) be built to Code, in the United States th
at Code is the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (BPVC), these vessels also r
equire an Authorized Inspector to sign off on every new vessel constructed and e
ach vessel has a nameplate with pertinent information about the vessel such as m
aximum allowable working pressure, maximum temperature, minimum design metal tem
perature, what company manufactured it, the date, its registration number (throu
gh the National Board), and ASME's official stamp for pressure vessels (U-stamp)
, making the vessel traceable and officially an ASME Code vessel.
Contents
1 History of pressure vessels
2 Pressure vessel features
2.1 Shape of a pressure vessel
2.2 Construction materials
2.3 Safety features
2.3.1 Leak before burst
2.3.2 Safety valves
2.4 Maintenance features
2.4.1 Pressure vessel closures
3 Uses
4 Alternatives to pressure vessels
5 Design

5.1 Scaling
5.1.1 Scaling of stress in walls of vessel
5.1.2 Spherical vessel
5.1.3 Cylindrical vessel with hemispherical ends
5.1.4 Cylindrical vessel with semi-elliptical ends
5.1.5 Gas storage
5.2 Stress in thin-walled pressure vessels
5.3 Winding angle of carbon fibre vessels
5.4 Operation standards
5.4.1 List of standards
6 See also
7 Notes
8 References
9 Further reading
10 External links
History of pressure vessels
A 10,000 psi (69 MPa) pressure vessel from 1919, wrapped with high tensile steel
banding and steel rods to secure the end caps.
The earliest documented design of pressure vessels is described in the book Code
x Madrid I, by Leonardo da Vinci, in 1495, where containers of pressurized air w
ere theorized to lift heavy weights underwater,[1] however vessels resembling wh
at are used today did not come about until the 1800s where steam was generated i
n boilers helping to spur the industrial revolution.[1] However, with poor mater
ial quality and manufacturing techniques along with improper knowledge of design
, operation and maintenance there was a large number of damaging and often fatal
explosions associated with these boilers and pressure vessels, with a death occ
urring on a nearly daily basis in the United States.[1] Local providences and st
ates in the US began enacting rules for constructing these vessels after some pa
rticularly devastating vessel failures occurred killing dozens of people at a ti
me, which made it difficult for manufacturers to keep up with the varied rules f
rom one location to another and the first pressure vessel code was developed sta
rting in 1911 and released in 1914, starting the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel
Code (BPVC).[1] In an early effort to design a tank capable of withstanding pre
ssures up to 10,000 psi (69 MPa), a 6-inch (150 mm) diameter tank was developed
in 1919 that was spirally-wound with two layers of high tensile strength steel w
ire to prevent sidewall rupture, and the end caps longitudinally reinforced with
lengthwise high-tensile rods.[2] The need for high pressure and temperature ves
sels for petroleum refineries and chemical plants gave rise to vessels joined wi
th welding instead of rivets (which were unsuitable for the pressures and temper
atures required) and in 1920s and 1930s the BPVC included welding as an acceptab
le means of construction, and welding is the main means of joining metal vessels
today.[1]
There have been many advancements in the field of pressure vessel engineering su
ch as advanced non-destructive examination, phased array ultrasonic testing and
radiography, new material grades with increased corrosion resistance and stronge
r materials, and new ways to join materials such as explosion welding (to attach
one metal sheet to another, usually a thin corrosion resistant metal like stain
less steel to a stronger metal like carbon steel), friction stir welding (which
attaches the metals together without melting the metal), advanced theories and m
eans of more accurately assessing the stresses encountered in vessels such as wi
th the use of Finite Element Analysis, allowing the vessels to be built safer an
d more efficiently. Today vessels in the USA require BPVC stamping but the BPVC
is not just a domestic code, many other countries have adopted the BPVC as their
official code. There are, however, other official codes in some countries (some
of which rely on portions of and reference the BPVC), Japan, Australia, Canada,
Britain, and Europe have their own codes. Regardless of the country nearly all
recognize the inherent potential hazards of pressure vessels and the need for st

andards and codes regulating their design and construction.


Pressure vessel features
Shape of a pressure vessel
Pressure vessels can theoretically be almost any
ons of spheres, cylinders, and cones are usually
cylinder with end caps called heads. Head shapes
ical or dished (torispherical). More complicated
uch harder to analyze for safe operation and are
onstruct.

shape, but shapes made of secti


employed. A common design is a
are frequently either hemispher
shapes have historically been m
usually far more difficult to c

Spherical gas container.


Cylindrical pressure vessel.
Picture of the bottom of an aerosol spray can.
Fire Extinguisher with rounded rectangle pressure vessel
Theoretically, a spherical pressure vessel has approximately twice the strength
of a cylindrical pressure vessel with the same wall thickness,[3] and is the ide
al shape to hold internal pressure.[1] However, a spherical shape is difficult t
o manufacture, and therefore more expensive, so most pressure vessels are cylind
rical with 2:1 semi-elliptical heads or end caps on each end. Smaller pressure v
essels are assembled from a pipe and two covers. For cylindrical vessels with a
diameter up to 600 mm (NPS of 24 in), it is possible to use seamless pipe for th
e shell, thus avoiding many inspection and testing issues, mainly the nondestruc
tive examination of radiography for the long seam if required. A disadvantage of
these vessels is that greater diameters are more expensive, so that for example
the most economic shape of a 1,000 litres (35 cu ft), 250 bars (3,600 psi) pres
sure vessel might be a diameter of 91.44 centimetres (36 in) and a length of 1.7
018 metres (67 in) including the 2:1 semi-elliptical domed end caps.
Construction materials
Composite overwrapped pressure vessel with titanium liner.
Many pressure vessels are made of steel. To manufacture a cylindrical or spheric
al pressure vessel, rolled and possibly forged parts would have to be welded tog
ether. Some mechanical properties of steel, achieved by rolling or forging, coul
d be adversely affected by welding, unless special precautions are taken. In add
ition to adequate mechanical strength, current standards dictate the use of stee
l with a high impact resistance, especially for vessels used in low temperatures
. In applications where carbon steel would suffer corrosion, special corrosion r
esistant material should also be used.
Some pressure vessels are made of composite materials, such as filament wound co
mposite using carbon fibre held in place with a polymer. Due to the very high te
nsile strength of carbon fibre these vessels can be very light, but are much mor
e difficult to manufacture. The composite material may be wound around a metal l
iner, forming a composite overwrapped pressure vessel.
Other very common materials include polymers such as PET in carbonated beverage
containers and copper in plumbing.
Pressure vessels may be lined with various metals, ceramics, or polymers to prev
ent leaking and protect the structure of the vessel from the contained medium. T
his liner may also carry a significant portion of the pressure load.[4][5]
Pressure Vessels may also be constructed from concrete (PCV) or other materials
which are weak in tension. Cabling, wrapped around the vessel or within the wall
or the vessel itself, provides the necessary tension to resist the internal pre

ssure. A "leakproof steel thin membrane" lines the internal wall of the vessel.
Such vessels can be assembled from modular pieces and so have "no inherent size
limitations".[6] There is also a high order of redundancy thanks to the large nu
mber of individual cables resisting the internal pressure.
Safety features
Leak before burst
Leak before burst describes a pressure vessel designed such that a crack in the
vessel will grow through the wall, allowing the contained fluid to escape and re
ducing the pressure, prior to growing so large as to cause fracture at the opera
ting pressure.
Many pressure vessel standards, including the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Co
de[citation needed] and the AIAA metallic pressure vessel standard, either requi
re pressure vessel designs to be leak before burst, or require pressure vessels
to meet more stringent requirements for fatigue and fracture if they are not sho
wn to be leak before burst.[7]
Safety valves
Example of a valve used for gas cylinders.
As the pressure vessel is designed to a pressure, there is typically a safety va
lve or relief valve to ensure that this pressure is not exceeded in operation.
Maintenance features
Pressure vessel closures
Pressure vessel closures are pressure retaining structures designed to provide q
uick access to pipelines, pressure vessels, pig traps, filters and filtration sy
stems. Typically pressure vessel closures allow maintenance personnel.
Uses
Pressure vessels are used in a variety of applications in both industry and the
private sector. They appear in these sectors as industrial compressed air receiv
ers and domestic hot water storage tanks. Other examples of pressure vessels are
diving cylinders, recompression chambers, distillation towers, pressure reactor
s, autoclaves, and many other vessels in mining operations, oil refineries and p
etrochemical plants, nuclear reactor vessels, submarine and space ship habitats,
pneumatic reservoirs, hydraulic reservoirs under pressure, rail vehicle airbrak
e reservoirs, road vehicle airbrake reservoirs, and storage vessels for liquifie
d gases such as ammonia, chlorine, and LPG (propane, butane).
A unique application of a pressure vessel is the passenger cabin of an airliner;
The outer skin carries both the aircraft maneuvering loads and the cabin pressu
rization loads.
A pressure tank connected to a water well and domestic hot water system.
A few pressure tanks, here used to hold propane.
An expansion vessel for heating systems.
A pressure vessel used as a kier.
A pressure vessel used for The Boeing Company s CST-100 spacecraft.
Alternatives to pressure vessels
Natural gas storage
Gas holder
Depending on the application and local circumstances, alternatives to pressure v

essels exist. Examples can be seen in domestic water collection systems, where t
he following may be used:
Gravity controlled systems[8] which typically consist of an unpressurized wa
ter tank at an elevation higher than the point of use. Pressure at the point of
use is the result of the hydrostatic pressure caused by the elevation difference
. Gravity systems produce 0.43 pounds per square inch (3.0 kPa) per foot of wate
r head (elevation difference). A municipal water supply or pumped water is typic
ally around 90 pounds per square inch (620 kPa).
Inline pump controllers or pressure-sensitive pumps.[9]
Design
Scaling
No matter what shape it takes, the minimum mass of a pressure vessel scales with
the pressure and volume it contains and is inversely proportional to the streng
th to weight ratio of the construction material (minimum mass decreases as stren
gth increases[10]).
Scaling of stress in walls of vessel
Pressure vessels are held together against the gas pressure due to tensile force
s within the walls of the container. The normal (tensile) stress in the walls of
the container is proportional to the pressure and radius of the vessel and inve
rsely proportional to the thickness of the walls.[11] Therefore, pressure vessel
s are designed to have a thickness proportional to the radius of tank and the pr
essure of the tank and inversely proportional to the maximum allowed normal stre
ss of the particular material used in the walls of the container.
Because (for a given pressure) the thickness of the walls scales with the radius
of the tank, the mass of a tank (which scales as the length times radius times
thickness of the wall for a cylindrical tank) scales with the volume of the gas
held (which scales as length times radius squared). The exact formula varies wit
h the tank shape but depends on the density, ?, and maximum allowable stress s o
f the material in addition to the pressure P and volume V of the vessel. (See be
low for the exact equations for the stress in the walls.)
Spherical vessel
For a sphere, the minimum mass of a pressure vessel is
M = 3 2 P V ? s {\displaystyle M={3 \over 2}PV{\rho \over \sigma }} M={3 \ov
er 2}PV{\rho \over \sigma },
where:
M {\displaystyle
P {\displaystyle
ssure),
V {\displaystyle
? {\displaystyle
s {\displaystyle
can tolerate.[12]

M} M is mass,
P} P is the pressure difference from ambient (the gauge pre
V} V is volume,
\rho } \rho is the density of the pressure vessel material,
\sigma } \sigma is the maximum working stress that material

Other shapes besides a sphere have constants larger than 3/2 (infinite cylinders
take 2), although some tanks, such as non-spherical wound composite tanks can a
pproach this.
Cylindrical vessel with hemispherical ends
This is sometimes called a "bullet"[citation needed] for its shape, although in
geometric terms it is a capsule.

For a cylinder with hemispherical ends,


M = 2 p R 2 ( R + W ) P ? s {\displaystyle M=2\pi R^{2}(R+W)P{\rho \over \si
gma }} M=2\pi R^{2}(R+W)P{\rho \over \sigma },
where
R is the radius
W is the middle cylinder width only, and the overall width is W + 2R
Cylindrical vessel with semi-elliptical ends
In a vessel with an aspect ratio of middle cylinder width to radius of 2:1,
M = 6 p R 3 P ? s {\displaystyle M=6\pi R^{3}P{\rho \over \sigma }} M=6\pi R
^{3}P{\rho \over \sigma }.
Gas storage
In looking at the first equation, the factor PV, in SI units, is in units of (pr
essurization) energy. For a stored gas, PV is proportional to the mass of gas at
a given temperature, thus
M = 3 2 n R T ? s {\displaystyle M={3 \over 2}nRT{\rho \over \sigma }} M={3
\over 2}nRT{\rho \over \sigma }. (see gas law)
The other factors are constant for a given vessel shape and material. So we can
see that there is no theoretical "efficiency of scale", in terms of the ratio of
pressure vessel mass to pressurization energy, or of pressure vessel mass to st
ored gas mass. For storing gases, "tankage efficiency" is independent of pressur
e, at least for the same temperature.
So, for example, a typical design for a minimum mass tank to hold helium (as a p
ressurant gas) on a rocket would use a spherical chamber for a minimum shape con
stant, carbon fiber for best possible ? / s {\displaystyle \rho /\sigma } \rho /
\sigma , and very cold helium for best possible M / p V {\displaystyle M/{pV}} M
/{pV}.
Stress in thin-walled pressure vessels
Stress in a shallow-walled pressure vessel in the shape of a sphere is
s ? = s l o n g = p r 2 t {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }=\sigma _{\rm {lon
g}}={\frac {pr}{2t}}} \sigma _{\theta }=\sigma _{{{\rm {long}}}}={\frac {pr}{2t}
},
where s ? {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }} \sigma _{\theta } is hoop stress, or
stress in the circumferential direction, s l o n g {\displaystyle \sigma _{long
}} \sigma _{{long}} is stress in the longitudinal direction, p is internal gauge
pressure, r is the inner radius of the sphere, and t is thickness of the sphere
wall. A vessel can be considered "shallow-walled" if the diameter is at least 1
0 times (sometimes cited as 20 times) greater than the wall depth.[13]
Stress in the cylinder body of a pressure vessel.
Stress in a shallow-walled pressure vessel in the shape of a cylinder is
s ? = p r t {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }={\frac {pr}{t}}} \sigma _{\thet
a }={\frac {pr}{t}},
s l o n g = p r 2 t {\displaystyle \sigma _{\rm {long}}={\frac {pr}{2t}}} \s
igma _{{{\rm {long}}}}={\frac {pr}{2t}},

where:
s ? {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }} \sigma _{\theta } is hoop stress, or s
tress in the circumferential direction
s l o n g {\displaystyle \sigma _{long}} \sigma _{{long}} is stress in the l
ongitudinal direction
p is internal gauge pressure
r is the inner radius of the cylinder
t is thickness of the cylinder wall.
Almost all pressure vessel design standards contain variations of these two form
ulas with additional empirical terms to account for wall thickness tolerances, q
uality control of welds and in-service corrosion allowances.
For example, the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (BPVC) (UG-27) formulas ar
e:[14]
Spherical shells:
s ? = s l o n g = p ( r + 0.2 t ) 2 t E {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }=\si
gma _{\rm {long}}={\frac {p(r+0.2t)}{2tE}}} \sigma _{\theta }=\sigma _{{{\rm {lo
ng}}}}={\frac {p(r+0.2t)}{2tE}}
Cylindrical shells:
s ? = p ( r + 0.6 t ) t E {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }={\frac {p(r+0.6t)
}{tE}}} \sigma _{\theta }={\frac {p(r+0.6t)}{tE}}
s l o n g = p ( r - 0.4 t ) 2 t E {\displaystyle \sigma _{\rm {long}}={\frac
{p(r-0.4t)}{2tE}}} \sigma _{{{\rm {long}}}}={\frac {p(r-0.4t)}{2tE}}
where E is the joint efficient, and all others variables as stated above.
The factor of safety is often included in these formulas as well, in the case of
the ASME BPVC this term is included in the material stress value when solving f
or pressure or thickness.
Winding angle of carbon fibre vessels
Wound infinite cylindrical shapes optimally take a winding angle of 54.7 degrees
, as this gives the necessary twice the strength in the circumferential directio
n to the longitudinal.[15]
Operation standards
Pressure vessels are designed to operate safely at a specific pressure and tempe
rature, technically referred to as the "Design Pressure" and "Design Temperature
". A vessel that is inadequately designed to handle a high pressure constitutes
a very significant safety hazard. Because of that, the design and certification
of pressure vessels is governed by design codes such as the ASME Boiler and Pres
sure Vessel Code in North America, the Pressure Equipment Directive of the EU (P
ED), Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS), CSA B51 in Canada, Australian Standards
in Australia and other international standards like Lloyd's, Germanischer Lloyd
, Det Norske Veritas, Socit Gnrale de Surveillance (SGS S.A.), Lloyd s Register Energy
Nederland (formerly known as Stoomwezen) etc.
Note that where the pressure-volume product is part of a safety standard, any in
compressible liquid in the vessel can be excluded as it does not contribute to t
he potential energy stored in the vessel, so only the volume of the compressible
part such as gas is used.
List of standards
EN 13445: The current European Standard, harmonized with the Pressure Equipm

ent Directive (97/23/EC). Extensively used in Europe.


ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section VIII: Rules for Construction of
Pressure Vessels.
BS 5500: Former British Standard, replaced in the UK by BS EN 13445 but reta
ined under the name PD 5500 for the design and construction of export equipment.
AD Merkbltter: German standard, harmonized with the Pressure Equipment Direct
ive.
EN 286 (Parts 1 to 4): European standard for simple pressure vessels (air ta
nks), harmonized with Council Directive 87/404/EEC.
BS 4994: Specification for design and construction of vessels and tanks in r
einforced plastics.
ASME PVHO: US standard for Pressure Vessels for Human Occupancy.
CODAP: French Code for Construction of Unfired Pressure Vessel.
AS/NZS 1200: Pressure equipment.[16]
AS/NZS 3788:2006[17]
API 510.[18]
ISO 11439: Compressed natural gas (CNG) cylinders[19]
IS 2825-1969 (RE1977)_code_unfired_Pressure_vessels.
FRP tanks and vessels.
AIAA S-080-1998: AIAA Standard for Space Systems - Metallic Pressure Vessels
, Pressurized Structures, and Pressure Components.
AIAA S-081A-2006: AIAA Standard for Space Systems - Composite Overwrapped Pr
essure Vessels (COPVs).
B51-09 Canadian Boiler, pressure vessel, and pressure piping code.
HSE guidelines for pressure systems.
Stoomwezen: Former pressure vessels code in the Netherlands, also known as R
ToD: Regels voor Toestellen onder Druk (Dutch Rules for Pressure Vessels).
See also
American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)
Bottled gas
Composite overwrapped pressure vessel
Compressed air energy storage
Compressed natural gas
Demister
Fire-tube boiler
Gas cylinder
Gasket
Head (vessel)
Minimum Design Metal Temperature (MDMT)
Pressure bomb - a device for measuring leaf water potentials
Rainwater harvesting
Relief valve
Safety valve
Shell and tube heat exchanger
Vapor-Liquid Separator or Knock-Out Drum
Vortex breaker
Water well
Water-tube boiler
Notes
Nilsen, Kyle. (2011) "Development of low pressure filter testing vessel and anal
ysis of electrospun nanofiber membranes for water treatment"
Ingenious Coal-Gas Motor Tank, Popular Science monthly, January 1919, page 27, S
canned by Google Books: https://books.google.com/books?id=HykDAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA13
Hearn, E.J. (1997). Mechanics of Materials 1. An Introduction to the Mechanics o
f Elastic and Plastic Deformation of Solids and Structural Materials - Third Edi
tion. Chapter 9: Butterworth-Heinemann. pp. 199 203. ISBN 0-7506-3265-8.

NASA Tech Briefs, "Making a Metal-Lined Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessel",


1 Mar 2005.
Frietas, O., "Maintenance and Repair of Glass-Lined Equipment", Chemical Enginee
ring, 1 Jul 2007.
"High Pressure Vessels",D. Freyer and J. Harvey, 1998
ANSI/AIAA S-080-1998, Space Systems - Metallic Pressure Vessels, Pressurized Str
uctures, and Pressure Components, 5.1
Pushard, Doug (2005). "Domestic water collection systems also sometimes able to
function on gravity". Harvesth2o.com. Retrieved 2009-04-17.[verification needed]
Pushard, Doug. "Alternatives to pressure vessels in domestic water systems". Har
vesth2o.com. Retrieved 2009-04-17.
Puskarich, Paul (2009-05-01). "Strengthened Glass for Pipleine Systems" (PDF). M
IT. Retrieved 2009-04-17.
Beer, Ferdinand P.; Johnston, Jr., E. Russel; DeWolf, John T. "7.9". Mechanics o
f Materials (fourth ed.). McGraw-Hill. p. 463. ISBN 9780073659350.
For a sphere the thickness d = rP/2s, where r is the radius of the tank. The vol
ume of the spherical surface then is 4pr2d = 4pr3P/2s. The mass is determined by
multiplying by the density of the material that makes up the walls of the spher
ical vessel. Further the volume of the gas is (4pr3)/3. Combining these equation
s give the above results. The equations for the other geometries are derived in
a similar manner
Richard Budynas, J. Nisbett, Shigley's Mechanical Engineering Design, 8th ed., N
ew York:McGraw-Hill, ISBN 978-0-07-312193-2, pg 108
An International Code 2007 ASME Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code. The Americal Soci
ety of Mechanical Engineers. 2007.
MIT pressure vessel lecture
"AS 1200 Pressure Vessels". SAI Global. Retrieved 14 November 2011.
"AS_NZS 3788: 2006 Pressure equipment - In-service inspection". SAI Global. Retr
ieved September 4, 2015.
"Pressure Vessel Inspection Code: In-Service Inspection, Rating, Repair, and Alt
eration". API. June 2006.
."Gas cylinders - High pressure cylinders for the on-board storage of natura
l gas as a fuel for automotive vehicles". ISO. 2006-07-18. Retrieved 2009-04-17.
References
A.C. Ugural, S.K. Fenster, Advanced Strength and Applied Elasticity, 4th ed.
E.P. Popov, Engineering Mechanics of Solids, 1st ed.
Megyesy, Eugene F. "Pressure Vessel Handbook, 14th Edition." PV Publishing,
Inc. Oklahoma City, OK
Further reading
Megyesy, Eugene F. (2008, 14th ed.) Pressure Vessel Handbook. PV Publishing,
Inc.: Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA. www.pressurevesselhandbook.com Design handb
ook for pressure vessels based on the ASME code.
External links
Look up pressure vessel in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Pressure vessel.
Use of pressure vessels in oil and gas industry
Basic formulas for thin walled pressure vessels; with examples
Educational Excel spreadsheets for ASME head, shell and nozzle designs
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel website
Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology
EU Pressure Equipment Directive website
EU Simple Pressure Vessel Directive
EU Classification

Pressure Vessel attachments http://oakridgebellows.com/metal-expansion-joint


s/technical-videos/lugs-on-pipe-and-vessels-new
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Pressure vessel
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Horizontal pressure vessel in steel
A pressure vessel is a container designed to hold gases or liquids at a pressure
substantially different from the ambient pressure.
The pressure differential is dangerous, and fatal accidents have occurred in the
history of pressure vessel development and operation. Consequently, pressure ve
ssel design, manufacture, and operation are regulated by engineering authorities
backed by legislation. For these reasons, the definition of a pressure vessel v
aries from country to country, but involves parameters such as maximum safe oper
ating pressure and temperature, and are engineered with a safety factor, corrosi
on allowance, minimum design temperature (for brittle fracture), and involve non
destructive testing, such as ultrasonic testing, radiography, and pressure tests
, usually involving water, also known as a hydrotest, but could be pneumatically
tested involving air or another gas. The preferred test is hydrostatic testing
because it's a much safer method of testing as it releases much less energy if f
racture were to occur (water does not rapidly increase its volume while rapid de
pressurization occurs, unlike gases like air, i.e. gasses fail explosively). In
the United States, as with many other countries, it is the law that vessels over
a certain size and pressure (15 PSIg) be built to Code, in the United States th
at Code is the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (BPVC), these vessels also r
equire an Authorized Inspector to sign off on every new vessel constructed and e
ach vessel has a nameplate with pertinent information about the vessel such as m
aximum allowable working pressure, maximum temperature, minimum design metal tem
perature, what company manufactured it, the date, its registration number (throu
gh the National Board), and ASME's official stamp for pressure vessels (U-stamp)
, making the vessel traceable and officially an ASME Code vessel.
Contents
1 History of pressure vessels
2 Pressure vessel features
2.1 Shape of a pressure vessel
2.2 Construction materials
2.3 Safety features
2.3.1 Leak before burst
2.3.2 Safety valves
2.4 Maintenance features
2.4.1 Pressure vessel closures
3 Uses
4 Alternatives to pressure vessels
5 Design
5.1 Scaling
5.1.1 Scaling of stress in walls of vessel
5.1.2 Spherical vessel
5.1.3 Cylindrical vessel with hemispherical ends
5.1.4 Cylindrical vessel with semi-elliptical ends

5.1.5 Gas storage


5.2 Stress in thin-walled pressure vessels
5.3 Winding angle of carbon fibre vessels
5.4 Operation standards
5.4.1 List of standards
6 See also
7 Notes
8 References
9 Further reading
10 External links
History of pressure vessels
A 10,000 psi (69 MPa) pressure vessel from 1919, wrapped with high tensile steel
banding and steel rods to secure the end caps.
The earliest documented design of pressure vessels is described in the book Code
x Madrid I, by Leonardo da Vinci, in 1495, where containers of pressurized air w
ere theorized to lift heavy weights underwater,[1] however vessels resembling wh
at are used today did not come about until the 1800s where steam was generated i
n boilers helping to spur the industrial revolution.[1] However, with poor mater
ial quality and manufacturing techniques along with improper knowledge of design
, operation and maintenance there was a large number of damaging and often fatal
explosions associated with these boilers and pressure vessels, with a death occ
urring on a nearly daily basis in the United States.[1] Local providences and st
ates in the US began enacting rules for constructing these vessels after some pa
rticularly devastating vessel failures occurred killing dozens of people at a ti
me, which made it difficult for manufacturers to keep up with the varied rules f
rom one location to another and the first pressure vessel code was developed sta
rting in 1911 and released in 1914, starting the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel
Code (BPVC).[1] In an early effort to design a tank capable of withstanding pre
ssures up to 10,000 psi (69 MPa), a 6-inch (150 mm) diameter tank was developed
in 1919 that was spirally-wound with two layers of high tensile strength steel w
ire to prevent sidewall rupture, and the end caps longitudinally reinforced with
lengthwise high-tensile rods.[2] The need for high pressure and temperature ves
sels for petroleum refineries and chemical plants gave rise to vessels joined wi
th welding instead of rivets (which were unsuitable for the pressures and temper
atures required) and in 1920s and 1930s the BPVC included welding as an acceptab
le means of construction, and welding is the main means of joining metal vessels
today.[1]
There have been many advancements in the field of pressure vessel engineering su
ch as advanced non-destructive examination, phased array ultrasonic testing and
radiography, new material grades with increased corrosion resistance and stronge
r materials, and new ways to join materials such as explosion welding (to attach
one metal sheet to another, usually a thin corrosion resistant metal like stain
less steel to a stronger metal like carbon steel), friction stir welding (which
attaches the metals together without melting the metal), advanced theories and m
eans of more accurately assessing the stresses encountered in vessels such as wi
th the use of Finite Element Analysis, allowing the vessels to be built safer an
d more efficiently. Today vessels in the USA require BPVC stamping but the BPVC
is not just a domestic code, many other countries have adopted the BPVC as their
official code. There are, however, other official codes in some countries (some
of which rely on portions of and reference the BPVC), Japan, Australia, Canada,
Britain, and Europe have their own codes. Regardless of the country nearly all
recognize the inherent potential hazards of pressure vessels and the need for st
andards and codes regulating their design and construction.
Pressure vessel features
Shape of a pressure vessel
Pressure vessels can theoretically be almost any shape, but shapes made of secti

ons of spheres, cylinders, and cones are usually


cylinder with end caps called heads. Head shapes
ical or dished (torispherical). More complicated
uch harder to analyze for safe operation and are
onstruct.

employed. A common design is a


are frequently either hemispher
shapes have historically been m
usually far more difficult to c

Spherical gas container.


Cylindrical pressure vessel.
Picture of the bottom of an aerosol spray can.
Fire Extinguisher with rounded rectangle pressure vessel
Theoretically, a spherical pressure vessel has approximately twice the strength
of a cylindrical pressure vessel with the same wall thickness,[3] and is the ide
al shape to hold internal pressure.[1] However, a spherical shape is difficult t
o manufacture, and therefore more expensive, so most pressure vessels are cylind
rical with 2:1 semi-elliptical heads or end caps on each end. Smaller pressure v
essels are assembled from a pipe and two covers. For cylindrical vessels with a
diameter up to 600 mm (NPS of 24 in), it is possible to use seamless pipe for th
e shell, thus avoiding many inspection and testing issues, mainly the nondestruc
tive examination of radiography for the long seam if required. A disadvantage of
these vessels is that greater diameters are more expensive, so that for example
the most economic shape of a 1,000 litres (35 cu ft), 250 bars (3,600 psi) pres
sure vessel might be a diameter of 91.44 centimetres (36 in) and a length of 1.7
018 metres (67 in) including the 2:1 semi-elliptical domed end caps.
Construction materials
Composite overwrapped pressure vessel with titanium liner.
Many pressure vessels are made of steel. To manufacture a cylindrical or spheric
al pressure vessel, rolled and possibly forged parts would have to be welded tog
ether. Some mechanical properties of steel, achieved by rolling or forging, coul
d be adversely affected by welding, unless special precautions are taken. In add
ition to adequate mechanical strength, current standards dictate the use of stee
l with a high impact resistance, especially for vessels used in low temperatures
. In applications where carbon steel would suffer corrosion, special corrosion r
esistant material should also be used.
Some pressure vessels are made of composite materials, such as filament wound co
mposite using carbon fibre held in place with a polymer. Due to the very high te
nsile strength of carbon fibre these vessels can be very light, but are much mor
e difficult to manufacture. The composite material may be wound around a metal l
iner, forming a composite overwrapped pressure vessel.
Other very common materials include polymers such as PET in carbonated beverage
containers and copper in plumbing.
Pressure vessels may be lined with various metals, ceramics, or polymers to prev
ent leaking and protect the structure of the vessel from the contained medium. T
his liner may also carry a significant portion of the pressure load.[4][5]
Pressure Vessels may also be constructed from concrete (PCV) or other materials
which are weak in tension. Cabling, wrapped around the vessel or within the wall
or the vessel itself, provides the necessary tension to resist the internal pre
ssure. A "leakproof steel thin membrane" lines the internal wall of the vessel.
Such vessels can be assembled from modular pieces and so have "no inherent size
limitations".[6] There is also a high order of redundancy thanks to the large nu
mber of individual cables resisting the internal pressure.
Safety features

Leak before burst


Leak before burst describes a pressure vessel designed such that a crack in the
vessel will grow through the wall, allowing the contained fluid to escape and re
ducing the pressure, prior to growing so large as to cause fracture at the opera
ting pressure.
Many pressure vessel standards, including the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Co
de[citation needed] and the AIAA metallic pressure vessel standard, either requi
re pressure vessel designs to be leak before burst, or require pressure vessels
to meet more stringent requirements for fatigue and fracture if they are not sho
wn to be leak before burst.[7]
Safety valves
Example of a valve used for gas cylinders.
As the pressure vessel is designed to a pressure, there is typically a safety va
lve or relief valve to ensure that this pressure is not exceeded in operation.
Maintenance features
Pressure vessel closures
Pressure vessel closures are pressure retaining structures designed to provide q
uick access to pipelines, pressure vessels, pig traps, filters and filtration sy
stems. Typically pressure vessel closures allow maintenance personnel.
Uses
Pressure vessels are used in a variety of applications in both industry and the
private sector. They appear in these sectors as industrial compressed air receiv
ers and domestic hot water storage tanks. Other examples of pressure vessels are
diving cylinders, recompression chambers, distillation towers, pressure reactor
s, autoclaves, and many other vessels in mining operations, oil refineries and p
etrochemical plants, nuclear reactor vessels, submarine and space ship habitats,
pneumatic reservoirs, hydraulic reservoirs under pressure, rail vehicle airbrak
e reservoirs, road vehicle airbrake reservoirs, and storage vessels for liquifie
d gases such as ammonia, chlorine, and LPG (propane, butane).
A unique application of a pressure vessel is the passenger cabin of an airliner;
The outer skin carries both the aircraft maneuvering loads and the cabin pressu
rization loads.
A pressure tank connected to a water well and domestic hot water system.
A few pressure tanks, here used to hold propane.
An expansion vessel for heating systems.
A pressure vessel used as a kier.
A pressure vessel used for The Boeing Company s CST-100 spacecraft.
Alternatives to pressure vessels
Natural gas storage
Gas holder
Depending on the application and local circumstances, alternatives to pressure v
essels exist. Examples can be seen in domestic water collection systems, where t
he following may be used:
Gravity controlled systems[8] which typically consist of an unpressurized wa
ter tank at an elevation higher than the point of use. Pressure at the point of

use is the result of the hydrostatic pressure caused by the elevation difference
. Gravity systems produce 0.43 pounds per square inch (3.0 kPa) per foot of wate
r head (elevation difference). A municipal water supply or pumped water is typic
ally around 90 pounds per square inch (620 kPa).
Inline pump controllers or pressure-sensitive pumps.[9]
Design
Scaling
No matter what shape it takes, the minimum mass of a pressure vessel scales with
the pressure and volume it contains and is inversely proportional to the streng
th to weight ratio of the construction material (minimum mass decreases as stren
gth increases[10]).
Scaling of stress in walls of vessel
Pressure vessels are held together against the gas pressure due to tensile force
s within the walls of the container. The normal (tensile) stress in the walls of
the container is proportional to the pressure and radius of the vessel and inve
rsely proportional to the thickness of the walls.[11] Therefore, pressure vessel
s are designed to have a thickness proportional to the radius of tank and the pr
essure of the tank and inversely proportional to the maximum allowed normal stre
ss of the particular material used in the walls of the container.
Because (for a given pressure) the thickness of the walls scales with the radius
of the tank, the mass of a tank (which scales as the length times radius times
thickness of the wall for a cylindrical tank) scales with the volume of the gas
held (which scales as length times radius squared). The exact formula varies wit
h the tank shape but depends on the density, ?, and maximum allowable stress s o
f the material in addition to the pressure P and volume V of the vessel. (See be
low for the exact equations for the stress in the walls.)
Spherical vessel
For a sphere, the minimum mass of a pressure vessel is
M = 3 2 P V ? s {\displaystyle M={3 \over 2}PV{\rho \over \sigma }} M={3 \ov
er 2}PV{\rho \over \sigma },
where:
M {\displaystyle
P {\displaystyle
ssure),
V {\displaystyle
? {\displaystyle
s {\displaystyle
can tolerate.[12]

M} M is mass,
P} P is the pressure difference from ambient (the gauge pre
V} V is volume,
\rho } \rho is the density of the pressure vessel material,
\sigma } \sigma is the maximum working stress that material

Other shapes besides a sphere have constants larger than 3/2 (infinite cylinders
take 2), although some tanks, such as non-spherical wound composite tanks can a
pproach this.
Cylindrical vessel with hemispherical ends
This is sometimes called a "bullet"[citation needed] for its shape, although in
geometric terms it is a capsule.
For a cylinder with hemispherical ends,
M = 2 p R 2 ( R + W ) P ? s {\displaystyle M=2\pi R^{2}(R+W)P{\rho \over \si
gma }} M=2\pi R^{2}(R+W)P{\rho \over \sigma },

where
R is the radius
W is the middle cylinder width only, and the overall width is W + 2R
Cylindrical vessel with semi-elliptical ends
In a vessel with an aspect ratio of middle cylinder width to radius of 2:1,
M = 6 p R 3 P ? s {\displaystyle M=6\pi R^{3}P{\rho \over \sigma }} M=6\pi R
^{3}P{\rho \over \sigma }.
Gas storage
In looking at the first equation, the factor PV, in SI units, is in units of (pr
essurization) energy. For a stored gas, PV is proportional to the mass of gas at
a given temperature, thus
M = 3 2 n R T ? s {\displaystyle M={3 \over 2}nRT{\rho \over \sigma }} M={3
\over 2}nRT{\rho \over \sigma }. (see gas law)
The other factors are constant for a given vessel shape and material. So we can
see that there is no theoretical "efficiency of scale", in terms of the ratio of
pressure vessel mass to pressurization energy, or of pressure vessel mass to st
ored gas mass. For storing gases, "tankage efficiency" is independent of pressur
e, at least for the same temperature.
So, for example, a typical design for a minimum mass tank to hold helium (as a p
ressurant gas) on a rocket would use a spherical chamber for a minimum shape con
stant, carbon fiber for best possible ? / s {\displaystyle \rho /\sigma } \rho /
\sigma , and very cold helium for best possible M / p V {\displaystyle M/{pV}} M
/{pV}.
Stress in thin-walled pressure vessels
Stress in a shallow-walled pressure vessel in the shape of a sphere is
s ? = s l o n g = p r 2 t {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }=\sigma _{\rm {lon
g}}={\frac {pr}{2t}}} \sigma _{\theta }=\sigma _{{{\rm {long}}}}={\frac {pr}{2t}
},
where s ? {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }} \sigma _{\theta } is hoop stress, or
stress in the circumferential direction, s l o n g {\displaystyle \sigma _{long
}} \sigma _{{long}} is stress in the longitudinal direction, p is internal gauge
pressure, r is the inner radius of the sphere, and t is thickness of the sphere
wall. A vessel can be considered "shallow-walled" if the diameter is at least 1
0 times (sometimes cited as 20 times) greater than the wall depth.[13]
Stress in the cylinder body of a pressure vessel.
Stress in a shallow-walled pressure vessel in the shape of a cylinder is
s ? = p r t {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }={\frac {pr}{t}}} \sigma _{\thet
a }={\frac {pr}{t}},
s l o n g = p r 2 t {\displaystyle \sigma _{\rm {long}}={\frac {pr}{2t}}} \s
igma _{{{\rm {long}}}}={\frac {pr}{2t}},
where:
s ? {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }} \sigma _{\theta } is hoop stress, or s
tress in the circumferential direction
s l o n g {\displaystyle \sigma _{long}} \sigma _{{long}} is stress in the l

ongitudinal direction
p is internal gauge pressure
r is the inner radius of the cylinder
t is thickness of the cylinder wall.
Almost all pressure vessel design standards contain variations of these two form
ulas with additional empirical terms to account for wall thickness tolerances, q
uality control of welds and in-service corrosion allowances.
For example, the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (BPVC) (UG-27) formulas ar
e:[14]
Spherical shells:
s ? = s l o n g = p ( r + 0.2 t ) 2 t E {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }=\si
gma _{\rm {long}}={\frac {p(r+0.2t)}{2tE}}} \sigma _{\theta }=\sigma _{{{\rm {lo
ng}}}}={\frac {p(r+0.2t)}{2tE}}
Cylindrical shells:
s ? = p ( r + 0.6 t ) t E {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }={\frac {p(r+0.6t)
}{tE}}} \sigma _{\theta }={\frac {p(r+0.6t)}{tE}}
s l o n g = p ( r - 0.4 t ) 2 t E {\displaystyle \sigma _{\rm {long}}={\frac
{p(r-0.4t)}{2tE}}} \sigma _{{{\rm {long}}}}={\frac {p(r-0.4t)}{2tE}}
where E is the joint efficient, and all others variables as stated above.
The factor of safety is often included in these formulas as well, in the case of
the ASME BPVC this term is included in the material stress value when solving f
or pressure or thickness.
Winding angle of carbon fibre vessels
Wound infinite cylindrical shapes optimally take a winding angle of 54.7 degrees
, as this gives the necessary twice the strength in the circumferential directio
n to the longitudinal.[15]
Operation standards
Pressure vessels are designed to operate safely at a specific pressure and tempe
rature, technically referred to as the "Design Pressure" and "Design Temperature
". A vessel that is inadequately designed to handle a high pressure constitutes
a very significant safety hazard. Because of that, the design and certification
of pressure vessels is governed by design codes such as the ASME Boiler and Pres
sure Vessel Code in North America, the Pressure Equipment Directive of the EU (P
ED), Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS), CSA B51 in Canada, Australian Standards
in Australia and other international standards like Lloyd's, Germanischer Lloyd
, Det Norske Veritas, Socit Gnrale de Surveillance (SGS S.A.), Lloyd s Register Energy
Nederland (formerly known as Stoomwezen) etc.
Note that where the pressure-volume product is part of a safety standard, any in
compressible liquid in the vessel can be excluded as it does not contribute to t
he potential energy stored in the vessel, so only the volume of the compressible
part such as gas is used.
List of standards
EN 13445: The current European Standard, harmonized with the Pressure Equipm
ent Directive (97/23/EC). Extensively used in Europe.
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section VIII: Rules for Construction of
Pressure Vessels.
BS 5500: Former British Standard, replaced in the UK by BS EN 13445 but reta
ined under the name PD 5500 for the design and construction of export equipment.

AD Merkbltter: German standard, harmonized with the Pressure Equipment Direct


ive.
EN 286 (Parts 1 to 4): European standard for simple pressure vessels (air ta
nks), harmonized with Council Directive 87/404/EEC.
BS 4994: Specification for design and construction of vessels and tanks in r
einforced plastics.
ASME PVHO: US standard for Pressure Vessels for Human Occupancy.
CODAP: French Code for Construction of Unfired Pressure Vessel.
AS/NZS 1200: Pressure equipment.[16]
AS/NZS 3788:2006[17]
API 510.[18]
ISO 11439: Compressed natural gas (CNG) cylinders[19]
IS 2825-1969 (RE1977)_code_unfired_Pressure_vessels.
FRP tanks and vessels.
AIAA S-080-1998: AIAA Standard for Space Systems - Metallic Pressure Vessels
, Pressurized Structures, and Pressure Components.
AIAA S-081A-2006: AIAA Standard for Space Systems - Composite Overwrapped Pr
essure Vessels (COPVs).
B51-09 Canadian Boiler, pressure vessel, and pressure piping code.
HSE guidelines for pressure systems.
Stoomwezen: Former pressure vessels code in the Netherlands, also known as R
ToD: Regels voor Toestellen onder Druk (Dutch Rules for Pressure Vessels).
See also
American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)
Bottled gas
Composite overwrapped pressure vessel
Compressed air energy storage
Compressed natural gas
Demister
Fire-tube boiler
Gas cylinder
Gasket
Head (vessel)
Minimum Design Metal Temperature (MDMT)
Pressure bomb - a device for measuring leaf water potentials
Rainwater harvesting
Relief valve
Safety valve
Shell and tube heat exchanger
Vapor-Liquid Separator or Knock-Out Drum
Vortex breaker
Water well
Water-tube boiler
Notes
Nilsen, Kyle. (2011) "Development of low pressure filter testing vessel and anal
ysis of electrospun nanofiber membranes for water treatment"
Ingenious Coal-Gas Motor Tank, Popular Science monthly, January 1919, page 27, S
canned by Google Books: https://books.google.com/books?id=HykDAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA13
Hearn, E.J. (1997). Mechanics of Materials 1. An Introduction to the Mechanics o
f Elastic and Plastic Deformation of Solids and Structural Materials - Third Edi
tion. Chapter 9: Butterworth-Heinemann. pp. 199 203. ISBN 0-7506-3265-8.
NASA Tech Briefs, "Making a Metal-Lined Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessel",
1 Mar 2005.
Frietas, O., "Maintenance and Repair of Glass-Lined Equipment", Chemical Enginee
ring, 1 Jul 2007.
"High Pressure Vessels",D. Freyer and J. Harvey, 1998

ANSI/AIAA S-080-1998, Space Systems - Metallic Pressure Vessels, Pressurized Str


uctures, and Pressure Components, 5.1
Pushard, Doug (2005). "Domestic water collection systems also sometimes able to
function on gravity". Harvesth2o.com. Retrieved 2009-04-17.[verification needed]
Pushard, Doug. "Alternatives to pressure vessels in domestic water systems". Har
vesth2o.com. Retrieved 2009-04-17.
Puskarich, Paul (2009-05-01). "Strengthened Glass for Pipleine Systems" (PDF). M
IT. Retrieved 2009-04-17.
Beer, Ferdinand P.; Johnston, Jr., E. Russel; DeWolf, John T. "7.9". Mechanics o
f Materials (fourth ed.). McGraw-Hill. p. 463. ISBN 9780073659350.
For a sphere the thickness d = rP/2s, where r is the radius of the tank. The vol
ume of the spherical surface then is 4pr2d = 4pr3P/2s. The mass is determined by
multiplying by the density of the material that makes up the walls of the spher
ical vessel. Further the volume of the gas is (4pr3)/3. Combining these equation
s give the above results. The equations for the other geometries are derived in
a similar manner
Richard Budynas, J. Nisbett, Shigley's Mechanical Engineering Design, 8th ed., N
ew York:McGraw-Hill, ISBN 978-0-07-312193-2, pg 108
An International Code 2007 ASME Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code. The Americal Soci
ety of Mechanical Engineers. 2007.
MIT pressure vessel lecture
"AS 1200 Pressure Vessels". SAI Global. Retrieved 14 November 2011.
"AS_NZS 3788: 2006 Pressure equipment - In-service inspection". SAI Global. Retr
ieved September 4, 2015.
"Pressure Vessel Inspection Code: In-Service Inspection, Rating, Repair, and Alt
eration". API. June 2006.
."Gas cylinders - High pressure cylinders for the on-board storage of natura
l gas as a fuel for automotive vehicles". ISO. 2006-07-18. Retrieved 2009-04-17.
References
A.C. Ugural, S.K. Fenster, Advanced Strength and Applied Elasticity, 4th ed.
E.P. Popov, Engineering Mechanics of Solids, 1st ed.
Megyesy, Eugene F. "Pressure Vessel Handbook, 14th Edition." PV Publishing,
Inc. Oklahoma City, OK
Further reading
Megyesy, Eugene F. (2008, 14th ed.) Pressure Vessel Handbook. PV Publishing,
Inc.: Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA. www.pressurevesselhandbook.com Design handb
ook for pressure vessels based on the ASME code.
External links
Look up pressure vessel in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Pressure vessel.
Use of pressure vessels in oil and gas industry
Basic formulas for thin walled pressure vessels; with examples
Educational Excel spreadsheets for ASME head, shell and nozzle designs
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel website
Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology
EU Pressure Equipment Directive website
EU Simple Pressure Vessel Directive
EU Classification
Pressure Vessel attachments http://oakridgebellows.com/metal-expansion-joint
s/technical-videos/lugs-on-pipe-and-vessels-new
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Pressure vessel
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Horizontal pressure vessel in steel
A pressure vessel is a container designed to hold gases or liquids at a pressure
substantially different from the ambient pressure.
The pressure differential is dangerous, and fatal accidents have occurred in the
history of pressure vessel development and operation. Consequently, pressure ve
ssel design, manufacture, and operation are regulated by engineering authorities
backed by legislation. For these reasons, the definition of a pressure vessel v
aries from country to country, but involves parameters such as maximum safe oper
ating pressure and temperature, and are engineered with a safety factor, corrosi
on allowance, minimum design temperature (for brittle fracture), and involve non
destructive testing, such as ultrasonic testing, radiography, and pressure tests
, usually involving water, also known as a hydrotest, but could be pneumatically
tested involving air or another gas. The preferred test is hydrostatic testing
because it's a much safer method of testing as it releases much less energy if f
racture were to occur (water does not rapidly increase its volume while rapid de
pressurization occurs, unlike gases like air, i.e. gasses fail explosively). In
the United States, as with many other countries, it is the law that vessels over
a certain size and pressure (15 PSIg) be built to Code, in the United States th
at Code is the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (BPVC), these vessels also r
equire an Authorized Inspector to sign off on every new vessel constructed and e
ach vessel has a nameplate with pertinent information about the vessel such as m
aximum allowable working pressure, maximum temperature, minimum design metal tem
perature, what company manufactured it, the date, its registration number (throu
gh the National Board), and ASME's official stamp for pressure vessels (U-stamp)
, making the vessel traceable and officially an ASME Code vessel.
Contents
1 History of pressure vessels
2 Pressure vessel features
2.1 Shape of a pressure vessel
2.2 Construction materials
2.3 Safety features
2.3.1 Leak before burst
2.3.2 Safety valves
2.4 Maintenance features
2.4.1 Pressure vessel closures
3 Uses
4 Alternatives to pressure vessels
5 Design
5.1 Scaling
5.1.1 Scaling of stress in walls of vessel
5.1.2 Spherical vessel
5.1.3 Cylindrical vessel with hemispherical ends
5.1.4 Cylindrical vessel with semi-elliptical ends
5.1.5 Gas storage
5.2 Stress in thin-walled pressure vessels
5.3 Winding angle of carbon fibre vessels
5.4 Operation standards
5.4.1 List of standards

6 See also
7 Notes
8 References
9 Further reading
10 External links
History of pressure vessels
A 10,000 psi (69 MPa) pressure vessel from 1919, wrapped with high tensile steel
banding and steel rods to secure the end caps.
The earliest documented design of pressure vessels is described in the book Code
x Madrid I, by Leonardo da Vinci, in 1495, where containers of pressurized air w
ere theorized to lift heavy weights underwater,[1] however vessels resembling wh
at are used today did not come about until the 1800s where steam was generated i
n boilers helping to spur the industrial revolution.[1] However, with poor mater
ial quality and manufacturing techniques along with improper knowledge of design
, operation and maintenance there was a large number of damaging and often fatal
explosions associated with these boilers and pressure vessels, with a death occ
urring on a nearly daily basis in the United States.[1] Local providences and st
ates in the US began enacting rules for constructing these vessels after some pa
rticularly devastating vessel failures occurred killing dozens of people at a ti
me, which made it difficult for manufacturers to keep up with the varied rules f
rom one location to another and the first pressure vessel code was developed sta
rting in 1911 and released in 1914, starting the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel
Code (BPVC).[1] In an early effort to design a tank capable of withstanding pre
ssures up to 10,000 psi (69 MPa), a 6-inch (150 mm) diameter tank was developed
in 1919 that was spirally-wound with two layers of high tensile strength steel w
ire to prevent sidewall rupture, and the end caps longitudinally reinforced with
lengthwise high-tensile rods.[2] The need for high pressure and temperature ves
sels for petroleum refineries and chemical plants gave rise to vessels joined wi
th welding instead of rivets (which were unsuitable for the pressures and temper
atures required) and in 1920s and 1930s the BPVC included welding as an acceptab
le means of construction, and welding is the main means of joining metal vessels
today.[1]
There have been many advancements in the field of pressure vessel engineering su
ch as advanced non-destructive examination, phased array ultrasonic testing and
radiography, new material grades with increased corrosion resistance and stronge
r materials, and new ways to join materials such as explosion welding (to attach
one metal sheet to another, usually a thin corrosion resistant metal like stain
less steel to a stronger metal like carbon steel), friction stir welding (which
attaches the metals together without melting the metal), advanced theories and m
eans of more accurately assessing the stresses encountered in vessels such as wi
th the use of Finite Element Analysis, allowing the vessels to be built safer an
d more efficiently. Today vessels in the USA require BPVC stamping but the BPVC
is not just a domestic code, many other countries have adopted the BPVC as their
official code. There are, however, other official codes in some countries (some
of which rely on portions of and reference the BPVC), Japan, Australia, Canada,
Britain, and Europe have their own codes. Regardless of the country nearly all
recognize the inherent potential hazards of pressure vessels and the need for st
andards and codes regulating their design and construction.
Pressure vessel features
Shape of a pressure vessel
Pressure vessels can theoretically be almost any
ons of spheres, cylinders, and cones are usually
cylinder with end caps called heads. Head shapes
ical or dished (torispherical). More complicated
uch harder to analyze for safe operation and are
onstruct.

shape, but shapes made of secti


employed. A common design is a
are frequently either hemispher
shapes have historically been m
usually far more difficult to c

Spherical gas container.


Cylindrical pressure vessel.
Picture of the bottom of an aerosol spray can.
Fire Extinguisher with rounded rectangle pressure vessel
Theoretically, a spherical pressure vessel has approximately twice the strength
of a cylindrical pressure vessel with the same wall thickness,[3] and is the ide
al shape to hold internal pressure.[1] However, a spherical shape is difficult t
o manufacture, and therefore more expensive, so most pressure vessels are cylind
rical with 2:1 semi-elliptical heads or end caps on each end. Smaller pressure v
essels are assembled from a pipe and two covers. For cylindrical vessels with a
diameter up to 600 mm (NPS of 24 in), it is possible to use seamless pipe for th
e shell, thus avoiding many inspection and testing issues, mainly the nondestruc
tive examination of radiography for the long seam if required. A disadvantage of
these vessels is that greater diameters are more expensive, so that for example
the most economic shape of a 1,000 litres (35 cu ft), 250 bars (3,600 psi) pres
sure vessel might be a diameter of 91.44 centimetres (36 in) and a length of 1.7
018 metres (67 in) including the 2:1 semi-elliptical domed end caps.
Construction materials
Composite overwrapped pressure vessel with titanium liner.
Many pressure vessels are made of steel. To manufacture a cylindrical or spheric
al pressure vessel, rolled and possibly forged parts would have to be welded tog
ether. Some mechanical properties of steel, achieved by rolling or forging, coul
d be adversely affected by welding, unless special precautions are taken. In add
ition to adequate mechanical strength, current standards dictate the use of stee
l with a high impact resistance, especially for vessels used in low temperatures
. In applications where carbon steel would suffer corrosion, special corrosion r
esistant material should also be used.
Some pressure vessels are made of composite materials, such as filament wound co
mposite using carbon fibre held in place with a polymer. Due to the very high te
nsile strength of carbon fibre these vessels can be very light, but are much mor
e difficult to manufacture. The composite material may be wound around a metal l
iner, forming a composite overwrapped pressure vessel.
Other very common materials include polymers such as PET in carbonated beverage
containers and copper in plumbing.
Pressure vessels may be lined with various metals, ceramics, or polymers to prev
ent leaking and protect the structure of the vessel from the contained medium. T
his liner may also carry a significant portion of the pressure load.[4][5]
Pressure Vessels may also be constructed from concrete (PCV) or other materials
which are weak in tension. Cabling, wrapped around the vessel or within the wall
or the vessel itself, provides the necessary tension to resist the internal pre
ssure. A "leakproof steel thin membrane" lines the internal wall of the vessel.
Such vessels can be assembled from modular pieces and so have "no inherent size
limitations".[6] There is also a high order of redundancy thanks to the large nu
mber of individual cables resisting the internal pressure.
Safety features
Leak before burst
Leak before burst describes a pressure vessel designed such that a crack in the
vessel will grow through the wall, allowing the contained fluid to escape and re
ducing the pressure, prior to growing so large as to cause fracture at the opera

ting pressure.
Many pressure vessel standards, including the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Co
de[citation needed] and the AIAA metallic pressure vessel standard, either requi
re pressure vessel designs to be leak before burst, or require pressure vessels
to meet more stringent requirements for fatigue and fracture if they are not sho
wn to be leak before burst.[7]
Safety valves
Example of a valve used for gas cylinders.
As the pressure vessel is designed to a pressure, there is typically a safety va
lve or relief valve to ensure that this pressure is not exceeded in operation.
Maintenance features
Pressure vessel closures
Pressure vessel closures are pressure retaining structures designed to provide q
uick access to pipelines, pressure vessels, pig traps, filters and filtration sy
stems. Typically pressure vessel closures allow maintenance personnel.
Uses
Pressure vessels are used in a variety of applications in both industry and the
private sector. They appear in these sectors as industrial compressed air receiv
ers and domestic hot water storage tanks. Other examples of pressure vessels are
diving cylinders, recompression chambers, distillation towers, pressure reactor
s, autoclaves, and many other vessels in mining operations, oil refineries and p
etrochemical plants, nuclear reactor vessels, submarine and space ship habitats,
pneumatic reservoirs, hydraulic reservoirs under pressure, rail vehicle airbrak
e reservoirs, road vehicle airbrake reservoirs, and storage vessels for liquifie
d gases such as ammonia, chlorine, and LPG (propane, butane).
A unique application of a pressure vessel is the passenger cabin of an airliner;
The outer skin carries both the aircraft maneuvering loads and the cabin pressu
rization loads.
A pressure tank connected to a water well and domestic hot water system.
A few pressure tanks, here used to hold propane.
An expansion vessel for heating systems.
A pressure vessel used as a kier.
A pressure vessel used for The Boeing Company s CST-100 spacecraft.
Alternatives to pressure vessels
Natural gas storage
Gas holder
Depending on the application and local circumstances, alternatives to pressure v
essels exist. Examples can be seen in domestic water collection systems, where t
he following may be used:
Gravity controlled systems[8] which typically consist of an unpressurized wa
ter tank at an elevation higher than the point of use. Pressure at the point of
use is the result of the hydrostatic pressure caused by the elevation difference
. Gravity systems produce 0.43 pounds per square inch (3.0 kPa) per foot of wate
r head (elevation difference). A municipal water supply or pumped water is typic
ally around 90 pounds per square inch (620 kPa).
Inline pump controllers or pressure-sensitive pumps.[9]

Design
Scaling
No matter what shape it takes, the minimum mass of a pressure vessel scales with
the pressure and volume it contains and is inversely proportional to the streng
th to weight ratio of the construction material (minimum mass decreases as stren
gth increases[10]).
Scaling of stress in walls of vessel
Pressure vessels are held together against the gas pressure due to tensile force
s within the walls of the container. The normal (tensile) stress in the walls of
the container is proportional to the pressure and radius of the vessel and inve
rsely proportional to the thickness of the walls.[11] Therefore, pressure vessel
s are designed to have a thickness proportional to the radius of tank and the pr
essure of the tank and inversely proportional to the maximum allowed normal stre
ss of the particular material used in the walls of the container.
Because (for a given pressure) the thickness of the walls scales with the radius
of the tank, the mass of a tank (which scales as the length times radius times
thickness of the wall for a cylindrical tank) scales with the volume of the gas
held (which scales as length times radius squared). The exact formula varies wit
h the tank shape but depends on the density, ?, and maximum allowable stress s o
f the material in addition to the pressure P and volume V of the vessel. (See be
low for the exact equations for the stress in the walls.)
Spherical vessel
For a sphere, the minimum mass of a pressure vessel is
M = 3 2 P V ? s {\displaystyle M={3 \over 2}PV{\rho \over \sigma }} M={3 \ov
er 2}PV{\rho \over \sigma },
where:
M {\displaystyle
P {\displaystyle
ssure),
V {\displaystyle
? {\displaystyle
s {\displaystyle
can tolerate.[12]

M} M is mass,
P} P is the pressure difference from ambient (the gauge pre
V} V is volume,
\rho } \rho is the density of the pressure vessel material,
\sigma } \sigma is the maximum working stress that material

Other shapes besides a sphere have constants larger than 3/2 (infinite cylinders
take 2), although some tanks, such as non-spherical wound composite tanks can a
pproach this.
Cylindrical vessel with hemispherical ends
This is sometimes called a "bullet"[citation needed] for its shape, although in
geometric terms it is a capsule.
For a cylinder with hemispherical ends,
M = 2 p R 2 ( R + W ) P ? s {\displaystyle M=2\pi R^{2}(R+W)P{\rho \over \si
gma }} M=2\pi R^{2}(R+W)P{\rho \over \sigma },
where
R is the radius
W is the middle cylinder width only, and the overall width is W + 2R

Cylindrical vessel with semi-elliptical ends


In a vessel with an aspect ratio of middle cylinder width to radius of 2:1,
M = 6 p R 3 P ? s {\displaystyle M=6\pi R^{3}P{\rho \over \sigma }} M=6\pi R
^{3}P{\rho \over \sigma }.
Gas storage
In looking at the first equation, the factor PV, in SI units, is in units of (pr
essurization) energy. For a stored gas, PV is proportional to the mass of gas at
a given temperature, thus
M = 3 2 n R T ? s {\displaystyle M={3 \over 2}nRT{\rho \over \sigma }} M={3
\over 2}nRT{\rho \over \sigma }. (see gas law)
The other factors are constant for a given vessel shape and material. So we can
see that there is no theoretical "efficiency of scale", in terms of the ratio of
pressure vessel mass to pressurization energy, or of pressure vessel mass to st
ored gas mass. For storing gases, "tankage efficiency" is independent of pressur
e, at least for the same temperature.
So, for example, a typical design for a minimum mass tank to hold helium (as a p
ressurant gas) on a rocket would use a spherical chamber for a minimum shape con
stant, carbon fiber for best possible ? / s {\displaystyle \rho /\sigma } \rho /
\sigma , and very cold helium for best possible M / p V {\displaystyle M/{pV}} M
/{pV}.
Stress in thin-walled pressure vessels
Stress in a shallow-walled pressure vessel in the shape of a sphere is
s ? = s l o n g = p r 2 t {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }=\sigma _{\rm {lon
g}}={\frac {pr}{2t}}} \sigma _{\theta }=\sigma _{{{\rm {long}}}}={\frac {pr}{2t}
},
where s ? {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }} \sigma _{\theta } is hoop stress, or
stress in the circumferential direction, s l o n g {\displaystyle \sigma _{long
}} \sigma _{{long}} is stress in the longitudinal direction, p is internal gauge
pressure, r is the inner radius of the sphere, and t is thickness of the sphere
wall. A vessel can be considered "shallow-walled" if the diameter is at least 1
0 times (sometimes cited as 20 times) greater than the wall depth.[13]
Stress in the cylinder body of a pressure vessel.
Stress in a shallow-walled pressure vessel in the shape of a cylinder is
s ? = p r t {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }={\frac {pr}{t}}} \sigma _{\thet
a }={\frac {pr}{t}},
s l o n g = p r 2 t {\displaystyle \sigma _{\rm {long}}={\frac {pr}{2t}}} \s
igma _{{{\rm {long}}}}={\frac {pr}{2t}},
where:
s ? {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }} \sigma _{\theta } is hoop stress, or s
tress in the circumferential direction
s l o n g {\displaystyle \sigma _{long}} \sigma _{{long}} is stress in the l
ongitudinal direction
p is internal gauge pressure
r is the inner radius of the cylinder
t is thickness of the cylinder wall.

Almost all pressure vessel design standards contain variations of these two form
ulas with additional empirical terms to account for wall thickness tolerances, q
uality control of welds and in-service corrosion allowances.
For example, the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (BPVC) (UG-27) formulas ar
e:[14]
Spherical shells:
s ? = s l o n g = p ( r + 0.2 t ) 2 t E {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }=\si
gma _{\rm {long}}={\frac {p(r+0.2t)}{2tE}}} \sigma _{\theta }=\sigma _{{{\rm {lo
ng}}}}={\frac {p(r+0.2t)}{2tE}}
Cylindrical shells:
s ? = p ( r + 0.6 t ) t E {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }={\frac {p(r+0.6t)
}{tE}}} \sigma _{\theta }={\frac {p(r+0.6t)}{tE}}
s l o n g = p ( r - 0.4 t ) 2 t E {\displaystyle \sigma _{\rm {long}}={\frac
{p(r-0.4t)}{2tE}}} \sigma _{{{\rm {long}}}}={\frac {p(r-0.4t)}{2tE}}
where E is the joint efficient, and all others variables as stated above.
The factor of safety is often included in these formulas as well, in the case of
the ASME BPVC this term is included in the material stress value when solving f
or pressure or thickness.
Winding angle of carbon fibre vessels
Wound infinite cylindrical shapes optimally take a winding angle of 54.7 degrees
, as this gives the necessary twice the strength in the circumferential directio
n to the longitudinal.[15]
Operation standards
Pressure vessels are designed to operate safely at a specific pressure and tempe
rature, technically referred to as the "Design Pressure" and "Design Temperature
". A vessel that is inadequately designed to handle a high pressure constitutes
a very significant safety hazard. Because of that, the design and certification
of pressure vessels is governed by design codes such as the ASME Boiler and Pres
sure Vessel Code in North America, the Pressure Equipment Directive of the EU (P
ED), Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS), CSA B51 in Canada, Australian Standards
in Australia and other international standards like Lloyd's, Germanischer Lloyd
, Det Norske Veritas, Socit Gnrale de Surveillance (SGS S.A.), Lloyd s Register Energy
Nederland (formerly known as Stoomwezen) etc.
Note that where the pressure-volume product is part of a safety standard, any in
compressible liquid in the vessel can be excluded as it does not contribute to t
he potential energy stored in the vessel, so only the volume of the compressible
part such as gas is used.
List of standards
EN 13445: The current European Standard, harmonized with the Pressure Equipm
ent Directive (97/23/EC). Extensively used in Europe.
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section VIII: Rules for Construction of
Pressure Vessels.
BS 5500: Former British Standard, replaced in the UK by BS EN 13445 but reta
ined under the name PD 5500 for the design and construction of export equipment.
AD Merkbltter: German standard, harmonized with the Pressure Equipment Direct
ive.
EN 286 (Parts 1 to 4): European standard for simple pressure vessels (air ta
nks), harmonized with Council Directive 87/404/EEC.
BS 4994: Specification for design and construction of vessels and tanks in r

einforced plastics.
ASME PVHO: US standard for Pressure Vessels for Human Occupancy.
CODAP: French Code for Construction of Unfired Pressure Vessel.
AS/NZS 1200: Pressure equipment.[16]
AS/NZS 3788:2006[17]
API 510.[18]
ISO 11439: Compressed natural gas (CNG) cylinders[19]
IS 2825-1969 (RE1977)_code_unfired_Pressure_vessels.
FRP tanks and vessels.
AIAA S-080-1998: AIAA Standard for Space Systems - Metallic Pressure Vessels
, Pressurized Structures, and Pressure Components.
AIAA S-081A-2006: AIAA Standard for Space Systems - Composite Overwrapped Pr
essure Vessels (COPVs).
B51-09 Canadian Boiler, pressure vessel, and pressure piping code.
HSE guidelines for pressure systems.
Stoomwezen: Former pressure vessels code in the Netherlands, also known as R
ToD: Regels voor Toestellen onder Druk (Dutch Rules for Pressure Vessels).
See also
American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)
Bottled gas
Composite overwrapped pressure vessel
Compressed air energy storage
Compressed natural gas
Demister
Fire-tube boiler
Gas cylinder
Gasket
Head (vessel)
Minimum Design Metal Temperature (MDMT)
Pressure bomb - a device for measuring leaf water potentials
Rainwater harvesting
Relief valve
Safety valve
Shell and tube heat exchanger
Vapor-Liquid Separator or Knock-Out Drum
Vortex breaker
Water well
Water-tube boiler
Notes
Nilsen, Kyle. (2011) "Development of low pressure filter testing vessel and anal
ysis of electrospun nanofiber membranes for water treatment"
Ingenious Coal-Gas Motor Tank, Popular Science monthly, January 1919, page 27, S
canned by Google Books: https://books.google.com/books?id=HykDAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA13
Hearn, E.J. (1997). Mechanics of Materials 1. An Introduction to the Mechanics o
f Elastic and Plastic Deformation of Solids and Structural Materials - Third Edi
tion. Chapter 9: Butterworth-Heinemann. pp. 199 203. ISBN 0-7506-3265-8.
NASA Tech Briefs, "Making a Metal-Lined Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessel",
1 Mar 2005.
Frietas, O., "Maintenance and Repair of Glass-Lined Equipment", Chemical Enginee
ring, 1 Jul 2007.
"High Pressure Vessels",D. Freyer and J. Harvey, 1998
ANSI/AIAA S-080-1998, Space Systems - Metallic Pressure Vessels, Pressurized Str
uctures, and Pressure Components, 5.1
Pushard, Doug (2005). "Domestic water collection systems also sometimes able to
function on gravity". Harvesth2o.com. Retrieved 2009-04-17.[verification needed]
Pushard, Doug. "Alternatives to pressure vessels in domestic water systems". Har

vesth2o.com. Retrieved 2009-04-17.


Puskarich, Paul (2009-05-01). "Strengthened Glass for Pipleine Systems" (PDF). M
IT. Retrieved 2009-04-17.
Beer, Ferdinand P.; Johnston, Jr., E. Russel; DeWolf, John T. "7.9". Mechanics o
f Materials (fourth ed.). McGraw-Hill. p. 463. ISBN 9780073659350.
For a sphere the thickness d = rP/2s, where r is the radius of the tank. The vol
ume of the spherical surface then is 4pr2d = 4pr3P/2s. The mass is determined by
multiplying by the density of the material that makes up the walls of the spher
ical vessel. Further the volume of the gas is (4pr3)/3. Combining these equation
s give the above results. The equations for the other geometries are derived in
a similar manner
Richard Budynas, J. Nisbett, Shigley's Mechanical Engineering Design, 8th ed., N
ew York:McGraw-Hill, ISBN 978-0-07-312193-2, pg 108
An International Code 2007 ASME Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code. The Americal Soci
ety of Mechanical Engineers. 2007.
MIT pressure vessel lecture
"AS 1200 Pressure Vessels". SAI Global. Retrieved 14 November 2011.
"AS_NZS 3788: 2006 Pressure equipment - In-service inspection". SAI Global. Retr
ieved September 4, 2015.
"Pressure Vessel Inspection Code: In-Service Inspection, Rating, Repair, and Alt
eration". API. June 2006.
."Gas cylinders - High pressure cylinders for the on-board storage of natura
l gas as a fuel for automotive vehicles". ISO. 2006-07-18. Retrieved 2009-04-17.
References
A.C. Ugural, S.K. Fenster, Advanced Strength and Applied Elasticity, 4th ed.
E.P. Popov, Engineering Mechanics of Solids, 1st ed.
Megyesy, Eugene F. "Pressure Vessel Handbook, 14th Edition." PV Publishing,
Inc. Oklahoma City, OK
Further reading
Megyesy, Eugene F. (2008, 14th ed.) Pressure Vessel Handbook. PV Publishing,
Inc.: Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA. www.pressurevesselhandbook.com Design handb
ook for pressure vessels based on the ASME code.
External links
Look up pressure vessel in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Pressure vessel.
Use of pressure vessels in oil and gas industry
Basic formulas for thin walled pressure vessels; with examples
Educational Excel spreadsheets for ASME head, shell and nozzle designs
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel website
Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology
EU Pressure Equipment Directive website
EU Simple Pressure Vessel Directive
EU Classification
Pressure Vessel attachments http://oakridgebellows.com/metal-expansion-joint
s/technical-videos/lugs-on-pipe-and-vessels-new
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Pressure vessel
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Horizontal pressure vessel in steel
A pressure vessel is a container designed to hold gases or liquids at a pressure
substantially different from the ambient pressure.
The pressure differential is dangerous, and fatal accidents have occurred in the
history of pressure vessel development and operation. Consequently, pressure ve
ssel design, manufacture, and operation are regulated by engineering authorities
backed by legislation. For these reasons, the definition of a pressure vessel v
aries from country to country, but involves parameters such as maximum safe oper
ating pressure and temperature, and are engineered with a safety factor, corrosi
on allowance, minimum design temperature (for brittle fracture), and involve non
destructive testing, such as ultrasonic testing, radiography, and pressure tests
, usually involving water, also known as a hydrotest, but could be pneumatically
tested involving air or another gas. The preferred test is hydrostatic testing
because it's a much safer method of testing as it releases much less energy if f
racture were to occur (water does not rapidly increase its volume while rapid de
pressurization occurs, unlike gases like air, i.e. gasses fail explosively). In
the United States, as with many other countries, it is the law that vessels over
a certain size and pressure (15 PSIg) be built to Code, in the United States th
at Code is the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (BPVC), these vessels also r
equire an Authorized Inspector to sign off on every new vessel constructed and e
ach vessel has a nameplate with pertinent information about the vessel such as m
aximum allowable working pressure, maximum temperature, minimum design metal tem
perature, what company manufactured it, the date, its registration number (throu
gh the National Board), and ASME's official stamp for pressure vessels (U-stamp)
, making the vessel traceable and officially an ASME Code vessel.
Contents
1 History of pressure vessels
2 Pressure vessel features
2.1 Shape of a pressure vessel
2.2 Construction materials
2.3 Safety features
2.3.1 Leak before burst
2.3.2 Safety valves
2.4 Maintenance features
2.4.1 Pressure vessel closures
3 Uses
4 Alternatives to pressure vessels
5 Design
5.1 Scaling
5.1.1 Scaling of stress in walls of vessel
5.1.2 Spherical vessel
5.1.3 Cylindrical vessel with hemispherical ends
5.1.4 Cylindrical vessel with semi-elliptical ends
5.1.5 Gas storage
5.2 Stress in thin-walled pressure vessels
5.3 Winding angle of carbon fibre vessels
5.4 Operation standards
5.4.1 List of standards
6 See also
7 Notes
8 References
9 Further reading
10 External links

History of pressure vessels


A 10,000 psi (69 MPa) pressure vessel from 1919, wrapped with high tensile steel
banding and steel rods to secure the end caps.
The earliest documented design of pressure vessels is described in the book Code
x Madrid I, by Leonardo da Vinci, in 1495, where containers of pressurized air w
ere theorized to lift heavy weights underwater,[1] however vessels resembling wh
at are used today did not come about until the 1800s where steam was generated i
n boilers helping to spur the industrial revolution.[1] However, with poor mater
ial quality and manufacturing techniques along with improper knowledge of design
, operation and maintenance there was a large number of damaging and often fatal
explosions associated with these boilers and pressure vessels, with a death occ
urring on a nearly daily basis in the United States.[1] Local providences and st
ates in the US began enacting rules for constructing these vessels after some pa
rticularly devastating vessel failures occurred killing dozens of people at a ti
me, which made it difficult for manufacturers to keep up with the varied rules f
rom one location to another and the first pressure vessel code was developed sta
rting in 1911 and released in 1914, starting the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel
Code (BPVC).[1] In an early effort to design a tank capable of withstanding pre
ssures up to 10,000 psi (69 MPa), a 6-inch (150 mm) diameter tank was developed
in 1919 that was spirally-wound with two layers of high tensile strength steel w
ire to prevent sidewall rupture, and the end caps longitudinally reinforced with
lengthwise high-tensile rods.[2] The need for high pressure and temperature ves
sels for petroleum refineries and chemical plants gave rise to vessels joined wi
th welding instead of rivets (which were unsuitable for the pressures and temper
atures required) and in 1920s and 1930s the BPVC included welding as an acceptab
le means of construction, and welding is the main means of joining metal vessels
today.[1]
There have been many advancements in the field of pressure vessel engineering su
ch as advanced non-destructive examination, phased array ultrasonic testing and
radiography, new material grades with increased corrosion resistance and stronge
r materials, and new ways to join materials such as explosion welding (to attach
one metal sheet to another, usually a thin corrosion resistant metal like stain
less steel to a stronger metal like carbon steel), friction stir welding (which
attaches the metals together without melting the metal), advanced theories and m
eans of more accurately assessing the stresses encountered in vessels such as wi
th the use of Finite Element Analysis, allowing the vessels to be built safer an
d more efficiently. Today vessels in the USA require BPVC stamping but the BPVC
is not just a domestic code, many other countries have adopted the BPVC as their
official code. There are, however, other official codes in some countries (some
of which rely on portions of and reference the BPVC), Japan, Australia, Canada,
Britain, and Europe have their own codes. Regardless of the country nearly all
recognize the inherent potential hazards of pressure vessels and the need for st
andards and codes regulating their design and construction.
Pressure vessel features
Shape of a pressure vessel
Pressure vessels can theoretically be almost any
ons of spheres, cylinders, and cones are usually
cylinder with end caps called heads. Head shapes
ical or dished (torispherical). More complicated
uch harder to analyze for safe operation and are
onstruct.
Spherical gas container.
Cylindrical pressure vessel.

shape, but shapes made of secti


employed. A common design is a
are frequently either hemispher
shapes have historically been m
usually far more difficult to c

Picture of the bottom of an aerosol spray can.


Fire Extinguisher with rounded rectangle pressure vessel
Theoretically, a spherical pressure vessel has approximately twice the strength
of a cylindrical pressure vessel with the same wall thickness,[3] and is the ide
al shape to hold internal pressure.[1] However, a spherical shape is difficult t
o manufacture, and therefore more expensive, so most pressure vessels are cylind
rical with 2:1 semi-elliptical heads or end caps on each end. Smaller pressure v
essels are assembled from a pipe and two covers. For cylindrical vessels with a
diameter up to 600 mm (NPS of 24 in), it is possible to use seamless pipe for th
e shell, thus avoiding many inspection and testing issues, mainly the nondestruc
tive examination of radiography for the long seam if required. A disadvantage of
these vessels is that greater diameters are more expensive, so that for example
the most economic shape of a 1,000 litres (35 cu ft), 250 bars (3,600 psi) pres
sure vessel might be a diameter of 91.44 centimetres (36 in) and a length of 1.7
018 metres (67 in) including the 2:1 semi-elliptical domed end caps.
Construction materials
Composite overwrapped pressure vessel with titanium liner.
Many pressure vessels are made of steel. To manufacture a cylindrical or spheric
al pressure vessel, rolled and possibly forged parts would have to be welded tog
ether. Some mechanical properties of steel, achieved by rolling or forging, coul
d be adversely affected by welding, unless special precautions are taken. In add
ition to adequate mechanical strength, current standards dictate the use of stee
l with a high impact resistance, especially for vessels used in low temperatures
. In applications where carbon steel would suffer corrosion, special corrosion r
esistant material should also be used.
Some pressure vessels are made of composite materials, such as filament wound co
mposite using carbon fibre held in place with a polymer. Due to the very high te
nsile strength of carbon fibre these vessels can be very light, but are much mor
e difficult to manufacture. The composite material may be wound around a metal l
iner, forming a composite overwrapped pressure vessel.
Other very common materials include polymers such as PET in carbonated beverage
containers and copper in plumbing.
Pressure vessels may be lined with various metals, ceramics, or polymers to prev
ent leaking and protect the structure of the vessel from the contained medium. T
his liner may also carry a significant portion of the pressure load.[4][5]
Pressure Vessels may also be constructed from concrete (PCV) or other materials
which are weak in tension. Cabling, wrapped around the vessel or within the wall
or the vessel itself, provides the necessary tension to resist the internal pre
ssure. A "leakproof steel thin membrane" lines the internal wall of the vessel.
Such vessels can be assembled from modular pieces and so have "no inherent size
limitations".[6] There is also a high order of redundancy thanks to the large nu
mber of individual cables resisting the internal pressure.
Safety features
Leak before burst
Leak before burst describes a pressure vessel designed such that a crack in the
vessel will grow through the wall, allowing the contained fluid to escape and re
ducing the pressure, prior to growing so large as to cause fracture at the opera
ting pressure.
Many pressure vessel standards, including the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Co
de[citation needed] and the AIAA metallic pressure vessel standard, either requi
re pressure vessel designs to be leak before burst, or require pressure vessels

to meet more stringent requirements for fatigue and fracture if they are not sho
wn to be leak before burst.[7]
Safety valves
Example of a valve used for gas cylinders.
As the pressure vessel is designed to a pressure, there is typically a safety va
lve or relief valve to ensure that this pressure is not exceeded in operation.
Maintenance features
Pressure vessel closures
Pressure vessel closures are pressure retaining structures designed to provide q
uick access to pipelines, pressure vessels, pig traps, filters and filtration sy
stems. Typically pressure vessel closures allow maintenance personnel.
Uses
Pressure vessels are used in a variety of applications in both industry and the
private sector. They appear in these sectors as industrial compressed air receiv
ers and domestic hot water storage tanks. Other examples of pressure vessels are
diving cylinders, recompression chambers, distillation towers, pressure reactor
s, autoclaves, and many other vessels in mining operations, oil refineries and p
etrochemical plants, nuclear reactor vessels, submarine and space ship habitats,
pneumatic reservoirs, hydraulic reservoirs under pressure, rail vehicle airbrak
e reservoirs, road vehicle airbrake reservoirs, and storage vessels for liquifie
d gases such as ammonia, chlorine, and LPG (propane, butane).
A unique application of a pressure vessel is the passenger cabin of an airliner;
The outer skin carries both the aircraft maneuvering loads and the cabin pressu
rization loads.
A pressure tank connected to a water well and domestic hot water system.
A few pressure tanks, here used to hold propane.
An expansion vessel for heating systems.
A pressure vessel used as a kier.
A pressure vessel used for The Boeing Company s CST-100 spacecraft.
Alternatives to pressure vessels
Natural gas storage
Gas holder
Depending on the application and local circumstances, alternatives to pressure v
essels exist. Examples can be seen in domestic water collection systems, where t
he following may be used:
Gravity controlled systems[8] which typically consist of an unpressurized wa
ter tank at an elevation higher than the point of use. Pressure at the point of
use is the result of the hydrostatic pressure caused by the elevation difference
. Gravity systems produce 0.43 pounds per square inch (3.0 kPa) per foot of wate
r head (elevation difference). A municipal water supply or pumped water is typic
ally around 90 pounds per square inch (620 kPa).
Inline pump controllers or pressure-sensitive pumps.[9]
Design
Scaling
No matter what shape it takes, the minimum mass of a pressure vessel scales with

the pressure and volume it contains and is inversely proportional to the streng
th to weight ratio of the construction material (minimum mass decreases as stren
gth increases[10]).
Scaling of stress in walls of vessel
Pressure vessels are held together against the gas pressure due to tensile force
s within the walls of the container. The normal (tensile) stress in the walls of
the container is proportional to the pressure and radius of the vessel and inve
rsely proportional to the thickness of the walls.[11] Therefore, pressure vessel
s are designed to have a thickness proportional to the radius of tank and the pr
essure of the tank and inversely proportional to the maximum allowed normal stre
ss of the particular material used in the walls of the container.
Because (for a given pressure) the thickness of the walls scales with the radius
of the tank, the mass of a tank (which scales as the length times radius times
thickness of the wall for a cylindrical tank) scales with the volume of the gas
held (which scales as length times radius squared). The exact formula varies wit
h the tank shape but depends on the density, ?, and maximum allowable stress s o
f the material in addition to the pressure P and volume V of the vessel. (See be
low for the exact equations for the stress in the walls.)
Spherical vessel
For a sphere, the minimum mass of a pressure vessel is
M = 3 2 P V ? s {\displaystyle M={3 \over 2}PV{\rho \over \sigma }} M={3 \ov
er 2}PV{\rho \over \sigma },
where:
M {\displaystyle
P {\displaystyle
ssure),
V {\displaystyle
? {\displaystyle
s {\displaystyle
can tolerate.[12]

M} M is mass,
P} P is the pressure difference from ambient (the gauge pre
V} V is volume,
\rho } \rho is the density of the pressure vessel material,
\sigma } \sigma is the maximum working stress that material

Other shapes besides a sphere have constants larger than 3/2 (infinite cylinders
take 2), although some tanks, such as non-spherical wound composite tanks can a
pproach this.
Cylindrical vessel with hemispherical ends
This is sometimes called a "bullet"[citation needed] for its shape, although in
geometric terms it is a capsule.
For a cylinder with hemispherical ends,
M = 2 p R 2 ( R + W ) P ? s {\displaystyle M=2\pi R^{2}(R+W)P{\rho \over \si
gma }} M=2\pi R^{2}(R+W)P{\rho \over \sigma },
where
R is the radius
W is the middle cylinder width only, and the overall width is W + 2R
Cylindrical vessel with semi-elliptical ends
In a vessel with an aspect ratio of middle cylinder width to radius of 2:1,
M = 6 p R 3 P ? s {\displaystyle M=6\pi R^{3}P{\rho \over \sigma }} M=6\pi R

^{3}P{\rho \over \sigma }.


Gas storage
In looking at the first equation, the factor PV, in SI units, is in units of (pr
essurization) energy. For a stored gas, PV is proportional to the mass of gas at
a given temperature, thus
M = 3 2 n R T ? s {\displaystyle M={3 \over 2}nRT{\rho \over \sigma }} M={3
\over 2}nRT{\rho \over \sigma }. (see gas law)
The other factors are constant for a given vessel shape and material. So we can
see that there is no theoretical "efficiency of scale", in terms of the ratio of
pressure vessel mass to pressurization energy, or of pressure vessel mass to st
ored gas mass. For storing gases, "tankage efficiency" is independent of pressur
e, at least for the same temperature.
So, for example, a typical design for a minimum mass tank to hold helium (as a p
ressurant gas) on a rocket would use a spherical chamber for a minimum shape con
stant, carbon fiber for best possible ? / s {\displaystyle \rho /\sigma } \rho /
\sigma , and very cold helium for best possible M / p V {\displaystyle M/{pV}} M
/{pV}.
Stress in thin-walled pressure vessels
Stress in a shallow-walled pressure vessel in the shape of a sphere is
s ? = s l o n g = p r 2 t {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }=\sigma _{\rm {lon
g}}={\frac {pr}{2t}}} \sigma _{\theta }=\sigma _{{{\rm {long}}}}={\frac {pr}{2t}
},
where s ? {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }} \sigma _{\theta } is hoop stress, or
stress in the circumferential direction, s l o n g {\displaystyle \sigma _{long
}} \sigma _{{long}} is stress in the longitudinal direction, p is internal gauge
pressure, r is the inner radius of the sphere, and t is thickness of the sphere
wall. A vessel can be considered "shallow-walled" if the diameter is at least 1
0 times (sometimes cited as 20 times) greater than the wall depth.[13]
Stress in the cylinder body of a pressure vessel.
Stress in a shallow-walled pressure vessel in the shape of a cylinder is
s ? = p r t {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }={\frac {pr}{t}}} \sigma _{\thet
a }={\frac {pr}{t}},
s l o n g = p r 2 t {\displaystyle \sigma _{\rm {long}}={\frac {pr}{2t}}} \s
igma _{{{\rm {long}}}}={\frac {pr}{2t}},
where:
s ? {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }} \sigma _{\theta } is hoop stress, or s
tress in the circumferential direction
s l o n g {\displaystyle \sigma _{long}} \sigma _{{long}} is stress in the l
ongitudinal direction
p is internal gauge pressure
r is the inner radius of the cylinder
t is thickness of the cylinder wall.
Almost all pressure vessel design standards contain variations of these two form
ulas with additional empirical terms to account for wall thickness tolerances, q
uality control of welds and in-service corrosion allowances.
For example, the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (BPVC) (UG-27) formulas ar

e:[14]
Spherical shells:
s ? = s l o n g = p ( r + 0.2 t ) 2 t E {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }=\si
gma _{\rm {long}}={\frac {p(r+0.2t)}{2tE}}} \sigma _{\theta }=\sigma _{{{\rm {lo
ng}}}}={\frac {p(r+0.2t)}{2tE}}
Cylindrical shells:
s ? = p ( r + 0.6 t ) t E {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }={\frac {p(r+0.6t)
}{tE}}} \sigma _{\theta }={\frac {p(r+0.6t)}{tE}}
s l o n g = p ( r - 0.4 t ) 2 t E {\displaystyle \sigma _{\rm {long}}={\frac
{p(r-0.4t)}{2tE}}} \sigma _{{{\rm {long}}}}={\frac {p(r-0.4t)}{2tE}}
where E is the joint efficient, and all others variables as stated above.
The factor of safety is often included in these formulas as well, in the case of
the ASME BPVC this term is included in the material stress value when solving f
or pressure or thickness.
Winding angle of carbon fibre vessels
Wound infinite cylindrical shapes optimally take a winding angle of 54.7 degrees
, as this gives the necessary twice the strength in the circumferential directio
n to the longitudinal.[15]
Operation standards
Pressure vessels are designed to operate safely at a specific pressure and tempe
rature, technically referred to as the "Design Pressure" and "Design Temperature
". A vessel that is inadequately designed to handle a high pressure constitutes
a very significant safety hazard. Because of that, the design and certification
of pressure vessels is governed by design codes such as the ASME Boiler and Pres
sure Vessel Code in North America, the Pressure Equipment Directive of the EU (P
ED), Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS), CSA B51 in Canada, Australian Standards
in Australia and other international standards like Lloyd's, Germanischer Lloyd
, Det Norske Veritas, Socit Gnrale de Surveillance (SGS S.A.), Lloyd s Register Energy
Nederland (formerly known as Stoomwezen) etc.
Note that where the pressure-volume product is part of a safety standard, any in
compressible liquid in the vessel can be excluded as it does not contribute to t
he potential energy stored in the vessel, so only the volume of the compressible
part such as gas is used.
List of standards
EN 13445: The current European Standard, harmonized with the Pressure Equipm
ent Directive (97/23/EC). Extensively used in Europe.
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section VIII: Rules for Construction of
Pressure Vessels.
BS 5500: Former British Standard, replaced in the UK by BS EN 13445 but reta
ined under the name PD 5500 for the design and construction of export equipment.
AD Merkbltter: German standard, harmonized with the Pressure Equipment Direct
ive.
EN 286 (Parts 1 to 4): European standard for simple pressure vessels (air ta
nks), harmonized with Council Directive 87/404/EEC.
BS 4994: Specification for design and construction of vessels and tanks in r
einforced plastics.
ASME PVHO: US standard for Pressure Vessels for Human Occupancy.
CODAP: French Code for Construction of Unfired Pressure Vessel.
AS/NZS 1200: Pressure equipment.[16]
AS/NZS 3788:2006[17]

API 510.[18]
ISO 11439: Compressed natural gas (CNG) cylinders[19]
IS 2825-1969 (RE1977)_code_unfired_Pressure_vessels.
FRP tanks and vessels.
AIAA S-080-1998: AIAA Standard for Space Systems - Metallic Pressure Vessels
, Pressurized Structures, and Pressure Components.
AIAA S-081A-2006: AIAA Standard for Space Systems - Composite Overwrapped Pr
essure Vessels (COPVs).
B51-09 Canadian Boiler, pressure vessel, and pressure piping code.
HSE guidelines for pressure systems.
Stoomwezen: Former pressure vessels code in the Netherlands, also known as R
ToD: Regels voor Toestellen onder Druk (Dutch Rules for Pressure Vessels).
See also
American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)
Bottled gas
Composite overwrapped pressure vessel
Compressed air energy storage
Compressed natural gas
Demister
Fire-tube boiler
Gas cylinder
Gasket
Head (vessel)
Minimum Design Metal Temperature (MDMT)
Pressure bomb - a device for measuring leaf water potentials
Rainwater harvesting
Relief valve
Safety valve
Shell and tube heat exchanger
Vapor-Liquid Separator or Knock-Out Drum
Vortex breaker
Water well
Water-tube boiler
Notes
Nilsen, Kyle. (2011) "Development of low pressure filter testing vessel and anal
ysis of electrospun nanofiber membranes for water treatment"
Ingenious Coal-Gas Motor Tank, Popular Science monthly, January 1919, page 27, S
canned by Google Books: https://books.google.com/books?id=HykDAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA13
Hearn, E.J. (1997). Mechanics of Materials 1. An Introduction to the Mechanics o
f Elastic and Plastic Deformation of Solids and Structural Materials - Third Edi
tion. Chapter 9: Butterworth-Heinemann. pp. 199 203. ISBN 0-7506-3265-8.
NASA Tech Briefs, "Making a Metal-Lined Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessel",
1 Mar 2005.
Frietas, O., "Maintenance and Repair of Glass-Lined Equipment", Chemical Enginee
ring, 1 Jul 2007.
"High Pressure Vessels",D. Freyer and J. Harvey, 1998
ANSI/AIAA S-080-1998, Space Systems - Metallic Pressure Vessels, Pressurized Str
uctures, and Pressure Components, 5.1
Pushard, Doug (2005). "Domestic water collection systems also sometimes able to
function on gravity". Harvesth2o.com. Retrieved 2009-04-17.[verification needed]
Pushard, Doug. "Alternatives to pressure vessels in domestic water systems". Har
vesth2o.com. Retrieved 2009-04-17.
Puskarich, Paul (2009-05-01). "Strengthened Glass for Pipleine Systems" (PDF). M
IT. Retrieved 2009-04-17.
Beer, Ferdinand P.; Johnston, Jr., E. Russel; DeWolf, John T. "7.9". Mechanics o
f Materials (fourth ed.). McGraw-Hill. p. 463. ISBN 9780073659350.

For a sphere the thickness d = rP/2s, where r is the radius of the tank. The vol
ume of the spherical surface then is 4pr2d = 4pr3P/2s. The mass is determined by
multiplying by the density of the material that makes up the walls of the spher
ical vessel. Further the volume of the gas is (4pr3)/3. Combining these equation
s give the above results. The equations for the other geometries are derived in
a similar manner
Richard Budynas, J. Nisbett, Shigley's Mechanical Engineering Design, 8th ed., N
ew York:McGraw-Hill, ISBN 978-0-07-312193-2, pg 108
An International Code 2007 ASME Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code. The Americal Soci
ety of Mechanical Engineers. 2007.
MIT pressure vessel lecture
"AS 1200 Pressure Vessels". SAI Global. Retrieved 14 November 2011.
"AS_NZS 3788: 2006 Pressure equipment - In-service inspection". SAI Global. Retr
ieved September 4, 2015.
"Pressure Vessel Inspection Code: In-Service Inspection, Rating, Repair, and Alt
eration". API. June 2006.
."Gas cylinders - High pressure cylinders for the on-board storage of natura
l gas as a fuel for automotive vehicles". ISO. 2006-07-18. Retrieved 2009-04-17.
References
A.C. Ugural, S.K. Fenster, Advanced Strength and Applied Elasticity, 4th ed.
E.P. Popov, Engineering Mechanics of Solids, 1st ed.
Megyesy, Eugene F. "Pressure Vessel Handbook, 14th Edition." PV Publishing,
Inc. Oklahoma City, OK
Further reading
Megyesy, Eugene F. (2008, 14th ed.) Pressure Vessel Handbook. PV Publishing,
Inc.: Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA. www.pressurevesselhandbook.com Design handb
ook for pressure vessels based on the ASME code.
External links
Look up pressure vessel in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Pressure vessel.
Use of pressure vessels in oil and gas industry
Basic formulas for thin walled pressure vessels; with examples
Educational Excel spreadsheets for ASME head, shell and nozzle designs
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel website
Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology
EU Pressure Equipment Directive website
EU Simple Pressure Vessel Directive
EU Classification
Pressure Vessel attachments http://oakridgebellows.com/metal-expansion-joint
s/technical-videos/lugs-on-pipe-and-vessels-new
[hide]
v t e
Containers
Aerosol spray Aluminium bottle Aluminum can Amphora Ampoule Antistatic bag B
ag-in-box Barrel Biodegradable bag Blister pack Bottle Box Box wine Bulk box Car
boy Carton Chub Clamshell Corrugated box design Crate Desiccator Drum Envelope F
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Pressure vessel
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Horizontal pressure vessel in steel

A pressure vessel is a container designed to hold gases or liquids at a pressure


substantially different from the ambient pressure.
The pressure differential is dangerous, and fatal accidents have occurred in the
history of pressure vessel development and operation. Consequently, pressure ve
ssel design, manufacture, and operation are regulated by engineering authorities
backed by legislation. For these reasons, the definition of a pressure vessel v
aries from country to country, but involves parameters such as maximum safe oper
ating pressure and temperature, and are engineered with a safety factor, corrosi
on allowance, minimum design temperature (for brittle fracture), and involve non
destructive testing, such as ultrasonic testing, radiography, and pressure tests
, usually involving water, also known as a hydrotest, but could be pneumatically
tested involving air or another gas. The preferred test is hydrostatic testing
because it's a much safer method of testing as it releases much less energy if f
racture were to occur (water does not rapidly increase its volume while rapid de
pressurization occurs, unlike gases like air, i.e. gasses fail explosively). In
the United States, as with many other countries, it is the law that vessels over
a certain size and pressure (15 PSIg) be built to Code, in the United States th
at Code is the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (BPVC), these vessels also r
equire an Authorized Inspector to sign off on every new vessel constructed and e
ach vessel has a nameplate with pertinent information about the vessel such as m
aximum allowable working pressure, maximum temperature, minimum design metal tem
perature, what company manufactured it, the date, its registration number (throu
gh the National Board), and ASME's official stamp for pressure vessels (U-stamp)
, making the vessel traceable and officially an ASME Code vessel.
Contents
1 History of pressure vessels
2 Pressure vessel features
2.1 Shape of a pressure vessel
2.2 Construction materials
2.3 Safety features
2.3.1 Leak before burst
2.3.2 Safety valves
2.4 Maintenance features
2.4.1 Pressure vessel closures
3 Uses
4 Alternatives to pressure vessels
5 Design
5.1 Scaling
5.1.1 Scaling of stress in walls of vessel
5.1.2 Spherical vessel
5.1.3 Cylindrical vessel with hemispherical ends
5.1.4 Cylindrical vessel with semi-elliptical ends
5.1.5 Gas storage
5.2 Stress in thin-walled pressure vessels
5.3 Winding angle of carbon fibre vessels
5.4 Operation standards
5.4.1 List of standards
6 See also
7 Notes
8 References
9 Further reading
10 External links
History of pressure vessels
A 10,000 psi (69 MPa) pressure vessel from 1919, wrapped with high tensile steel
banding and steel rods to secure the end caps.

The earliest documented design of pressure vessels is described in the book Code
x Madrid I, by Leonardo da Vinci, in 1495, where containers of pressurized air w
ere theorized to lift heavy weights underwater,[1] however vessels resembling wh
at are used today did not come about until the 1800s where steam was generated i
n boilers helping to spur the industrial revolution.[1] However, with poor mater
ial quality and manufacturing techniques along with improper knowledge of design
, operation and maintenance there was a large number of damaging and often fatal
explosions associated with these boilers and pressure vessels, with a death occ
urring on a nearly daily basis in the United States.[1] Local providences and st
ates in the US began enacting rules for constructing these vessels after some pa
rticularly devastating vessel failures occurred killing dozens of people at a ti
me, which made it difficult for manufacturers to keep up with the varied rules f
rom one location to another and the first pressure vessel code was developed sta
rting in 1911 and released in 1914, starting the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel
Code (BPVC).[1] In an early effort to design a tank capable of withstanding pre
ssures up to 10,000 psi (69 MPa), a 6-inch (150 mm) diameter tank was developed
in 1919 that was spirally-wound with two layers of high tensile strength steel w
ire to prevent sidewall rupture, and the end caps longitudinally reinforced with
lengthwise high-tensile rods.[2] The need for high pressure and temperature ves
sels for petroleum refineries and chemical plants gave rise to vessels joined wi
th welding instead of rivets (which were unsuitable for the pressures and temper
atures required) and in 1920s and 1930s the BPVC included welding as an acceptab
le means of construction, and welding is the main means of joining metal vessels
today.[1]
There have been many advancements in the field of pressure vessel engineering su
ch as advanced non-destructive examination, phased array ultrasonic testing and
radiography, new material grades with increased corrosion resistance and stronge
r materials, and new ways to join materials such as explosion welding (to attach
one metal sheet to another, usually a thin corrosion resistant metal like stain
less steel to a stronger metal like carbon steel), friction stir welding (which
attaches the metals together without melting the metal), advanced theories and m
eans of more accurately assessing the stresses encountered in vessels such as wi
th the use of Finite Element Analysis, allowing the vessels to be built safer an
d more efficiently. Today vessels in the USA require BPVC stamping but the BPVC
is not just a domestic code, many other countries have adopted the BPVC as their
official code. There are, however, other official codes in some countries (some
of which rely on portions of and reference the BPVC), Japan, Australia, Canada,
Britain, and Europe have their own codes. Regardless of the country nearly all
recognize the inherent potential hazards of pressure vessels and the need for st
andards and codes regulating their design and construction.
Pressure vessel features
Shape of a pressure vessel
Pressure vessels can theoretically be almost any
ons of spheres, cylinders, and cones are usually
cylinder with end caps called heads. Head shapes
ical or dished (torispherical). More complicated
uch harder to analyze for safe operation and are
onstruct.

shape, but shapes made of secti


employed. A common design is a
are frequently either hemispher
shapes have historically been m
usually far more difficult to c

Spherical gas container.


Cylindrical pressure vessel.
Picture of the bottom of an aerosol spray can.
Fire Extinguisher with rounded rectangle pressure vessel
Theoretically, a spherical pressure vessel has approximately twice the strength

of a cylindrical pressure vessel with the same wall thickness,[3] and is the ide
al shape to hold internal pressure.[1] However, a spherical shape is difficult t
o manufacture, and therefore more expensive, so most pressure vessels are cylind
rical with 2:1 semi-elliptical heads or end caps on each end. Smaller pressure v
essels are assembled from a pipe and two covers. For cylindrical vessels with a
diameter up to 600 mm (NPS of 24 in), it is possible to use seamless pipe for th
e shell, thus avoiding many inspection and testing issues, mainly the nondestruc
tive examination of radiography for the long seam if required. A disadvantage of
these vessels is that greater diameters are more expensive, so that for example
the most economic shape of a 1,000 litres (35 cu ft), 250 bars (3,600 psi) pres
sure vessel might be a diameter of 91.44 centimetres (36 in) and a length of 1.7
018 metres (67 in) including the 2:1 semi-elliptical domed end caps.
Construction materials
Composite overwrapped pressure vessel with titanium liner.
Many pressure vessels are made of steel. To manufacture a cylindrical or spheric
al pressure vessel, rolled and possibly forged parts would have to be welded tog
ether. Some mechanical properties of steel, achieved by rolling or forging, coul
d be adversely affected by welding, unless special precautions are taken. In add
ition to adequate mechanical strength, current standards dictate the use of stee
l with a high impact resistance, especially for vessels used in low temperatures
. In applications where carbon steel would suffer corrosion, special corrosion r
esistant material should also be used.
Some pressure vessels are made of composite materials, such as filament wound co
mposite using carbon fibre held in place with a polymer. Due to the very high te
nsile strength of carbon fibre these vessels can be very light, but are much mor
e difficult to manufacture. The composite material may be wound around a metal l
iner, forming a composite overwrapped pressure vessel.
Other very common materials include polymers such as PET in carbonated beverage
containers and copper in plumbing.
Pressure vessels may be lined with various metals, ceramics, or polymers to prev
ent leaking and protect the structure of the vessel from the contained medium. T
his liner may also carry a significant portion of the pressure load.[4][5]
Pressure Vessels may also be constructed from concrete (PCV) or other materials
which are weak in tension. Cabling, wrapped around the vessel or within the wall
or the vessel itself, provides the necessary tension to resist the internal pre
ssure. A "leakproof steel thin membrane" lines the internal wall of the vessel.
Such vessels can be assembled from modular pieces and so have "no inherent size
limitations".[6] There is also a high order of redundancy thanks to the large nu
mber of individual cables resisting the internal pressure.
Safety features
Leak before burst
Leak before burst describes a pressure vessel designed such that a crack in the
vessel will grow through the wall, allowing the contained fluid to escape and re
ducing the pressure, prior to growing so large as to cause fracture at the opera
ting pressure.
Many pressure vessel standards, including the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Co
de[citation needed] and the AIAA metallic pressure vessel standard, either requi
re pressure vessel designs to be leak before burst, or require pressure vessels
to meet more stringent requirements for fatigue and fracture if they are not sho
wn to be leak before burst.[7]
Safety valves
Example of a valve used for gas cylinders.

As the pressure vessel is designed to a pressure, there is typically a safety va


lve or relief valve to ensure that this pressure is not exceeded in operation.
Maintenance features
Pressure vessel closures
Pressure vessel closures are pressure retaining structures designed to provide q
uick access to pipelines, pressure vessels, pig traps, filters and filtration sy
stems. Typically pressure vessel closures allow maintenance personnel.
Uses
Pressure vessels are used in a variety of applications in both industry and the
private sector. They appear in these sectors as industrial compressed air receiv
ers and domestic hot water storage tanks. Other examples of pressure vessels are
diving cylinders, recompression chambers, distillation towers, pressure reactor
s, autoclaves, and many other vessels in mining operations, oil refineries and p
etrochemical plants, nuclear reactor vessels, submarine and space ship habitats,
pneumatic reservoirs, hydraulic reservoirs under pressure, rail vehicle airbrak
e reservoirs, road vehicle airbrake reservoirs, and storage vessels for liquifie
d gases such as ammonia, chlorine, and LPG (propane, butane).
A unique application of a pressure vessel is the passenger cabin of an airliner;
The outer skin carries both the aircraft maneuvering loads and the cabin pressu
rization loads.
A pressure tank connected to a water well and domestic hot water system.
A few pressure tanks, here used to hold propane.
An expansion vessel for heating systems.
A pressure vessel used as a kier.
A pressure vessel used for The Boeing Company s CST-100 spacecraft.
Alternatives to pressure vessels
Natural gas storage
Gas holder
Depending on the application and local circumstances, alternatives to pressure v
essels exist. Examples can be seen in domestic water collection systems, where t
he following may be used:
Gravity controlled systems[8] which typically consist of an unpressurized wa
ter tank at an elevation higher than the point of use. Pressure at the point of
use is the result of the hydrostatic pressure caused by the elevation difference
. Gravity systems produce 0.43 pounds per square inch (3.0 kPa) per foot of wate
r head (elevation difference). A municipal water supply or pumped water is typic
ally around 90 pounds per square inch (620 kPa).
Inline pump controllers or pressure-sensitive pumps.[9]
Design
Scaling
No matter what shape it takes, the minimum mass of a pressure vessel scales with
the pressure and volume it contains and is inversely proportional to the streng
th to weight ratio of the construction material (minimum mass decreases as stren
gth increases[10]).
Scaling of stress in walls of vessel

Pressure vessels are held together against the gas pressure due to tensile force
s within the walls of the container. The normal (tensile) stress in the walls of
the container is proportional to the pressure and radius of the vessel and inve
rsely proportional to the thickness of the walls.[11] Therefore, pressure vessel
s are designed to have a thickness proportional to the radius of tank and the pr
essure of the tank and inversely proportional to the maximum allowed normal stre
ss of the particular material used in the walls of the container.
Because (for a given pressure) the thickness of the walls scales with the radius
of the tank, the mass of a tank (which scales as the length times radius times
thickness of the wall for a cylindrical tank) scales with the volume of the gas
held (which scales as length times radius squared). The exact formula varies wit
h the tank shape but depends on the density, ?, and maximum allowable stress s o
f the material in addition to the pressure P and volume V of the vessel. (See be
low for the exact equations for the stress in the walls.)
Spherical vessel
For a sphere, the minimum mass of a pressure vessel is
M = 3 2 P V ? s {\displaystyle M={3 \over 2}PV{\rho \over \sigma }} M={3 \ov
er 2}PV{\rho \over \sigma },
where:
M {\displaystyle
P {\displaystyle
ssure),
V {\displaystyle
? {\displaystyle
s {\displaystyle
can tolerate.[12]

M} M is mass,
P} P is the pressure difference from ambient (the gauge pre
V} V is volume,
\rho } \rho is the density of the pressure vessel material,
\sigma } \sigma is the maximum working stress that material

Other shapes besides a sphere have constants larger than 3/2 (infinite cylinders
take 2), although some tanks, such as non-spherical wound composite tanks can a
pproach this.
Cylindrical vessel with hemispherical ends
This is sometimes called a "bullet"[citation needed] for its shape, although in
geometric terms it is a capsule.
For a cylinder with hemispherical ends,
M = 2 p R 2 ( R + W ) P ? s {\displaystyle M=2\pi R^{2}(R+W)P{\rho \over \si
gma }} M=2\pi R^{2}(R+W)P{\rho \over \sigma },
where
R is the radius
W is the middle cylinder width only, and the overall width is W + 2R
Cylindrical vessel with semi-elliptical ends
In a vessel with an aspect ratio of middle cylinder width to radius of 2:1,
M = 6 p R 3 P ? s {\displaystyle M=6\pi R^{3}P{\rho \over \sigma }} M=6\pi R
^{3}P{\rho \over \sigma }.
Gas storage
In looking at the first equation, the factor PV, in SI units, is in units of (pr

essurization) energy. For a stored gas, PV is proportional to the mass of gas at


a given temperature, thus
M = 3 2 n R T ? s {\displaystyle M={3 \over 2}nRT{\rho \over \sigma }} M={3
\over 2}nRT{\rho \over \sigma }. (see gas law)
The other factors are constant for a given vessel shape and material. So we can
see that there is no theoretical "efficiency of scale", in terms of the ratio of
pressure vessel mass to pressurization energy, or of pressure vessel mass to st
ored gas mass. For storing gases, "tankage efficiency" is independent of pressur
e, at least for the same temperature.
So, for example, a typical design for a minimum mass tank to hold helium (as a p
ressurant gas) on a rocket would use a spherical chamber for a minimum shape con
stant, carbon fiber for best possible ? / s {\displaystyle \rho /\sigma } \rho /
\sigma , and very cold helium for best possible M / p V {\displaystyle M/{pV}} M
/{pV}.
Stress in thin-walled pressure vessels
Stress in a shallow-walled pressure vessel in the shape of a sphere is
s ? = s l o n g = p r 2 t {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }=\sigma _{\rm {lon
g}}={\frac {pr}{2t}}} \sigma _{\theta }=\sigma _{{{\rm {long}}}}={\frac {pr}{2t}
},
where s ? {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }} \sigma _{\theta } is hoop stress, or
stress in the circumferential direction, s l o n g {\displaystyle \sigma _{long
}} \sigma _{{long}} is stress in the longitudinal direction, p is internal gauge
pressure, r is the inner radius of the sphere, and t is thickness of the sphere
wall. A vessel can be considered "shallow-walled" if the diameter is at least 1
0 times (sometimes cited as 20 times) greater than the wall depth.[13]
Stress in the cylinder body of a pressure vessel.
Stress in a shallow-walled pressure vessel in the shape of a cylinder is
s ? = p r t {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }={\frac {pr}{t}}} \sigma _{\thet
a }={\frac {pr}{t}},
s l o n g = p r 2 t {\displaystyle \sigma _{\rm {long}}={\frac {pr}{2t}}} \s
igma _{{{\rm {long}}}}={\frac {pr}{2t}},
where:
s ? {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }} \sigma _{\theta } is hoop stress, or s
tress in the circumferential direction
s l o n g {\displaystyle \sigma _{long}} \sigma _{{long}} is stress in the l
ongitudinal direction
p is internal gauge pressure
r is the inner radius of the cylinder
t is thickness of the cylinder wall.
Almost all pressure vessel design standards contain variations of these two form
ulas with additional empirical terms to account for wall thickness tolerances, q
uality control of welds and in-service corrosion allowances.
For example, the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (BPVC) (UG-27) formulas ar
e:[14]
Spherical shells:
s ? = s l o n g = p ( r + 0.2 t ) 2 t E {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }=\si

gma _{\rm {long}}={\frac {p(r+0.2t)}{2tE}}} \sigma _{\theta }=\sigma _{{{\rm {lo


ng}}}}={\frac {p(r+0.2t)}{2tE}}
Cylindrical shells:
s ? = p ( r + 0.6 t ) t E {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }={\frac {p(r+0.6t)
}{tE}}} \sigma _{\theta }={\frac {p(r+0.6t)}{tE}}
s l o n g = p ( r - 0.4 t ) 2 t E {\displaystyle \sigma _{\rm {long}}={\frac
{p(r-0.4t)}{2tE}}} \sigma _{{{\rm {long}}}}={\frac {p(r-0.4t)}{2tE}}
where E is the joint efficient, and all others variables as stated above.
The factor of safety is often included in these formulas as well, in the case of
the ASME BPVC this term is included in the material stress value when solving f
or pressure or thickness.
Winding angle of carbon fibre vessels
Wound infinite cylindrical shapes optimally take a winding angle of 54.7 degrees
, as this gives the necessary twice the strength in the circumferential directio
n to the longitudinal.[15]
Operation standards
Pressure vessels are designed to operate safely at a specific pressure and tempe
rature, technically referred to as the "Design Pressure" and "Design Temperature
". A vessel that is inadequately designed to handle a high pressure constitutes
a very significant safety hazard. Because of that, the design and certification
of pressure vessels is governed by design codes such as the ASME Boiler and Pres
sure Vessel Code in North America, the Pressure Equipment Directive of the EU (P
ED), Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS), CSA B51 in Canada, Australian Standards
in Australia and other international standards like Lloyd's, Germanischer Lloyd
, Det Norske Veritas, Socit Gnrale de Surveillance (SGS S.A.), Lloyd s Register Energy
Nederland (formerly known as Stoomwezen) etc.
Note that where the pressure-volume product is part of a safety standard, any in
compressible liquid in the vessel can be excluded as it does not contribute to t
he potential energy stored in the vessel, so only the volume of the compressible
part such as gas is used.
List of standards
EN 13445: The current European Standard, harmonized with the Pressure Equipm
ent Directive (97/23/EC). Extensively used in Europe.
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section VIII: Rules for Construction of
Pressure Vessels.
BS 5500: Former British Standard, replaced in the UK by BS EN 13445 but reta
ined under the name PD 5500 for the design and construction of export equipment.
AD Merkbltter: German standard, harmonized with the Pressure Equipment Direct
ive.
EN 286 (Parts 1 to 4): European standard for simple pressure vessels (air ta
nks), harmonized with Council Directive 87/404/EEC.
BS 4994: Specification for design and construction of vessels and tanks in r
einforced plastics.
ASME PVHO: US standard for Pressure Vessels for Human Occupancy.
CODAP: French Code for Construction of Unfired Pressure Vessel.
AS/NZS 1200: Pressure equipment.[16]
AS/NZS 3788:2006[17]
API 510.[18]
ISO 11439: Compressed natural gas (CNG) cylinders[19]
IS 2825-1969 (RE1977)_code_unfired_Pressure_vessels.
FRP tanks and vessels.
AIAA S-080-1998: AIAA Standard for Space Systems - Metallic Pressure Vessels

, Pressurized Structures, and Pressure Components.


AIAA S-081A-2006: AIAA Standard for Space Systems - Composite Overwrapped Pr
essure Vessels (COPVs).
B51-09 Canadian Boiler, pressure vessel, and pressure piping code.
HSE guidelines for pressure systems.
Stoomwezen: Former pressure vessels code in the Netherlands, also known as R
ToD: Regels voor Toestellen onder Druk (Dutch Rules for Pressure Vessels).
See also
American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)
Bottled gas
Composite overwrapped pressure vessel
Compressed air energy storage
Compressed natural gas
Demister
Fire-tube boiler
Gas cylinder
Gasket
Head (vessel)
Minimum Design Metal Temperature (MDMT)
Pressure bomb - a device for measuring leaf water potentials
Rainwater harvesting
Relief valve
Safety valve
Shell and tube heat exchanger
Vapor-Liquid Separator or Knock-Out Drum
Vortex breaker
Water well
Water-tube boiler
Notes
Nilsen, Kyle. (2011) "Development of low pressure filter testing vessel and anal
ysis of electrospun nanofiber membranes for water treatment"
Ingenious Coal-Gas Motor Tank, Popular Science monthly, January 1919, page 27, S
canned by Google Books: https://books.google.com/books?id=HykDAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA13
Hearn, E.J. (1997). Mechanics of Materials 1. An Introduction to the Mechanics o
f Elastic and Plastic Deformation of Solids and Structural Materials - Third Edi
tion. Chapter 9: Butterworth-Heinemann. pp. 199 203. ISBN 0-7506-3265-8.
NASA Tech Briefs, "Making a Metal-Lined Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessel",
1 Mar 2005.
Frietas, O., "Maintenance and Repair of Glass-Lined Equipment", Chemical Enginee
ring, 1 Jul 2007.
"High Pressure Vessels",D. Freyer and J. Harvey, 1998
ANSI/AIAA S-080-1998, Space Systems - Metallic Pressure Vessels, Pressurized Str
uctures, and Pressure Components, 5.1
Pushard, Doug (2005). "Domestic water collection systems also sometimes able to
function on gravity". Harvesth2o.com. Retrieved 2009-04-17.[verification needed]
Pushard, Doug. "Alternatives to pressure vessels in domestic water systems". Har
vesth2o.com. Retrieved 2009-04-17.
Puskarich, Paul (2009-05-01). "Strengthened Glass for Pipleine Systems" (PDF). M
IT. Retrieved 2009-04-17.
Beer, Ferdinand P.; Johnston, Jr., E. Russel; DeWolf, John T. "7.9". Mechanics o
f Materials (fourth ed.). McGraw-Hill. p. 463. ISBN 9780073659350.
For a sphere the thickness d = rP/2s, where r is the radius of the tank. The vol
ume of the spherical surface then is 4pr2d = 4pr3P/2s. The mass is determined by
multiplying by the density of the material that makes up the walls of the spher
ical vessel. Further the volume of the gas is (4pr3)/3. Combining these equation
s give the above results. The equations for the other geometries are derived in

a similar manner
Richard Budynas, J. Nisbett, Shigley's Mechanical Engineering Design, 8th ed., N
ew York:McGraw-Hill, ISBN 978-0-07-312193-2, pg 108
An International Code 2007 ASME Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code. The Americal Soci
ety of Mechanical Engineers. 2007.
MIT pressure vessel lecture
"AS 1200 Pressure Vessels". SAI Global. Retrieved 14 November 2011.
"AS_NZS 3788: 2006 Pressure equipment - In-service inspection". SAI Global. Retr
ieved September 4, 2015.
"Pressure Vessel Inspection Code: In-Service Inspection, Rating, Repair, and Alt
eration". API. June 2006.
."Gas cylinders - High pressure cylinders for the on-board storage of natura
l gas as a fuel for automotive vehicles". ISO. 2006-07-18. Retrieved 2009-04-17.
References
A.C. Ugural, S.K. Fenster, Advanced Strength and Applied Elasticity, 4th ed.
E.P. Popov, Engineering Mechanics of Solids, 1st ed.
Megyesy, Eugene F. "Pressure Vessel Handbook, 14th Edition." PV Publishing,
Inc. Oklahoma City, OK
Further reading
Megyesy, Eugene F. (2008, 14th ed.) Pressure Vessel Handbook. PV Publishing,
Inc.: Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA. www.pressurevesselhandbook.com Design handb
ook for pressure vessels based on the ASME code.
External links
Look up pressure vessel in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Pressure vessel.
Use of pressure vessels in oil and gas industry
Basic formulas for thin walled pressure vessels; with examples
Educational Excel spreadsheets for ASME head, shell and nozzle designs
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel website
Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology
EU Pressure Equipment Directive website
EU Simple Pressure Vessel Directive
EU Classification
Pressure Vessel attachments http://oakridgebellows.com/metal-expansion-joint
s/technical-videos/lugs-on-pipe-and-vessels-new
[hide]
v t e
Containers
Aerosol spray Aluminium bottle Aluminum can Amphora Ampoule Antistatic bag B
ag-in-box Barrel Biodegradable bag Blister pack Bottle Box Box wine Bulk box Car
boy Carton Chub Clamshell Corrugated box design Crate Desiccator Drum Envelope F
lagon Flexible intermediate bulk container Foam food container Folding carton Fo
od storage container Growler Insulated shipping container Intermediate bulk cont
ainer Jar Jerrycan Juicebox Keg Kobako Multi-pack Padded mailer Pail Plastic bag
Plastic bottle Pressure vessel Popcorn bag Nuclear flask Retort pouch Sachet Se
lf-heating can Self-heating food packaging Shipping container Skin pack Spray bo
ttle Square milk jug Tin can Tobacco pouch Tube Unit load Vial Wooden box
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Pressure vessel
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Horizontal pressure vessel in steel
A pressure vessel is a container designed to hold gases or liquids at a pressure
substantially different from the ambient pressure.
The pressure differential is dangerous, and fatal accidents have occurred in the
history of pressure vessel development and operation. Consequently, pressure ve

ssel design, manufacture, and operation are regulated by engineering authorities


backed by legislation. For these reasons, the definition of a pressure vessel v
aries from country to country, but involves parameters such as maximum safe oper
ating pressure and temperature, and are engineered with a safety factor, corrosi
on allowance, minimum design temperature (for brittle fracture), and involve non
destructive testing, such as ultrasonic testing, radiography, and pressure tests
, usually involving water, also known as a hydrotest, but could be pneumatically
tested involving air or another gas. The preferred test is hydrostatic testing
because it's a much safer method of testing as it releases much less energy if f
racture were to occur (water does not rapidly increase its volume while rapid de
pressurization occurs, unlike gases like air, i.e. gasses fail explosively). In
the United States, as with many other countries, it is the law that vessels over
a certain size and pressure (15 PSIg) be built to Code, in the United States th
at Code is the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (BPVC), these vessels also r
equire an Authorized Inspector to sign off on every new vessel constructed and e
ach vessel has a nameplate with pertinent information about the vessel such as m
aximum allowable working pressure, maximum temperature, minimum design metal tem
perature, what company manufactured it, the date, its registration number (throu
gh the National Board), and ASME's official stamp for pressure vessels (U-stamp)
, making the vessel traceable and officially an ASME Code vessel.
Contents
1 History of pressure vessels
2 Pressure vessel features
2.1 Shape of a pressure vessel
2.2 Construction materials
2.3 Safety features
2.3.1 Leak before burst
2.3.2 Safety valves
2.4 Maintenance features
2.4.1 Pressure vessel closures
3 Uses
4 Alternatives to pressure vessels
5 Design
5.1 Scaling
5.1.1 Scaling of stress in walls of vessel
5.1.2 Spherical vessel
5.1.3 Cylindrical vessel with hemispherical ends
5.1.4 Cylindrical vessel with semi-elliptical ends
5.1.5 Gas storage
5.2 Stress in thin-walled pressure vessels
5.3 Winding angle of carbon fibre vessels
5.4 Operation standards
5.4.1 List of standards
6 See also
7 Notes
8 References
9 Further reading
10 External links
History of pressure vessels
A 10,000 psi (69 MPa) pressure vessel from 1919, wrapped with high tensile steel
banding and steel rods to secure the end caps.
The earliest documented design of pressure vessels is described in the book Code
x Madrid I, by Leonardo da Vinci, in 1495, where containers of pressurized air w
ere theorized to lift heavy weights underwater,[1] however vessels resembling wh
at are used today did not come about until the 1800s where steam was generated i
n boilers helping to spur the industrial revolution.[1] However, with poor mater

ial quality and manufacturing techniques along with improper knowledge of design
, operation and maintenance there was a large number of damaging and often fatal
explosions associated with these boilers and pressure vessels, with a death occ
urring on a nearly daily basis in the United States.[1] Local providences and st
ates in the US began enacting rules for constructing these vessels after some pa
rticularly devastating vessel failures occurred killing dozens of people at a ti
me, which made it difficult for manufacturers to keep up with the varied rules f
rom one location to another and the first pressure vessel code was developed sta
rting in 1911 and released in 1914, starting the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel
Code (BPVC).[1] In an early effort to design a tank capable of withstanding pre
ssures up to 10,000 psi (69 MPa), a 6-inch (150 mm) diameter tank was developed
in 1919 that was spirally-wound with two layers of high tensile strength steel w
ire to prevent sidewall rupture, and the end caps longitudinally reinforced with
lengthwise high-tensile rods.[2] The need for high pressure and temperature ves
sels for petroleum refineries and chemical plants gave rise to vessels joined wi
th welding instead of rivets (which were unsuitable for the pressures and temper
atures required) and in 1920s and 1930s the BPVC included welding as an acceptab
le means of construction, and welding is the main means of joining metal vessels
today.[1]
There have been many advancements in the field of pressure vessel engineering su
ch as advanced non-destructive examination, phased array ultrasonic testing and
radiography, new material grades with increased corrosion resistance and stronge
r materials, and new ways to join materials such as explosion welding (to attach
one metal sheet to another, usually a thin corrosion resistant metal like stain
less steel to a stronger metal like carbon steel), friction stir welding (which
attaches the metals together without melting the metal), advanced theories and m
eans of more accurately assessing the stresses encountered in vessels such as wi
th the use of Finite Element Analysis, allowing the vessels to be built safer an
d more efficiently. Today vessels in the USA require BPVC stamping but the BPVC
is not just a domestic code, many other countries have adopted the BPVC as their
official code. There are, however, other official codes in some countries (some
of which rely on portions of and reference the BPVC), Japan, Australia, Canada,
Britain, and Europe have their own codes. Regardless of the country nearly all
recognize the inherent potential hazards of pressure vessels and the need for st
andards and codes regulating their design and construction.
Pressure vessel features
Shape of a pressure vessel
Pressure vessels can theoretically be almost any
ons of spheres, cylinders, and cones are usually
cylinder with end caps called heads. Head shapes
ical or dished (torispherical). More complicated
uch harder to analyze for safe operation and are
onstruct.

shape, but shapes made of secti


employed. A common design is a
are frequently either hemispher
shapes have historically been m
usually far more difficult to c

Spherical gas container.


Cylindrical pressure vessel.
Picture of the bottom of an aerosol spray can.
Fire Extinguisher with rounded rectangle pressure vessel
Theoretically, a spherical pressure vessel has approximately twice the strength
of a cylindrical pressure vessel with the same wall thickness,[3] and is the ide
al shape to hold internal pressure.[1] However, a spherical shape is difficult t
o manufacture, and therefore more expensive, so most pressure vessels are cylind
rical with 2:1 semi-elliptical heads or end caps on each end. Smaller pressure v
essels are assembled from a pipe and two covers. For cylindrical vessels with a

diameter up to 600 mm (NPS of 24 in), it is possible to use seamless pipe for th


e shell, thus avoiding many inspection and testing issues, mainly the nondestruc
tive examination of radiography for the long seam if required. A disadvantage of
these vessels is that greater diameters are more expensive, so that for example
the most economic shape of a 1,000 litres (35 cu ft), 250 bars (3,600 psi) pres
sure vessel might be a diameter of 91.44 centimetres (36 in) and a length of 1.7
018 metres (67 in) including the 2:1 semi-elliptical domed end caps.
Construction materials
Composite overwrapped pressure vessel with titanium liner.
Many pressure vessels are made of steel. To manufacture a cylindrical or spheric
al pressure vessel, rolled and possibly forged parts would have to be welded tog
ether. Some mechanical properties of steel, achieved by rolling or forging, coul
d be adversely affected by welding, unless special precautions are taken. In add
ition to adequate mechanical strength, current standards dictate the use of stee
l with a high impact resistance, especially for vessels used in low temperatures
. In applications where carbon steel would suffer corrosion, special corrosion r
esistant material should also be used.
Some pressure vessels are made of composite materials, such as filament wound co
mposite using carbon fibre held in place with a polymer. Due to the very high te
nsile strength of carbon fibre these vessels can be very light, but are much mor
e difficult to manufacture. The composite material may be wound around a metal l
iner, forming a composite overwrapped pressure vessel.
Other very common materials include polymers such as PET in carbonated beverage
containers and copper in plumbing.
Pressure vessels may be lined with various metals, ceramics, or polymers to prev
ent leaking and protect the structure of the vessel from the contained medium. T
his liner may also carry a significant portion of the pressure load.[4][5]
Pressure Vessels may also be constructed from concrete (PCV) or other materials
which are weak in tension. Cabling, wrapped around the vessel or within the wall
or the vessel itself, provides the necessary tension to resist the internal pre
ssure. A "leakproof steel thin membrane" lines the internal wall of the vessel.
Such vessels can be assembled from modular pieces and so have "no inherent size
limitations".[6] There is also a high order of redundancy thanks to the large nu
mber of individual cables resisting the internal pressure.
Safety features
Leak before burst
Leak before burst describes a pressure vessel designed such that a crack in the
vessel will grow through the wall, allowing the contained fluid to escape and re
ducing the pressure, prior to growing so large as to cause fracture at the opera
ting pressure.
Many pressure vessel standards, including the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Co
de[citation needed] and the AIAA metallic pressure vessel standard, either requi
re pressure vessel designs to be leak before burst, or require pressure vessels
to meet more stringent requirements for fatigue and fracture if they are not sho
wn to be leak before burst.[7]
Safety valves
Example of a valve used for gas cylinders.
As the pressure vessel is designed to a pressure, there is typically a safety va
lve or relief valve to ensure that this pressure is not exceeded in operation.
Maintenance features
Pressure vessel closures

Pressure vessel closures are pressure retaining structures designed to provide q


uick access to pipelines, pressure vessels, pig traps, filters and filtration sy
stems. Typically pressure vessel closures allow maintenance personnel.
Uses
Pressure vessels are used in a variety of applications in both industry and the
private sector. They appear in these sectors as industrial compressed air receiv
ers and domestic hot water storage tanks. Other examples of pressure vessels are
diving cylinders, recompression chambers, distillation towers, pressure reactor
s, autoclaves, and many other vessels in mining operations, oil refineries and p
etrochemical plants, nuclear reactor vessels, submarine and space ship habitats,
pneumatic reservoirs, hydraulic reservoirs under pressure, rail vehicle airbrak
e reservoirs, road vehicle airbrake reservoirs, and storage vessels for liquifie
d gases such as ammonia, chlorine, and LPG (propane, butane).
A unique application of a pressure vessel is the passenger cabin of an airliner;
The outer skin carries both the aircraft maneuvering loads and the cabin pressu
rization loads.
A pressure tank connected to a water well and domestic hot water system.
A few pressure tanks, here used to hold propane.
An expansion vessel for heating systems.
A pressure vessel used as a kier.
A pressure vessel used for The Boeing Company s CST-100 spacecraft.
Alternatives to pressure vessels
Natural gas storage
Gas holder
Depending on the application and local circumstances, alternatives to pressure v
essels exist. Examples can be seen in domestic water collection systems, where t
he following may be used:
Gravity controlled systems[8] which typically consist of an unpressurized wa
ter tank at an elevation higher than the point of use. Pressure at the point of
use is the result of the hydrostatic pressure caused by the elevation difference
. Gravity systems produce 0.43 pounds per square inch (3.0 kPa) per foot of wate
r head (elevation difference). A municipal water supply or pumped water is typic
ally around 90 pounds per square inch (620 kPa).
Inline pump controllers or pressure-sensitive pumps.[9]
Design
Scaling
No matter what shape it takes, the minimum mass of a pressure vessel scales with
the pressure and volume it contains and is inversely proportional to the streng
th to weight ratio of the construction material (minimum mass decreases as stren
gth increases[10]).
Scaling of stress in walls of vessel
Pressure vessels are held together against the gas pressure due to tensile force
s within the walls of the container. The normal (tensile) stress in the walls of
the container is proportional to the pressure and radius of the vessel and inve
rsely proportional to the thickness of the walls.[11] Therefore, pressure vessel
s are designed to have a thickness proportional to the radius of tank and the pr

essure of the tank and inversely proportional to the maximum allowed normal stre
ss of the particular material used in the walls of the container.
Because (for a given pressure) the thickness of the walls scales with the radius
of the tank, the mass of a tank (which scales as the length times radius times
thickness of the wall for a cylindrical tank) scales with the volume of the gas
held (which scales as length times radius squared). The exact formula varies wit
h the tank shape but depends on the density, ?, and maximum allowable stress s o
f the material in addition to the pressure P and volume V of the vessel. (See be
low for the exact equations for the stress in the walls.)
Spherical vessel
For a sphere, the minimum mass of a pressure vessel is
M = 3 2 P V ? s {\displaystyle M={3 \over 2}PV{\rho \over \sigma }} M={3 \ov
er 2}PV{\rho \over \sigma },
where:
M {\displaystyle
P {\displaystyle
ssure),
V {\displaystyle
? {\displaystyle
s {\displaystyle
can tolerate.[12]

M} M is mass,
P} P is the pressure difference from ambient (the gauge pre
V} V is volume,
\rho } \rho is the density of the pressure vessel material,
\sigma } \sigma is the maximum working stress that material

Other shapes besides a sphere have constants larger than 3/2 (infinite cylinders
take 2), although some tanks, such as non-spherical wound composite tanks can a
pproach this.
Cylindrical vessel with hemispherical ends
This is sometimes called a "bullet"[citation needed] for its shape, although in
geometric terms it is a capsule.
For a cylinder with hemispherical ends,
M = 2 p R 2 ( R + W ) P ? s {\displaystyle M=2\pi R^{2}(R+W)P{\rho \over \si
gma }} M=2\pi R^{2}(R+W)P{\rho \over \sigma },
where
R is the radius
W is the middle cylinder width only, and the overall width is W + 2R
Cylindrical vessel with semi-elliptical ends
In a vessel with an aspect ratio of middle cylinder width to radius of 2:1,
M = 6 p R 3 P ? s {\displaystyle M=6\pi R^{3}P{\rho \over \sigma }} M=6\pi R
^{3}P{\rho \over \sigma }.
Gas storage
In looking at the first equation, the factor PV, in SI units, is in units of (pr
essurization) energy. For a stored gas, PV is proportional to the mass of gas at
a given temperature, thus
M = 3 2 n R T ? s {\displaystyle M={3 \over 2}nRT{\rho \over \sigma }} M={3
\over 2}nRT{\rho \over \sigma }. (see gas law)

The other factors are constant for a given vessel shape and material. So we can
see that there is no theoretical "efficiency of scale", in terms of the ratio of
pressure vessel mass to pressurization energy, or of pressure vessel mass to st
ored gas mass. For storing gases, "tankage efficiency" is independent of pressur
e, at least for the same temperature.
So, for example, a typical design for a minimum mass tank to hold helium (as a p
ressurant gas) on a rocket would use a spherical chamber for a minimum shape con
stant, carbon fiber for best possible ? / s {\displaystyle \rho /\sigma } \rho /
\sigma , and very cold helium for best possible M / p V {\displaystyle M/{pV}} M
/{pV}.
Stress in thin-walled pressure vessels
Stress in a shallow-walled pressure vessel in the shape of a sphere is
s ? = s l o n g = p r 2 t {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }=\sigma _{\rm {lon
g}}={\frac {pr}{2t}}} \sigma _{\theta }=\sigma _{{{\rm {long}}}}={\frac {pr}{2t}
},
where s ? {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }} \sigma _{\theta } is hoop stress, or
stress in the circumferential direction, s l o n g {\displaystyle \sigma _{long
}} \sigma _{{long}} is stress in the longitudinal direction, p is internal gauge
pressure, r is the inner radius of the sphere, and t is thickness of the sphere
wall. A vessel can be considered "shallow-walled" if the diameter is at least 1
0 times (sometimes cited as 20 times) greater than the wall depth.[13]
Stress in the cylinder body of a pressure vessel.
Stress in a shallow-walled pressure vessel in the shape of a cylinder is
s ? = p r t {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }={\frac {pr}{t}}} \sigma _{\thet
a }={\frac {pr}{t}},
s l o n g = p r 2 t {\displaystyle \sigma _{\rm {long}}={\frac {pr}{2t}}} \s
igma _{{{\rm {long}}}}={\frac {pr}{2t}},
where:
s ? {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }} \sigma _{\theta } is hoop stress, or s
tress in the circumferential direction
s l o n g {\displaystyle \sigma _{long}} \sigma _{{long}} is stress in the l
ongitudinal direction
p is internal gauge pressure
r is the inner radius of the cylinder
t is thickness of the cylinder wall.
Almost all pressure vessel design standards contain variations of these two form
ulas with additional empirical terms to account for wall thickness tolerances, q
uality control of welds and in-service corrosion allowances.
For example, the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (BPVC) (UG-27) formulas ar
e:[14]
Spherical shells:
s ? = s l o n g = p ( r + 0.2 t ) 2 t E {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }=\si
gma _{\rm {long}}={\frac {p(r+0.2t)}{2tE}}} \sigma _{\theta }=\sigma _{{{\rm {lo
ng}}}}={\frac {p(r+0.2t)}{2tE}}
Cylindrical shells:

s ? = p ( r + 0.6 t ) t E {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }={\frac {p(r+0.6t)


}{tE}}} \sigma _{\theta }={\frac {p(r+0.6t)}{tE}}
s l o n g = p ( r - 0.4 t ) 2 t E {\displaystyle \sigma _{\rm {long}}={\frac
{p(r-0.4t)}{2tE}}} \sigma _{{{\rm {long}}}}={\frac {p(r-0.4t)}{2tE}}
where E is the joint efficient, and all others variables as stated above.
The factor of safety is often included in these formulas as well, in the case of
the ASME BPVC this term is included in the material stress value when solving f
or pressure or thickness.
Winding angle of carbon fibre vessels
Wound infinite cylindrical shapes optimally take a winding angle of 54.7 degrees
, as this gives the necessary twice the strength in the circumferential directio
n to the longitudinal.[15]
Operation standards
Pressure vessels are designed to operate safely at a specific pressure and tempe
rature, technically referred to as the "Design Pressure" and "Design Temperature
". A vessel that is inadequately designed to handle a high pressure constitutes
a very significant safety hazard. Because of that, the design and certification
of pressure vessels is governed by design codes such as the ASME Boiler and Pres
sure Vessel Code in North America, the Pressure Equipment Directive of the EU (P
ED), Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS), CSA B51 in Canada, Australian Standards
in Australia and other international standards like Lloyd's, Germanischer Lloyd
, Det Norske Veritas, Socit Gnrale de Surveillance (SGS S.A.), Lloyd s Register Energy
Nederland (formerly known as Stoomwezen) etc.
Note that where the pressure-volume product is part of a safety standard, any in
compressible liquid in the vessel can be excluded as it does not contribute to t
he potential energy stored in the vessel, so only the volume of the compressible
part such as gas is used.
List of standards
EN 13445: The current European Standard, harmonized with the Pressure Equipm
ent Directive (97/23/EC). Extensively used in Europe.
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section VIII: Rules for Construction of
Pressure Vessels.
BS 5500: Former British Standard, replaced in the UK by BS EN 13445 but reta
ined under the name PD 5500 for the design and construction of export equipment.
AD Merkbltter: German standard, harmonized with the Pressure Equipment Direct
ive.
EN 286 (Parts 1 to 4): European standard for simple pressure vessels (air ta
nks), harmonized with Council Directive 87/404/EEC.
BS 4994: Specification for design and construction of vessels and tanks in r
einforced plastics.
ASME PVHO: US standard for Pressure Vessels for Human Occupancy.
CODAP: French Code for Construction of Unfired Pressure Vessel.
AS/NZS 1200: Pressure equipment.[16]
AS/NZS 3788:2006[17]
API 510.[18]
ISO 11439: Compressed natural gas (CNG) cylinders[19]
IS 2825-1969 (RE1977)_code_unfired_Pressure_vessels.
FRP tanks and vessels.
AIAA S-080-1998: AIAA Standard for Space Systems - Metallic Pressure Vessels
, Pressurized Structures, and Pressure Components.
AIAA S-081A-2006: AIAA Standard for Space Systems - Composite Overwrapped Pr
essure Vessels (COPVs).
B51-09 Canadian Boiler, pressure vessel, and pressure piping code.
HSE guidelines for pressure systems.

Stoomwezen: Former pressure vessels code in the Netherlands, also known as R


ToD: Regels voor Toestellen onder Druk (Dutch Rules for Pressure Vessels).
See also
American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)
Bottled gas
Composite overwrapped pressure vessel
Compressed air energy storage
Compressed natural gas
Demister
Fire-tube boiler
Gas cylinder
Gasket
Head (vessel)
Minimum Design Metal Temperature (MDMT)
Pressure bomb - a device for measuring leaf water potentials
Rainwater harvesting
Relief valve
Safety valve
Shell and tube heat exchanger
Vapor-Liquid Separator or Knock-Out Drum
Vortex breaker
Water well
Water-tube boiler
Notes
Nilsen, Kyle. (2011) "Development of low pressure filter testing vessel and anal
ysis of electrospun nanofiber membranes for water treatment"
Ingenious Coal-Gas Motor Tank, Popular Science monthly, January 1919, page 27, S
canned by Google Books: https://books.google.com/books?id=HykDAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA13
Hearn, E.J. (1997). Mechanics of Materials 1. An Introduction to the Mechanics o
f Elastic and Plastic Deformation of Solids and Structural Materials - Third Edi
tion. Chapter 9: Butterworth-Heinemann. pp. 199 203. ISBN 0-7506-3265-8.
NASA Tech Briefs, "Making a Metal-Lined Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessel",
1 Mar 2005.
Frietas, O., "Maintenance and Repair of Glass-Lined Equipment", Chemical Enginee
ring, 1 Jul 2007.
"High Pressure Vessels",D. Freyer and J. Harvey, 1998
ANSI/AIAA S-080-1998, Space Systems - Metallic Pressure Vessels, Pressurized Str
uctures, and Pressure Components, 5.1
Pushard, Doug (2005). "Domestic water collection systems also sometimes able to
function on gravity". Harvesth2o.com. Retrieved 2009-04-17.[verification needed]
Pushard, Doug. "Alternatives to pressure vessels in domestic water systems". Har
vesth2o.com. Retrieved 2009-04-17.
Puskarich, Paul (2009-05-01). "Strengthened Glass for Pipleine Systems" (PDF). M
IT. Retrieved 2009-04-17.
Beer, Ferdinand P.; Johnston, Jr., E. Russel; DeWolf, John T. "7.9". Mechanics o
f Materials (fourth ed.). McGraw-Hill. p. 463. ISBN 9780073659350.
For a sphere the thickness d = rP/2s, where r is the radius of the tank. The vol
ume of the spherical surface then is 4pr2d = 4pr3P/2s. The mass is determined by
multiplying by the density of the material that makes up the walls of the spher
ical vessel. Further the volume of the gas is (4pr3)/3. Combining these equation
s give the above results. The equations for the other geometries are derived in
a similar manner
Richard Budynas, J. Nisbett, Shigley's Mechanical Engineering Design, 8th ed., N
ew York:McGraw-Hill, ISBN 978-0-07-312193-2, pg 108
An International Code 2007 ASME Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code. The Americal Soci
ety of Mechanical Engineers. 2007.

MIT pressure vessel lecture


"AS 1200 Pressure Vessels". SAI Global. Retrieved 14 November 2011.
"AS_NZS 3788: 2006 Pressure equipment - In-service inspection". SAI Global. Retr
ieved September 4, 2015.
"Pressure Vessel Inspection Code: In-Service Inspection, Rating, Repair, and Alt
eration". API. June 2006.
."Gas cylinders - High pressure cylinders for the on-board storage of natura
l gas as a fuel for automotive vehicles". ISO. 2006-07-18. Retrieved 2009-04-17.
References
A.C. Ugural, S.K. Fenster, Advanced Strength and Applied Elasticity, 4th ed.
E.P. Popov, Engineering Mechanics of Solids, 1st ed.
Megyesy, Eugene F. "Pressure Vessel Handbook, 14th Edition." PV Publishing,
Inc. Oklahoma City, OK
Further reading
Megyesy, Eugene F. (2008, 14th ed.) Pressure Vessel Handbook. PV Publishing,
Inc.: Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA. www.pressurevesselhandbook.com Design handb
ook for pressure vessels based on the ASME code.
External links
Look up pressure vessel in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Pressure vessel.
Use of pressure vessels in oil and gas industry
Basic formulas for thin walled pressure vessels; with examples
Educational Excel spreadsheets for ASME head, shell and nozzle designs
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel website
Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology
EU Pressure Equipment Directive website
EU Simple Pressure Vessel Directive
EU Classification
Pressure Vessel attachments http://oakridgebellows.com/metal-expansion-joint
s/technical-videos/lugs-on-pipe-and-vessels-new
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Pressure vessel
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Horizontal pressure vessel in steel
A pressure vessel is a container designed to hold gases or liquids at a pressure
substantially different from the ambient pressure.
The pressure differential is dangerous, and fatal accidents have occurred in the
history of pressure vessel development and operation. Consequently, pressure ve
ssel design, manufacture, and operation are regulated by engineering authorities
backed by legislation. For these reasons, the definition of a pressure vessel v
aries from country to country, but involves parameters such as maximum safe oper
ating pressure and temperature, and are engineered with a safety factor, corrosi
on allowance, minimum design temperature (for brittle fracture), and involve non

destructive testing, such as ultrasonic testing, radiography, and pressure tests


, usually involving water, also known as a hydrotest, but could be pneumatically
tested involving air or another gas. The preferred test is hydrostatic testing
because it's a much safer method of testing as it releases much less energy if f
racture were to occur (water does not rapidly increase its volume while rapid de
pressurization occurs, unlike gases like air, i.e. gasses fail explosively). In
the United States, as with many other countries, it is the law that vessels over
a certain size and pressure (15 PSIg) be built to Code, in the United States th
at Code is the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (BPVC), these vessels also r
equire an Authorized Inspector to sign off on every new vessel constructed and e
ach vessel has a nameplate with pertinent information about the vessel such as m
aximum allowable working pressure, maximum temperature, minimum design metal tem
perature, what company manufactured it, the date, its registration number (throu
gh the National Board), and ASME's official stamp for pressure vessels (U-stamp)
, making the vessel traceable and officially an ASME Code vessel.
Contents
1 History of pressure vessels
2 Pressure vessel features
2.1 Shape of a pressure vessel
2.2 Construction materials
2.3 Safety features
2.3.1 Leak before burst
2.3.2 Safety valves
2.4 Maintenance features
2.4.1 Pressure vessel closures
3 Uses
4 Alternatives to pressure vessels
5 Design
5.1 Scaling
5.1.1 Scaling of stress in walls of vessel
5.1.2 Spherical vessel
5.1.3 Cylindrical vessel with hemispherical ends
5.1.4 Cylindrical vessel with semi-elliptical ends
5.1.5 Gas storage
5.2 Stress in thin-walled pressure vessels
5.3 Winding angle of carbon fibre vessels
5.4 Operation standards
5.4.1 List of standards
6 See also
7 Notes
8 References
9 Further reading
10 External links
History of pressure vessels
A 10,000 psi (69 MPa) pressure vessel from 1919, wrapped with high tensile steel
banding and steel rods to secure the end caps.
The earliest documented design of pressure vessels is described in the book Code
x Madrid I, by Leonardo da Vinci, in 1495, where containers of pressurized air w
ere theorized to lift heavy weights underwater,[1] however vessels resembling wh
at are used today did not come about until the 1800s where steam was generated i
n boilers helping to spur the industrial revolution.[1] However, with poor mater
ial quality and manufacturing techniques along with improper knowledge of design
, operation and maintenance there was a large number of damaging and often fatal
explosions associated with these boilers and pressure vessels, with a death occ
urring on a nearly daily basis in the United States.[1] Local providences and st
ates in the US began enacting rules for constructing these vessels after some pa

rticularly devastating vessel failures occurred killing dozens of people at a ti


me, which made it difficult for manufacturers to keep up with the varied rules f
rom one location to another and the first pressure vessel code was developed sta
rting in 1911 and released in 1914, starting the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel
Code (BPVC).[1] In an early effort to design a tank capable of withstanding pre
ssures up to 10,000 psi (69 MPa), a 6-inch (150 mm) diameter tank was developed
in 1919 that was spirally-wound with two layers of high tensile strength steel w
ire to prevent sidewall rupture, and the end caps longitudinally reinforced with
lengthwise high-tensile rods.[2] The need for high pressure and temperature ves
sels for petroleum refineries and chemical plants gave rise to vessels joined wi
th welding instead of rivets (which were unsuitable for the pressures and temper
atures required) and in 1920s and 1930s the BPVC included welding as an acceptab
le means of construction, and welding is the main means of joining metal vessels
today.[1]
There have been many advancements in the field of pressure vessel engineering su
ch as advanced non-destructive examination, phased array ultrasonic testing and
radiography, new material grades with increased corrosion resistance and stronge
r materials, and new ways to join materials such as explosion welding (to attach
one metal sheet to another, usually a thin corrosion resistant metal like stain
less steel to a stronger metal like carbon steel), friction stir welding (which
attaches the metals together without melting the metal), advanced theories and m
eans of more accurately assessing the stresses encountered in vessels such as wi
th the use of Finite Element Analysis, allowing the vessels to be built safer an
d more efficiently. Today vessels in the USA require BPVC stamping but the BPVC
is not just a domestic code, many other countries have adopted the BPVC as their
official code. There are, however, other official codes in some countries (some
of which rely on portions of and reference the BPVC), Japan, Australia, Canada,
Britain, and Europe have their own codes. Regardless of the country nearly all
recognize the inherent potential hazards of pressure vessels and the need for st
andards and codes regulating their design and construction.
Pressure vessel features
Shape of a pressure vessel
Pressure vessels can theoretically be almost any
ons of spheres, cylinders, and cones are usually
cylinder with end caps called heads. Head shapes
ical or dished (torispherical). More complicated
uch harder to analyze for safe operation and are
onstruct.

shape, but shapes made of secti


employed. A common design is a
are frequently either hemispher
shapes have historically been m
usually far more difficult to c

Spherical gas container.


Cylindrical pressure vessel.
Picture of the bottom of an aerosol spray can.
Fire Extinguisher with rounded rectangle pressure vessel
Theoretically, a spherical pressure vessel has approximately twice the strength
of a cylindrical pressure vessel with the same wall thickness,[3] and is the ide
al shape to hold internal pressure.[1] However, a spherical shape is difficult t
o manufacture, and therefore more expensive, so most pressure vessels are cylind
rical with 2:1 semi-elliptical heads or end caps on each end. Smaller pressure v
essels are assembled from a pipe and two covers. For cylindrical vessels with a
diameter up to 600 mm (NPS of 24 in), it is possible to use seamless pipe for th
e shell, thus avoiding many inspection and testing issues, mainly the nondestruc
tive examination of radiography for the long seam if required. A disadvantage of
these vessels is that greater diameters are more expensive, so that for example
the most economic shape of a 1,000 litres (35 cu ft), 250 bars (3,600 psi) pres

sure vessel might be a diameter of 91.44 centimetres (36 in) and a length of 1.7
018 metres (67 in) including the 2:1 semi-elliptical domed end caps.
Construction materials
Composite overwrapped pressure vessel with titanium liner.
Many pressure vessels are made of steel. To manufacture a cylindrical or spheric
al pressure vessel, rolled and possibly forged parts would have to be welded tog
ether. Some mechanical properties of steel, achieved by rolling or forging, coul
d be adversely affected by welding, unless special precautions are taken. In add
ition to adequate mechanical strength, current standards dictate the use of stee
l with a high impact resistance, especially for vessels used in low temperatures
. In applications where carbon steel would suffer corrosion, special corrosion r
esistant material should also be used.
Some pressure vessels are made of composite materials, such as filament wound co
mposite using carbon fibre held in place with a polymer. Due to the very high te
nsile strength of carbon fibre these vessels can be very light, but are much mor
e difficult to manufacture. The composite material may be wound around a metal l
iner, forming a composite overwrapped pressure vessel.
Other very common materials include polymers such as PET in carbonated beverage
containers and copper in plumbing.
Pressure vessels may be lined with various metals, ceramics, or polymers to prev
ent leaking and protect the structure of the vessel from the contained medium. T
his liner may also carry a significant portion of the pressure load.[4][5]
Pressure Vessels may also be constructed from concrete (PCV) or other materials
which are weak in tension. Cabling, wrapped around the vessel or within the wall
or the vessel itself, provides the necessary tension to resist the internal pre
ssure. A "leakproof steel thin membrane" lines the internal wall of the vessel.
Such vessels can be assembled from modular pieces and so have "no inherent size
limitations".[6] There is also a high order of redundancy thanks to the large nu
mber of individual cables resisting the internal pressure.
Safety features
Leak before burst
Leak before burst describes a pressure vessel designed such that a crack in the
vessel will grow through the wall, allowing the contained fluid to escape and re
ducing the pressure, prior to growing so large as to cause fracture at the opera
ting pressure.
Many pressure vessel standards, including the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Co
de[citation needed] and the AIAA metallic pressure vessel standard, either requi
re pressure vessel designs to be leak before burst, or require pressure vessels
to meet more stringent requirements for fatigue and fracture if they are not sho
wn to be leak before burst.[7]
Safety valves
Example of a valve used for gas cylinders.
As the pressure vessel is designed to a pressure, there is typically a safety va
lve or relief valve to ensure that this pressure is not exceeded in operation.
Maintenance features
Pressure vessel closures
Pressure vessel closures are pressure retaining structures designed to provide q
uick access to pipelines, pressure vessels, pig traps, filters and filtration sy
stems. Typically pressure vessel closures allow maintenance personnel.
Uses

Pressure vessels are used in a variety of applications in both industry and the
private sector. They appear in these sectors as industrial compressed air receiv
ers and domestic hot water storage tanks. Other examples of pressure vessels are
diving cylinders, recompression chambers, distillation towers, pressure reactor
s, autoclaves, and many other vessels in mining operations, oil refineries and p
etrochemical plants, nuclear reactor vessels, submarine and space ship habitats,
pneumatic reservoirs, hydraulic reservoirs under pressure, rail vehicle airbrak
e reservoirs, road vehicle airbrake reservoirs, and storage vessels for liquifie
d gases such as ammonia, chlorine, and LPG (propane, butane).
A unique application of a pressure vessel is the passenger cabin of an airliner;
The outer skin carries both the aircraft maneuvering loads and the cabin pressu
rization loads.
A pressure tank connected to a water well and domestic hot water system.
A few pressure tanks, here used to hold propane.
An expansion vessel for heating systems.
A pressure vessel used as a kier.
A pressure vessel used for The Boeing Company s CST-100 spacecraft.
Alternatives to pressure vessels
Natural gas storage
Gas holder
Depending on the application and local circumstances, alternatives to pressure v
essels exist. Examples can be seen in domestic water collection systems, where t
he following may be used:
Gravity controlled systems[8] which typically consist of an unpressurized wa
ter tank at an elevation higher than the point of use. Pressure at the point of
use is the result of the hydrostatic pressure caused by the elevation difference
. Gravity systems produce 0.43 pounds per square inch (3.0 kPa) per foot of wate
r head (elevation difference). A municipal water supply or pumped water is typic
ally around 90 pounds per square inch (620 kPa).
Inline pump controllers or pressure-sensitive pumps.[9]
Design
Scaling
No matter what shape it takes, the minimum mass of a pressure vessel scales with
the pressure and volume it contains and is inversely proportional to the streng
th to weight ratio of the construction material (minimum mass decreases as stren
gth increases[10]).
Scaling of stress in walls of vessel
Pressure vessels are held together against the gas pressure due to tensile force
s within the walls of the container. The normal (tensile) stress in the walls of
the container is proportional to the pressure and radius of the vessel and inve
rsely proportional to the thickness of the walls.[11] Therefore, pressure vessel
s are designed to have a thickness proportional to the radius of tank and the pr
essure of the tank and inversely proportional to the maximum allowed normal stre
ss of the particular material used in the walls of the container.
Because (for a given pressure) the thickness of the walls scales with the radius
of the tank, the mass of a tank (which scales as the length times radius times

thickness of the wall for a cylindrical tank) scales with the volume of the gas
held (which scales as length times radius squared). The exact formula varies wit
h the tank shape but depends on the density, ?, and maximum allowable stress s o
f the material in addition to the pressure P and volume V of the vessel. (See be
low for the exact equations for the stress in the walls.)
Spherical vessel
For a sphere, the minimum mass of a pressure vessel is
M = 3 2 P V ? s {\displaystyle M={3 \over 2}PV{\rho \over \sigma }} M={3 \ov
er 2}PV{\rho \over \sigma },
where:
M {\displaystyle
P {\displaystyle
ssure),
V {\displaystyle
? {\displaystyle
s {\displaystyle
can tolerate.[12]

M} M is mass,
P} P is the pressure difference from ambient (the gauge pre
V} V is volume,
\rho } \rho is the density of the pressure vessel material,
\sigma } \sigma is the maximum working stress that material

Other shapes besides a sphere have constants larger than 3/2 (infinite cylinders
take 2), although some tanks, such as non-spherical wound composite tanks can a
pproach this.
Cylindrical vessel with hemispherical ends
This is sometimes called a "bullet"[citation needed] for its shape, although in
geometric terms it is a capsule.
For a cylinder with hemispherical ends,
M = 2 p R 2 ( R + W ) P ? s {\displaystyle M=2\pi R^{2}(R+W)P{\rho \over \si
gma }} M=2\pi R^{2}(R+W)P{\rho \over \sigma },
where
R is the radius
W is the middle cylinder width only, and the overall width is W + 2R
Cylindrical vessel with semi-elliptical ends
In a vessel with an aspect ratio of middle cylinder width to radius of 2:1,
M = 6 p R 3 P ? s {\displaystyle M=6\pi R^{3}P{\rho \over \sigma }} M=6\pi R
^{3}P{\rho \over \sigma }.
Gas storage
In looking at the first equation, the factor PV, in SI units, is in units of (pr
essurization) energy. For a stored gas, PV is proportional to the mass of gas at
a given temperature, thus
M = 3 2 n R T ? s {\displaystyle M={3 \over 2}nRT{\rho \over \sigma }} M={3
\over 2}nRT{\rho \over \sigma }. (see gas law)
The other factors are constant for a given vessel shape and material. So we can
see that there is no theoretical "efficiency of scale", in terms of the ratio of
pressure vessel mass to pressurization energy, or of pressure vessel mass to st
ored gas mass. For storing gases, "tankage efficiency" is independent of pressur

e, at least for the same temperature.


So, for example, a typical design for a minimum mass tank to hold helium (as a p
ressurant gas) on a rocket would use a spherical chamber for a minimum shape con
stant, carbon fiber for best possible ? / s {\displaystyle \rho /\sigma } \rho /
\sigma , and very cold helium for best possible M / p V {\displaystyle M/{pV}} M
/{pV}.
Stress in thin-walled pressure vessels
Stress in a shallow-walled pressure vessel in the shape of a sphere is
s ? = s l o n g = p r 2 t {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }=\sigma _{\rm {lon
g}}={\frac {pr}{2t}}} \sigma _{\theta }=\sigma _{{{\rm {long}}}}={\frac {pr}{2t}
},
where s ? {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }} \sigma _{\theta } is hoop stress, or
stress in the circumferential direction, s l o n g {\displaystyle \sigma _{long
}} \sigma _{{long}} is stress in the longitudinal direction, p is internal gauge
pressure, r is the inner radius of the sphere, and t is thickness of the sphere
wall. A vessel can be considered "shallow-walled" if the diameter is at least 1
0 times (sometimes cited as 20 times) greater than the wall depth.[13]
Stress in the cylinder body of a pressure vessel.
Stress in a shallow-walled pressure vessel in the shape of a cylinder is
s ? = p r t {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }={\frac {pr}{t}}} \sigma _{\thet
a }={\frac {pr}{t}},
s l o n g = p r 2 t {\displaystyle \sigma _{\rm {long}}={\frac {pr}{2t}}} \s
igma _{{{\rm {long}}}}={\frac {pr}{2t}},
where:
s ? {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }} \sigma _{\theta } is hoop stress, or s
tress in the circumferential direction
s l o n g {\displaystyle \sigma _{long}} \sigma _{{long}} is stress in the l
ongitudinal direction
p is internal gauge pressure
r is the inner radius of the cylinder
t is thickness of the cylinder wall.
Almost all pressure vessel design standards contain variations of these two form
ulas with additional empirical terms to account for wall thickness tolerances, q
uality control of welds and in-service corrosion allowances.
For example, the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (BPVC) (UG-27) formulas ar
e:[14]
Spherical shells:
s ? = s l o n g = p ( r + 0.2 t ) 2 t E {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }=\si
gma _{\rm {long}}={\frac {p(r+0.2t)}{2tE}}} \sigma _{\theta }=\sigma _{{{\rm {lo
ng}}}}={\frac {p(r+0.2t)}{2tE}}
Cylindrical shells:
s ? = p ( r + 0.6 t ) t E {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }={\frac {p(r+0.6t)
}{tE}}} \sigma _{\theta }={\frac {p(r+0.6t)}{tE}}
s l o n g = p ( r - 0.4 t ) 2 t E {\displaystyle \sigma _{\rm {long}}={\frac
{p(r-0.4t)}{2tE}}} \sigma _{{{\rm {long}}}}={\frac {p(r-0.4t)}{2tE}}

where E is the joint efficient, and all others variables as stated above.
The factor of safety is often included in these formulas as well, in the case of
the ASME BPVC this term is included in the material stress value when solving f
or pressure or thickness.
Winding angle of carbon fibre vessels
Wound infinite cylindrical shapes optimally take a winding angle of 54.7 degrees
, as this gives the necessary twice the strength in the circumferential directio
n to the longitudinal.[15]
Operation standards
Pressure vessels are designed to operate safely at a specific pressure and tempe
rature, technically referred to as the "Design Pressure" and "Design Temperature
". A vessel that is inadequately designed to handle a high pressure constitutes
a very significant safety hazard. Because of that, the design and certification
of pressure vessels is governed by design codes such as the ASME Boiler and Pres
sure Vessel Code in North America, the Pressure Equipment Directive of the EU (P
ED), Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS), CSA B51 in Canada, Australian Standards
in Australia and other international standards like Lloyd's, Germanischer Lloyd
, Det Norske Veritas, Socit Gnrale de Surveillance (SGS S.A.), Lloyd s Register Energy
Nederland (formerly known as Stoomwezen) etc.
Note that where the pressure-volume product is part of a safety standard, any in
compressible liquid in the vessel can be excluded as it does not contribute to t
he potential energy stored in the vessel, so only the volume of the compressible
part such as gas is used.
List of standards
EN 13445: The current European Standard, harmonized with the Pressure Equipm
ent Directive (97/23/EC). Extensively used in Europe.
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section VIII: Rules for Construction of
Pressure Vessels.
BS 5500: Former British Standard, replaced in the UK by BS EN 13445 but reta
ined under the name PD 5500 for the design and construction of export equipment.
AD Merkbltter: German standard, harmonized with the Pressure Equipment Direct
ive.
EN 286 (Parts 1 to 4): European standard for simple pressure vessels (air ta
nks), harmonized with Council Directive 87/404/EEC.
BS 4994: Specification for design and construction of vessels and tanks in r
einforced plastics.
ASME PVHO: US standard for Pressure Vessels for Human Occupancy.
CODAP: French Code for Construction of Unfired Pressure Vessel.
AS/NZS 1200: Pressure equipment.[16]
AS/NZS 3788:2006[17]
API 510.[18]
ISO 11439: Compressed natural gas (CNG) cylinders[19]
IS 2825-1969 (RE1977)_code_unfired_Pressure_vessels.
FRP tanks and vessels.
AIAA S-080-1998: AIAA Standard for Space Systems - Metallic Pressure Vessels
, Pressurized Structures, and Pressure Components.
AIAA S-081A-2006: AIAA Standard for Space Systems - Composite Overwrapped Pr
essure Vessels (COPVs).
B51-09 Canadian Boiler, pressure vessel, and pressure piping code.
HSE guidelines for pressure systems.
Stoomwezen: Former pressure vessels code in the Netherlands, also known as R
ToD: Regels voor Toestellen onder Druk (Dutch Rules for Pressure Vessels).
See also

American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)


Bottled gas
Composite overwrapped pressure vessel
Compressed air energy storage
Compressed natural gas
Demister
Fire-tube boiler
Gas cylinder
Gasket
Head (vessel)
Minimum Design Metal Temperature (MDMT)
Pressure bomb - a device for measuring leaf water potentials
Rainwater harvesting
Relief valve
Safety valve
Shell and tube heat exchanger
Vapor-Liquid Separator or Knock-Out Drum
Vortex breaker
Water well
Water-tube boiler
Notes
Nilsen, Kyle. (2011) "Development of low pressure filter testing vessel and anal
ysis of electrospun nanofiber membranes for water treatment"
Ingenious Coal-Gas Motor Tank, Popular Science monthly, January 1919, page 27, S
canned by Google Books: https://books.google.com/books?id=HykDAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA13
Hearn, E.J. (1997). Mechanics of Materials 1. An Introduction to the Mechanics o
f Elastic and Plastic Deformation of Solids and Structural Materials - Third Edi
tion. Chapter 9: Butterworth-Heinemann. pp. 199 203. ISBN 0-7506-3265-8.
NASA Tech Briefs, "Making a Metal-Lined Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessel",
1 Mar 2005.
Frietas, O., "Maintenance and Repair of Glass-Lined Equipment", Chemical Enginee
ring, 1 Jul 2007.
"High Pressure Vessels",D. Freyer and J. Harvey, 1998
ANSI/AIAA S-080-1998, Space Systems - Metallic Pressure Vessels, Pressurized Str
uctures, and Pressure Components, 5.1
Pushard, Doug (2005). "Domestic water collection systems also sometimes able to
function on gravity". Harvesth2o.com. Retrieved 2009-04-17.[verification needed]
Pushard, Doug. "Alternatives to pressure vessels in domestic water systems". Har
vesth2o.com. Retrieved 2009-04-17.
Puskarich, Paul (2009-05-01). "Strengthened Glass for Pipleine Systems" (PDF). M
IT. Retrieved 2009-04-17.
Beer, Ferdinand P.; Johnston, Jr., E. Russel; DeWolf, John T. "7.9". Mechanics o
f Materials (fourth ed.). McGraw-Hill. p. 463. ISBN 9780073659350.
For a sphere the thickness d = rP/2s, where r is the radius of the tank. The vol
ume of the spherical surface then is 4pr2d = 4pr3P/2s. The mass is determined by
multiplying by the density of the material that makes up the walls of the spher
ical vessel. Further the volume of the gas is (4pr3)/3. Combining these equation
s give the above results. The equations for the other geometries are derived in
a similar manner
Richard Budynas, J. Nisbett, Shigley's Mechanical Engineering Design, 8th ed., N
ew York:McGraw-Hill, ISBN 978-0-07-312193-2, pg 108
An International Code 2007 ASME Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code. The Americal Soci
ety of Mechanical Engineers. 2007.
MIT pressure vessel lecture
"AS 1200 Pressure Vessels". SAI Global. Retrieved 14 November 2011.
"AS_NZS 3788: 2006 Pressure equipment - In-service inspection". SAI Global. Retr
ieved September 4, 2015.
"Pressure Vessel Inspection Code: In-Service Inspection, Rating, Repair, and Alt

eration". API. June 2006.


."Gas cylinders - High pressure cylinders for the on-board storage of natura
l gas as a fuel for automotive vehicles". ISO. 2006-07-18. Retrieved 2009-04-17.
References
A.C. Ugural, S.K. Fenster, Advanced Strength and Applied Elasticity, 4th ed.
E.P. Popov, Engineering Mechanics of Solids, 1st ed.
Megyesy, Eugene F. "Pressure Vessel Handbook, 14th Edition." PV Publishing,
Inc. Oklahoma City, OK
Further reading
Megyesy, Eugene F. (2008, 14th ed.) Pressure Vessel Handbook. PV Publishing,
Inc.: Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA. www.pressurevesselhandbook.com Design handb
ook for pressure vessels based on the ASME code.
External links
Look up pressure vessel in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Pressure vessel.
Use of pressure vessels in oil and gas industry
Basic formulas for thin walled pressure vessels; with examples
Educational Excel spreadsheets for ASME head, shell and nozzle designs
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel website
Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology
EU Pressure Equipment Directive website
EU Simple Pressure Vessel Directive
EU Classification
Pressure Vessel attachments http://oakridgebellows.com/metal-expansion-joint
s/technical-videos/lugs-on-pipe-and-vessels-new
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Pressure vessel
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Horizontal pressure vessel in steel
A pressure vessel is a container designed to hold gases or liquids at a pressure
substantially different from the ambient pressure.
The pressure differential is dangerous, and fatal accidents have occurred in the
history of pressure vessel development and operation. Consequently, pressure ve
ssel design, manufacture, and operation are regulated by engineering authorities
backed by legislation. For these reasons, the definition of a pressure vessel v
aries from country to country, but involves parameters such as maximum safe oper
ating pressure and temperature, and are engineered with a safety factor, corrosi
on allowance, minimum design temperature (for brittle fracture), and involve non
destructive testing, such as ultrasonic testing, radiography, and pressure tests
, usually involving water, also known as a hydrotest, but could be pneumatically
tested involving air or another gas. The preferred test is hydrostatic testing
because it's a much safer method of testing as it releases much less energy if f
racture were to occur (water does not rapidly increase its volume while rapid de

pressurization occurs, unlike gases like air, i.e. gasses fail explosively). In
the United States, as with many other countries, it is the law that vessels over
a certain size and pressure (15 PSIg) be built to Code, in the United States th
at Code is the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (BPVC), these vessels also r
equire an Authorized Inspector to sign off on every new vessel constructed and e
ach vessel has a nameplate with pertinent information about the vessel such as m
aximum allowable working pressure, maximum temperature, minimum design metal tem
perature, what company manufactured it, the date, its registration number (throu
gh the National Board), and ASME's official stamp for pressure vessels (U-stamp)
, making the vessel traceable and officially an ASME Code vessel.
Contents
1 History of pressure vessels
2 Pressure vessel features
2.1 Shape of a pressure vessel
2.2 Construction materials
2.3 Safety features
2.3.1 Leak before burst
2.3.2 Safety valves
2.4 Maintenance features
2.4.1 Pressure vessel closures
3 Uses
4 Alternatives to pressure vessels
5 Design
5.1 Scaling
5.1.1 Scaling of stress in walls of vessel
5.1.2 Spherical vessel
5.1.3 Cylindrical vessel with hemispherical ends
5.1.4 Cylindrical vessel with semi-elliptical ends
5.1.5 Gas storage
5.2 Stress in thin-walled pressure vessels
5.3 Winding angle of carbon fibre vessels
5.4 Operation standards
5.4.1 List of standards
6 See also
7 Notes
8 References
9 Further reading
10 External links
History of pressure vessels
A 10,000 psi (69 MPa) pressure vessel from 1919, wrapped with high tensile steel
banding and steel rods to secure the end caps.
The earliest documented design of pressure vessels is described in the book Code
x Madrid I, by Leonardo da Vinci, in 1495, where containers of pressurized air w
ere theorized to lift heavy weights underwater,[1] however vessels resembling wh
at are used today did not come about until the 1800s where steam was generated i
n boilers helping to spur the industrial revolution.[1] However, with poor mater
ial quality and manufacturing techniques along with improper knowledge of design
, operation and maintenance there was a large number of damaging and often fatal
explosions associated with these boilers and pressure vessels, with a death occ
urring on a nearly daily basis in the United States.[1] Local providences and st
ates in the US began enacting rules for constructing these vessels after some pa
rticularly devastating vessel failures occurred killing dozens of people at a ti
me, which made it difficult for manufacturers to keep up with the varied rules f
rom one location to another and the first pressure vessel code was developed sta
rting in 1911 and released in 1914, starting the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel
Code (BPVC).[1] In an early effort to design a tank capable of withstanding pre

ssures up to 10,000 psi (69 MPa), a 6-inch (150 mm) diameter tank was developed
in 1919 that was spirally-wound with two layers of high tensile strength steel w
ire to prevent sidewall rupture, and the end caps longitudinally reinforced with
lengthwise high-tensile rods.[2] The need for high pressure and temperature ves
sels for petroleum refineries and chemical plants gave rise to vessels joined wi
th welding instead of rivets (which were unsuitable for the pressures and temper
atures required) and in 1920s and 1930s the BPVC included welding as an acceptab
le means of construction, and welding is the main means of joining metal vessels
today.[1]
There have been many advancements in the field of pressure vessel engineering su
ch as advanced non-destructive examination, phased array ultrasonic testing and
radiography, new material grades with increased corrosion resistance and stronge
r materials, and new ways to join materials such as explosion welding (to attach
one metal sheet to another, usually a thin corrosion resistant metal like stain
less steel to a stronger metal like carbon steel), friction stir welding (which
attaches the metals together without melting the metal), advanced theories and m
eans of more accurately assessing the stresses encountered in vessels such as wi
th the use of Finite Element Analysis, allowing the vessels to be built safer an
d more efficiently. Today vessels in the USA require BPVC stamping but the BPVC
is not just a domestic code, many other countries have adopted the BPVC as their
official code. There are, however, other official codes in some countries (some
of which rely on portions of and reference the BPVC), Japan, Australia, Canada,
Britain, and Europe have their own codes. Regardless of the country nearly all
recognize the inherent potential hazards of pressure vessels and the need for st
andards and codes regulating their design and construction.
Pressure vessel features
Shape of a pressure vessel
Pressure vessels can theoretically be almost any
ons of spheres, cylinders, and cones are usually
cylinder with end caps called heads. Head shapes
ical or dished (torispherical). More complicated
uch harder to analyze for safe operation and are
onstruct.

shape, but shapes made of secti


employed. A common design is a
are frequently either hemispher
shapes have historically been m
usually far more difficult to c

Spherical gas container.


Cylindrical pressure vessel.
Picture of the bottom of an aerosol spray can.
Fire Extinguisher with rounded rectangle pressure vessel
Theoretically, a spherical pressure vessel has approximately twice the strength
of a cylindrical pressure vessel with the same wall thickness,[3] and is the ide
al shape to hold internal pressure.[1] However, a spherical shape is difficult t
o manufacture, and therefore more expensive, so most pressure vessels are cylind
rical with 2:1 semi-elliptical heads or end caps on each end. Smaller pressure v
essels are assembled from a pipe and two covers. For cylindrical vessels with a
diameter up to 600 mm (NPS of 24 in), it is possible to use seamless pipe for th
e shell, thus avoiding many inspection and testing issues, mainly the nondestruc
tive examination of radiography for the long seam if required. A disadvantage of
these vessels is that greater diameters are more expensive, so that for example
the most economic shape of a 1,000 litres (35 cu ft), 250 bars (3,600 psi) pres
sure vessel might be a diameter of 91.44 centimetres (36 in) and a length of 1.7
018 metres (67 in) including the 2:1 semi-elliptical domed end caps.
Construction materials
Composite overwrapped pressure vessel with titanium liner.

Many pressure vessels are made of steel. To manufacture a cylindrical or spheric


al pressure vessel, rolled and possibly forged parts would have to be welded tog
ether. Some mechanical properties of steel, achieved by rolling or forging, coul
d be adversely affected by welding, unless special precautions are taken. In add
ition to adequate mechanical strength, current standards dictate the use of stee
l with a high impact resistance, especially for vessels used in low temperatures
. In applications where carbon steel would suffer corrosion, special corrosion r
esistant material should also be used.
Some pressure vessels are made of composite materials, such as filament wound co
mposite using carbon fibre held in place with a polymer. Due to the very high te
nsile strength of carbon fibre these vessels can be very light, but are much mor
e difficult to manufacture. The composite material may be wound around a metal l
iner, forming a composite overwrapped pressure vessel.
Other very common materials include polymers such as PET in carbonated beverage
containers and copper in plumbing.
Pressure vessels may be lined with various metals, ceramics, or polymers to prev
ent leaking and protect the structure of the vessel from the contained medium. T
his liner may also carry a significant portion of the pressure load.[4][5]
Pressure Vessels may also be constructed from concrete (PCV) or other materials
which are weak in tension. Cabling, wrapped around the vessel or within the wall
or the vessel itself, provides the necessary tension to resist the internal pre
ssure. A "leakproof steel thin membrane" lines the internal wall of the vessel.
Such vessels can be assembled from modular pieces and so have "no inherent size
limitations".[6] There is also a high order of redundancy thanks to the large nu
mber of individual cables resisting the internal pressure.
Safety features
Leak before burst
Leak before burst describes a pressure vessel designed such that a crack in the
vessel will grow through the wall, allowing the contained fluid to escape and re
ducing the pressure, prior to growing so large as to cause fracture at the opera
ting pressure.
Many pressure vessel standards, including the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Co
de[citation needed] and the AIAA metallic pressure vessel standard, either requi
re pressure vessel designs to be leak before burst, or require pressure vessels
to meet more stringent requirements for fatigue and fracture if they are not sho
wn to be leak before burst.[7]
Safety valves
Example of a valve used for gas cylinders.
As the pressure vessel is designed to a pressure, there is typically a safety va
lve or relief valve to ensure that this pressure is not exceeded in operation.
Maintenance features
Pressure vessel closures
Pressure vessel closures are pressure retaining structures designed to provide q
uick access to pipelines, pressure vessels, pig traps, filters and filtration sy
stems. Typically pressure vessel closures allow maintenance personnel.
Uses
Pressure vessels are used in a variety of applications in both industry and the
private sector. They appear in these sectors as industrial compressed air receiv
ers and domestic hot water storage tanks. Other examples of pressure vessels are
diving cylinders, recompression chambers, distillation towers, pressure reactor
s, autoclaves, and many other vessels in mining operations, oil refineries and p

etrochemical plants, nuclear reactor vessels, submarine and space ship habitats,
pneumatic reservoirs, hydraulic reservoirs under pressure, rail vehicle airbrak
e reservoirs, road vehicle airbrake reservoirs, and storage vessels for liquifie
d gases such as ammonia, chlorine, and LPG (propane, butane).
A unique application of a pressure vessel is the passenger cabin of an airliner;
The outer skin carries both the aircraft maneuvering loads and the cabin pressu
rization loads.
A pressure tank connected to a water well and domestic hot water system.
A few pressure tanks, here used to hold propane.
An expansion vessel for heating systems.
A pressure vessel used as a kier.
A pressure vessel used for The Boeing Company s CST-100 spacecraft.
Alternatives to pressure vessels
Natural gas storage
Gas holder
Depending on the application and local circumstances, alternatives to pressure v
essels exist. Examples can be seen in domestic water collection systems, where t
he following may be used:
Gravity controlled systems[8] which typically consist of an unpressurized wa
ter tank at an elevation higher than the point of use. Pressure at the point of
use is the result of the hydrostatic pressure caused by the elevation difference
. Gravity systems produce 0.43 pounds per square inch (3.0 kPa) per foot of wate
r head (elevation difference). A municipal water supply or pumped water is typic
ally around 90 pounds per square inch (620 kPa).
Inline pump controllers or pressure-sensitive pumps.[9]
Design
Scaling
No matter what shape it takes, the minimum mass of a pressure vessel scales with
the pressure and volume it contains and is inversely proportional to the streng
th to weight ratio of the construction material (minimum mass decreases as stren
gth increases[10]).
Scaling of stress in walls of vessel
Pressure vessels are held together against the gas pressure due to tensile force
s within the walls of the container. The normal (tensile) stress in the walls of
the container is proportional to the pressure and radius of the vessel and inve
rsely proportional to the thickness of the walls.[11] Therefore, pressure vessel
s are designed to have a thickness proportional to the radius of tank and the pr
essure of the tank and inversely proportional to the maximum allowed normal stre
ss of the particular material used in the walls of the container.
Because (for a given pressure) the thickness of the walls scales with the radius
of the tank, the mass of a tank (which scales as the length times radius times
thickness of the wall for a cylindrical tank) scales with the volume of the gas
held (which scales as length times radius squared). The exact formula varies wit
h the tank shape but depends on the density, ?, and maximum allowable stress s o
f the material in addition to the pressure P and volume V of the vessel. (See be
low for the exact equations for the stress in the walls.)

Spherical vessel
For a sphere, the minimum mass of a pressure vessel is
M = 3 2 P V ? s {\displaystyle M={3 \over 2}PV{\rho \over \sigma }} M={3 \ov
er 2}PV{\rho \over \sigma },
where:
M {\displaystyle
P {\displaystyle
ssure),
V {\displaystyle
? {\displaystyle
s {\displaystyle
can tolerate.[12]

M} M is mass,
P} P is the pressure difference from ambient (the gauge pre
V} V is volume,
\rho } \rho is the density of the pressure vessel material,
\sigma } \sigma is the maximum working stress that material

Other shapes besides a sphere have constants larger than 3/2 (infinite cylinders
take 2), although some tanks, such as non-spherical wound composite tanks can a
pproach this.
Cylindrical vessel with hemispherical ends
This is sometimes called a "bullet"[citation needed] for its shape, although in
geometric terms it is a capsule.
For a cylinder with hemispherical ends,
M = 2 p R 2 ( R + W ) P ? s {\displaystyle M=2\pi R^{2}(R+W)P{\rho \over \si
gma }} M=2\pi R^{2}(R+W)P{\rho \over \sigma },
where
R is the radius
W is the middle cylinder width only, and the overall width is W + 2R
Cylindrical vessel with semi-elliptical ends
In a vessel with an aspect ratio of middle cylinder width to radius of 2:1,
M = 6 p R 3 P ? s {\displaystyle M=6\pi R^{3}P{\rho \over \sigma }} M=6\pi R
^{3}P{\rho \over \sigma }.
Gas storage
In looking at the first equation, the factor PV, in SI units, is in units of (pr
essurization) energy. For a stored gas, PV is proportional to the mass of gas at
a given temperature, thus
M = 3 2 n R T ? s {\displaystyle M={3 \over 2}nRT{\rho \over \sigma }} M={3
\over 2}nRT{\rho \over \sigma }. (see gas law)
The other factors are constant for a given vessel shape and material. So we can
see that there is no theoretical "efficiency of scale", in terms of the ratio of
pressure vessel mass to pressurization energy, or of pressure vessel mass to st
ored gas mass. For storing gases, "tankage efficiency" is independent of pressur
e, at least for the same temperature.
So, for example, a typical design for a minimum mass tank to hold helium (as a p
ressurant gas) on a rocket would use a spherical chamber for a minimum shape con
stant, carbon fiber for best possible ? / s {\displaystyle \rho /\sigma } \rho /

\sigma , and very cold helium for best possible M / p V {\displaystyle M/{pV}} M
/{pV}.
Stress in thin-walled pressure vessels
Stress in a shallow-walled pressure vessel in the shape of a sphere is
s ? = s l o n g = p r 2 t {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }=\sigma _{\rm {lon
g}}={\frac {pr}{2t}}} \sigma _{\theta }=\sigma _{{{\rm {long}}}}={\frac {pr}{2t}
},
where s ? {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }} \sigma _{\theta } is hoop stress, or
stress in the circumferential direction, s l o n g {\displaystyle \sigma _{long
}} \sigma _{{long}} is stress in the longitudinal direction, p is internal gauge
pressure, r is the inner radius of the sphere, and t is thickness of the sphere
wall. A vessel can be considered "shallow-walled" if the diameter is at least 1
0 times (sometimes cited as 20 times) greater than the wall depth.[13]
Stress in the cylinder body of a pressure vessel.
Stress in a shallow-walled pressure vessel in the shape of a cylinder is
s ? = p r t {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }={\frac {pr}{t}}} \sigma _{\thet
a }={\frac {pr}{t}},
s l o n g = p r 2 t {\displaystyle \sigma _{\rm {long}}={\frac {pr}{2t}}} \s
igma _{{{\rm {long}}}}={\frac {pr}{2t}},
where:
s ? {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }} \sigma _{\theta } is hoop stress, or s
tress in the circumferential direction
s l o n g {\displaystyle \sigma _{long}} \sigma _{{long}} is stress in the l
ongitudinal direction
p is internal gauge pressure
r is the inner radius of the cylinder
t is thickness of the cylinder wall.
Almost all pressure vessel design standards contain variations of these two form
ulas with additional empirical terms to account for wall thickness tolerances, q
uality control of welds and in-service corrosion allowances.
For example, the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (BPVC) (UG-27) formulas ar
e:[14]
Spherical shells:
s ? = s l o n g = p ( r + 0.2 t ) 2 t E {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }=\si
gma _{\rm {long}}={\frac {p(r+0.2t)}{2tE}}} \sigma _{\theta }=\sigma _{{{\rm {lo
ng}}}}={\frac {p(r+0.2t)}{2tE}}
Cylindrical shells:
s ? = p ( r + 0.6 t ) t E {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }={\frac {p(r+0.6t)
}{tE}}} \sigma _{\theta }={\frac {p(r+0.6t)}{tE}}
s l o n g = p ( r - 0.4 t ) 2 t E {\displaystyle \sigma _{\rm {long}}={\frac
{p(r-0.4t)}{2tE}}} \sigma _{{{\rm {long}}}}={\frac {p(r-0.4t)}{2tE}}
where E is the joint efficient, and all others variables as stated above.
The factor of safety is often included in these formulas as well, in the case of
the ASME BPVC this term is included in the material stress value when solving f
or pressure or thickness.

Winding angle of carbon fibre vessels


Wound infinite cylindrical shapes optimally take a winding angle of 54.7 degrees
, as this gives the necessary twice the strength in the circumferential directio
n to the longitudinal.[15]
Operation standards
Pressure vessels are designed to operate safely at a specific pressure and tempe
rature, technically referred to as the "Design Pressure" and "Design Temperature
". A vessel that is inadequately designed to handle a high pressure constitutes
a very significant safety hazard. Because of that, the design and certification
of pressure vessels is governed by design codes such as the ASME Boiler and Pres
sure Vessel Code in North America, the Pressure Equipment Directive of the EU (P
ED), Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS), CSA B51 in Canada, Australian Standards
in Australia and other international standards like Lloyd's, Germanischer Lloyd
, Det Norske Veritas, Socit Gnrale de Surveillance (SGS S.A.), Lloyd s Register Energy
Nederland (formerly known as Stoomwezen) etc.
Note that where the pressure-volume product is part of a safety standard, any in
compressible liquid in the vessel can be excluded as it does not contribute to t
he potential energy stored in the vessel, so only the volume of the compressible
part such as gas is used.
List of standards
EN 13445: The current European Standard, harmonized with the Pressure Equipm
ent Directive (97/23/EC). Extensively used in Europe.
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section VIII: Rules for Construction of
Pressure Vessels.
BS 5500: Former British Standard, replaced in the UK by BS EN 13445 but reta
ined under the name PD 5500 for the design and construction of export equipment.
AD Merkbltter: German standard, harmonized with the Pressure Equipment Direct
ive.
EN 286 (Parts 1 to 4): European standard for simple pressure vessels (air ta
nks), harmonized with Council Directive 87/404/EEC.
BS 4994: Specification for design and construction of vessels and tanks in r
einforced plastics.
ASME PVHO: US standard for Pressure Vessels for Human Occupancy.
CODAP: French Code for Construction of Unfired Pressure Vessel.
AS/NZS 1200: Pressure equipment.[16]
AS/NZS 3788:2006[17]
API 510.[18]
ISO 11439: Compressed natural gas (CNG) cylinders[19]
IS 2825-1969 (RE1977)_code_unfired_Pressure_vessels.
FRP tanks and vessels.
AIAA S-080-1998: AIAA Standard for Space Systems - Metallic Pressure Vessels
, Pressurized Structures, and Pressure Components.
AIAA S-081A-2006: AIAA Standard for Space Systems - Composite Overwrapped Pr
essure Vessels (COPVs).
B51-09 Canadian Boiler, pressure vessel, and pressure piping code.
HSE guidelines for pressure systems.
Stoomwezen: Former pressure vessels code in the Netherlands, also known as R
ToD: Regels voor Toestellen onder Druk (Dutch Rules for Pressure Vessels).
See also
American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)
Bottled gas
Composite overwrapped pressure vessel
Compressed air energy storage
Compressed natural gas

Demister
Fire-tube boiler
Gas cylinder
Gasket
Head (vessel)
Minimum Design Metal Temperature (MDMT)
Pressure bomb - a device for measuring leaf water potentials
Rainwater harvesting
Relief valve
Safety valve
Shell and tube heat exchanger
Vapor-Liquid Separator or Knock-Out Drum
Vortex breaker
Water well
Water-tube boiler
Notes
Nilsen, Kyle. (2011) "Development of low pressure filter testing vessel and anal
ysis of electrospun nanofiber membranes for water treatment"
Ingenious Coal-Gas Motor Tank, Popular Science monthly, January 1919, page 27, S
canned by Google Books: https://books.google.com/books?id=HykDAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA13
Hearn, E.J. (1997). Mechanics of Materials 1. An Introduction to the Mechanics o
f Elastic and Plastic Deformation of Solids and Structural Materials - Third Edi
tion. Chapter 9: Butterworth-Heinemann. pp. 199 203. ISBN 0-7506-3265-8.
NASA Tech Briefs, "Making a Metal-Lined Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessel",
1 Mar 2005.
Frietas, O., "Maintenance and Repair of Glass-Lined Equipment", Chemical Enginee
ring, 1 Jul 2007.
"High Pressure Vessels",D. Freyer and J. Harvey, 1998
ANSI/AIAA S-080-1998, Space Systems - Metallic Pressure Vessels, Pressurized Str
uctures, and Pressure Components, 5.1
Pushard, Doug (2005). "Domestic water collection systems also sometimes able to
function on gravity". Harvesth2o.com. Retrieved 2009-04-17.[verification needed]
Pushard, Doug. "Alternatives to pressure vessels in domestic water systems". Har
vesth2o.com. Retrieved 2009-04-17.
Puskarich, Paul (2009-05-01). "Strengthened Glass for Pipleine Systems" (PDF). M
IT. Retrieved 2009-04-17.
Beer, Ferdinand P.; Johnston, Jr., E. Russel; DeWolf, John T. "7.9". Mechanics o
f Materials (fourth ed.). McGraw-Hill. p. 463. ISBN 9780073659350.
For a sphere the thickness d = rP/2s, where r is the radius of the tank. The vol
ume of the spherical surface then is 4pr2d = 4pr3P/2s. The mass is determined by
multiplying by the density of the material that makes up the walls of the spher
ical vessel. Further the volume of the gas is (4pr3)/3. Combining these equation
s give the above results. The equations for the other geometries are derived in
a similar manner
Richard Budynas, J. Nisbett, Shigley's Mechanical Engineering Design, 8th ed., N
ew York:McGraw-Hill, ISBN 978-0-07-312193-2, pg 108
An International Code 2007 ASME Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code. The Americal Soci
ety of Mechanical Engineers. 2007.
MIT pressure vessel lecture
"AS 1200 Pressure Vessels". SAI Global. Retrieved 14 November 2011.
"AS_NZS 3788: 2006 Pressure equipment - In-service inspection". SAI Global. Retr
ieved September 4, 2015.
"Pressure Vessel Inspection Code: In-Service Inspection, Rating, Repair, and Alt
eration". API. June 2006.
."Gas cylinders - High pressure cylinders for the on-board storage of natura
l gas as a fuel for automotive vehicles". ISO. 2006-07-18. Retrieved 2009-04-17.

References
A.C. Ugural, S.K. Fenster, Advanced Strength and Applied Elasticity, 4th ed.
E.P. Popov, Engineering Mechanics of Solids, 1st ed.
Megyesy, Eugene F. "Pressure Vessel Handbook, 14th Edition." PV Publishing,
Inc. Oklahoma City, OK
Further reading
Megyesy, Eugene F. (2008, 14th ed.) Pressure Vessel Handbook. PV Publishing,
Inc.: Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA. www.pressurevesselhandbook.com Design handb
ook for pressure vessels based on the ASME code.
External links
Look up pressure vessel in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Pressure vessel.
Use of pressure vessels in oil and gas industry
Basic formulas for thin walled pressure vessels; with examples
Educational Excel spreadsheets for ASME head, shell and nozzle designs
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel website
Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology
EU Pressure Equipment Directive website
EU Simple Pressure Vessel Directive
EU Classification
Pressure Vessel attachments http://oakridgebellows.com/metal-expansion-joint
s/technical-videos/lugs-on-pipe-and-vessels-new
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Pressure vessel
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Horizontal pressure vessel in steel
A pressure vessel is a container designed to hold gases or liquids at a pressure
substantially different from the ambient pressure.
The pressure differential is dangerous, and fatal accidents have occurred in the
history of pressure vessel development and operation. Consequently, pressure ve
ssel design, manufacture, and operation are regulated by engineering authorities
backed by legislation. For these reasons, the definition of a pressure vessel v
aries from country to country, but involves parameters such as maximum safe oper
ating pressure and temperature, and are engineered with a safety factor, corrosi
on allowance, minimum design temperature (for brittle fracture), and involve non
destructive testing, such as ultrasonic testing, radiography, and pressure tests
, usually involving water, also known as a hydrotest, but could be pneumatically
tested involving air or another gas. The preferred test is hydrostatic testing
because it's a much safer method of testing as it releases much less energy if f
racture were to occur (water does not rapidly increase its volume while rapid de
pressurization occurs, unlike gases like air, i.e. gasses fail explosively). In
the United States, as with many other countries, it is the law that vessels over
a certain size and pressure (15 PSIg) be built to Code, in the United States th
at Code is the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (BPVC), these vessels also r
equire an Authorized Inspector to sign off on every new vessel constructed and e

ach vessel has a nameplate with pertinent information about the vessel such as m
aximum allowable working pressure, maximum temperature, minimum design metal tem
perature, what company manufactured it, the date, its registration number (throu
gh the National Board), and ASME's official stamp for pressure vessels (U-stamp)
, making the vessel traceable and officially an ASME Code vessel.
Contents
1 History of pressure vessels
2 Pressure vessel features
2.1 Shape of a pressure vessel
2.2 Construction materials
2.3 Safety features
2.3.1 Leak before burst
2.3.2 Safety valves
2.4 Maintenance features
2.4.1 Pressure vessel closures
3 Uses
4 Alternatives to pressure vessels
5 Design
5.1 Scaling
5.1.1 Scaling of stress in walls of vessel
5.1.2 Spherical vessel
5.1.3 Cylindrical vessel with hemispherical ends
5.1.4 Cylindrical vessel with semi-elliptical ends
5.1.5 Gas storage
5.2 Stress in thin-walled pressure vessels
5.3 Winding angle of carbon fibre vessels
5.4 Operation standards
5.4.1 List of standards
6 See also
7 Notes
8 References
9 Further reading
10 External links
History of pressure vessels
A 10,000 psi (69 MPa) pressure vessel from 1919, wrapped with high tensile steel
banding and steel rods to secure the end caps.
The earliest documented design of pressure vessels is described in the book Code
x Madrid I, by Leonardo da Vinci, in 1495, where containers of pressurized air w
ere theorized to lift heavy weights underwater,[1] however vessels resembling wh
at are used today did not come about until the 1800s where steam was generated i
n boilers helping to spur the industrial revolution.[1] However, with poor mater
ial quality and manufacturing techniques along with improper knowledge of design
, operation and maintenance there was a large number of damaging and often fatal
explosions associated with these boilers and pressure vessels, with a death occ
urring on a nearly daily basis in the United States.[1] Local providences and st
ates in the US began enacting rules for constructing these vessels after some pa
rticularly devastating vessel failures occurred killing dozens of people at a ti
me, which made it difficult for manufacturers to keep up with the varied rules f
rom one location to another and the first pressure vessel code was developed sta
rting in 1911 and released in 1914, starting the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel
Code (BPVC).[1] In an early effort to design a tank capable of withstanding pre
ssures up to 10,000 psi (69 MPa), a 6-inch (150 mm) diameter tank was developed
in 1919 that was spirally-wound with two layers of high tensile strength steel w
ire to prevent sidewall rupture, and the end caps longitudinally reinforced with
lengthwise high-tensile rods.[2] The need for high pressure and temperature ves
sels for petroleum refineries and chemical plants gave rise to vessels joined wi

th welding instead of rivets (which were unsuitable for the pressures and temper
atures required) and in 1920s and 1930s the BPVC included welding as an acceptab
le means of construction, and welding is the main means of joining metal vessels
today.[1]
There have been many advancements in the field of pressure vessel engineering su
ch as advanced non-destructive examination, phased array ultrasonic testing and
radiography, new material grades with increased corrosion resistance and stronge
r materials, and new ways to join materials such as explosion welding (to attach
one metal sheet to another, usually a thin corrosion resistant metal like stain
less steel to a stronger metal like carbon steel), friction stir welding (which
attaches the metals together without melting the metal), advanced theories and m
eans of more accurately assessing the stresses encountered in vessels such as wi
th the use of Finite Element Analysis, allowing the vessels to be built safer an
d more efficiently. Today vessels in the USA require BPVC stamping but the BPVC
is not just a domestic code, many other countries have adopted the BPVC as their
official code. There are, however, other official codes in some countries (some
of which rely on portions of and reference the BPVC), Japan, Australia, Canada,
Britain, and Europe have their own codes. Regardless of the country nearly all
recognize the inherent potential hazards of pressure vessels and the need for st
andards and codes regulating their design and construction.
Pressure vessel features
Shape of a pressure vessel
Pressure vessels can theoretically be almost any
ons of spheres, cylinders, and cones are usually
cylinder with end caps called heads. Head shapes
ical or dished (torispherical). More complicated
uch harder to analyze for safe operation and are
onstruct.

shape, but shapes made of secti


employed. A common design is a
are frequently either hemispher
shapes have historically been m
usually far more difficult to c

Spherical gas container.


Cylindrical pressure vessel.
Picture of the bottom of an aerosol spray can.
Fire Extinguisher with rounded rectangle pressure vessel
Theoretically, a spherical pressure vessel has approximately twice the strength
of a cylindrical pressure vessel with the same wall thickness,[3] and is the ide
al shape to hold internal pressure.[1] However, a spherical shape is difficult t
o manufacture, and therefore more expensive, so most pressure vessels are cylind
rical with 2:1 semi-elliptical heads or end caps on each end. Smaller pressure v
essels are assembled from a pipe and two covers. For cylindrical vessels with a
diameter up to 600 mm (NPS of 24 in), it is possible to use seamless pipe for th
e shell, thus avoiding many inspection and testing issues, mainly the nondestruc
tive examination of radiography for the long seam if required. A disadvantage of
these vessels is that greater diameters are more expensive, so that for example
the most economic shape of a 1,000 litres (35 cu ft), 250 bars (3,600 psi) pres
sure vessel might be a diameter of 91.44 centimetres (36 in) and a length of 1.7
018 metres (67 in) including the 2:1 semi-elliptical domed end caps.
Construction materials
Composite overwrapped pressure vessel with titanium liner.
Many pressure vessels are made of steel. To manufacture a cylindrical or spheric
al pressure vessel, rolled and possibly forged parts would have to be welded tog
ether. Some mechanical properties of steel, achieved by rolling or forging, coul
d be adversely affected by welding, unless special precautions are taken. In add
ition to adequate mechanical strength, current standards dictate the use of stee

l with a high impact resistance, especially for vessels used in low temperatures
. In applications where carbon steel would suffer corrosion, special corrosion r
esistant material should also be used.
Some pressure vessels are made of composite materials, such as filament wound co
mposite using carbon fibre held in place with a polymer. Due to the very high te
nsile strength of carbon fibre these vessels can be very light, but are much mor
e difficult to manufacture. The composite material may be wound around a metal l
iner, forming a composite overwrapped pressure vessel.
Other very common materials include polymers such as PET in carbonated beverage
containers and copper in plumbing.
Pressure vessels may be lined with various metals, ceramics, or polymers to prev
ent leaking and protect the structure of the vessel from the contained medium. T
his liner may also carry a significant portion of the pressure load.[4][5]
Pressure Vessels may also be constructed from concrete (PCV) or other materials
which are weak in tension. Cabling, wrapped around the vessel or within the wall
or the vessel itself, provides the necessary tension to resist the internal pre
ssure. A "leakproof steel thin membrane" lines the internal wall of the vessel.
Such vessels can be assembled from modular pieces and so have "no inherent size
limitations".[6] There is also a high order of redundancy thanks to the large nu
mber of individual cables resisting the internal pressure.
Safety features
Leak before burst
Leak before burst describes a pressure vessel designed such that a crack in the
vessel will grow through the wall, allowing the contained fluid to escape and re
ducing the pressure, prior to growing so large as to cause fracture at the opera
ting pressure.
Many pressure vessel standards, including the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Co
de[citation needed] and the AIAA metallic pressure vessel standard, either requi
re pressure vessel designs to be leak before burst, or require pressure vessels
to meet more stringent requirements for fatigue and fracture if they are not sho
wn to be leak before burst.[7]
Safety valves
Example of a valve used for gas cylinders.
As the pressure vessel is designed to a pressure, there is typically a safety va
lve or relief valve to ensure that this pressure is not exceeded in operation.
Maintenance features
Pressure vessel closures
Pressure vessel closures are pressure retaining structures designed to provide q
uick access to pipelines, pressure vessels, pig traps, filters and filtration sy
stems. Typically pressure vessel closures allow maintenance personnel.
Uses
Pressure vessels are used in a variety of applications in both industry and the
private sector. They appear in these sectors as industrial compressed air receiv
ers and domestic hot water storage tanks. Other examples of pressure vessels are
diving cylinders, recompression chambers, distillation towers, pressure reactor
s, autoclaves, and many other vessels in mining operations, oil refineries and p
etrochemical plants, nuclear reactor vessels, submarine and space ship habitats,
pneumatic reservoirs, hydraulic reservoirs under pressure, rail vehicle airbrak
e reservoirs, road vehicle airbrake reservoirs, and storage vessels for liquifie
d gases such as ammonia, chlorine, and LPG (propane, butane).

A unique application of a pressure vessel is the passenger cabin of an airliner;


The outer skin carries both the aircraft maneuvering loads and the cabin pressu
rization loads.
A pressure tank connected to a water well and domestic hot water system.
A few pressure tanks, here used to hold propane.
An expansion vessel for heating systems.
A pressure vessel used as a kier.
A pressure vessel used for The Boeing Company s CST-100 spacecraft.
Alternatives to pressure vessels
Natural gas storage
Gas holder
Depending on the application and local circumstances, alternatives to pressure v
essels exist. Examples can be seen in domestic water collection systems, where t
he following may be used:
Gravity controlled systems[8] which typically consist of an unpressurized wa
ter tank at an elevation higher than the point of use. Pressure at the point of
use is the result of the hydrostatic pressure caused by the elevation difference
. Gravity systems produce 0.43 pounds per square inch (3.0 kPa) per foot of wate
r head (elevation difference). A municipal water supply or pumped water is typic
ally around 90 pounds per square inch (620 kPa).
Inline pump controllers or pressure-sensitive pumps.[9]
Design
Scaling
No matter what shape it takes, the minimum mass of a pressure vessel scales with
the pressure and volume it contains and is inversely proportional to the streng
th to weight ratio of the construction material (minimum mass decreases as stren
gth increases[10]).
Scaling of stress in walls of vessel
Pressure vessels are held together against the gas pressure due to tensile force
s within the walls of the container. The normal (tensile) stress in the walls of
the container is proportional to the pressure and radius of the vessel and inve
rsely proportional to the thickness of the walls.[11] Therefore, pressure vessel
s are designed to have a thickness proportional to the radius of tank and the pr
essure of the tank and inversely proportional to the maximum allowed normal stre
ss of the particular material used in the walls of the container.
Because (for a given pressure) the thickness of the walls scales with the radius
of the tank, the mass of a tank (which scales as the length times radius times
thickness of the wall for a cylindrical tank) scales with the volume of the gas
held (which scales as length times radius squared). The exact formula varies wit
h the tank shape but depends on the density, ?, and maximum allowable stress s o
f the material in addition to the pressure P and volume V of the vessel. (See be
low for the exact equations for the stress in the walls.)
Spherical vessel
For a sphere, the minimum mass of a pressure vessel is
M = 3 2 P V ? s {\displaystyle M={3 \over 2}PV{\rho \over \sigma }} M={3 \ov

er 2}PV{\rho \over \sigma },


where:
M {\displaystyle
P {\displaystyle
ssure),
V {\displaystyle
? {\displaystyle
s {\displaystyle
can tolerate.[12]

M} M is mass,
P} P is the pressure difference from ambient (the gauge pre
V} V is volume,
\rho } \rho is the density of the pressure vessel material,
\sigma } \sigma is the maximum working stress that material

Other shapes besides a sphere have constants larger than 3/2 (infinite cylinders
take 2), although some tanks, such as non-spherical wound composite tanks can a
pproach this.
Cylindrical vessel with hemispherical ends
This is sometimes called a "bullet"[citation needed] for its shape, although in
geometric terms it is a capsule.
For a cylinder with hemispherical ends,
M = 2 p R 2 ( R + W ) P ? s {\displaystyle M=2\pi R^{2}(R+W)P{\rho \over \si
gma }} M=2\pi R^{2}(R+W)P{\rho \over \sigma },
where
R is the radius
W is the middle cylinder width only, and the overall width is W + 2R
Cylindrical vessel with semi-elliptical ends
In a vessel with an aspect ratio of middle cylinder width to radius of 2:1,
M = 6 p R 3 P ? s {\displaystyle M=6\pi R^{3}P{\rho \over \sigma }} M=6\pi R
^{3}P{\rho \over \sigma }.
Gas storage
In looking at the first equation, the factor PV, in SI units, is in units of (pr
essurization) energy. For a stored gas, PV is proportional to the mass of gas at
a given temperature, thus
M = 3 2 n R T ? s {\displaystyle M={3 \over 2}nRT{\rho \over \sigma }} M={3
\over 2}nRT{\rho \over \sigma }. (see gas law)
The other factors are constant for a given vessel shape and material. So we can
see that there is no theoretical "efficiency of scale", in terms of the ratio of
pressure vessel mass to pressurization energy, or of pressure vessel mass to st
ored gas mass. For storing gases, "tankage efficiency" is independent of pressur
e, at least for the same temperature.
So, for example, a typical design for a minimum mass tank to hold helium (as a p
ressurant gas) on a rocket would use a spherical chamber for a minimum shape con
stant, carbon fiber for best possible ? / s {\displaystyle \rho /\sigma } \rho /
\sigma , and very cold helium for best possible M / p V {\displaystyle M/{pV}} M
/{pV}.
Stress in thin-walled pressure vessels
Stress in a shallow-walled pressure vessel in the shape of a sphere is

s ? = s l o n g = p r 2 t {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }=\sigma _{\rm {lon


g}}={\frac {pr}{2t}}} \sigma _{\theta }=\sigma _{{{\rm {long}}}}={\frac {pr}{2t}
},
where s ? {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }} \sigma _{\theta } is hoop stress, or
stress in the circumferential direction, s l o n g {\displaystyle \sigma _{long
}} \sigma _{{long}} is stress in the longitudinal direction, p is internal gauge
pressure, r is the inner radius of the sphere, and t is thickness of the sphere
wall. A vessel can be considered "shallow-walled" if the diameter is at least 1
0 times (sometimes cited as 20 times) greater than the wall depth.[13]
Stress in the cylinder body of a pressure vessel.
Stress in a shallow-walled pressure vessel in the shape of a cylinder is
s ? = p r t {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }={\frac {pr}{t}}} \sigma _{\thet
a }={\frac {pr}{t}},
s l o n g = p r 2 t {\displaystyle \sigma _{\rm {long}}={\frac {pr}{2t}}} \s
igma _{{{\rm {long}}}}={\frac {pr}{2t}},
where:
s ? {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }} \sigma _{\theta } is hoop stress, or s
tress in the circumferential direction
s l o n g {\displaystyle \sigma _{long}} \sigma _{{long}} is stress in the l
ongitudinal direction
p is internal gauge pressure
r is the inner radius of the cylinder
t is thickness of the cylinder wall.
Almost all pressure vessel design standards contain variations of these two form
ulas with additional empirical terms to account for wall thickness tolerances, q
uality control of welds and in-service corrosion allowances.
For example, the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (BPVC) (UG-27) formulas ar
e:[14]
Spherical shells:
s ? = s l o n g = p ( r + 0.2 t ) 2 t E {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }=\si
gma _{\rm {long}}={\frac {p(r+0.2t)}{2tE}}} \sigma _{\theta }=\sigma _{{{\rm {lo
ng}}}}={\frac {p(r+0.2t)}{2tE}}
Cylindrical shells:
s ? = p ( r + 0.6 t ) t E {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }={\frac {p(r+0.6t)
}{tE}}} \sigma _{\theta }={\frac {p(r+0.6t)}{tE}}
s l o n g = p ( r - 0.4 t ) 2 t E {\displaystyle \sigma _{\rm {long}}={\frac
{p(r-0.4t)}{2tE}}} \sigma _{{{\rm {long}}}}={\frac {p(r-0.4t)}{2tE}}
where E is the joint efficient, and all others variables as stated above.
The factor of safety is often included in these formulas as well, in the case of
the ASME BPVC this term is included in the material stress value when solving f
or pressure or thickness.
Winding angle of carbon fibre vessels
Wound infinite cylindrical shapes optimally take a winding angle of 54.7 degrees
, as this gives the necessary twice the strength in the circumferential directio
n to the longitudinal.[15]

Operation standards
Pressure vessels are designed to operate safely at a specific pressure and tempe
rature, technically referred to as the "Design Pressure" and "Design Temperature
". A vessel that is inadequately designed to handle a high pressure constitutes
a very significant safety hazard. Because of that, the design and certification
of pressure vessels is governed by design codes such as the ASME Boiler and Pres
sure Vessel Code in North America, the Pressure Equipment Directive of the EU (P
ED), Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS), CSA B51 in Canada, Australian Standards
in Australia and other international standards like Lloyd's, Germanischer Lloyd
, Det Norske Veritas, Socit Gnrale de Surveillance (SGS S.A.), Lloyd s Register Energy
Nederland (formerly known as Stoomwezen) etc.
Note that where the pressure-volume product is part of a safety standard, any in
compressible liquid in the vessel can be excluded as it does not contribute to t
he potential energy stored in the vessel, so only the volume of the compressible
part such as gas is used.
List of standards
EN 13445: The current European Standard, harmonized with the Pressure Equipm
ent Directive (97/23/EC). Extensively used in Europe.
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section VIII: Rules for Construction of
Pressure Vessels.
BS 5500: Former British Standard, replaced in the UK by BS EN 13445 but reta
ined under the name PD 5500 for the design and construction of export equipment.
AD Merkbltter: German standard, harmonized with the Pressure Equipment Direct
ive.
EN 286 (Parts 1 to 4): European standard for simple pressure vessels (air ta
nks), harmonized with Council Directive 87/404/EEC.
BS 4994: Specification for design and construction of vessels and tanks in r
einforced plastics.
ASME PVHO: US standard for Pressure Vessels for Human Occupancy.
CODAP: French Code for Construction of Unfired Pressure Vessel.
AS/NZS 1200: Pressure equipment.[16]
AS/NZS 3788:2006[17]
API 510.[18]
ISO 11439: Compressed natural gas (CNG) cylinders[19]
IS 2825-1969 (RE1977)_code_unfired_Pressure_vessels.
FRP tanks and vessels.
AIAA S-080-1998: AIAA Standard for Space Systems - Metallic Pressure Vessels
, Pressurized Structures, and Pressure Components.
AIAA S-081A-2006: AIAA Standard for Space Systems - Composite Overwrapped Pr
essure Vessels (COPVs).
B51-09 Canadian Boiler, pressure vessel, and pressure piping code.
HSE guidelines for pressure systems.
Stoomwezen: Former pressure vessels code in the Netherlands, also known as R
ToD: Regels voor Toestellen onder Druk (Dutch Rules for Pressure Vessels).
See also
American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)
Bottled gas
Composite overwrapped pressure vessel
Compressed air energy storage
Compressed natural gas
Demister
Fire-tube boiler
Gas cylinder
Gasket
Head (vessel)

Minimum Design Metal Temperature (MDMT)


Pressure bomb - a device for measuring leaf water potentials
Rainwater harvesting
Relief valve
Safety valve
Shell and tube heat exchanger
Vapor-Liquid Separator or Knock-Out Drum
Vortex breaker
Water well
Water-tube boiler
Notes
Nilsen, Kyle. (2011) "Development of low pressure filter testing vessel and anal
ysis of electrospun nanofiber membranes for water treatment"
Ingenious Coal-Gas Motor Tank, Popular Science monthly, January 1919, page 27, S
canned by Google Books: https://books.google.com/books?id=HykDAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA13
Hearn, E.J. (1997). Mechanics of Materials 1. An Introduction to the Mechanics o
f Elastic and Plastic Deformation of Solids and Structural Materials - Third Edi
tion. Chapter 9: Butterworth-Heinemann. pp. 199 203. ISBN 0-7506-3265-8.
NASA Tech Briefs, "Making a Metal-Lined Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessel",
1 Mar 2005.
Frietas, O., "Maintenance and Repair of Glass-Lined Equipment", Chemical Enginee
ring, 1 Jul 2007.
"High Pressure Vessels",D. Freyer and J. Harvey, 1998
ANSI/AIAA S-080-1998, Space Systems - Metallic Pressure Vessels, Pressurized Str
uctures, and Pressure Components, 5.1
Pushard, Doug (2005). "Domestic water collection systems also sometimes able to
function on gravity". Harvesth2o.com. Retrieved 2009-04-17.[verification needed]
Pushard, Doug. "Alternatives to pressure vessels in domestic water systems". Har
vesth2o.com. Retrieved 2009-04-17.
Puskarich, Paul (2009-05-01). "Strengthened Glass for Pipleine Systems" (PDF). M
IT. Retrieved 2009-04-17.
Beer, Ferdinand P.; Johnston, Jr., E. Russel; DeWolf, John T. "7.9". Mechanics o
f Materials (fourth ed.). McGraw-Hill. p. 463. ISBN 9780073659350.
For a sphere the thickness d = rP/2s, where r is the radius of the tank. The vol
ume of the spherical surface then is 4pr2d = 4pr3P/2s. The mass is determined by
multiplying by the density of the material that makes up the walls of the spher
ical vessel. Further the volume of the gas is (4pr3)/3. Combining these equation
s give the above results. The equations for the other geometries are derived in
a similar manner
Richard Budynas, J. Nisbett, Shigley's Mechanical Engineering Design, 8th ed., N
ew York:McGraw-Hill, ISBN 978-0-07-312193-2, pg 108
An International Code 2007 ASME Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code. The Americal Soci
ety of Mechanical Engineers. 2007.
MIT pressure vessel lecture
"AS 1200 Pressure Vessels". SAI Global. Retrieved 14 November 2011.
"AS_NZS 3788: 2006 Pressure equipment - In-service inspection". SAI Global. Retr
ieved September 4, 2015.
"Pressure Vessel Inspection Code: In-Service Inspection, Rating, Repair, and Alt
eration". API. June 2006.
."Gas cylinders - High pressure cylinders for the on-board storage of natura
l gas as a fuel for automotive vehicles". ISO. 2006-07-18. Retrieved 2009-04-17.
References
A.C. Ugural, S.K. Fenster, Advanced Strength and Applied Elasticity, 4th ed.
E.P. Popov, Engineering Mechanics of Solids, 1st ed.
Megyesy, Eugene F. "Pressure Vessel Handbook, 14th Edition." PV Publishing,

Inc. Oklahoma City, OK


Further reading
Megyesy, Eugene F. (2008, 14th ed.) Pressure Vessel Handbook. PV Publishing,
Inc.: Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA. www.pressurevesselhandbook.com Design handb
ook for pressure vessels based on the ASME code.
External links
Look up pressure vessel in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Pressure vessel.
Use of pressure vessels in oil and gas industry
Basic formulas for thin walled pressure vessels; with examples
Educational Excel spreadsheets for ASME head, shell and nozzle designs
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel website
Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology
EU Pressure Equipment Directive website
EU Simple Pressure Vessel Directive
EU Classification
Pressure Vessel attachments http://oakridgebellows.com/metal-expansion-joint
s/technical-videos/lugs-on-pipe-and-vessels-new
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lagon Flexible intermediate bulk container Foam food container Folding carton Fo
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Pressure vessel
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Horizontal pressure vessel in steel
A pressure vessel is a container designed to hold gases or liquids at a pressure
substantially different from the ambient pressure.
The pressure differential is dangerous, and fatal accidents have occurred in the
history of pressure vessel development and operation. Consequently, pressure ve
ssel design, manufacture, and operation are regulated by engineering authorities
backed by legislation. For these reasons, the definition of a pressure vessel v
aries from country to country, but involves parameters such as maximum safe oper
ating pressure and temperature, and are engineered with a safety factor, corrosi
on allowance, minimum design temperature (for brittle fracture), and involve non
destructive testing, such as ultrasonic testing, radiography, and pressure tests
, usually involving water, also known as a hydrotest, but could be pneumatically
tested involving air or another gas. The preferred test is hydrostatic testing
because it's a much safer method of testing as it releases much less energy if f
racture were to occur (water does not rapidly increase its volume while rapid de
pressurization occurs, unlike gases like air, i.e. gasses fail explosively). In
the United States, as with many other countries, it is the law that vessels over
a certain size and pressure (15 PSIg) be built to Code, in the United States th
at Code is the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (BPVC), these vessels also r
equire an Authorized Inspector to sign off on every new vessel constructed and e
ach vessel has a nameplate with pertinent information about the vessel such as m
aximum allowable working pressure, maximum temperature, minimum design metal tem
perature, what company manufactured it, the date, its registration number (throu
gh the National Board), and ASME's official stamp for pressure vessels (U-stamp)
, making the vessel traceable and officially an ASME Code vessel.

Contents
1 History of pressure vessels
2 Pressure vessel features
2.1 Shape of a pressure vessel
2.2 Construction materials
2.3 Safety features
2.3.1 Leak before burst
2.3.2 Safety valves
2.4 Maintenance features
2.4.1 Pressure vessel closures
3 Uses
4 Alternatives to pressure vessels
5 Design
5.1 Scaling
5.1.1 Scaling of stress in walls of vessel
5.1.2 Spherical vessel
5.1.3 Cylindrical vessel with hemispherical ends
5.1.4 Cylindrical vessel with semi-elliptical ends
5.1.5 Gas storage
5.2 Stress in thin-walled pressure vessels
5.3 Winding angle of carbon fibre vessels
5.4 Operation standards
5.4.1 List of standards
6 See also
7 Notes
8 References
9 Further reading
10 External links
History of pressure vessels
A 10,000 psi (69 MPa) pressure vessel from 1919, wrapped with high tensile steel
banding and steel rods to secure the end caps.
The earliest documented design of pressure vessels is described in the book Code
x Madrid I, by Leonardo da Vinci, in 1495, where containers of pressurized air w
ere theorized to lift heavy weights underwater,[1] however vessels resembling wh
at are used today did not come about until the 1800s where steam was generated i
n boilers helping to spur the industrial revolution.[1] However, with poor mater
ial quality and manufacturing techniques along with improper knowledge of design
, operation and maintenance there was a large number of damaging and often fatal
explosions associated with these boilers and pressure vessels, with a death occ
urring on a nearly daily basis in the United States.[1] Local providences and st
ates in the US began enacting rules for constructing these vessels after some pa
rticularly devastating vessel failures occurred killing dozens of people at a ti
me, which made it difficult for manufacturers to keep up with the varied rules f
rom one location to another and the first pressure vessel code was developed sta
rting in 1911 and released in 1914, starting the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel
Code (BPVC).[1] In an early effort to design a tank capable of withstanding pre
ssures up to 10,000 psi (69 MPa), a 6-inch (150 mm) diameter tank was developed
in 1919 that was spirally-wound with two layers of high tensile strength steel w
ire to prevent sidewall rupture, and the end caps longitudinally reinforced with
lengthwise high-tensile rods.[2] The need for high pressure and temperature ves
sels for petroleum refineries and chemical plants gave rise to vessels joined wi
th welding instead of rivets (which were unsuitable for the pressures and temper
atures required) and in 1920s and 1930s the BPVC included welding as an acceptab
le means of construction, and welding is the main means of joining metal vessels
today.[1]

There have been many advancements in the field of pressure vessel engineering su
ch as advanced non-destructive examination, phased array ultrasonic testing and
radiography, new material grades with increased corrosion resistance and stronge
r materials, and new ways to join materials such as explosion welding (to attach
one metal sheet to another, usually a thin corrosion resistant metal like stain
less steel to a stronger metal like carbon steel), friction stir welding (which
attaches the metals together without melting the metal), advanced theories and m
eans of more accurately assessing the stresses encountered in vessels such as wi
th the use of Finite Element Analysis, allowing the vessels to be built safer an
d more efficiently. Today vessels in the USA require BPVC stamping but the BPVC
is not just a domestic code, many other countries have adopted the BPVC as their
official code. There are, however, other official codes in some countries (some
of which rely on portions of and reference the BPVC), Japan, Australia, Canada,
Britain, and Europe have their own codes. Regardless of the country nearly all
recognize the inherent potential hazards of pressure vessels and the need for st
andards and codes regulating their design and construction.
Pressure vessel features
Shape of a pressure vessel
Pressure vessels can theoretically be almost any
ons of spheres, cylinders, and cones are usually
cylinder with end caps called heads. Head shapes
ical or dished (torispherical). More complicated
uch harder to analyze for safe operation and are
onstruct.

shape, but shapes made of secti


employed. A common design is a
are frequently either hemispher
shapes have historically been m
usually far more difficult to c

Spherical gas container.


Cylindrical pressure vessel.
Picture of the bottom of an aerosol spray can.
Fire Extinguisher with rounded rectangle pressure vessel
Theoretically, a spherical pressure vessel has approximately twice the strength
of a cylindrical pressure vessel with the same wall thickness,[3] and is the ide
al shape to hold internal pressure.[1] However, a spherical shape is difficult t
o manufacture, and therefore more expensive, so most pressure vessels are cylind
rical with 2:1 semi-elliptical heads or end caps on each end. Smaller pressure v
essels are assembled from a pipe and two covers. For cylindrical vessels with a
diameter up to 600 mm (NPS of 24 in), it is possible to use seamless pipe for th
e shell, thus avoiding many inspection and testing issues, mainly the nondestruc
tive examination of radiography for the long seam if required. A disadvantage of
these vessels is that greater diameters are more expensive, so that for example
the most economic shape of a 1,000 litres (35 cu ft), 250 bars (3,600 psi) pres
sure vessel might be a diameter of 91.44 centimetres (36 in) and a length of 1.7
018 metres (67 in) including the 2:1 semi-elliptical domed end caps.
Construction materials
Composite overwrapped pressure vessel with titanium liner.
Many pressure vessels are made of steel. To manufacture a cylindrical or spheric
al pressure vessel, rolled and possibly forged parts would have to be welded tog
ether. Some mechanical properties of steel, achieved by rolling or forging, coul
d be adversely affected by welding, unless special precautions are taken. In add
ition to adequate mechanical strength, current standards dictate the use of stee
l with a high impact resistance, especially for vessels used in low temperatures
. In applications where carbon steel would suffer corrosion, special corrosion r
esistant material should also be used.
Some pressure vessels are made of composite materials, such as filament wound co

mposite using carbon fibre held in place with a polymer. Due to the very high te
nsile strength of carbon fibre these vessels can be very light, but are much mor
e difficult to manufacture. The composite material may be wound around a metal l
iner, forming a composite overwrapped pressure vessel.
Other very common materials include polymers such as PET in carbonated beverage
containers and copper in plumbing.
Pressure vessels may be lined with various metals, ceramics, or polymers to prev
ent leaking and protect the structure of the vessel from the contained medium. T
his liner may also carry a significant portion of the pressure load.[4][5]
Pressure Vessels may also be constructed from concrete (PCV) or other materials
which are weak in tension. Cabling, wrapped around the vessel or within the wall
or the vessel itself, provides the necessary tension to resist the internal pre
ssure. A "leakproof steel thin membrane" lines the internal wall of the vessel.
Such vessels can be assembled from modular pieces and so have "no inherent size
limitations".[6] There is also a high order of redundancy thanks to the large nu
mber of individual cables resisting the internal pressure.
Safety features
Leak before burst
Leak before burst describes a pressure vessel designed such that a crack in the
vessel will grow through the wall, allowing the contained fluid to escape and re
ducing the pressure, prior to growing so large as to cause fracture at the opera
ting pressure.
Many pressure vessel standards, including the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Co
de[citation needed] and the AIAA metallic pressure vessel standard, either requi
re pressure vessel designs to be leak before burst, or require pressure vessels
to meet more stringent requirements for fatigue and fracture if they are not sho
wn to be leak before burst.[7]
Safety valves
Example of a valve used for gas cylinders.
As the pressure vessel is designed to a pressure, there is typically a safety va
lve or relief valve to ensure that this pressure is not exceeded in operation.
Maintenance features
Pressure vessel closures
Pressure vessel closures are pressure retaining structures designed to provide q
uick access to pipelines, pressure vessels, pig traps, filters and filtration sy
stems. Typically pressure vessel closures allow maintenance personnel.
Uses
Pressure vessels are used in a variety of applications in both industry and the
private sector. They appear in these sectors as industrial compressed air receiv
ers and domestic hot water storage tanks. Other examples of pressure vessels are
diving cylinders, recompression chambers, distillation towers, pressure reactor
s, autoclaves, and many other vessels in mining operations, oil refineries and p
etrochemical plants, nuclear reactor vessels, submarine and space ship habitats,
pneumatic reservoirs, hydraulic reservoirs under pressure, rail vehicle airbrak
e reservoirs, road vehicle airbrake reservoirs, and storage vessels for liquifie
d gases such as ammonia, chlorine, and LPG (propane, butane).
A unique application of a pressure vessel is the passenger cabin of an airliner;
The outer skin carries both the aircraft maneuvering loads and the cabin pressu
rization loads.
A pressure tank connected to a water well and domestic hot water system.

A few pressure tanks, here used to hold propane.


An expansion vessel for heating systems.
A pressure vessel used as a kier.
A pressure vessel used for The Boeing Company s CST-100 spacecraft.
Alternatives to pressure vessels
Natural gas storage
Gas holder
Depending on the application and local circumstances, alternatives to pressure v
essels exist. Examples can be seen in domestic water collection systems, where t
he following may be used:
Gravity controlled systems[8] which typically consist of an unpressurized wa
ter tank at an elevation higher than the point of use. Pressure at the point of
use is the result of the hydrostatic pressure caused by the elevation difference
. Gravity systems produce 0.43 pounds per square inch (3.0 kPa) per foot of wate
r head (elevation difference). A municipal water supply or pumped water is typic
ally around 90 pounds per square inch (620 kPa).
Inline pump controllers or pressure-sensitive pumps.[9]
Design
Scaling
No matter what shape it takes, the minimum mass of a pressure vessel scales with
the pressure and volume it contains and is inversely proportional to the streng
th to weight ratio of the construction material (minimum mass decreases as stren
gth increases[10]).
Scaling of stress in walls of vessel
Pressure vessels are held together against the gas pressure due to tensile force
s within the walls of the container. The normal (tensile) stress in the walls of
the container is proportional to the pressure and radius of the vessel and inve
rsely proportional to the thickness of the walls.[11] Therefore, pressure vessel
s are designed to have a thickness proportional to the radius of tank and the pr
essure of the tank and inversely proportional to the maximum allowed normal stre
ss of the particular material used in the walls of the container.
Because (for a given pressure) the thickness of the walls scales with the radius
of the tank, the mass of a tank (which scales as the length times radius times
thickness of the wall for a cylindrical tank) scales with the volume of the gas
held (which scales as length times radius squared). The exact formula varies wit
h the tank shape but depends on the density, ?, and maximum allowable stress s o
f the material in addition to the pressure P and volume V of the vessel. (See be
low for the exact equations for the stress in the walls.)
Spherical vessel
For a sphere, the minimum mass of a pressure vessel is
M = 3 2 P V ? s {\displaystyle M={3 \over 2}PV{\rho \over \sigma }} M={3 \ov
er 2}PV{\rho \over \sigma },
where:
M {\displaystyle M} M is mass,

P {\displaystyle
ssure),
V {\displaystyle
? {\displaystyle
s {\displaystyle
can tolerate.[12]

P} P is the pressure difference from ambient (the gauge pre


V} V is volume,
\rho } \rho is the density of the pressure vessel material,
\sigma } \sigma is the maximum working stress that material

Other shapes besides a sphere have constants larger than 3/2 (infinite cylinders
take 2), although some tanks, such as non-spherical wound composite tanks can a
pproach this.
Cylindrical vessel with hemispherical ends
This is sometimes called a "bullet"[citation needed] for its shape, although in
geometric terms it is a capsule.
For a cylinder with hemispherical ends,
M = 2 p R 2 ( R + W ) P ? s {\displaystyle M=2\pi R^{2}(R+W)P{\rho \over \si
gma }} M=2\pi R^{2}(R+W)P{\rho \over \sigma },
where
R is the radius
W is the middle cylinder width only, and the overall width is W + 2R
Cylindrical vessel with semi-elliptical ends
In a vessel with an aspect ratio of middle cylinder width to radius of 2:1,
M = 6 p R 3 P ? s {\displaystyle M=6\pi R^{3}P{\rho \over \sigma }} M=6\pi R
^{3}P{\rho \over \sigma }.
Gas storage
In looking at the first equation, the factor PV, in SI units, is in units of (pr
essurization) energy. For a stored gas, PV is proportional to the mass of gas at
a given temperature, thus
M = 3 2 n R T ? s {\displaystyle M={3 \over 2}nRT{\rho \over \sigma }} M={3
\over 2}nRT{\rho \over \sigma }. (see gas law)
The other factors are constant for a given vessel shape and material. So we can
see that there is no theoretical "efficiency of scale", in terms of the ratio of
pressure vessel mass to pressurization energy, or of pressure vessel mass to st
ored gas mass. For storing gases, "tankage efficiency" is independent of pressur
e, at least for the same temperature.
So, for example, a typical design for a minimum mass tank to hold helium (as a p
ressurant gas) on a rocket would use a spherical chamber for a minimum shape con
stant, carbon fiber for best possible ? / s {\displaystyle \rho /\sigma } \rho /
\sigma , and very cold helium for best possible M / p V {\displaystyle M/{pV}} M
/{pV}.
Stress in thin-walled pressure vessels
Stress in a shallow-walled pressure vessel in the shape of a sphere is
s ? = s l o n g = p r 2 t {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }=\sigma _{\rm {lon
g}}={\frac {pr}{2t}}} \sigma _{\theta }=\sigma _{{{\rm {long}}}}={\frac {pr}{2t}
},

where s ? {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }} \sigma _{\theta } is hoop stress, or


stress in the circumferential direction, s l o n g {\displaystyle \sigma _{long
}} \sigma _{{long}} is stress in the longitudinal direction, p is internal gauge
pressure, r is the inner radius of the sphere, and t is thickness of the sphere
wall. A vessel can be considered "shallow-walled" if the diameter is at least 1
0 times (sometimes cited as 20 times) greater than the wall depth.[13]
Stress in the cylinder body of a pressure vessel.
Stress in a shallow-walled pressure vessel in the shape of a cylinder is
s ? = p r t {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }={\frac {pr}{t}}} \sigma _{\thet
a }={\frac {pr}{t}},
s l o n g = p r 2 t {\displaystyle \sigma _{\rm {long}}={\frac {pr}{2t}}} \s
igma _{{{\rm {long}}}}={\frac {pr}{2t}},
where:
s ? {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }} \sigma _{\theta } is hoop stress, or s
tress in the circumferential direction
s l o n g {\displaystyle \sigma _{long}} \sigma _{{long}} is stress in the l
ongitudinal direction
p is internal gauge pressure
r is the inner radius of the cylinder
t is thickness of the cylinder wall.
Almost all pressure vessel design standards contain variations of these two form
ulas with additional empirical terms to account for wall thickness tolerances, q
uality control of welds and in-service corrosion allowances.
For example, the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (BPVC) (UG-27) formulas ar
e:[14]
Spherical shells:
s ? = s l o n g = p ( r + 0.2 t ) 2 t E {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }=\si
gma _{\rm {long}}={\frac {p(r+0.2t)}{2tE}}} \sigma _{\theta }=\sigma _{{{\rm {lo
ng}}}}={\frac {p(r+0.2t)}{2tE}}
Cylindrical shells:
s ? = p ( r + 0.6 t ) t E {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }={\frac {p(r+0.6t)
}{tE}}} \sigma _{\theta }={\frac {p(r+0.6t)}{tE}}
s l o n g = p ( r - 0.4 t ) 2 t E {\displaystyle \sigma _{\rm {long}}={\frac
{p(r-0.4t)}{2tE}}} \sigma _{{{\rm {long}}}}={\frac {p(r-0.4t)}{2tE}}
where E is the joint efficient, and all others variables as stated above.
The factor of safety is often included in these formulas as well, in the case of
the ASME BPVC this term is included in the material stress value when solving f
or pressure or thickness.
Winding angle of carbon fibre vessels
Wound infinite cylindrical shapes optimally take a winding angle of 54.7 degrees
, as this gives the necessary twice the strength in the circumferential directio
n to the longitudinal.[15]
Operation standards
Pressure vessels are designed to operate safely at a specific pressure and tempe
rature, technically referred to as the "Design Pressure" and "Design Temperature
". A vessel that is inadequately designed to handle a high pressure constitutes

a very significant safety hazard. Because of that, the design and certification
of pressure vessels is governed by design codes such as the ASME Boiler and Pres
sure Vessel Code in North America, the Pressure Equipment Directive of the EU (P
ED), Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS), CSA B51 in Canada, Australian Standards
in Australia and other international standards like Lloyd's, Germanischer Lloyd
, Det Norske Veritas, Socit Gnrale de Surveillance (SGS S.A.), Lloyd s Register Energy
Nederland (formerly known as Stoomwezen) etc.
Note that where the pressure-volume product is part of a safety standard, any in
compressible liquid in the vessel can be excluded as it does not contribute to t
he potential energy stored in the vessel, so only the volume of the compressible
part such as gas is used.
List of standards
EN 13445: The current European Standard, harmonized with the Pressure Equipm
ent Directive (97/23/EC). Extensively used in Europe.
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section VIII: Rules for Construction of
Pressure Vessels.
BS 5500: Former British Standard, replaced in the UK by BS EN 13445 but reta
ined under the name PD 5500 for the design and construction of export equipment.
AD Merkbltter: German standard, harmonized with the Pressure Equipment Direct
ive.
EN 286 (Parts 1 to 4): European standard for simple pressure vessels (air ta
nks), harmonized with Council Directive 87/404/EEC.
BS 4994: Specification for design and construction of vessels and tanks in r
einforced plastics.
ASME PVHO: US standard for Pressure Vessels for Human Occupancy.
CODAP: French Code for Construction of Unfired Pressure Vessel.
AS/NZS 1200: Pressure equipment.[16]
AS/NZS 3788:2006[17]
API 510.[18]
ISO 11439: Compressed natural gas (CNG) cylinders[19]
IS 2825-1969 (RE1977)_code_unfired_Pressure_vessels.
FRP tanks and vessels.
AIAA S-080-1998: AIAA Standard for Space Systems - Metallic Pressure Vessels
, Pressurized Structures, and Pressure Components.
AIAA S-081A-2006: AIAA Standard for Space Systems - Composite Overwrapped Pr
essure Vessels (COPVs).
B51-09 Canadian Boiler, pressure vessel, and pressure piping code.
HSE guidelines for pressure systems.
Stoomwezen: Former pressure vessels code in the Netherlands, also known as R
ToD: Regels voor Toestellen onder Druk (Dutch Rules for Pressure Vessels).
See also
American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)
Bottled gas
Composite overwrapped pressure vessel
Compressed air energy storage
Compressed natural gas
Demister
Fire-tube boiler
Gas cylinder
Gasket
Head (vessel)
Minimum Design Metal Temperature (MDMT)
Pressure bomb - a device for measuring leaf water potentials
Rainwater harvesting
Relief valve
Safety valve

Shell and tube heat exchanger


Vapor-Liquid Separator or Knock-Out Drum
Vortex breaker
Water well
Water-tube boiler
Notes
Nilsen, Kyle. (2011) "Development of low pressure filter testing vessel and anal
ysis of electrospun nanofiber membranes for water treatment"
Ingenious Coal-Gas Motor Tank, Popular Science monthly, January 1919, page 27, S
canned by Google Books: https://books.google.com/books?id=HykDAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA13
Hearn, E.J. (1997). Mechanics of Materials 1. An Introduction to the Mechanics o
f Elastic and Plastic Deformation of Solids and Structural Materials - Third Edi
tion. Chapter 9: Butterworth-Heinemann. pp. 199 203. ISBN 0-7506-3265-8.
NASA Tech Briefs, "Making a Metal-Lined Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessel",
1 Mar 2005.
Frietas, O., "Maintenance and Repair of Glass-Lined Equipment", Chemical Enginee
ring, 1 Jul 2007.
"High Pressure Vessels",D. Freyer and J. Harvey, 1998
ANSI/AIAA S-080-1998, Space Systems - Metallic Pressure Vessels, Pressurized Str
uctures, and Pressure Components, 5.1
Pushard, Doug (2005). "Domestic water collection systems also sometimes able to
function on gravity". Harvesth2o.com. Retrieved 2009-04-17.[verification needed]
Pushard, Doug. "Alternatives to pressure vessels in domestic water systems". Har
vesth2o.com. Retrieved 2009-04-17.
Puskarich, Paul (2009-05-01). "Strengthened Glass for Pipleine Systems" (PDF). M
IT. Retrieved 2009-04-17.
Beer, Ferdinand P.; Johnston, Jr., E. Russel; DeWolf, John T. "7.9". Mechanics o
f Materials (fourth ed.). McGraw-Hill. p. 463. ISBN 9780073659350.
For a sphere the thickness d = rP/2s, where r is the radius of the tank. The vol
ume of the spherical surface then is 4pr2d = 4pr3P/2s. The mass is determined by
multiplying by the density of the material that makes up the walls of the spher
ical vessel. Further the volume of the gas is (4pr3)/3. Combining these equation
s give the above results. The equations for the other geometries are derived in
a similar manner
Richard Budynas, J. Nisbett, Shigley's Mechanical Engineering Design, 8th ed., N
ew York:McGraw-Hill, ISBN 978-0-07-312193-2, pg 108
An International Code 2007 ASME Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code. The Americal Soci
ety of Mechanical Engineers. 2007.
MIT pressure vessel lecture
"AS 1200 Pressure Vessels". SAI Global. Retrieved 14 November 2011.
"AS_NZS 3788: 2006 Pressure equipment - In-service inspection". SAI Global. Retr
ieved September 4, 2015.
"Pressure Vessel Inspection Code: In-Service Inspection, Rating, Repair, and Alt
eration". API. June 2006.
."Gas cylinders - High pressure cylinders for the on-board storage of natura
l gas as a fuel for automotive vehicles". ISO. 2006-07-18. Retrieved 2009-04-17.
References
A.C. Ugural, S.K. Fenster, Advanced Strength and Applied Elasticity, 4th ed.
E.P. Popov, Engineering Mechanics of Solids, 1st ed.
Megyesy, Eugene F. "Pressure Vessel Handbook, 14th Edition." PV Publishing,
Inc. Oklahoma City, OK
Further reading
Megyesy, Eugene F. (2008, 14th ed.) Pressure Vessel Handbook. PV Publishing,

Inc.: Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA. www.pressurevesselhandbook.com Design handb


ook for pressure vessels based on the ASME code.
External links
Look up pressure vessel in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Pressure vessel.
Use of pressure vessels in oil and gas industry
Basic formulas for thin walled pressure vessels; with examples
Educational Excel spreadsheets for ASME head, shell and nozzle designs
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel website
Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology
EU Pressure Equipment Directive website
EU Simple Pressure Vessel Directive
EU Classification
Pressure Vessel attachments http://oakridgebellows.com/metal-expansion-joint
s/technical-videos/lugs-on-pipe-and-vessels-new
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Pressure vessel
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Horizontal pressure vessel in steel
A pressure vessel is a container designed to hold gases or liquids at a pressure
substantially different from the ambient pressure.
The pressure differential is dangerous, and fatal accidents have occurred in the
history of pressure vessel development and operation. Consequently, pressure ve
ssel design, manufacture, and operation are regulated by engineering authorities
backed by legislation. For these reasons, the definition of a pressure vessel v
aries from country to country, but involves parameters such as maximum safe oper
ating pressure and temperature, and are engineered with a safety factor, corrosi
on allowance, minimum design temperature (for brittle fracture), and involve non
destructive testing, such as ultrasonic testing, radiography, and pressure tests
, usually involving water, also known as a hydrotest, but could be pneumatically
tested involving air or another gas. The preferred test is hydrostatic testing
because it's a much safer method of testing as it releases much less energy if f
racture were to occur (water does not rapidly increase its volume while rapid de
pressurization occurs, unlike gases like air, i.e. gasses fail explosively). In
the United States, as with many other countries, it is the law that vessels over
a certain size and pressure (15 PSIg) be built to Code, in the United States th
at Code is the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (BPVC), these vessels also r
equire an Authorized Inspector to sign off on every new vessel constructed and e
ach vessel has a nameplate with pertinent information about the vessel such as m
aximum allowable working pressure, maximum temperature, minimum design metal tem
perature, what company manufactured it, the date, its registration number (throu
gh the National Board), and ASME's official stamp for pressure vessels (U-stamp)
, making the vessel traceable and officially an ASME Code vessel.
Contents
1 History of pressure vessels
2 Pressure vessel features

2.1 Shape of a pressure vessel


2.2 Construction materials
2.3 Safety features
2.3.1 Leak before burst
2.3.2 Safety valves
2.4 Maintenance features
2.4.1 Pressure vessel closures
3 Uses
4 Alternatives to pressure vessels
5 Design
5.1 Scaling
5.1.1 Scaling of stress in walls of vessel
5.1.2 Spherical vessel
5.1.3 Cylindrical vessel with hemispherical ends
5.1.4 Cylindrical vessel with semi-elliptical ends
5.1.5 Gas storage
5.2 Stress in thin-walled pressure vessels
5.3 Winding angle of carbon fibre vessels
5.4 Operation standards
5.4.1 List of standards
6 See also
7 Notes
8 References
9 Further reading
10 External links
History of pressure vessels
A 10,000 psi (69 MPa) pressure vessel from 1919, wrapped with high tensile steel
banding and steel rods to secure the end caps.
The earliest documented design of pressure vessels is described in the book Code
x Madrid I, by Leonardo da Vinci, in 1495, where containers of pressurized air w
ere theorized to lift heavy weights underwater,[1] however vessels resembling wh
at are used today did not come about until the 1800s where steam was generated i
n boilers helping to spur the industrial revolution.[1] However, with poor mater
ial quality and manufacturing techniques along with improper knowledge of design
, operation and maintenance there was a large number of damaging and often fatal
explosions associated with these boilers and pressure vessels, with a death occ
urring on a nearly daily basis in the United States.[1] Local providences and st
ates in the US began enacting rules for constructing these vessels after some pa
rticularly devastating vessel failures occurred killing dozens of people at a ti
me, which made it difficult for manufacturers to keep up with the varied rules f
rom one location to another and the first pressure vessel code was developed sta
rting in 1911 and released in 1914, starting the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel
Code (BPVC).[1] In an early effort to design a tank capable of withstanding pre
ssures up to 10,000 psi (69 MPa), a 6-inch (150 mm) diameter tank was developed
in 1919 that was spirally-wound with two layers of high tensile strength steel w
ire to prevent sidewall rupture, and the end caps longitudinally reinforced with
lengthwise high-tensile rods.[2] The need for high pressure and temperature ves
sels for petroleum refineries and chemical plants gave rise to vessels joined wi
th welding instead of rivets (which were unsuitable for the pressures and temper
atures required) and in 1920s and 1930s the BPVC included welding as an acceptab
le means of construction, and welding is the main means of joining metal vessels
today.[1]
There have been many advancements in the field of pressure vessel engineering su
ch as advanced non-destructive examination, phased array ultrasonic testing and
radiography, new material grades with increased corrosion resistance and stronge
r materials, and new ways to join materials such as explosion welding (to attach
one metal sheet to another, usually a thin corrosion resistant metal like stain

less steel to a stronger metal like carbon steel), friction stir welding (which
attaches the metals together without melting the metal), advanced theories and m
eans of more accurately assessing the stresses encountered in vessels such as wi
th the use of Finite Element Analysis, allowing the vessels to be built safer an
d more efficiently. Today vessels in the USA require BPVC stamping but the BPVC
is not just a domestic code, many other countries have adopted the BPVC as their
official code. There are, however, other official codes in some countries (some
of which rely on portions of and reference the BPVC), Japan, Australia, Canada,
Britain, and Europe have their own codes. Regardless of the country nearly all
recognize the inherent potential hazards of pressure vessels and the need for st
andards and codes regulating their design and construction.
Pressure vessel features
Shape of a pressure vessel
Pressure vessels can theoretically be almost any
ons of spheres, cylinders, and cones are usually
cylinder with end caps called heads. Head shapes
ical or dished (torispherical). More complicated
uch harder to analyze for safe operation and are
onstruct.

shape, but shapes made of secti


employed. A common design is a
are frequently either hemispher
shapes have historically been m
usually far more difficult to c

Spherical gas container.


Cylindrical pressure vessel.
Picture of the bottom of an aerosol spray can.
Fire Extinguisher with rounded rectangle pressure vessel
Theoretically, a spherical pressure vessel has approximately twice the strength
of a cylindrical pressure vessel with the same wall thickness,[3] and is the ide
al shape to hold internal pressure.[1] However, a spherical shape is difficult t
o manufacture, and therefore more expensive, so most pressure vessels are cylind
rical with 2:1 semi-elliptical heads or end caps on each end. Smaller pressure v
essels are assembled from a pipe and two covers. For cylindrical vessels with a
diameter up to 600 mm (NPS of 24 in), it is possible to use seamless pipe for th
e shell, thus avoiding many inspection and testing issues, mainly the nondestruc
tive examination of radiography for the long seam if required. A disadvantage of
these vessels is that greater diameters are more expensive, so that for example
the most economic shape of a 1,000 litres (35 cu ft), 250 bars (3,600 psi) pres
sure vessel might be a diameter of 91.44 centimetres (36 in) and a length of 1.7
018 metres (67 in) including the 2:1 semi-elliptical domed end caps.
Construction materials
Composite overwrapped pressure vessel with titanium liner.
Many pressure vessels are made of steel. To manufacture a cylindrical or spheric
al pressure vessel, rolled and possibly forged parts would have to be welded tog
ether. Some mechanical properties of steel, achieved by rolling or forging, coul
d be adversely affected by welding, unless special precautions are taken. In add
ition to adequate mechanical strength, current standards dictate the use of stee
l with a high impact resistance, especially for vessels used in low temperatures
. In applications where carbon steel would suffer corrosion, special corrosion r
esistant material should also be used.
Some pressure vessels are made of composite materials, such as filament wound co
mposite using carbon fibre held in place with a polymer. Due to the very high te
nsile strength of carbon fibre these vessels can be very light, but are much mor
e difficult to manufacture. The composite material may be wound around a metal l
iner, forming a composite overwrapped pressure vessel.

Other very common materials include polymers such as PET in carbonated beverage
containers and copper in plumbing.
Pressure vessels may be lined with various metals, ceramics, or polymers to prev
ent leaking and protect the structure of the vessel from the contained medium. T
his liner may also carry a significant portion of the pressure load.[4][5]
Pressure Vessels may also be constructed from concrete (PCV) or other materials
which are weak in tension. Cabling, wrapped around the vessel or within the wall
or the vessel itself, provides the necessary tension to resist the internal pre
ssure. A "leakproof steel thin membrane" lines the internal wall of the vessel.
Such vessels can be assembled from modular pieces and so have "no inherent size
limitations".[6] There is also a high order of redundancy thanks to the large nu
mber of individual cables resisting the internal pressure.
Safety features
Leak before burst
Leak before burst describes a pressure vessel designed such that a crack in the
vessel will grow through the wall, allowing the contained fluid to escape and re
ducing the pressure, prior to growing so large as to cause fracture at the opera
ting pressure.
Many pressure vessel standards, including the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Co
de[citation needed] and the AIAA metallic pressure vessel standard, either requi
re pressure vessel designs to be leak before burst, or require pressure vessels
to meet more stringent requirements for fatigue and fracture if they are not sho
wn to be leak before burst.[7]
Safety valves
Example of a valve used for gas cylinders.
As the pressure vessel is designed to a pressure, there is typically a safety va
lve or relief valve to ensure that this pressure is not exceeded in operation.
Maintenance features
Pressure vessel closures
Pressure vessel closures are pressure retaining structures designed to provide q
uick access to pipelines, pressure vessels, pig traps, filters and filtration sy
stems. Typically pressure vessel closures allow maintenance personnel.
Uses
Pressure vessels are used in a variety of applications in both industry and the
private sector. They appear in these sectors as industrial compressed air receiv
ers and domestic hot water storage tanks. Other examples of pressure vessels are
diving cylinders, recompression chambers, distillation towers, pressure reactor
s, autoclaves, and many other vessels in mining operations, oil refineries and p
etrochemical plants, nuclear reactor vessels, submarine and space ship habitats,
pneumatic reservoirs, hydraulic reservoirs under pressure, rail vehicle airbrak
e reservoirs, road vehicle airbrake reservoirs, and storage vessels for liquifie
d gases such as ammonia, chlorine, and LPG (propane, butane).
A unique application of a pressure vessel is the passenger cabin of an airliner;
The outer skin carries both the aircraft maneuvering loads and the cabin pressu
rization loads.
A pressure tank connected to a water well and domestic hot water system.
A few pressure tanks, here used to hold propane.
An expansion vessel for heating systems.

A pressure vessel used as a kier.


A pressure vessel used for The Boeing Company s CST-100 spacecraft.
Alternatives to pressure vessels
Natural gas storage
Gas holder
Depending on the application and local circumstances, alternatives to pressure v
essels exist. Examples can be seen in domestic water collection systems, where t
he following may be used:
Gravity controlled systems[8] which typically consist of an unpressurized wa
ter tank at an elevation higher than the point of use. Pressure at the point of
use is the result of the hydrostatic pressure caused by the elevation difference
. Gravity systems produce 0.43 pounds per square inch (3.0 kPa) per foot of wate
r head (elevation difference). A municipal water supply or pumped water is typic
ally around 90 pounds per square inch (620 kPa).
Inline pump controllers or pressure-sensitive pumps.[9]
Design
Scaling
No matter what shape it takes, the minimum mass of a pressure vessel scales with
the pressure and volume it contains and is inversely proportional to the streng
th to weight ratio of the construction material (minimum mass decreases as stren
gth increases[10]).
Scaling of stress in walls of vessel
Pressure vessels are held together against the gas pressure due to tensile force
s within the walls of the container. The normal (tensile) stress in the walls of
the container is proportional to the pressure and radius of the vessel and inve
rsely proportional to the thickness of the walls.[11] Therefore, pressure vessel
s are designed to have a thickness proportional to the radius of tank and the pr
essure of the tank and inversely proportional to the maximum allowed normal stre
ss of the particular material used in the walls of the container.
Because (for a given pressure) the thickness of the walls scales with the radius
of the tank, the mass of a tank (which scales as the length times radius times
thickness of the wall for a cylindrical tank) scales with the volume of the gas
held (which scales as length times radius squared). The exact formula varies wit
h the tank shape but depends on the density, ?, and maximum allowable stress s o
f the material in addition to the pressure P and volume V of the vessel. (See be
low for the exact equations for the stress in the walls.)
Spherical vessel
For a sphere, the minimum mass of a pressure vessel is
M = 3 2 P V ? s {\displaystyle M={3 \over 2}PV{\rho \over \sigma }} M={3 \ov
er 2}PV{\rho \over \sigma },
where:
M {\displaystyle
P {\displaystyle
ssure),
V {\displaystyle
? {\displaystyle
s {\displaystyle

M} M is mass,
P} P is the pressure difference from ambient (the gauge pre
V} V is volume,
\rho } \rho is the density of the pressure vessel material,
\sigma } \sigma is the maximum working stress that material

can tolerate.[12]
Other shapes besides a sphere have constants larger than 3/2 (infinite cylinders
take 2), although some tanks, such as non-spherical wound composite tanks can a
pproach this.
Cylindrical vessel with hemispherical ends
This is sometimes called a "bullet"[citation needed] for its shape, although in
geometric terms it is a capsule.
For a cylinder with hemispherical ends,
M = 2 p R 2 ( R + W ) P ? s {\displaystyle M=2\pi R^{2}(R+W)P{\rho \over \si
gma }} M=2\pi R^{2}(R+W)P{\rho \over \sigma },
where
R is the radius
W is the middle cylinder width only, and the overall width is W + 2R
Cylindrical vessel with semi-elliptical ends
In a vessel with an aspect ratio of middle cylinder width to radius of 2:1,
M = 6 p R 3 P ? s {\displaystyle M=6\pi R^{3}P{\rho \over \sigma }} M=6\pi R
^{3}P{\rho \over \sigma }.
Gas storage
In looking at the first equation, the factor PV, in SI units, is in units of (pr
essurization) energy. For a stored gas, PV is proportional to the mass of gas at
a given temperature, thus
M = 3 2 n R T ? s {\displaystyle M={3 \over 2}nRT{\rho \over \sigma }} M={3
\over 2}nRT{\rho \over \sigma }. (see gas law)
The other factors are constant for a given vessel shape and material. So we can
see that there is no theoretical "efficiency of scale", in terms of the ratio of
pressure vessel mass to pressurization energy, or of pressure vessel mass to st
ored gas mass. For storing gases, "tankage efficiency" is independent of pressur
e, at least for the same temperature.
So, for example, a typical design for a minimum mass tank to hold helium (as a p
ressurant gas) on a rocket would use a spherical chamber for a minimum shape con
stant, carbon fiber for best possible ? / s {\displaystyle \rho /\sigma } \rho /
\sigma , and very cold helium for best possible M / p V {\displaystyle M/{pV}} M
/{pV}.
Stress in thin-walled pressure vessels
Stress in a shallow-walled pressure vessel in the shape of a sphere is
s ? = s l o n g = p r 2 t {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }=\sigma _{\rm {lon
g}}={\frac {pr}{2t}}} \sigma _{\theta }=\sigma _{{{\rm {long}}}}={\frac {pr}{2t}
},
where s ? {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }} \sigma _{\theta } is hoop stress, or
stress in the circumferential direction, s l o n g {\displaystyle \sigma _{long
}} \sigma _{{long}} is stress in the longitudinal direction, p is internal gauge
pressure, r is the inner radius of the sphere, and t is thickness of the sphere
wall. A vessel can be considered "shallow-walled" if the diameter is at least 1

0 times (sometimes cited as 20 times) greater than the wall depth.[13]


Stress in the cylinder body of a pressure vessel.
Stress in a shallow-walled pressure vessel in the shape of a cylinder is
s ? = p r t {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }={\frac {pr}{t}}} \sigma _{\thet
a }={\frac {pr}{t}},
s l o n g = p r 2 t {\displaystyle \sigma _{\rm {long}}={\frac {pr}{2t}}} \s
igma _{{{\rm {long}}}}={\frac {pr}{2t}},
where:
s ? {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }} \sigma _{\theta } is hoop stress, or s
tress in the circumferential direction
s l o n g {\displaystyle \sigma _{long}} \sigma _{{long}} is stress in the l
ongitudinal direction
p is internal gauge pressure
r is the inner radius of the cylinder
t is thickness of the cylinder wall.
Almost all pressure vessel design standards contain variations of these two form
ulas with additional empirical terms to account for wall thickness tolerances, q
uality control of welds and in-service corrosion allowances.
For example, the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (BPVC) (UG-27) formulas ar
e:[14]
Spherical shells:
s ? = s l o n g = p ( r + 0.2 t ) 2 t E {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }=\si
gma _{\rm {long}}={\frac {p(r+0.2t)}{2tE}}} \sigma _{\theta }=\sigma _{{{\rm {lo
ng}}}}={\frac {p(r+0.2t)}{2tE}}
Cylindrical shells:
s ? = p ( r + 0.6 t ) t E {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }={\frac {p(r+0.6t)
}{tE}}} \sigma _{\theta }={\frac {p(r+0.6t)}{tE}}
s l o n g = p ( r - 0.4 t ) 2 t E {\displaystyle \sigma _{\rm {long}}={\frac
{p(r-0.4t)}{2tE}}} \sigma _{{{\rm {long}}}}={\frac {p(r-0.4t)}{2tE}}
where E is the joint efficient, and all others variables as stated above.
The factor of safety is often included in these formulas as well, in the case of
the ASME BPVC this term is included in the material stress value when solving f
or pressure or thickness.
Winding angle of carbon fibre vessels
Wound infinite cylindrical shapes optimally take a winding angle of 54.7 degrees
, as this gives the necessary twice the strength in the circumferential directio
n to the longitudinal.[15]
Operation standards
Pressure vessels are designed to operate safely at a specific pressure and tempe
rature, technically referred to as the "Design Pressure" and "Design Temperature
". A vessel that is inadequately designed to handle a high pressure constitutes
a very significant safety hazard. Because of that, the design and certification
of pressure vessels is governed by design codes such as the ASME Boiler and Pres
sure Vessel Code in North America, the Pressure Equipment Directive of the EU (P
ED), Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS), CSA B51 in Canada, Australian Standards
in Australia and other international standards like Lloyd's, Germanischer Lloyd

, Det Norske Veritas, Socit Gnrale de Surveillance (SGS S.A.), Lloyd s Register Energy
Nederland (formerly known as Stoomwezen) etc.
Note that where the pressure-volume product is part of a safety standard, any in
compressible liquid in the vessel can be excluded as it does not contribute to t
he potential energy stored in the vessel, so only the volume of the compressible
part such as gas is used.
List of standards
EN 13445: The current European Standard, harmonized with the Pressure Equipm
ent Directive (97/23/EC). Extensively used in Europe.
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section VIII: Rules for Construction of
Pressure Vessels.
BS 5500: Former British Standard, replaced in the UK by BS EN 13445 but reta
ined under the name PD 5500 for the design and construction of export equipment.
AD Merkbltter: German standard, harmonized with the Pressure Equipment Direct
ive.
EN 286 (Parts 1 to 4): European standard for simple pressure vessels (air ta
nks), harmonized with Council Directive 87/404/EEC.
BS 4994: Specification for design and construction of vessels and tanks in r
einforced plastics.
ASME PVHO: US standard for Pressure Vessels for Human Occupancy.
CODAP: French Code for Construction of Unfired Pressure Vessel.
AS/NZS 1200: Pressure equipment.[16]
AS/NZS 3788:2006[17]
API 510.[18]
ISO 11439: Compressed natural gas (CNG) cylinders[19]
IS 2825-1969 (RE1977)_code_unfired_Pressure_vessels.
FRP tanks and vessels.
AIAA S-080-1998: AIAA Standard for Space Systems - Metallic Pressure Vessels
, Pressurized Structures, and Pressure Components.
AIAA S-081A-2006: AIAA Standard for Space Systems - Composite Overwrapped Pr
essure Vessels (COPVs).
B51-09 Canadian Boiler, pressure vessel, and pressure piping code.
HSE guidelines for pressure systems.
Stoomwezen: Former pressure vessels code in the Netherlands, also known as R
ToD: Regels voor Toestellen onder Druk (Dutch Rules for Pressure Vessels).
See also
American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)
Bottled gas
Composite overwrapped pressure vessel
Compressed air energy storage
Compressed natural gas
Demister
Fire-tube boiler
Gas cylinder
Gasket
Head (vessel)
Minimum Design Metal Temperature (MDMT)
Pressure bomb - a device for measuring leaf water potentials
Rainwater harvesting
Relief valve
Safety valve
Shell and tube heat exchanger
Vapor-Liquid Separator or Knock-Out Drum
Vortex breaker
Water well
Water-tube boiler

Notes
Nilsen, Kyle. (2011) "Development of low pressure filter testing vessel and anal
ysis of electrospun nanofiber membranes for water treatment"
Ingenious Coal-Gas Motor Tank, Popular Science monthly, January 1919, page 27, S
canned by Google Books: https://books.google.com/books?id=HykDAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA13
Hearn, E.J. (1997). Mechanics of Materials 1. An Introduction to the Mechanics o
f Elastic and Plastic Deformation of Solids and Structural Materials - Third Edi
tion. Chapter 9: Butterworth-Heinemann. pp. 199 203. ISBN 0-7506-3265-8.
NASA Tech Briefs, "Making a Metal-Lined Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessel",
1 Mar 2005.
Frietas, O., "Maintenance and Repair of Glass-Lined Equipment", Chemical Enginee
ring, 1 Jul 2007.
"High Pressure Vessels",D. Freyer and J. Harvey, 1998
ANSI/AIAA S-080-1998, Space Systems - Metallic Pressure Vessels, Pressurized Str
uctures, and Pressure Components, 5.1
Pushard, Doug (2005). "Domestic water collection systems also sometimes able to
function on gravity". Harvesth2o.com. Retrieved 2009-04-17.[verification needed]
Pushard, Doug. "Alternatives to pressure vessels in domestic water systems". Har
vesth2o.com. Retrieved 2009-04-17.
Puskarich, Paul (2009-05-01). "Strengthened Glass for Pipleine Systems" (PDF). M
IT. Retrieved 2009-04-17.
Beer, Ferdinand P.; Johnston, Jr., E. Russel; DeWolf, John T. "7.9". Mechanics o
f Materials (fourth ed.). McGraw-Hill. p. 463. ISBN 9780073659350.
For a sphere the thickness d = rP/2s, where r is the radius of the tank. The vol
ume of the spherical surface then is 4pr2d = 4pr3P/2s. The mass is determined by
multiplying by the density of the material that makes up the walls of the spher
ical vessel. Further the volume of the gas is (4pr3)/3. Combining these equation
s give the above results. The equations for the other geometries are derived in
a similar manner
Richard Budynas, J. Nisbett, Shigley's Mechanical Engineering Design, 8th ed., N
ew York:McGraw-Hill, ISBN 978-0-07-312193-2, pg 108
An International Code 2007 ASME Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code. The Americal Soci
ety of Mechanical Engineers. 2007.
MIT pressure vessel lecture
"AS 1200 Pressure Vessels". SAI Global. Retrieved 14 November 2011.
"AS_NZS 3788: 2006 Pressure equipment - In-service inspection". SAI Global. Retr
ieved September 4, 2015.
"Pressure Vessel Inspection Code: In-Service Inspection, Rating, Repair, and Alt
eration". API. June 2006.
."Gas cylinders - High pressure cylinders for the on-board storage of natura
l gas as a fuel for automotive vehicles". ISO. 2006-07-18. Retrieved 2009-04-17.
References
A.C. Ugural, S.K. Fenster, Advanced Strength and Applied Elasticity, 4th ed.
E.P. Popov, Engineering Mechanics of Solids, 1st ed.
Megyesy, Eugene F. "Pressure Vessel Handbook, 14th Edition." PV Publishing,
Inc. Oklahoma City, OK
Further reading
Megyesy, Eugene F. (2008, 14th ed.) Pressure Vessel Handbook. PV Publishing,
Inc.: Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA. www.pressurevesselhandbook.com Design handb
ook for pressure vessels based on the ASME code.
External links
Look up pressure vessel in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Pressure vessel.


Use of pressure vessels in oil and gas industry
Basic formulas for thin walled pressure vessels; with examples
Educational Excel spreadsheets for ASME head, shell and nozzle designs
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel website
Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology
EU Pressure Equipment Directive website
EU Simple Pressure Vessel Directive
EU Classification
Pressure Vessel attachments http://oakridgebellows.com/metal-expansion-joint
s/technical-videos/lugs-on-pipe-and-vessels-new
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Pressure vessel
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Horizontal pressure vessel in steel
A pressure vessel is a container designed to hold gases or liquids at a pressure
substantially different from the ambient pressure.
The pressure differential is dangerous, and fatal accidents have occurred in the
history of pressure vessel development and operation. Consequently, pressure ve
ssel design, manufacture, and operation are regulated by engineering authorities
backed by legislation. For these reasons, the definition of a pressure vessel v
aries from country to country, but involves parameters such as maximum safe oper
ating pressure and temperature, and are engineered with a safety factor, corrosi
on allowance, minimum design temperature (for brittle fracture), and involve non
destructive testing, such as ultrasonic testing, radiography, and pressure tests
, usually involving water, also known as a hydrotest, but could be pneumatically
tested involving air or another gas. The preferred test is hydrostatic testing
because it's a much safer method of testing as it releases much less energy if f
racture were to occur (water does not rapidly increase its volume while rapid de
pressurization occurs, unlike gases like air, i.e. gasses fail explosively). In
the United States, as with many other countries, it is the law that vessels over
a certain size and pressure (15 PSIg) be built to Code, in the United States th
at Code is the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (BPVC), these vessels also r
equire an Authorized Inspector to sign off on every new vessel constructed and e
ach vessel has a nameplate with pertinent information about the vessel such as m
aximum allowable working pressure, maximum temperature, minimum design metal tem
perature, what company manufactured it, the date, its registration number (throu
gh the National Board), and ASME's official stamp for pressure vessels (U-stamp)
, making the vessel traceable and officially an ASME Code vessel.
Contents
1 History of pressure vessels
2 Pressure vessel features
2.1 Shape of a pressure vessel
2.2 Construction materials
2.3 Safety features
2.3.1 Leak before burst
2.3.2 Safety valves

2.4 Maintenance features


2.4.1 Pressure vessel closures
3 Uses
4 Alternatives to pressure vessels
5 Design
5.1 Scaling
5.1.1 Scaling of stress in walls of vessel
5.1.2 Spherical vessel
5.1.3 Cylindrical vessel with hemispherical ends
5.1.4 Cylindrical vessel with semi-elliptical ends
5.1.5 Gas storage
5.2 Stress in thin-walled pressure vessels
5.3 Winding angle of carbon fibre vessels
5.4 Operation standards
5.4.1 List of standards
6 See also
7 Notes
8 References
9 Further reading
10 External links
History of pressure vessels
A 10,000 psi (69 MPa) pressure vessel from 1919, wrapped with high tensile steel
banding and steel rods to secure the end caps.
The earliest documented design of pressure vessels is described in the book Code
x Madrid I, by Leonardo da Vinci, in 1495, where containers of pressurized air w
ere theorized to lift heavy weights underwater,[1] however vessels resembling wh
at are used today did not come about until the 1800s where steam was generated i
n boilers helping to spur the industrial revolution.[1] However, with poor mater
ial quality and manufacturing techniques along with improper knowledge of design
, operation and maintenance there was a large number of damaging and often fatal
explosions associated with these boilers and pressure vessels, with a death occ
urring on a nearly daily basis in the United States.[1] Local providences and st
ates in the US began enacting rules for constructing these vessels after some pa
rticularly devastating vessel failures occurred killing dozens of people at a ti
me, which made it difficult for manufacturers to keep up with the varied rules f
rom one location to another and the first pressure vessel code was developed sta
rting in 1911 and released in 1914, starting the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel
Code (BPVC).[1] In an early effort to design a tank capable of withstanding pre
ssures up to 10,000 psi (69 MPa), a 6-inch (150 mm) diameter tank was developed
in 1919 that was spirally-wound with two layers of high tensile strength steel w
ire to prevent sidewall rupture, and the end caps longitudinally reinforced with
lengthwise high-tensile rods.[2] The need for high pressure and temperature ves
sels for petroleum refineries and chemical plants gave rise to vessels joined wi
th welding instead of rivets (which were unsuitable for the pressures and temper
atures required) and in 1920s and 1930s the BPVC included welding as an acceptab
le means of construction, and welding is the main means of joining metal vessels
today.[1]
There have been many advancements in the field of pressure vessel engineering su
ch as advanced non-destructive examination, phased array ultrasonic testing and
radiography, new material grades with increased corrosion resistance and stronge
r materials, and new ways to join materials such as explosion welding (to attach
one metal sheet to another, usually a thin corrosion resistant metal like stain
less steel to a stronger metal like carbon steel), friction stir welding (which
attaches the metals together without melting the metal), advanced theories and m
eans of more accurately assessing the stresses encountered in vessels such as wi
th the use of Finite Element Analysis, allowing the vessels to be built safer an
d more efficiently. Today vessels in the USA require BPVC stamping but the BPVC

is not just a domestic code, many other countries have adopted the BPVC as their
official code. There are, however, other official codes in some countries (some
of which rely on portions of and reference the BPVC), Japan, Australia, Canada,
Britain, and Europe have their own codes. Regardless of the country nearly all
recognize the inherent potential hazards of pressure vessels and the need for st
andards and codes regulating their design and construction.
Pressure vessel features
Shape of a pressure vessel
Pressure vessels can theoretically be almost any
ons of spheres, cylinders, and cones are usually
cylinder with end caps called heads. Head shapes
ical or dished (torispherical). More complicated
uch harder to analyze for safe operation and are
onstruct.

shape, but shapes made of secti


employed. A common design is a
are frequently either hemispher
shapes have historically been m
usually far more difficult to c

Spherical gas container.


Cylindrical pressure vessel.
Picture of the bottom of an aerosol spray can.
Fire Extinguisher with rounded rectangle pressure vessel
Theoretically, a spherical pressure vessel has approximately twice the strength
of a cylindrical pressure vessel with the same wall thickness,[3] and is the ide
al shape to hold internal pressure.[1] However, a spherical shape is difficult t
o manufacture, and therefore more expensive, so most pressure vessels are cylind
rical with 2:1 semi-elliptical heads or end caps on each end. Smaller pressure v
essels are assembled from a pipe and two covers. For cylindrical vessels with a
diameter up to 600 mm (NPS of 24 in), it is possible to use seamless pipe for th
e shell, thus avoiding many inspection and testing issues, mainly the nondestruc
tive examination of radiography for the long seam if required. A disadvantage of
these vessels is that greater diameters are more expensive, so that for example
the most economic shape of a 1,000 litres (35 cu ft), 250 bars (3,600 psi) pres
sure vessel might be a diameter of 91.44 centimetres (36 in) and a length of 1.7
018 metres (67 in) including the 2:1 semi-elliptical domed end caps.
Construction materials
Composite overwrapped pressure vessel with titanium liner.
Many pressure vessels are made of steel. To manufacture a cylindrical or spheric
al pressure vessel, rolled and possibly forged parts would have to be welded tog
ether. Some mechanical properties of steel, achieved by rolling or forging, coul
d be adversely affected by welding, unless special precautions are taken. In add
ition to adequate mechanical strength, current standards dictate the use of stee
l with a high impact resistance, especially for vessels used in low temperatures
. In applications where carbon steel would suffer corrosion, special corrosion r
esistant material should also be used.
Some pressure vessels are made of composite materials, such as filament wound co
mposite using carbon fibre held in place with a polymer. Due to the very high te
nsile strength of carbon fibre these vessels can be very light, but are much mor
e difficult to manufacture. The composite material may be wound around a metal l
iner, forming a composite overwrapped pressure vessel.
Other very common materials include polymers such as PET in carbonated beverage
containers and copper in plumbing.
Pressure vessels may be lined with various metals, ceramics, or polymers to prev
ent leaking and protect the structure of the vessel from the contained medium. T

his liner may also carry a significant portion of the pressure load.[4][5]
Pressure Vessels may also be constructed from concrete (PCV) or other materials
which are weak in tension. Cabling, wrapped around the vessel or within the wall
or the vessel itself, provides the necessary tension to resist the internal pre
ssure. A "leakproof steel thin membrane" lines the internal wall of the vessel.
Such vessels can be assembled from modular pieces and so have "no inherent size
limitations".[6] There is also a high order of redundancy thanks to the large nu
mber of individual cables resisting the internal pressure.
Safety features
Leak before burst
Leak before burst describes a pressure vessel designed such that a crack in the
vessel will grow through the wall, allowing the contained fluid to escape and re
ducing the pressure, prior to growing so large as to cause fracture at the opera
ting pressure.
Many pressure vessel standards, including the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Co
de[citation needed] and the AIAA metallic pressure vessel standard, either requi
re pressure vessel designs to be leak before burst, or require pressure vessels
to meet more stringent requirements for fatigue and fracture if they are not sho
wn to be leak before burst.[7]
Safety valves
Example of a valve used for gas cylinders.
As the pressure vessel is designed to a pressure, there is typically a safety va
lve or relief valve to ensure that this pressure is not exceeded in operation.
Maintenance features
Pressure vessel closures
Pressure vessel closures are pressure retaining structures designed to provide q
uick access to pipelines, pressure vessels, pig traps, filters and filtration sy
stems. Typically pressure vessel closures allow maintenance personnel.
Uses
Pressure vessels are used in a variety of applications in both industry and the
private sector. They appear in these sectors as industrial compressed air receiv
ers and domestic hot water storage tanks. Other examples of pressure vessels are
diving cylinders, recompression chambers, distillation towers, pressure reactor
s, autoclaves, and many other vessels in mining operations, oil refineries and p
etrochemical plants, nuclear reactor vessels, submarine and space ship habitats,
pneumatic reservoirs, hydraulic reservoirs under pressure, rail vehicle airbrak
e reservoirs, road vehicle airbrake reservoirs, and storage vessels for liquifie
d gases such as ammonia, chlorine, and LPG (propane, butane).
A unique application of a pressure vessel is the passenger cabin of an airliner;
The outer skin carries both the aircraft maneuvering loads and the cabin pressu
rization loads.
A pressure tank connected to a water well and domestic hot water system.
A few pressure tanks, here used to hold propane.
An expansion vessel for heating systems.
A pressure vessel used as a kier.
A pressure vessel used for The Boeing Company s CST-100 spacecraft.
Alternatives to pressure vessels

Natural gas storage


Gas holder
Depending on the application and local circumstances, alternatives to pressure v
essels exist. Examples can be seen in domestic water collection systems, where t
he following may be used:
Gravity controlled systems[8] which typically consist of an unpressurized wa
ter tank at an elevation higher than the point of use. Pressure at the point of
use is the result of the hydrostatic pressure caused by the elevation difference
. Gravity systems produce 0.43 pounds per square inch (3.0 kPa) per foot of wate
r head (elevation difference). A municipal water supply or pumped water is typic
ally around 90 pounds per square inch (620 kPa).
Inline pump controllers or pressure-sensitive pumps.[9]
Design
Scaling
No matter what shape it takes, the minimum mass of a pressure vessel scales with
the pressure and volume it contains and is inversely proportional to the streng
th to weight ratio of the construction material (minimum mass decreases as stren
gth increases[10]).
Scaling of stress in walls of vessel
Pressure vessels are held together against the gas pressure due to tensile force
s within the walls of the container. The normal (tensile) stress in the walls of
the container is proportional to the pressure and radius of the vessel and inve
rsely proportional to the thickness of the walls.[11] Therefore, pressure vessel
s are designed to have a thickness proportional to the radius of tank and the pr
essure of the tank and inversely proportional to the maximum allowed normal stre
ss of the particular material used in the walls of the container.
Because (for a given pressure) the thickness of the walls scales with the radius
of the tank, the mass of a tank (which scales as the length times radius times
thickness of the wall for a cylindrical tank) scales with the volume of the gas
held (which scales as length times radius squared). The exact formula varies wit
h the tank shape but depends on the density, ?, and maximum allowable stress s o
f the material in addition to the pressure P and volume V of the vessel. (See be
low for the exact equations for the stress in the walls.)
Spherical vessel
For a sphere, the minimum mass of a pressure vessel is
M = 3 2 P V ? s {\displaystyle M={3 \over 2}PV{\rho \over \sigma }} M={3 \ov
er 2}PV{\rho \over \sigma },
where:
M {\displaystyle
P {\displaystyle
ssure),
V {\displaystyle
? {\displaystyle
s {\displaystyle
can tolerate.[12]

M} M is mass,
P} P is the pressure difference from ambient (the gauge pre
V} V is volume,
\rho } \rho is the density of the pressure vessel material,
\sigma } \sigma is the maximum working stress that material

Other shapes besides a sphere have constants larger than 3/2 (infinite cylinders
take 2), although some tanks, such as non-spherical wound composite tanks can a
pproach this.

Cylindrical vessel with hemispherical ends


This is sometimes called a "bullet"[citation needed] for its shape, although in
geometric terms it is a capsule.
For a cylinder with hemispherical ends,
M = 2 p R 2 ( R + W ) P ? s {\displaystyle M=2\pi R^{2}(R+W)P{\rho \over \si
gma }} M=2\pi R^{2}(R+W)P{\rho \over \sigma },
where
R is the radius
W is the middle cylinder width only, and the overall width is W + 2R
Cylindrical vessel with semi-elliptical ends
In a vessel with an aspect ratio of middle cylinder width to radius of 2:1,
M = 6 p R 3 P ? s {\displaystyle M=6\pi R^{3}P{\rho \over \sigma }} M=6\pi R
^{3}P{\rho \over \sigma }.
Gas storage
In looking at the first equation, the factor PV, in SI units, is in units of (pr
essurization) energy. For a stored gas, PV is proportional to the mass of gas at
a given temperature, thus
M = 3 2 n R T ? s {\displaystyle M={3 \over 2}nRT{\rho \over \sigma }} M={3
\over 2}nRT{\rho \over \sigma }. (see gas law)
The other factors are constant for a given vessel shape and material. So we can
see that there is no theoretical "efficiency of scale", in terms of the ratio of
pressure vessel mass to pressurization energy, or of pressure vessel mass to st
ored gas mass. For storing gases, "tankage efficiency" is independent of pressur
e, at least for the same temperature.
So, for example, a typical design for a minimum mass tank to hold helium (as a p
ressurant gas) on a rocket would use a spherical chamber for a minimum shape con
stant, carbon fiber for best possible ? / s {\displaystyle \rho /\sigma } \rho /
\sigma , and very cold helium for best possible M / p V {\displaystyle M/{pV}} M
/{pV}.
Stress in thin-walled pressure vessels
Stress in a shallow-walled pressure vessel in the shape of a sphere is
s ? = s l o n g = p r 2 t {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }=\sigma _{\rm {lon
g}}={\frac {pr}{2t}}} \sigma _{\theta }=\sigma _{{{\rm {long}}}}={\frac {pr}{2t}
},
where s ? {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }} \sigma _{\theta } is hoop stress, or
stress in the circumferential direction, s l o n g {\displaystyle \sigma _{long
}} \sigma _{{long}} is stress in the longitudinal direction, p is internal gauge
pressure, r is the inner radius of the sphere, and t is thickness of the sphere
wall. A vessel can be considered "shallow-walled" if the diameter is at least 1
0 times (sometimes cited as 20 times) greater than the wall depth.[13]
Stress in the cylinder body of a pressure vessel.
Stress in a shallow-walled pressure vessel in the shape of a cylinder is

s ? = p r t {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }={\frac {pr}{t}}} \sigma _{\thet


a }={\frac {pr}{t}},
s l o n g = p r 2 t {\displaystyle \sigma _{\rm {long}}={\frac {pr}{2t}}} \s
igma _{{{\rm {long}}}}={\frac {pr}{2t}},
where:
s ? {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }} \sigma _{\theta } is hoop stress, or s
tress in the circumferential direction
s l o n g {\displaystyle \sigma _{long}} \sigma _{{long}} is stress in the l
ongitudinal direction
p is internal gauge pressure
r is the inner radius of the cylinder
t is thickness of the cylinder wall.
Almost all pressure vessel design standards contain variations of these two form
ulas with additional empirical terms to account for wall thickness tolerances, q
uality control of welds and in-service corrosion allowances.
For example, the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (BPVC) (UG-27) formulas ar
e:[14]
Spherical shells:
s ? = s l o n g = p ( r + 0.2 t ) 2 t E {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }=\si
gma _{\rm {long}}={\frac {p(r+0.2t)}{2tE}}} \sigma _{\theta }=\sigma _{{{\rm {lo
ng}}}}={\frac {p(r+0.2t)}{2tE}}
Cylindrical shells:
s ? = p ( r + 0.6 t ) t E {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }={\frac {p(r+0.6t)
}{tE}}} \sigma _{\theta }={\frac {p(r+0.6t)}{tE}}
s l o n g = p ( r - 0.4 t ) 2 t E {\displaystyle \sigma _{\rm {long}}={\frac
{p(r-0.4t)}{2tE}}} \sigma _{{{\rm {long}}}}={\frac {p(r-0.4t)}{2tE}}
where E is the joint efficient, and all others variables as stated above.
The factor of safety is often included in these formulas as well, in the case of
the ASME BPVC this term is included in the material stress value when solving f
or pressure or thickness.
Winding angle of carbon fibre vessels
Wound infinite cylindrical shapes optimally take a winding angle of 54.7 degrees
, as this gives the necessary twice the strength in the circumferential directio
n to the longitudinal.[15]
Operation standards
Pressure vessels are designed to operate safely at a specific pressure and tempe
rature, technically referred to as the "Design Pressure" and "Design Temperature
". A vessel that is inadequately designed to handle a high pressure constitutes
a very significant safety hazard. Because of that, the design and certification
of pressure vessels is governed by design codes such as the ASME Boiler and Pres
sure Vessel Code in North America, the Pressure Equipment Directive of the EU (P
ED), Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS), CSA B51 in Canada, Australian Standards
in Australia and other international standards like Lloyd's, Germanischer Lloyd
, Det Norske Veritas, Socit Gnrale de Surveillance (SGS S.A.), Lloyd s Register Energy
Nederland (formerly known as Stoomwezen) etc.
Note that where the pressure-volume product is part of a safety standard, any in
compressible liquid in the vessel can be excluded as it does not contribute to t

he potential energy stored in the vessel, so only the volume of the compressible
part such as gas is used.
List of standards
EN 13445: The current European Standard, harmonized with the Pressure Equipm
ent Directive (97/23/EC). Extensively used in Europe.
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section VIII: Rules for Construction of
Pressure Vessels.
BS 5500: Former British Standard, replaced in the UK by BS EN 13445 but reta
ined under the name PD 5500 for the design and construction of export equipment.
AD Merkbltter: German standard, harmonized with the Pressure Equipment Direct
ive.
EN 286 (Parts 1 to 4): European standard for simple pressure vessels (air ta
nks), harmonized with Council Directive 87/404/EEC.
BS 4994: Specification for design and construction of vessels and tanks in r
einforced plastics.
ASME PVHO: US standard for Pressure Vessels for Human Occupancy.
CODAP: French Code for Construction of Unfired Pressure Vessel.
AS/NZS 1200: Pressure equipment.[16]
AS/NZS 3788:2006[17]
API 510.[18]
ISO 11439: Compressed natural gas (CNG) cylinders[19]
IS 2825-1969 (RE1977)_code_unfired_Pressure_vessels.
FRP tanks and vessels.
AIAA S-080-1998: AIAA Standard for Space Systems - Metallic Pressure Vessels
, Pressurized Structures, and Pressure Components.
AIAA S-081A-2006: AIAA Standard for Space Systems - Composite Overwrapped Pr
essure Vessels (COPVs).
B51-09 Canadian Boiler, pressure vessel, and pressure piping code.
HSE guidelines for pressure systems.
Stoomwezen: Former pressure vessels code in the Netherlands, also known as R
ToD: Regels voor Toestellen onder Druk (Dutch Rules for Pressure Vessels).
See also
American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)
Bottled gas
Composite overwrapped pressure vessel
Compressed air energy storage
Compressed natural gas
Demister
Fire-tube boiler
Gas cylinder
Gasket
Head (vessel)
Minimum Design Metal Temperature (MDMT)
Pressure bomb - a device for measuring leaf water potentials
Rainwater harvesting
Relief valve
Safety valve
Shell and tube heat exchanger
Vapor-Liquid Separator or Knock-Out Drum
Vortex breaker
Water well
Water-tube boiler
Notes
Nilsen, Kyle. (2011) "Development of low pressure filter testing vessel and anal
ysis of electrospun nanofiber membranes for water treatment"

Ingenious Coal-Gas Motor Tank, Popular Science monthly, January 1919, page 27, S
canned by Google Books: https://books.google.com/books?id=HykDAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA13
Hearn, E.J. (1997). Mechanics of Materials 1. An Introduction to the Mechanics o
f Elastic and Plastic Deformation of Solids and Structural Materials - Third Edi
tion. Chapter 9: Butterworth-Heinemann. pp. 199 203. ISBN 0-7506-3265-8.
NASA Tech Briefs, "Making a Metal-Lined Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessel",
1 Mar 2005.
Frietas, O., "Maintenance and Repair of Glass-Lined Equipment", Chemical Enginee
ring, 1 Jul 2007.
"High Pressure Vessels",D. Freyer and J. Harvey, 1998
ANSI/AIAA S-080-1998, Space Systems - Metallic Pressure Vessels, Pressurized Str
uctures, and Pressure Components, 5.1
Pushard, Doug (2005). "Domestic water collection systems also sometimes able to
function on gravity". Harvesth2o.com. Retrieved 2009-04-17.[verification needed]
Pushard, Doug. "Alternatives to pressure vessels in domestic water systems". Har
vesth2o.com. Retrieved 2009-04-17.
Puskarich, Paul (2009-05-01). "Strengthened Glass for Pipleine Systems" (PDF). M
IT. Retrieved 2009-04-17.
Beer, Ferdinand P.; Johnston, Jr., E. Russel; DeWolf, John T. "7.9". Mechanics o
f Materials (fourth ed.). McGraw-Hill. p. 463. ISBN 9780073659350.
For a sphere the thickness d = rP/2s, where r is the radius of the tank. The vol
ume of the spherical surface then is 4pr2d = 4pr3P/2s. The mass is determined by
multiplying by the density of the material that makes up the walls of the spher
ical vessel. Further the volume of the gas is (4pr3)/3. Combining these equation
s give the above results. The equations for the other geometries are derived in
a similar manner
Richard Budynas, J. Nisbett, Shigley's Mechanical Engineering Design, 8th ed., N
ew York:McGraw-Hill, ISBN 978-0-07-312193-2, pg 108
An International Code 2007 ASME Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code. The Americal Soci
ety of Mechanical Engineers. 2007.
MIT pressure vessel lecture
"AS 1200 Pressure Vessels". SAI Global. Retrieved 14 November 2011.
"AS_NZS 3788: 2006 Pressure equipment - In-service inspection". SAI Global. Retr
ieved September 4, 2015.
"Pressure Vessel Inspection Code: In-Service Inspection, Rating, Repair, and Alt
eration". API. June 2006.
."Gas cylinders - High pressure cylinders for the on-board storage of natura
l gas as a fuel for automotive vehicles". ISO. 2006-07-18. Retrieved 2009-04-17.
References
A.C. Ugural, S.K. Fenster, Advanced Strength and Applied Elasticity, 4th ed.
E.P. Popov, Engineering Mechanics of Solids, 1st ed.
Megyesy, Eugene F. "Pressure Vessel Handbook, 14th Edition." PV Publishing,
Inc. Oklahoma City, OK
Further reading
Megyesy, Eugene F. (2008, 14th ed.) Pressure Vessel Handbook. PV Publishing,
Inc.: Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA. www.pressurevesselhandbook.com Design handb
ook for pressure vessels based on the ASME code.
External links
Look up pressure vessel in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Pressure vessel.
Use of pressure vessels in oil and gas industry
Basic formulas for thin walled pressure vessels; with examples
Educational Excel spreadsheets for ASME head, shell and nozzle designs

ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel website


Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology
EU Pressure Equipment Directive website
EU Simple Pressure Vessel Directive
EU Classification
Pressure Vessel attachments http://oakridgebellows.com/metal-expansion-joint
s/technical-videos/lugs-on-pipe-and-vessels-new
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Pressure vessel
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Horizontal pressure vessel in steel
A pressure vessel is a container designed to hold gases or liquids at a pressure
substantially different from the ambient pressure.
The pressure differential is dangerous, and fatal accidents have occurred in the
history of pressure vessel development and operation. Consequently, pressure ve
ssel design, manufacture, and operation are regulated by engineering authorities
backed by legislation. For these reasons, the definition of a pressure vessel v
aries from country to country, but involves parameters such as maximum safe oper
ating pressure and temperature, and are engineered with a safety factor, corrosi
on allowance, minimum design temperature (for brittle fracture), and involve non
destructive testing, such as ultrasonic testing, radiography, and pressure tests
, usually involving water, also known as a hydrotest, but could be pneumatically
tested involving air or another gas. The preferred test is hydrostatic testing
because it's a much safer method of testing as it releases much less energy if f
racture were to occur (water does not rapidly increase its volume while rapid de
pressurization occurs, unlike gases like air, i.e. gasses fail explosively). In
the United States, as with many other countries, it is the law that vessels over
a certain size and pressure (15 PSIg) be built to Code, in the United States th
at Code is the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (BPVC), these vessels also r
equire an Authorized Inspector to sign off on every new vessel constructed and e
ach vessel has a nameplate with pertinent information about the vessel such as m
aximum allowable working pressure, maximum temperature, minimum design metal tem
perature, what company manufactured it, the date, its registration number (throu
gh the National Board), and ASME's official stamp for pressure vessels (U-stamp)
, making the vessel traceable and officially an ASME Code vessel.
Contents
1 History of pressure vessels
2 Pressure vessel features
2.1 Shape of a pressure vessel
2.2 Construction materials
2.3 Safety features
2.3.1 Leak before burst
2.3.2 Safety valves
2.4 Maintenance features
2.4.1 Pressure vessel closures
3 Uses
4 Alternatives to pressure vessels
5 Design

5.1 Scaling
5.1.1 Scaling of stress in walls of vessel
5.1.2 Spherical vessel
5.1.3 Cylindrical vessel with hemispherical ends
5.1.4 Cylindrical vessel with semi-elliptical ends
5.1.5 Gas storage
5.2 Stress in thin-walled pressure vessels
5.3 Winding angle of carbon fibre vessels
5.4 Operation standards
5.4.1 List of standards
6 See also
7 Notes
8 References
9 Further reading
10 External links
History of pressure vessels
A 10,000 psi (69 MPa) pressure vessel from 1919, wrapped with high tensile steel
banding and steel rods to secure the end caps.
The earliest documented design of pressure vessels is described in the book Code
x Madrid I, by Leonardo da Vinci, in 1495, where containers of pressurized air w
ere theorized to lift heavy weights underwater,[1] however vessels resembling wh
at are used today did not come about until the 1800s where steam was generated i
n boilers helping to spur the industrial revolution.[1] However, with poor mater
ial quality and manufacturing techniques along with improper knowledge of design
, operation and maintenance there was a large number of damaging and often fatal
explosions associated with these boilers and pressure vessels, with a death occ
urring on a nearly daily basis in the United States.[1] Local providences and st
ates in the US began enacting rules for constructing these vessels after some pa
rticularly devastating vessel failures occurred killing dozens of people at a ti
me, which made it difficult for manufacturers to keep up with the varied rules f
rom one location to another and the first pressure vessel code was developed sta
rting in 1911 and released in 1914, starting the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel
Code (BPVC).[1] In an early effort to design a tank capable of withstanding pre
ssures up to 10,000 psi (69 MPa), a 6-inch (150 mm) diameter tank was developed
in 1919 that was spirally-wound with two layers of high tensile strength steel w
ire to prevent sidewall rupture, and the end caps longitudinally reinforced with
lengthwise high-tensile rods.[2] The need for high pressure and temperature ves
sels for petroleum refineries and chemical plants gave rise to vessels joined wi
th welding instead of rivets (which were unsuitable for the pressures and temper
atures required) and in 1920s and 1930s the BPVC included welding as an acceptab
le means of construction, and welding is the main means of joining metal vessels
today.[1]
There have been many advancements in the field of pressure vessel engineering su
ch as advanced non-destructive examination, phased array ultrasonic testing and
radiography, new material grades with increased corrosion resistance and stronge
r materials, and new ways to join materials such as explosion welding (to attach
one metal sheet to another, usually a thin corrosion resistant metal like stain
less steel to a stronger metal like carbon steel), friction stir welding (which
attaches the metals together without melting the metal), advanced theories and m
eans of more accurately assessing the stresses encountered in vessels such as wi
th the use of Finite Element Analysis, allowing the vessels to be built safer an
d more efficiently. Today vessels in the USA require BPVC stamping but the BPVC
is not just a domestic code, many other countries have adopted the BPVC as their
official code. There are, however, other official codes in some countries (some
of which rely on portions of and reference the BPVC), Japan, Australia, Canada,
Britain, and Europe have their own codes. Regardless of the country nearly all
recognize the inherent potential hazards of pressure vessels and the need for st

andards and codes regulating their design and construction.


Pressure vessel features
Shape of a pressure vessel
Pressure vessels can theoretically be almost any
ons of spheres, cylinders, and cones are usually
cylinder with end caps called heads. Head shapes
ical or dished (torispherical). More complicated
uch harder to analyze for safe operation and are
onstruct.

shape, but shapes made of secti


employed. A common design is a
are frequently either hemispher
shapes have historically been m
usually far more difficult to c

Spherical gas container.


Cylindrical pressure vessel.
Picture of the bottom of an aerosol spray can.
Fire Extinguisher with rounded rectangle pressure vessel
Theoretically, a spherical pressure vessel has approximately twice the strength
of a cylindrical pressure vessel with the same wall thickness,[3] and is the ide
al shape to hold internal pressure.[1] However, a spherical shape is difficult t
o manufacture, and therefore more expensive, so most pressure vessels are cylind
rical with 2:1 semi-elliptical heads or end caps on each end. Smaller pressure v
essels are assembled from a pipe and two covers. For cylindrical vessels with a
diameter up to 600 mm (NPS of 24 in), it is possible to use seamless pipe for th
e shell, thus avoiding many inspection and testing issues, mainly the nondestruc
tive examination of radiography for the long seam if required. A disadvantage of
these vessels is that greater diameters are more expensive, so that for example
the most economic shape of a 1,000 litres (35 cu ft), 250 bars (3,600 psi) pres
sure vessel might be a diameter of 91.44 centimetres (36 in) and a length of 1.7
018 metres (67 in) including the 2:1 semi-elliptical domed end caps.
Construction materials
Composite overwrapped pressure vessel with titanium liner.
Many pressure vessels are made of steel. To manufacture a cylindrical or spheric
al pressure vessel, rolled and possibly forged parts would have to be welded tog
ether. Some mechanical properties of steel, achieved by rolling or forging, coul
d be adversely affected by welding, unless special precautions are taken. In add
ition to adequate mechanical strength, current standards dictate the use of stee
l with a high impact resistance, especially for vessels used in low temperatures
. In applications where carbon steel would suffer corrosion, special corrosion r
esistant material should also be used.
Some pressure vessels are made of composite materials, such as filament wound co
mposite using carbon fibre held in place with a polymer. Due to the very high te
nsile strength of carbon fibre these vessels can be very light, but are much mor
e difficult to manufacture. The composite material may be wound around a metal l
iner, forming a composite overwrapped pressure vessel.
Other very common materials include polymers such as PET in carbonated beverage
containers and copper in plumbing.
Pressure vessels may be lined with various metals, ceramics, or polymers to prev
ent leaking and protect the structure of the vessel from the contained medium. T
his liner may also carry a significant portion of the pressure load.[4][5]
Pressure Vessels may also be constructed from concrete (PCV) or other materials
which are weak in tension. Cabling, wrapped around the vessel or within the wall
or the vessel itself, provides the necessary tension to resist the internal pre

ssure. A "leakproof steel thin membrane" lines the internal wall of the vessel.
Such vessels can be assembled from modular pieces and so have "no inherent size
limitations".[6] There is also a high order of redundancy thanks to the large nu
mber of individual cables resisting the internal pressure.
Safety features
Leak before burst
Leak before burst describes a pressure vessel designed such that a crack in the
vessel will grow through the wall, allowing the contained fluid to escape and re
ducing the pressure, prior to growing so large as to cause fracture at the opera
ting pressure.
Many pressure vessel standards, including the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Co
de[citation needed] and the AIAA metallic pressure vessel standard, either requi
re pressure vessel designs to be leak before burst, or require pressure vessels
to meet more stringent requirements for fatigue and fracture if they are not sho
wn to be leak before burst.[7]
Safety valves
Example of a valve used for gas cylinders.
As the pressure vessel is designed to a pressure, there is typically a safety va
lve or relief valve to ensure that this pressure is not exceeded in operation.
Maintenance features
Pressure vessel closures
Pressure vessel closures are pressure retaining structures designed to provide q
uick access to pipelines, pressure vessels, pig traps, filters and filtration sy
stems. Typically pressure vessel closures allow maintenance personnel.
Uses
Pressure vessels are used in a variety of applications in both industry and the
private sector. They appear in these sectors as industrial compressed air receiv
ers and domestic hot water storage tanks. Other examples of pressure vessels are
diving cylinders, recompression chambers, distillation towers, pressure reactor
s, autoclaves, and many other vessels in mining operations, oil refineries and p
etrochemical plants, nuclear reactor vessels, submarine and space ship habitats,
pneumatic reservoirs, hydraulic reservoirs under pressure, rail vehicle airbrak
e reservoirs, road vehicle airbrake reservoirs, and storage vessels for liquifie
d gases such as ammonia, chlorine, and LPG (propane, butane).
A unique application of a pressure vessel is the passenger cabin of an airliner;
The outer skin carries both the aircraft maneuvering loads and the cabin pressu
rization loads.
A pressure tank connected to a water well and domestic hot water system.
A few pressure tanks, here used to hold propane.
An expansion vessel for heating systems.
A pressure vessel used as a kier.
A pressure vessel used for The Boeing Company s CST-100 spacecraft.
Alternatives to pressure vessels
Natural gas storage
Gas holder
Depending on the application and local circumstances, alternatives to pressure v

essels exist. Examples can be seen in domestic water collection systems, where t
he following may be used:
Gravity controlled systems[8] which typically consist of an unpressurized wa
ter tank at an elevation higher than the point of use. Pressure at the point of
use is the result of the hydrostatic pressure caused by the elevation difference
. Gravity systems produce 0.43 pounds per square inch (3.0 kPa) per foot of wate
r head (elevation difference). A municipal water supply or pumped water is typic
ally around 90 pounds per square inch (620 kPa).
Inline pump controllers or pressure-sensitive pumps.[9]
Design
Scaling
No matter what shape it takes, the minimum mass of a pressure vessel scales with
the pressure and volume it contains and is inversely proportional to the streng
th to weight ratio of the construction material (minimum mass decreases as stren
gth increases[10]).
Scaling of stress in walls of vessel
Pressure vessels are held together against the gas pressure due to tensile force
s within the walls of the container. The normal (tensile) stress in the walls of
the container is proportional to the pressure and radius of the vessel and inve
rsely proportional to the thickness of the walls.[11] Therefore, pressure vessel
s are designed to have a thickness proportional to the radius of tank and the pr
essure of the tank and inversely proportional to the maximum allowed normal stre
ss of the particular material used in the walls of the container.
Because (for a given pressure) the thickness of the walls scales with the radius
of the tank, the mass of a tank (which scales as the length times radius times
thickness of the wall for a cylindrical tank) scales with the volume of the gas
held (which scales as length times radius squared). The exact formula varies wit
h the tank shape but depends on the density, ?, and maximum allowable stress s o
f the material in addition to the pressure P and volume V of the vessel. (See be
low for the exact equations for the stress in the walls.)
Spherical vessel
For a sphere, the minimum mass of a pressure vessel is
M = 3 2 P V ? s {\displaystyle M={3 \over 2}PV{\rho \over \sigma }} M={3 \ov
er 2}PV{\rho \over \sigma },
where:
M {\displaystyle
P {\displaystyle
ssure),
V {\displaystyle
? {\displaystyle
s {\displaystyle
can tolerate.[12]

M} M is mass,
P} P is the pressure difference from ambient (the gauge pre
V} V is volume,
\rho } \rho is the density of the pressure vessel material,
\sigma } \sigma is the maximum working stress that material

Other shapes besides a sphere have constants larger than 3/2 (infinite cylinders
take 2), although some tanks, such as non-spherical wound composite tanks can a
pproach this.
Cylindrical vessel with hemispherical ends
This is sometimes called a "bullet"[citation needed] for its shape, although in
geometric terms it is a capsule.

For a cylinder with hemispherical ends,


M = 2 p R 2 ( R + W ) P ? s {\displaystyle M=2\pi R^{2}(R+W)P{\rho \over \si
gma }} M=2\pi R^{2}(R+W)P{\rho \over \sigma },
where
R is the radius
W is the middle cylinder width only, and the overall width is W + 2R
Cylindrical vessel with semi-elliptical ends
In a vessel with an aspect ratio of middle cylinder width to radius of 2:1,
M = 6 p R 3 P ? s {\displaystyle M=6\pi R^{3}P{\rho \over \sigma }} M=6\pi R
^{3}P{\rho \over \sigma }.
Gas storage
In looking at the first equation, the factor PV, in SI units, is in units of (pr
essurization) energy. For a stored gas, PV is proportional to the mass of gas at
a given temperature, thus
M = 3 2 n R T ? s {\displaystyle M={3 \over 2}nRT{\rho \over \sigma }} M={3
\over 2}nRT{\rho \over \sigma }. (see gas law)
The other factors are constant for a given vessel shape and material. So we can
see that there is no theoretical "efficiency of scale", in terms of the ratio of
pressure vessel mass to pressurization energy, or of pressure vessel mass to st
ored gas mass. For storing gases, "tankage efficiency" is independent of pressur
e, at least for the same temperature.
So, for example, a typical design for a minimum mass tank to hold helium (as a p
ressurant gas) on a rocket would use a spherical chamber for a minimum shape con
stant, carbon fiber for best possible ? / s {\displaystyle \rho /\sigma } \rho /
\sigma , and very cold helium for best possible M / p V {\displaystyle M/{pV}} M
/{pV}.
Stress in thin-walled pressure vessels
Stress in a shallow-walled pressure vessel in the shape of a sphere is
s ? = s l o n g = p r 2 t {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }=\sigma _{\rm {lon
g}}={\frac {pr}{2t}}} \sigma _{\theta }=\sigma _{{{\rm {long}}}}={\frac {pr}{2t}
},
where s ? {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }} \sigma _{\theta } is hoop stress, or
stress in the circumferential direction, s l o n g {\displaystyle \sigma _{long
}} \sigma _{{long}} is stress in the longitudinal direction, p is internal gauge
pressure, r is the inner radius of the sphere, and t is thickness of the sphere
wall. A vessel can be considered "shallow-walled" if the diameter is at least 1
0 times (sometimes cited as 20 times) greater than the wall depth.[13]
Stress in the cylinder body of a pressure vessel.
Stress in a shallow-walled pressure vessel in the shape of a cylinder is
s ? = p r t {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }={\frac {pr}{t}}} \sigma _{\thet
a }={\frac {pr}{t}},
s l o n g = p r 2 t {\displaystyle \sigma _{\rm {long}}={\frac {pr}{2t}}} \s
igma _{{{\rm {long}}}}={\frac {pr}{2t}},

where:
s ? {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }} \sigma _{\theta } is hoop stress, or s
tress in the circumferential direction
s l o n g {\displaystyle \sigma _{long}} \sigma _{{long}} is stress in the l
ongitudinal direction
p is internal gauge pressure
r is the inner radius of the cylinder
t is thickness of the cylinder wall.
Almost all pressure vessel design standards contain variations of these two form
ulas with additional empirical terms to account for wall thickness tolerances, q
uality control of welds and in-service corrosion allowances.
For example, the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (BPVC) (UG-27) formulas ar
e:[14]
Spherical shells:
s ? = s l o n g = p ( r + 0.2 t ) 2 t E {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }=\si
gma _{\rm {long}}={\frac {p(r+0.2t)}{2tE}}} \sigma _{\theta }=\sigma _{{{\rm {lo
ng}}}}={\frac {p(r+0.2t)}{2tE}}
Cylindrical shells:
s ? = p ( r + 0.6 t ) t E {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }={\frac {p(r+0.6t)
}{tE}}} \sigma _{\theta }={\frac {p(r+0.6t)}{tE}}
s l o n g = p ( r - 0.4 t ) 2 t E {\displaystyle \sigma _{\rm {long}}={\frac
{p(r-0.4t)}{2tE}}} \sigma _{{{\rm {long}}}}={\frac {p(r-0.4t)}{2tE}}
where E is the joint efficient, and all others variables as stated above.
The factor of safety is often included in these formulas as well, in the case of
the ASME BPVC this term is included in the material stress value when solving f
or pressure or thickness.
Winding angle of carbon fibre vessels
Wound infinite cylindrical shapes optimally take a winding angle of 54.7 degrees
, as this gives the necessary twice the strength in the circumferential directio
n to the longitudinal.[15]
Operation standards
Pressure vessels are designed to operate safely at a specific pressure and tempe
rature, technically referred to as the "Design Pressure" and "Design Temperature
". A vessel that is inadequately designed to handle a high pressure constitutes
a very significant safety hazard. Because of that, the design and certification
of pressure vessels is governed by design codes such as the ASME Boiler and Pres
sure Vessel Code in North America, the Pressure Equipment Directive of the EU (P
ED), Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS), CSA B51 in Canada, Australian Standards
in Australia and other international standards like Lloyd's, Germanischer Lloyd
, Det Norske Veritas, Socit Gnrale de Surveillance (SGS S.A.), Lloyd s Register Energy
Nederland (formerly known as Stoomwezen) etc.
Note that where the pressure-volume product is part of a safety standard, any in
compressible liquid in the vessel can be excluded as it does not contribute to t
he potential energy stored in the vessel, so only the volume of the compressible
part such as gas is used.
List of standards
EN 13445: The current European Standard, harmonized with the Pressure Equipm

ent Directive (97/23/EC). Extensively used in Europe.


ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section VIII: Rules for Construction of
Pressure Vessels.
BS 5500: Former British Standard, replaced in the UK by BS EN 13445 but reta
ined under the name PD 5500 for the design and construction of export equipment.
AD Merkbltter: German standard, harmonized with the Pressure Equipment Direct
ive.
EN 286 (Parts 1 to 4): European standard for simple pressure vessels (air ta
nks), harmonized with Council Directive 87/404/EEC.
BS 4994: Specification for design and construction of vessels and tanks in r
einforced plastics.
ASME PVHO: US standard for Pressure Vessels for Human Occupancy.
CODAP: French Code for Construction of Unfired Pressure Vessel.
AS/NZS 1200: Pressure equipment.[16]
AS/NZS 3788:2006[17]
API 510.[18]
ISO 11439: Compressed natural gas (CNG) cylinders[19]
IS 2825-1969 (RE1977)_code_unfired_Pressure_vessels.
FRP tanks and vessels.
AIAA S-080-1998: AIAA Standard for Space Systems - Metallic Pressure Vessels
, Pressurized Structures, and Pressure Components.
AIAA S-081A-2006: AIAA Standard for Space Systems - Composite Overwrapped Pr
essure Vessels (COPVs).
B51-09 Canadian Boiler, pressure vessel, and pressure piping code.
HSE guidelines for pressure systems.
Stoomwezen: Former pressure vessels code in the Netherlands, also known as R
ToD: Regels voor Toestellen onder Druk (Dutch Rules for Pressure Vessels).
See also
American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)
Bottled gas
Composite overwrapped pressure vessel
Compressed air energy storage
Compressed natural gas
Demister
Fire-tube boiler
Gas cylinder
Gasket
Head (vessel)
Minimum Design Metal Temperature (MDMT)
Pressure bomb - a device for measuring leaf water potentials
Rainwater harvesting
Relief valve
Safety valve
Shell and tube heat exchanger
Vapor-Liquid Separator or Knock-Out Drum
Vortex breaker
Water well
Water-tube boiler
Notes
Nilsen, Kyle. (2011) "Development of low pressure filter testing vessel and anal
ysis of electrospun nanofiber membranes for water treatment"
Ingenious Coal-Gas Motor Tank, Popular Science monthly, January 1919, page 27, S
canned by Google Books: https://books.google.com/books?id=HykDAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA13
Hearn, E.J. (1997). Mechanics of Materials 1. An Introduction to the Mechanics o
f Elastic and Plastic Deformation of Solids and Structural Materials - Third Edi
tion. Chapter 9: Butterworth-Heinemann. pp. 199 203. ISBN 0-7506-3265-8.

NASA Tech Briefs, "Making a Metal-Lined Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessel",


1 Mar 2005.
Frietas, O., "Maintenance and Repair of Glass-Lined Equipment", Chemical Enginee
ring, 1 Jul 2007.
"High Pressure Vessels",D. Freyer and J. Harvey, 1998
ANSI/AIAA S-080-1998, Space Systems - Metallic Pressure Vessels, Pressurized Str
uctures, and Pressure Components, 5.1
Pushard, Doug (2005). "Domestic water collection systems also sometimes able to
function on gravity". Harvesth2o.com. Retrieved 2009-04-17.[verification needed]
Pushard, Doug. "Alternatives to pressure vessels in domestic water systems". Har
vesth2o.com. Retrieved 2009-04-17.
Puskarich, Paul (2009-05-01). "Strengthened Glass for Pipleine Systems" (PDF). M
IT. Retrieved 2009-04-17.
Beer, Ferdinand P.; Johnston, Jr., E. Russel; DeWolf, John T. "7.9". Mechanics o
f Materials (fourth ed.). McGraw-Hill. p. 463. ISBN 9780073659350.
For a sphere the thickness d = rP/2s, where r is the radius of the tank. The vol
ume of the spherical surface then is 4pr2d = 4pr3P/2s. The mass is determined by
multiplying by the density of the material that makes up the walls of the spher
ical vessel. Further the volume of the gas is (4pr3)/3. Combining these equation
s give the above results. The equations for the other geometries are derived in
a similar manner
Richard Budynas, J. Nisbett, Shigley's Mechanical Engineering Design, 8th ed., N
ew York:McGraw-Hill, ISBN 978-0-07-312193-2, pg 108
An International Code 2007 ASME Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code. The Americal Soci
ety of Mechanical Engineers. 2007.
MIT pressure vessel lecture
"AS 1200 Pressure Vessels". SAI Global. Retrieved 14 November 2011.
"AS_NZS 3788: 2006 Pressure equipment - In-service inspection". SAI Global. Retr
ieved September 4, 2015.
"Pressure Vessel Inspection Code: In-Service Inspection, Rating, Repair, and Alt
eration". API. June 2006.
."Gas cylinders - High pressure cylinders for the on-board storage of natura
l gas as a fuel for automotive vehicles". ISO. 2006-07-18. Retrieved 2009-04-17.
References
A.C. Ugural, S.K. Fenster, Advanced Strength and Applied Elasticity, 4th ed.
E.P. Popov, Engineering Mechanics of Solids, 1st ed.
Megyesy, Eugene F. "Pressure Vessel Handbook, 14th Edition." PV Publishing,
Inc. Oklahoma City, OK
Further reading
Megyesy, Eugene F. (2008, 14th ed.) Pressure Vessel Handbook. PV Publishing,
Inc.: Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA. www.pressurevesselhandbook.com Design handb
ook for pressure vessels based on the ASME code.
External links
Look up pressure vessel in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Pressure vessel.
Use of pressure vessels in oil and gas industry
Basic formulas for thin walled pressure vessels; with examples
Educational Excel spreadsheets for ASME head, shell and nozzle designs
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel website
Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology
EU Pressure Equipment Directive website
EU Simple Pressure Vessel Directive
EU Classification

Pressure Vessel attachments http://oakridgebellows.com/metal-expansion-joint


s/technical-videos/lugs-on-pipe-and-vessels-new
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Pressure vessel
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Horizontal pressure vessel in steel
A pressure vessel is a container designed to hold gases or liquids at a pressure
substantially different from the ambient pressure.
The pressure differential is dangerous, and fatal accidents have occurred in the
history of pressure vessel development and operation. Consequently, pressure ve
ssel design, manufacture, and operation are regulated by engineering authorities
backed by legislation. For these reasons, the definition of a pressure vessel v
aries from country to country, but involves parameters such as maximum safe oper
ating pressure and temperature, and are engineered with a safety factor, corrosi
on allowance, minimum design temperature (for brittle fracture), and involve non
destructive testing, such as ultrasonic testing, radiography, and pressure tests
, usually involving water, also known as a hydrotest, but could be pneumatically
tested involving air or another gas. The preferred test is hydrostatic testing
because it's a much safer method of testing as it releases much less energy if f
racture were to occur (water does not rapidly increase its volume while rapid de
pressurization occurs, unlike gases like air, i.e. gasses fail explosively). In
the United States, as with many other countries, it is the law that vessels over
a certain size and pressure (15 PSIg) be built to Code, in the United States th
at Code is the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (BPVC), these vessels also r
equire an Authorized Inspector to sign off on every new vessel constructed and e
ach vessel has a nameplate with pertinent information about the vessel such as m
aximum allowable working pressure, maximum temperature, minimum design metal tem
perature, what company manufactured it, the date, its registration number (throu
gh the National Board), and ASME's official stamp for pressure vessels (U-stamp)
, making the vessel traceable and officially an ASME Code vessel.
Contents
1 History of pressure vessels
2 Pressure vessel features
2.1 Shape of a pressure vessel
2.2 Construction materials
2.3 Safety features
2.3.1 Leak before burst
2.3.2 Safety valves
2.4 Maintenance features
2.4.1 Pressure vessel closures
3 Uses
4 Alternatives to pressure vessels
5 Design
5.1 Scaling
5.1.1 Scaling of stress in walls of vessel
5.1.2 Spherical vessel
5.1.3 Cylindrical vessel with hemispherical ends
5.1.4 Cylindrical vessel with semi-elliptical ends

5.1.5 Gas storage


5.2 Stress in thin-walled pressure vessels
5.3 Winding angle of carbon fibre vessels
5.4 Operation standards
5.4.1 List of standards
6 See also
7 Notes
8 References
9 Further reading
10 External links
History of pressure vessels
A 10,000 psi (69 MPa) pressure vessel from 1919, wrapped with high tensile steel
banding and steel rods to secure the end caps.
The earliest documented design of pressure vessels is described in the book Code
x Madrid I, by Leonardo da Vinci, in 1495, where containers of pressurized air w
ere theorized to lift heavy weights underwater,[1] however vessels resembling wh
at are used today did not come about until the 1800s where steam was generated i
n boilers helping to spur the industrial revolution.[1] However, with poor mater
ial quality and manufacturing techniques along with improper knowledge of design
, operation and maintenance there was a large number of damaging and often fatal
explosions associated with these boilers and pressure vessels, with a death occ
urring on a nearly daily basis in the United States.[1] Local providences and st
ates in the US began enacting rules for constructing these vessels after some pa
rticularly devastating vessel failures occurred killing dozens of people at a ti
me, which made it difficult for manufacturers to keep up with the varied rules f
rom one location to another and the first pressure vessel code was developed sta
rting in 1911 and released in 1914, starting the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel
Code (BPVC).[1] In an early effort to design a tank capable of withstanding pre
ssures up to 10,000 psi (69 MPa), a 6-inch (150 mm) diameter tank was developed
in 1919 that was spirally-wound with two layers of high tensile strength steel w
ire to prevent sidewall rupture, and the end caps longitudinally reinforced with
lengthwise high-tensile rods.[2] The need for high pressure and temperature ves
sels for petroleum refineries and chemical plants gave rise to vessels joined wi
th welding instead of rivets (which were unsuitable for the pressures and temper
atures required) and in 1920s and 1930s the BPVC included welding as an acceptab
le means of construction, and welding is the main means of joining metal vessels
today.[1]
There have been many advancements in the field of pressure vessel engineering su
ch as advanced non-destructive examination, phased array ultrasonic testing and
radiography, new material grades with increased corrosion resistance and stronge
r materials, and new ways to join materials such as explosion welding (to attach
one metal sheet to another, usually a thin corrosion resistant metal like stain
less steel to a stronger metal like carbon steel), friction stir welding (which
attaches the metals together without melting the metal), advanced theories and m
eans of more accurately assessing the stresses encountered in vessels such as wi
th the use of Finite Element Analysis, allowing the vessels to be built safer an
d more efficiently. Today vessels in the USA require BPVC stamping but the BPVC
is not just a domestic code, many other countries have adopted the BPVC as their
official code. There are, however, other official codes in some countries (some
of which rely on portions of and reference the BPVC), Japan, Australia, Canada,
Britain, and Europe have their own codes. Regardless of the country nearly all
recognize the inherent potential hazards of pressure vessels and the need for st
andards and codes regulating their design and construction.
Pressure vessel features
Shape of a pressure vessel
Pressure vessels can theoretically be almost any shape, but shapes made of secti

ons of spheres, cylinders, and cones are usually


cylinder with end caps called heads. Head shapes
ical or dished (torispherical). More complicated
uch harder to analyze for safe operation and are
onstruct.

employed. A common design is a


are frequently either hemispher
shapes have historically been m
usually far more difficult to c

Spherical gas container.


Cylindrical pressure vessel.
Picture of the bottom of an aerosol spray can.
Fire Extinguisher with rounded rectangle pressure vessel
Theoretically, a spherical pressure vessel has approximately twice the strength
of a cylindrical pressure vessel with the same wall thickness,[3] and is the ide
al shape to hold internal pressure.[1] However, a spherical shape is difficult t
o manufacture, and therefore more expensive, so most pressure vessels are cylind
rical with 2:1 semi-elliptical heads or end caps on each end. Smaller pressure v
essels are assembled from a pipe and two covers. For cylindrical vessels with a
diameter up to 600 mm (NPS of 24 in), it is possible to use seamless pipe for th
e shell, thus avoiding many inspection and testing issues, mainly the nondestruc
tive examination of radiography for the long seam if required. A disadvantage of
these vessels is that greater diameters are more expensive, so that for example
the most economic shape of a 1,000 litres (35 cu ft), 250 bars (3,600 psi) pres
sure vessel might be a diameter of 91.44 centimetres (36 in) and a length of 1.7
018 metres (67 in) including the 2:1 semi-elliptical domed end caps.
Construction materials
Composite overwrapped pressure vessel with titanium liner.
Many pressure vessels are made of steel. To manufacture a cylindrical or spheric
al pressure vessel, rolled and possibly forged parts would have to be welded tog
ether. Some mechanical properties of steel, achieved by rolling or forging, coul
d be adversely affected by welding, unless special precautions are taken. In add
ition to adequate mechanical strength, current standards dictate the use of stee
l with a high impact resistance, especially for vessels used in low temperatures
. In applications where carbon steel would suffer corrosion, special corrosion r
esistant material should also be used.
Some pressure vessels are made of composite materials, such as filament wound co
mposite using carbon fibre held in place with a polymer. Due to the very high te
nsile strength of carbon fibre these vessels can be very light, but are much mor
e difficult to manufacture. The composite material may be wound around a metal l
iner, forming a composite overwrapped pressure vessel.
Other very common materials include polymers such as PET in carbonated beverage
containers and copper in plumbing.
Pressure vessels may be lined with various metals, ceramics, or polymers to prev
ent leaking and protect the structure of the vessel from the contained medium. T
his liner may also carry a significant portion of the pressure load.[4][5]
Pressure Vessels may also be constructed from concrete (PCV) or other materials
which are weak in tension. Cabling, wrapped around the vessel or within the wall
or the vessel itself, provides the necessary tension to resist the internal pre
ssure. A "leakproof steel thin membrane" lines the internal wall of the vessel.
Such vessels can be assembled from modular pieces and so have "no inherent size
limitations".[6] There is also a high order of redundancy thanks to the large nu
mber of individual cables resisting the internal pressure.
Safety features

Leak before burst


Leak before burst describes a pressure vessel designed such that a crack in the
vessel will grow through the wall, allowing the contained fluid to escape and re
ducing the pressure, prior to growing so large as to cause fracture at the opera
ting pressure.
Many pressure vessel standards, including the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Co
de[citation needed] and the AIAA metallic pressure vessel standard, either requi
re pressure vessel designs to be leak before burst, or require pressure vessels
to meet more stringent requirements for fatigue and fracture if they are not sho
wn to be leak before burst.[7]
Safety valves
Example of a valve used for gas cylinders.
As the pressure vessel is designed to a pressure, there is typically a safety va
lve or relief valve to ensure that this pressure is not exceeded in operation.
Maintenance features
Pressure vessel closures
Pressure vessel closures are pressure retaining structures designed to provide q
uick access to pipelines, pressure vessels, pig traps, filters and filtration sy
stems. Typically pressure vessel closures allow maintenance personnel.
Uses
Pressure vessels are used in a variety of applications in both industry and the
private sector. They appear in these sectors as industrial compressed air receiv
ers and domestic hot water storage tanks. Other examples of pressure vessels are
diving cylinders, recompression chambers, distillation towers, pressure reactor
s, autoclaves, and many other vessels in mining operations, oil refineries and p
etrochemical plants, nuclear reactor vessels, submarine and space ship habitats,
pneumatic reservoirs, hydraulic reservoirs under pressure, rail vehicle airbrak
e reservoirs, road vehicle airbrake reservoirs, and storage vessels for liquifie
d gases such as ammonia, chlorine, and LPG (propane, butane).
A unique application of a pressure vessel is the passenger cabin of an airliner;
The outer skin carries both the aircraft maneuvering loads and the cabin pressu
rization loads.
A pressure tank connected to a water well and domestic hot water system.
A few pressure tanks, here used to hold propane.
An expansion vessel for heating systems.
A pressure vessel used as a kier.
A pressure vessel used for The Boeing Company s CST-100 spacecraft.
Alternatives to pressure vessels
Natural gas storage
Gas holder
Depending on the application and local circumstances, alternatives to pressure v
essels exist. Examples can be seen in domestic water collection systems, where t
he following may be used:
Gravity controlled systems[8] which typically consist of an unpressurized wa
ter tank at an elevation higher than the point of use. Pressure at the point of

use is the result of the hydrostatic pressure caused by the elevation difference
. Gravity systems produce 0.43 pounds per square inch (3.0 kPa) per foot of wate
r head (elevation difference). A municipal water supply or pumped water is typic
ally around 90 pounds per square inch (620 kPa).
Inline pump controllers or pressure-sensitive pumps.[9]
Design
Scaling
No matter what shape it takes, the minimum mass of a pressure vessel scales with
the pressure and volume it contains and is inversely proportional to the streng
th to weight ratio of the construction material (minimum mass decreases as stren
gth increases[10]).
Scaling of stress in walls of vessel
Pressure vessels are held together against the gas pressure due to tensile force
s within the walls of the container. The normal (tensile) stress in the walls of
the container is proportional to the pressure and radius of the vessel and inve
rsely proportional to the thickness of the walls.[11] Therefore, pressure vessel
s are designed to have a thickness proportional to the radius of tank and the pr
essure of the tank and inversely proportional to the maximum allowed normal stre
ss of the particular material used in the walls of the container.
Because (for a given pressure) the thickness of the walls scales with the radius
of the tank, the mass of a tank (which scales as the length times radius times
thickness of the wall for a cylindrical tank) scales with the volume of the gas
held (which scales as length times radius squared). The exact formula varies wit
h the tank shape but depends on the density, ?, and maximum allowable stress s o
f the material in addition to the pressure P and volume V of the vessel. (See be
low for the exact equations for the stress in the walls.)
Spherical vessel
For a sphere, the minimum mass of a pressure vessel is
M = 3 2 P V ? s {\displaystyle M={3 \over 2}PV{\rho \over \sigma }} M={3 \ov
er 2}PV{\rho \over \sigma },
where:
M {\displaystyle
P {\displaystyle
ssure),
V {\displaystyle
? {\displaystyle
s {\displaystyle
can tolerate.[12]

M} M is mass,
P} P is the pressure difference from ambient (the gauge pre
V} V is volume,
\rho } \rho is the density of the pressure vessel material,
\sigma } \sigma is the maximum working stress that material

Other shapes besides a sphere have constants larger than 3/2 (infinite cylinders
take 2), although some tanks, such as non-spherical wound composite tanks can a
pproach this.
Cylindrical vessel with hemispherical ends
This is sometimes called a "bullet"[citation needed] for its shape, although in
geometric terms it is a capsule.
For a cylinder with hemispherical ends,
M = 2 p R 2 ( R + W ) P ? s {\displaystyle M=2\pi R^{2}(R+W)P{\rho \over \si
gma }} M=2\pi R^{2}(R+W)P{\rho \over \sigma },

where
R is the radius
W is the middle cylinder width only, and the overall width is W + 2R
Cylindrical vessel with semi-elliptical ends
In a vessel with an aspect ratio of middle cylinder width to radius of 2:1,
M = 6 p R 3 P ? s {\displaystyle M=6\pi R^{3}P{\rho \over \sigma }} M=6\pi R
^{3}P{\rho \over \sigma }.
Gas storage
In looking at the first equation, the factor PV, in SI units, is in units of (pr
essurization) energy. For a stored gas, PV is proportional to the mass of gas at
a given temperature, thus
M = 3 2 n R T ? s {\displaystyle M={3 \over 2}nRT{\rho \over \sigma }} M={3
\over 2}nRT{\rho \over \sigma }. (see gas law)
The other factors are constant for a given vessel shape and material. So we can
see that there is no theoretical "efficiency of scale", in terms of the ratio of
pressure vessel mass to pressurization energy, or of pressure vessel mass to st
ored gas mass. For storing gases, "tankage efficiency" is independent of pressur
e, at least for the same temperature.
So, for example, a typical design for a minimum mass tank to hold helium (as a p
ressurant gas) on a rocket would use a spherical chamber for a minimum shape con
stant, carbon fiber for best possible ? / s {\displaystyle \rho /\sigma } \rho /
\sigma , and very cold helium for best possible M / p V {\displaystyle M/{pV}} M
/{pV}.
Stress in thin-walled pressure vessels
Stress in a shallow-walled pressure vessel in the shape of a sphere is
s ? = s l o n g = p r 2 t {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }=\sigma _{\rm {lon
g}}={\frac {pr}{2t}}} \sigma _{\theta }=\sigma _{{{\rm {long}}}}={\frac {pr}{2t}
},
where s ? {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }} \sigma _{\theta } is hoop stress, or
stress in the circumferential direction, s l o n g {\displaystyle \sigma _{long
}} \sigma _{{long}} is stress in the longitudinal direction, p is internal gauge
pressure, r is the inner radius of the sphere, and t is thickness of the sphere
wall. A vessel can be considered "shallow-walled" if the diameter is at least 1
0 times (sometimes cited as 20 times) greater than the wall depth.[13]
Stress in the cylinder body of a pressure vessel.
Stress in a shallow-walled pressure vessel in the shape of a cylinder is
s ? = p r t {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }={\frac {pr}{t}}} \sigma _{\thet
a }={\frac {pr}{t}},
s l o n g = p r 2 t {\displaystyle \sigma _{\rm {long}}={\frac {pr}{2t}}} \s
igma _{{{\rm {long}}}}={\frac {pr}{2t}},
where:
s ? {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }} \sigma _{\theta } is hoop stress, or s
tress in the circumferential direction
s l o n g {\displaystyle \sigma _{long}} \sigma _{{long}} is stress in the l

ongitudinal direction
p is internal gauge pressure
r is the inner radius of the cylinder
t is thickness of the cylinder wall.
Almost all pressure vessel design standards contain variations of these two form
ulas with additional empirical terms to account for wall thickness tolerances, q
uality control of welds and in-service corrosion allowances.
For example, the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (BPVC) (UG-27) formulas ar
e:[14]
Spherical shells:
s ? = s l o n g = p ( r + 0.2 t ) 2 t E {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }=\si
gma _{\rm {long}}={\frac {p(r+0.2t)}{2tE}}} \sigma _{\theta }=\sigma _{{{\rm {lo
ng}}}}={\frac {p(r+0.2t)}{2tE}}
Cylindrical shells:
s ? = p ( r + 0.6 t ) t E {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }={\frac {p(r+0.6t)
}{tE}}} \sigma _{\theta }={\frac {p(r+0.6t)}{tE}}
s l o n g = p ( r - 0.4 t ) 2 t E {\displaystyle \sigma _{\rm {long}}={\frac
{p(r-0.4t)}{2tE}}} \sigma _{{{\rm {long}}}}={\frac {p(r-0.4t)}{2tE}}
where E is the joint efficient, and all others variables as stated above.
The factor of safety is often included in these formulas as well, in the case of
the ASME BPVC this term is included in the material stress value when solving f
or pressure or thickness.
Winding angle of carbon fibre vessels
Wound infinite cylindrical shapes optimally take a winding angle of 54.7 degrees
, as this gives the necessary twice the strength in the circumferential directio
n to the longitudinal.[15]
Operation standards
Pressure vessels are designed to operate safely at a specific pressure and tempe
rature, technically referred to as the "Design Pressure" and "Design Temperature
". A vessel that is inadequately designed to handle a high pressure constitutes
a very significant safety hazard. Because of that, the design and certification
of pressure vessels is governed by design codes such as the ASME Boiler and Pres
sure Vessel Code in North America, the Pressure Equipment Directive of the EU (P
ED), Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS), CSA B51 in Canada, Australian Standards
in Australia and other international standards like Lloyd's, Germanischer Lloyd
, Det Norske Veritas, Socit Gnrale de Surveillance (SGS S.A.), Lloyd s Register Energy
Nederland (formerly known as Stoomwezen) etc.
Note that where the pressure-volume product is part of a safety standard, any in
compressible liquid in the vessel can be excluded as it does not contribute to t
he potential energy stored in the vessel, so only the volume of the compressible
part such as gas is used.
List of standards
EN 13445: The current European Standard, harmonized with the Pressure Equipm
ent Directive (97/23/EC). Extensively used in Europe.
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section VIII: Rules for Construction of
Pressure Vessels.
BS 5500: Former British Standard, replaced in the UK by BS EN 13445 but reta
ined under the name PD 5500 for the design and construction of export equipment.

AD Merkbltter: German standard, harmonized with the Pressure Equipment Direct


ive.
EN 286 (Parts 1 to 4): European standard for simple pressure vessels (air ta
nks), harmonized with Council Directive 87/404/EEC.
BS 4994: Specification for design and construction of vessels and tanks in r
einforced plastics.
ASME PVHO: US standard for Pressure Vessels for Human Occupancy.
CODAP: French Code for Construction of Unfired Pressure Vessel.
AS/NZS 1200: Pressure equipment.[16]
AS/NZS 3788:2006[17]
API 510.[18]
ISO 11439: Compressed natural gas (CNG) cylinders[19]
IS 2825-1969 (RE1977)_code_unfired_Pressure_vessels.
FRP tanks and vessels.
AIAA S-080-1998: AIAA Standard for Space Systems - Metallic Pressure Vessels
, Pressurized Structures, and Pressure Components.
AIAA S-081A-2006: AIAA Standard for Space Systems - Composite Overwrapped Pr
essure Vessels (COPVs).
B51-09 Canadian Boiler, pressure vessel, and pressure piping code.
HSE guidelines for pressure systems.
Stoomwezen: Former pressure vessels code in the Netherlands, also known as R
ToD: Regels voor Toestellen onder Druk (Dutch Rules for Pressure Vessels).
See also
American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)
Bottled gas
Composite overwrapped pressure vessel
Compressed air energy storage
Compressed natural gas
Demister
Fire-tube boiler
Gas cylinder
Gasket
Head (vessel)
Minimum Design Metal Temperature (MDMT)
Pressure bomb - a device for measuring leaf water potentials
Rainwater harvesting
Relief valve
Safety valve
Shell and tube heat exchanger
Vapor-Liquid Separator or Knock-Out Drum
Vortex breaker
Water well
Water-tube boiler
Notes
Nilsen, Kyle. (2011) "Development of low pressure filter testing vessel and anal
ysis of electrospun nanofiber membranes for water treatment"
Ingenious Coal-Gas Motor Tank, Popular Science monthly, January 1919, page 27, S
canned by Google Books: https://books.google.com/books?id=HykDAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA13
Hearn, E.J. (1997). Mechanics of Materials 1. An Introduction to the Mechanics o
f Elastic and Plastic Deformation of Solids and Structural Materials - Third Edi
tion. Chapter 9: Butterworth-Heinemann. pp. 199 203. ISBN 0-7506-3265-8.
NASA Tech Briefs, "Making a Metal-Lined Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessel",
1 Mar 2005.
Frietas, O., "Maintenance and Repair of Glass-Lined Equipment", Chemical Enginee
ring, 1 Jul 2007.
"High Pressure Vessels",D. Freyer and J. Harvey, 1998

ANSI/AIAA S-080-1998, Space Systems - Metallic Pressure Vessels, Pressurized Str


uctures, and Pressure Components, 5.1
Pushard, Doug (2005). "Domestic water collection systems also sometimes able to
function on gravity". Harvesth2o.com. Retrieved 2009-04-17.[verification needed]
Pushard, Doug. "Alternatives to pressure vessels in domestic water systems". Har
vesth2o.com. Retrieved 2009-04-17.
Puskarich, Paul (2009-05-01). "Strengthened Glass for Pipleine Systems" (PDF). M
IT. Retrieved 2009-04-17.
Beer, Ferdinand P.; Johnston, Jr., E. Russel; DeWolf, John T. "7.9". Mechanics o
f Materials (fourth ed.). McGraw-Hill. p. 463. ISBN 9780073659350.
For a sphere the thickness d = rP/2s, where r is the radius of the tank. The vol
ume of the spherical surface then is 4pr2d = 4pr3P/2s. The mass is determined by
multiplying by the density of the material that makes up the walls of the spher
ical vessel. Further the volume of the gas is (4pr3)/3. Combining these equation
s give the above results. The equations for the other geometries are derived in
a similar manner
Richard Budynas, J. Nisbett, Shigley's Mechanical Engineering Design, 8th ed., N
ew York:McGraw-Hill, ISBN 978-0-07-312193-2, pg 108
An International Code 2007 ASME Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code. The Americal Soci
ety of Mechanical Engineers. 2007.
MIT pressure vessel lecture
"AS 1200 Pressure Vessels". SAI Global. Retrieved 14 November 2011.
"AS_NZS 3788: 2006 Pressure equipment - In-service inspection". SAI Global. Retr
ieved September 4, 2015.
"Pressure Vessel Inspection Code: In-Service Inspection, Rating, Repair, and Alt
eration". API. June 2006.
."Gas cylinders - High pressure cylinders for the on-board storage of natura
l gas as a fuel for automotive vehicles". ISO. 2006-07-18. Retrieved 2009-04-17.
References
A.C. Ugural, S.K. Fenster, Advanced Strength and Applied Elasticity, 4th ed.
E.P. Popov, Engineering Mechanics of Solids, 1st ed.
Megyesy, Eugene F. "Pressure Vessel Handbook, 14th Edition." PV Publishing,
Inc. Oklahoma City, OK
Further reading
Megyesy, Eugene F. (2008, 14th ed.) Pressure Vessel Handbook. PV Publishing,
Inc.: Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA. www.pressurevesselhandbook.com Design handb
ook for pressure vessels based on the ASME code.
External links
Look up pressure vessel in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Pressure vessel.
Use of pressure vessels in oil and gas industry
Basic formulas for thin walled pressure vessels; with examples
Educational Excel spreadsheets for ASME head, shell and nozzle designs
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel website
Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology
EU Pressure Equipment Directive website
EU Simple Pressure Vessel Directive
EU Classification
Pressure Vessel attachments http://oakridgebellows.com/metal-expansion-joint
s/technical-videos/lugs-on-pipe-and-vessels-new
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Pressure vessel
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Horizontal pressure vessel in steel
A pressure vessel is a container designed to hold gases or liquids at a pressure
substantially different from the ambient pressure.
The pressure differential is dangerous, and fatal accidents have occurred in the
history of pressure vessel development and operation. Consequently, pressure ve
ssel design, manufacture, and operation are regulated by engineering authorities
backed by legislation. For these reasons, the definition of a pressure vessel v
aries from country to country, but involves parameters such as maximum safe oper
ating pressure and temperature, and are engineered with a safety factor, corrosi
on allowance, minimum design temperature (for brittle fracture), and involve non
destructive testing, such as ultrasonic testing, radiography, and pressure tests
, usually involving water, also known as a hydrotest, but could be pneumatically
tested involving air or another gas. The preferred test is hydrostatic testing
because it's a much safer method of testing as it releases much less energy if f
racture were to occur (water does not rapidly increase its volume while rapid de
pressurization occurs, unlike gases like air, i.e. gasses fail explosively). In
the United States, as with many other countries, it is the law that vessels over
a certain size and pressure (15 PSIg) be built to Code, in the United States th
at Code is the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (BPVC), these vessels also r
equire an Authorized Inspector to sign off on every new vessel constructed and e
ach vessel has a nameplate with pertinent information about the vessel such as m
aximum allowable working pressure, maximum temperature, minimum design metal tem
perature, what company manufactured it, the date, its registration number (throu
gh the National Board), and ASME's official stamp for pressure vessels (U-stamp)
, making the vessel traceable and officially an ASME Code vessel.
Contents
1 History of pressure vessels
2 Pressure vessel features
2.1 Shape of a pressure vessel
2.2 Construction materials
2.3 Safety features
2.3.1 Leak before burst
2.3.2 Safety valves
2.4 Maintenance features
2.4.1 Pressure vessel closures
3 Uses
4 Alternatives to pressure vessels
5 Design
5.1 Scaling
5.1.1 Scaling of stress in walls of vessel
5.1.2 Spherical vessel
5.1.3 Cylindrical vessel with hemispherical ends
5.1.4 Cylindrical vessel with semi-elliptical ends
5.1.5 Gas storage
5.2 Stress in thin-walled pressure vessels
5.3 Winding angle of carbon fibre vessels
5.4 Operation standards
5.4.1 List of standards

6 See also
7 Notes
8 References
9 Further reading
10 External links
History of pressure vessels
A 10,000 psi (69 MPa) pressure vessel from 1919, wrapped with high tensile steel
banding and steel rods to secure the end caps.
The earliest documented design of pressure vessels is described in the book Code
x Madrid I, by Leonardo da Vinci, in 1495, where containers of pressurized air w
ere theorized to lift heavy weights underwater,[1] however vessels resembling wh
at are used today did not come about until the 1800s where steam was generated i
n boilers helping to spur the industrial revolution.[1] However, with poor mater
ial quality and manufacturing techniques along with improper knowledge of design
, operation and maintenance there was a large number of damaging and often fatal
explosions associated with these boilers and pressure vessels, with a death occ
urring on a nearly daily basis in the United States.[1] Local providences and st
ates in the US began enacting rules for constructing these vessels after some pa
rticularly devastating vessel failures occurred killing dozens of people at a ti
me, which made it difficult for manufacturers to keep up with the varied rules f
rom one location to another and the first pressure vessel code was developed sta
rting in 1911 and released in 1914, starting the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel
Code (BPVC).[1] In an early effort to design a tank capable of withstanding pre
ssures up to 10,000 psi (69 MPa), a 6-inch (150 mm) diameter tank was developed
in 1919 that was spirally-wound with two layers of high tensile strength steel w
ire to prevent sidewall rupture, and the end caps longitudinally reinforced with
lengthwise high-tensile rods.[2] The need for high pressure and temperature ves
sels for petroleum refineries and chemical plants gave rise to vessels joined wi
th welding instead of rivets (which were unsuitable for the pressures and temper
atures required) and in 1920s and 1930s the BPVC included welding as an acceptab
le means of construction, and welding is the main means of joining metal vessels
today.[1]
There have been many advancements in the field of pressure vessel engineering su
ch as advanced non-destructive examination, phased array ultrasonic testing and
radiography, new material grades with increased corrosion resistance and stronge
r materials, and new ways to join materials such as explosion welding (to attach
one metal sheet to another, usually a thin corrosion resistant metal like stain
less steel to a stronger metal like carbon steel), friction stir welding (which
attaches the metals together without melting the metal), advanced theories and m
eans of more accurately assessing the stresses encountered in vessels such as wi
th the use of Finite Element Analysis, allowing the vessels to be built safer an
d more efficiently. Today vessels in the USA require BPVC stamping but the BPVC
is not just a domestic code, many other countries have adopted the BPVC as their
official code. There are, however, other official codes in some countries (some
of which rely on portions of and reference the BPVC), Japan, Australia, Canada,
Britain, and Europe have their own codes. Regardless of the country nearly all
recognize the inherent potential hazards of pressure vessels and the need for st
andards and codes regulating their design and construction.
Pressure vessel features
Shape of a pressure vessel
Pressure vessels can theoretically be almost any
ons of spheres, cylinders, and cones are usually
cylinder with end caps called heads. Head shapes
ical or dished (torispherical). More complicated
uch harder to analyze for safe operation and are
onstruct.

shape, but shapes made of secti


employed. A common design is a
are frequently either hemispher
shapes have historically been m
usually far more difficult to c

Spherical gas container.


Cylindrical pressure vessel.
Picture of the bottom of an aerosol spray can.
Fire Extinguisher with rounded rectangle pressure vessel
Theoretically, a spherical pressure vessel has approximately twice the strength
of a cylindrical pressure vessel with the same wall thickness,[3] and is the ide
al shape to hold internal pressure.[1] However, a spherical shape is difficult t
o manufacture, and therefore more expensive, so most pressure vessels are cylind
rical with 2:1 semi-elliptical heads or end caps on each end. Smaller pressure v
essels are assembled from a pipe and two covers. For cylindrical vessels with a
diameter up to 600 mm (NPS of 24 in), it is possible to use seamless pipe for th
e shell, thus avoiding many inspection and testing issues, mainly the nondestruc
tive examination of radiography for the long seam if required. A disadvantage of
these vessels is that greater diameters are more expensive, so that for example
the most economic shape of a 1,000 litres (35 cu ft), 250 bars (3,600 psi) pres
sure vessel might be a diameter of 91.44 centimetres (36 in) and a length of 1.7
018 metres (67 in) including the 2:1 semi-elliptical domed end caps.
Construction materials
Composite overwrapped pressure vessel with titanium liner.
Many pressure vessels are made of steel. To manufacture a cylindrical or spheric
al pressure vessel, rolled and possibly forged parts would have to be welded tog
ether. Some mechanical properties of steel, achieved by rolling or forging, coul
d be adversely affected by welding, unless special precautions are taken. In add
ition to adequate mechanical strength, current standards dictate the use of stee
l with a high impact resistance, especially for vessels used in low temperatures
. In applications where carbon steel would suffer corrosion, special corrosion r
esistant material should also be used.
Some pressure vessels are made of composite materials, such as filament wound co
mposite using carbon fibre held in place with a polymer. Due to the very high te
nsile strength of carbon fibre these vessels can be very light, but are much mor
e difficult to manufacture. The composite material may be wound around a metal l
iner, forming a composite overwrapped pressure vessel.
Other very common materials include polymers such as PET in carbonated beverage
containers and copper in plumbing.
Pressure vessels may be lined with various metals, ceramics, or polymers to prev
ent leaking and protect the structure of the vessel from the contained medium. T
his liner may also carry a significant portion of the pressure load.[4][5]
Pressure Vessels may also be constructed from concrete (PCV) or other materials
which are weak in tension. Cabling, wrapped around the vessel or within the wall
or the vessel itself, provides the necessary tension to resist the internal pre
ssure. A "leakproof steel thin membrane" lines the internal wall of the vessel.
Such vessels can be assembled from modular pieces and so have "no inherent size
limitations".[6] There is also a high order of redundancy thanks to the large nu
mber of individual cables resisting the internal pressure.
Safety features
Leak before burst
Leak before burst describes a pressure vessel designed such that a crack in the
vessel will grow through the wall, allowing the contained fluid to escape and re
ducing the pressure, prior to growing so large as to cause fracture at the opera

ting pressure.
Many pressure vessel standards, including the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Co
de[citation needed] and the AIAA metallic pressure vessel standard, either requi
re pressure vessel designs to be leak before burst, or require pressure vessels
to meet more stringent requirements for fatigue and fracture if they are not sho
wn to be leak before burst.[7]
Safety valves
Example of a valve used for gas cylinders.
As the pressure vessel is designed to a pressure, there is typically a safety va
lve or relief valve to ensure that this pressure is not exceeded in operation.
Maintenance features
Pressure vessel closures
Pressure vessel closures are pressure retaining structures designed to provide q
uick access to pipelines, pressure vessels, pig traps, filters and filtration sy
stems. Typically pressure vessel closures allow maintenance personnel.
Uses
Pressure vessels are used in a variety of applications in both industry and the
private sector. They appear in these sectors as industrial compressed air receiv
ers and domestic hot water storage tanks. Other examples of pressure vessels are
diving cylinders, recompression chambers, distillation towers, pressure reactor
s, autoclaves, and many other vessels in mining operations, oil refineries and p
etrochemical plants, nuclear reactor vessels, submarine and space ship habitats,
pneumatic reservoirs, hydraulic reservoirs under pressure, rail vehicle airbrak
e reservoirs, road vehicle airbrake reservoirs, and storage vessels for liquifie
d gases such as ammonia, chlorine, and LPG (propane, butane).
A unique application of a pressure vessel is the passenger cabin of an airliner;
The outer skin carries both the aircraft maneuvering loads and the cabin pressu
rization loads.
A pressure tank connected to a water well and domestic hot water system.
A few pressure tanks, here used to hold propane.
An expansion vessel for heating systems.
A pressure vessel used as a kier.
A pressure vessel used for The Boeing Company s CST-100 spacecraft.
Alternatives to pressure vessels
Natural gas storage
Gas holder
Depending on the application and local circumstances, alternatives to pressure v
essels exist. Examples can be seen in domestic water collection systems, where t
he following may be used:
Gravity controlled systems[8] which typically consist of an unpressurized wa
ter tank at an elevation higher than the point of use. Pressure at the point of
use is the result of the hydrostatic pressure caused by the elevation difference
. Gravity systems produce 0.43 pounds per square inch (3.0 kPa) per foot of wate
r head (elevation difference). A municipal water supply or pumped water is typic
ally around 90 pounds per square inch (620 kPa).
Inline pump controllers or pressure-sensitive pumps.[9]

Design
Scaling
No matter what shape it takes, the minimum mass of a pressure vessel scales with
the pressure and volume it contains and is inversely proportional to the streng
th to weight ratio of the construction material (minimum mass decreases as stren
gth increases[10]).
Scaling of stress in walls of vessel
Pressure vessels are held together against the gas pressure due to tensile force
s within the walls of the container. The normal (tensile) stress in the walls of
the container is proportional to the pressure and radius of the vessel and inve
rsely proportional to the thickness of the walls.[11] Therefore, pressure vessel
s are designed to have a thickness proportional to the radius of tank and the pr
essure of the tank and inversely proportional to the maximum allowed normal stre
ss of the particular material used in the walls of the container.
Because (for a given pressure) the thickness of the walls scales with the radius
of the tank, the mass of a tank (which scales as the length times radius times
thickness of the wall for a cylindrical tank) scales with the volume of the gas
held (which scales as length times radius squared). The exact formula varies wit
h the tank shape but depends on the density, ?, and maximum allowable stress s o
f the material in addition to the pressure P and volume V of the vessel. (See be
low for the exact equations for the stress in the walls.)
Spherical vessel
For a sphere, the minimum mass of a pressure vessel is
M = 3 2 P V ? s {\displaystyle M={3 \over 2}PV{\rho \over \sigma }} M={3 \ov
er 2}PV{\rho \over \sigma },
where:
M {\displaystyle
P {\displaystyle
ssure),
V {\displaystyle
? {\displaystyle
s {\displaystyle
can tolerate.[12]

M} M is mass,
P} P is the pressure difference from ambient (the gauge pre
V} V is volume,
\rho } \rho is the density of the pressure vessel material,
\sigma } \sigma is the maximum working stress that material

Other shapes besides a sphere have constants larger than 3/2 (infinite cylinders
take 2), although some tanks, such as non-spherical wound composite tanks can a
pproach this.
Cylindrical vessel with hemispherical ends
This is sometimes called a "bullet"[citation needed] for its shape, although in
geometric terms it is a capsule.
For a cylinder with hemispherical ends,
M = 2 p R 2 ( R + W ) P ? s {\displaystyle M=2\pi R^{2}(R+W)P{\rho \over \si
gma }} M=2\pi R^{2}(R+W)P{\rho \over \sigma },
where
R is the radius
W is the middle cylinder width only, and the overall width is W + 2R

Cylindrical vessel with semi-elliptical ends


In a vessel with an aspect ratio of middle cylinder width to radius of 2:1,
M = 6 p R 3 P ? s {\displaystyle M=6\pi R^{3}P{\rho \over \sigma }} M=6\pi R
^{3}P{\rho \over \sigma }.
Gas storage
In looking at the first equation, the factor PV, in SI units, is in units of (pr
essurization) energy. For a stored gas, PV is proportional to the mass of gas at
a given temperature, thus
M = 3 2 n R T ? s {\displaystyle M={3 \over 2}nRT{\rho \over \sigma }} M={3
\over 2}nRT{\rho \over \sigma }. (see gas law)
The other factors are constant for a given vessel shape and material. So we can
see that there is no theoretical "efficiency of scale", in terms of the ratio of
pressure vessel mass to pressurization energy, or of pressure vessel mass to st
ored gas mass. For storing gases, "tankage efficiency" is independent of pressur
e, at least for the same temperature.
So, for example, a typical design for a minimum mass tank to hold helium (as a p
ressurant gas) on a rocket would use a spherical chamber for a minimum shape con
stant, carbon fiber for best possible ? / s {\displaystyle \rho /\sigma } \rho /
\sigma , and very cold helium for best possible M / p V {\displaystyle M/{pV}} M
/{pV}.
Stress in thin-walled pressure vessels
Stress in a shallow-walled pressure vessel in the shape of a sphere is
s ? = s l o n g = p r 2 t {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }=\sigma _{\rm {lon
g}}={\frac {pr}{2t}}} \sigma _{\theta }=\sigma _{{{\rm {long}}}}={\frac {pr}{2t}
},
where s ? {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }} \sigma _{\theta } is hoop stress, or
stress in the circumferential direction, s l o n g {\displaystyle \sigma _{long
}} \sigma _{{long}} is stress in the longitudinal direction, p is internal gauge
pressure, r is the inner radius of the sphere, and t is thickness of the sphere
wall. A vessel can be considered "shallow-walled" if the diameter is at least 1
0 times (sometimes cited as 20 times) greater than the wall depth.[13]
Stress in the cylinder body of a pressure vessel.
Stress in a shallow-walled pressure vessel in the shape of a cylinder is
s ? = p r t {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }={\frac {pr}{t}}} \sigma _{\thet
a }={\frac {pr}{t}},
s l o n g = p r 2 t {\displaystyle \sigma _{\rm {long}}={\frac {pr}{2t}}} \s
igma _{{{\rm {long}}}}={\frac {pr}{2t}},
where:
s ? {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }} \sigma _{\theta } is hoop stress, or s
tress in the circumferential direction
s l o n g {\displaystyle \sigma _{long}} \sigma _{{long}} is stress in the l
ongitudinal direction
p is internal gauge pressure
r is the inner radius of the cylinder
t is thickness of the cylinder wall.

Almost all pressure vessel design standards contain variations of these two form
ulas with additional empirical terms to account for wall thickness tolerances, q
uality control of welds and in-service corrosion allowances.
For example, the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (BPVC) (UG-27) formulas ar
e:[14]
Spherical shells:
s ? = s l o n g = p ( r + 0.2 t ) 2 t E {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }=\si
gma _{\rm {long}}={\frac {p(r+0.2t)}{2tE}}} \sigma _{\theta }=\sigma _{{{\rm {lo
ng}}}}={\frac {p(r+0.2t)}{2tE}}
Cylindrical shells:
s ? = p ( r + 0.6 t ) t E {\displaystyle \sigma _{\theta }={\frac {p(r+0.6t)
}{tE}}} \sigma _{\theta }={\frac {p(r+0.6t)}{tE}}
s l o n g = p ( r - 0.4 t ) 2 t E {\displaystyle \sigma _{\rm {long}}={\frac
{p(r-0.4t)}{2tE}}} \sigma _{{{\rm {long}}}}={\frac {p(r-0.4t)}{2tE}}
where E is the joint efficient, and all others variables as stated above.
The factor of safety is often included in these formulas as well, in the case of
the ASME BPVC this term is included in the material stress value when solving f
or pressure or thickness.
Winding angle of carbon fibre vessels
Wound infinite cylindrical shapes optimally take a winding angle of 54.7 degrees
, as this gives the necessary twice the strength in the circumferential directio
n to the longitudinal.[15]
Operation standards
Pressure vessels are designed to operate safely at a specific pressure and tempe
rature, technically referred to as the "Design Pressure" and "Design Temperature
". A vessel that is inadequately designed to handle a high pressure constitutes
a very significant safety hazard. Because of that, the design and certification
of pressure vessels is governed by design codes such as the ASME Boiler and Pres
sure Vessel Code in North America, the Pressure Equipment Directive of the EU (P
ED), Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS), CSA B51 in Canada, Australian Standards
in Australia and other international standards like Lloyd's, Germanischer Lloyd
, Det Norske Veritas, Socit Gnrale de Surveillance (SGS S.A.), Lloyd s Register Energy
Nederland (formerly known as Stoomwezen) etc.
Note that where the pressure-volume product is part of a safety standard, any in
compressible liquid in the vessel can be excluded as it does not contribute to t
he potential energy stored in the vessel, so only the volume of the compressible
part such as gas is used.
List of standards
EN 13445: The current European Standard, harmonized with the Pressure Equipm
ent Directive (97/23/EC). Extensively used in Europe.
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section VIII: Rules for Construction of
Pressure Vessels.
BS 5500: Former British Standard, replaced in the UK by BS EN 13445 but reta
ined under the name PD 5500 for the design and construction of export equipment.
AD Merkbltter: German standard, harmonized with the Pressure Equipment Direct
ive.
EN 286 (Parts 1 to 4): European standard for simple pressure vessels (air ta
nks), harmonized with Council Directive 87/404/EEC.
BS 4994: Specification for design and construction of vessels and tanks in r

einforced plastics.
ASME PVHO: US standard for Pressure Vessels for Human Occupancy.
CODAP: French Code for Construction of Unfired Pressure Vessel.
AS/NZS 1200: Pressure equipment.[16]
AS/NZS 3788:2006[17]
API 510.[18]
ISO 11439: Compressed natural gas (CNG) cylinders[19]
IS 2825-1969 (RE1977)_code_unfired_Pressure_vessels.
FRP tanks and vessels.
AIAA S-080-1998: AIAA Standard for Space Systems - Metallic Pressure Vessels
, Pressurized Structures, and Pressure Components.
AIAA S-081A-2006: AIAA Standard for Space Systems - Composite Overwrapped Pr
essure Vessels (COPVs).
B51-09 Canadian Boiler, pressure vessel, and pressure piping code.
HSE guidelines for pressure systems.
Stoomwezen: Former pressure vessels code in the Netherlands, also known as R
ToD: Regels voor Toestellen onder Druk (Dutch Rules for Pressure Vessels).
See also
American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)
Bottled gas
Composite overwrapped pressure vessel
Compressed air energy storage
Compressed natural gas
Demister
Fire-tube boiler
Gas cylinder
Gasket
Head (vessel)
Minimum Design Metal Temperature (MDMT)
Pressure bomb - a device for measuring leaf water potentials
Rainwater harvesting
Relief valve
Safety valve
Shell and tube heat exchanger
Vapor-Liquid Separator or Knock-Out Drum
Vortex breaker
Water well
Water-tube boiler
Notes
Nilsen, Kyle. (2011) "Development of low pressure filter testing vessel and anal
ysis of electrospun nanofiber membranes for water treatment"
Ingenious Coal-Gas Motor Tank, Popular Science monthly, January 1919, page 27, S
canned by Google Books: https://books.google.com/books?id=HykDAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA13
Hearn, E.J. (1997). Mechanics of Materials 1. An Introduction to the Mechanics o
f Elastic and Plastic Deformation of Solids and Structural Materials - Third Edi
tion. Chapter 9: Butterworth-Heinemann. pp. 199 203. ISBN 0-7506-3265-8.
NASA Tech Briefs, "Making a Metal-Lined Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessel",
1 Mar 2005.
Frietas, O., "Maintenance and Repair of Glass-Lined Equipment", Chemical Enginee
ring, 1 Jul 2007.
"High Pressure Vessels",D. Freyer and J. Harvey, 1998
ANSI/AIAA S-080-1998, Space Systems - Metallic Pressure Vessels, Pressurized Str
uctures, and Pressure Components, 5.1
Pushard, Doug (2005). "Domestic water collection systems also sometimes able to
function on gravity". Harvesth2o.com. Retrieved 2009-04-17.[verification needed]
Pushard, Doug. "Alternatives to pressure vessels in domestic water systems". Har

vesth2o.com. Retrieved 2009-04-17.


Puskarich, Paul (2009-05-01). "Strengthened Glass for Pipleine Systems" (PDF). M
IT. Retrieved 2009-04-17.
Beer, Ferdinand P.; Johnston, Jr., E. Russel; DeWolf, John T. "7.9". Mechanics o
f Materials (fourth ed.). McGraw-Hill. p. 463. ISBN 9780073659350.
For a sphere the thickness d = rP/2s, where r is the radius of the tank. The vol
ume of the spherical surface then is 4pr2d = 4pr3P/2s. The mass is determined by
multiplying by the density of the material that makes up the walls of the spher
ical vessel. Further the volume of the gas is (4pr3)/3. Combining these equation
s give the above results. The equations for the other geometries are derived in
a similar manner
Richard Budynas, J. Nisbett, Shigley's Mechanical Engineering Design, 8th ed., N
ew York:McGraw-Hill, ISBN 978-0-07-312193-2, pg 108
An International Code 2007 ASME Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code. The Americal Soci
ety of Mechanical Engineers. 2007.
MIT pressure vessel lecture
"AS 1200 Pressure Vessels". SAI Global. Retrieved 14 November 2011.
"AS_NZS 3788: 2006 Pressure equipment - In-service inspection". SAI Global. Retr
ieved September 4, 2015.
"Pressure Vessel Inspection Code: In-Service Inspection, Rating, Repair, and Alt
eration". API. June 2006.
."Gas cylinders - High pressure cylinders for the on-board storage of natura
l gas as a fuel for automotive vehicles". ISO. 2006-07-18. Retrieved 2009-04-17.
References
A.C. Ugural, S.K. Fenster, Advanced Strength and Applied Elasticity, 4th ed.
E.P. Popov, Engineering Mechanics of Solids, 1st ed.
Megyesy, Eugene F. "Pressure Vessel Handbook, 14th Edition." PV Publishing,
Inc. Oklahoma City, OK
Further reading
Megyesy, Eugene F. (2008, 14th ed.) Pressure Vessel Handbook. PV Publishing,
Inc.: Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA. www.pressurevesselhandbook.com Design handb
ook for pressure vessels based on the ASME code.
External links
Look up pressure vessel in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Pressure vessel.
Use of pressure vessels in oil and gas industry
Basic formulas for thin walled pressure vessels; with examples
Educational Excel spreadsheets for ASME head, shell and nozzle designs
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel website
Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology
EU Pressure Equipment Directive website
EU Simple Pressure Vessel Directive
EU Classification
Pressure Vessel attachments http://oakridgebellows.com/metal-expansion-joint
s/technical-videos/lugs-on-pipe-and-vessels-new
[hide]
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Containers
Aerosol spray Aluminium bottle Aluminum can Amphora Ampoule Antistatic bag B

ag-in-box Barrel Biodegradable bag Blister pack Bottle Box Box wine Bulk box Car
boy Carton Chub Clamshell Corrugated box design Crate Desiccator Drum Envelope F
lagon Flexible intermediate bulk container Foam food container Folding carton Fo
od storage container Growler Insulated shipping container Intermediate bulk cont
ainer Jar Jerrycan Juicebox Keg Kobako Multi-pack Padded mailer Pail Plastic bag
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Pressure vessel
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Horizontal pressure vessel in steel
A pressure vessel is a container designed to hold gases or liquids at a pressure
substantially different from the ambient pressure.
The pressure differential is dangerous, and fatal accidents have occurred in the
history of pressure vessel development and operation. Consequently, pressure ve
ssel design, manufacture, and operation are regulated by engineering authorities
backed by legislation. For these reasons, the definition of a pressure vessel v
aries from country to country, but involves parameters such as maximum safe oper
ating pressure and temperature, and are engineered with a safety factor, corrosi
on allowance, minimum design temperature (for brittle fracture), and involve non
destructive testing, such as ultrasonic testing, radiography, and pressure tests
, usually involving water, also known as a hydrotest, but could be pneumatically
tested involving air or another gas. The preferred test is hydrostatic testing
because it's a much safer method of testing as it releases much less energy if f
racture were to occur (water does not rapidly increase its volume while rapid de
pressurization occurs, unlike gases like air, i.e. gasses fail explosively). In
the United States, as with many other countries, it is the law that vessels over
a certain size and pressure (15 PSIg) be built to Code, in the United States th
at Code is the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (BPVC), these vessels also r
equire an Authorized Inspector to sign off on every new vessel constructed and e
ach vessel has a nameplate with pertinent information about the vessel such as m
aximum allowable working pressure, maximum temperature, minimum design metal tem
perature, what company manufactured it, the date, its registration number (throu
gh the National Board), and ASME's official stamp for pressure vessels (U-stamp)
, making the vessel traceable and officially an ASME Code vessel.
Contents
1 History of pressure vessels
2 Pressure vessel features
2.1 Shape of a pressure vessel
2.2 Construction materials
2.3 Safety features
2.3.1 Leak before burst
2.3.2 Safety valves
2.4 Maintenance features
2.4.1 Pressure vessel closures
3 Uses
4 Alternatives to pressure vessels
5 Design
5.1 Scaling
5.1.1 Scaling of stress in walls of vessel
5.1.2 Spherical vessel
5.1.3 Cylindrical vessel with hemispherical ends
5.1.4 Cylindrical vessel with semi-elliptical ends
5.1.5 Gas storage
5.2 Stress in thin-walled pressure vessels
5.3 Winding angle of carbon fibre vessels
5.4 Operation standards
5.4.1 List of standards
6 See also
7 Notes
8 References
9 Further reading
10 External links

History of pressure vessels


A 10,000 psi (69 MPa) pressure vessel from 1919, wrapped with high tensile steel
banding and steel rods to secure the end caps.
The earliest documented design of pressure vessels is described in the book Code
x Madrid I, by Leonardo da Vinci, in 1495, where containers of pressurized air w
ere theorized to lift heavy weights underwater,[1] however vessels resembling wh
at are used today did not come about until the 1800s where steam was generated i
n boilers helping to spur the industrial revolution.[1] However, with poor mater
ial quality and manufacturing techniques along with improper knowledge of design
, operation and maintenance there was a large number of damaging and often fatal
explosions associated with these boilers and pressure vessels, with a death occ
urring on a nearly daily basis in the United States.[1] Local providences and st
ates in the US began enacting rules for constructing these vessels after some pa
rticularly devastating vessel failures occurred killing dozens of people at a ti
me, which made it difficult for manufacturers to keep up with the varied rules f
rom one location to another and the first pressure vessel code was developed sta
rting in 1911 and released in 1914, starting the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel
Code (BPVC).[1] In an early effort to design a tank capable of withstanding pre
ssures up to 10,000 psi (69 MPa), a 6-inch (150 mm) diameter tank was developed
in 1919 that was spirally-wound with two layers of high tensile strength steel w
ire to prevent sidewall rupture, and the end caps longitudinally reinforced with
lengthwise high-tensile rods.[2] The need for high pressure and temperature ves
sels for petroleum refineries and chemical plants gave rise to vessels joined wi
th welding instead of rivets (which were unsuitable for the pressures and temper
atures required) and in 1920s and 1930s the BPVC included welding as an acceptab
le means of construction, and welding is the main means of joining metal vessels
today.[1]
There have been many advancements in the field of pressure vessel engineering su
ch as advanced non-destructive examination, phased array ultrasonic testing and
radiography, new material grades with increased corrosion resistance and stronge
r materials, and new ways to join materials such as explosion welding (to attach
one metal sheet to another, usually a thin corrosion resistant metal like stain
less steel to a stronger metal like carbon steel), friction stir welding (which
attaches the metals together without melting the metal), advanced theories and m
eans of more accurately assessing the stresses encountered in vessels such as wi
th the use of Finite Element Analysis, allowing the vessels to be built safer an
d more efficiently. Today vessels in the USA require BPVC stamping but the BPVC
is not just a domestic code, many other countries have adopted the BPVC as their
official code. There are, however, other official codes in some countries (some
of which rely on portions of and reference the BPVC), Japan, Australia, Canada,
Britain, and Europe have their own codes. Regardless of the country nearly all
recognize the inherent potential hazards of pressure vessels and the need for st
andards and codes regulating their design and construction.
Pressure vessel features
Shape of a pressure vessel
Pressure vessels can theoretically be almost any
ons of spheres, cylinders, and cones are usually
cylinder with end caps called heads. Head shapes
ical or dished (torispherical). More complicated
uch harder to analyze for safe operation and are
onstruct.
Spherical gas container.
Cylindrical pressure vessel.

shape, but shapes made of secti


employed. A common design is a
are frequently either hemispher
shapes have historically been m
usually far more difficult to c

Picture of the bottom of an aerosol spray can.


Fire Extinguisher with rounded rectangle pressure vessel
Theoretically, a spherical pressure vessel has approximately twice the strength
of a cylindrical pressure vessel with the same wall thickness,[3] and is the ide
al shape to hold internal pressure.[1] However, a spherical shape is difficult t
o manufacture, and therefore more expensive, so most pressure vessels are cylind
rical with 2:1 semi-elliptical heads or end caps on each end. Smaller pressure v
essels are assembled from a pipe and two covers. For cylindrical vessels with a
diameter up to 600 mm (NPS of 24 in), it is possible to use seamless pipe for th
e shell, thus avoiding many inspection and testing issues, mainly the nondestruc
tive examination of radiography for the long seam if required. A disadvantage of
these vessels is that greater diameters are more expensive, so that for example
the most economic shape of a 1,000 litres (35 cu ft), 250 bars (3,600 psi) pres
sure vessel might be a diameter of 91.44 centimetres (36 in) and a length of 1.7
018 metres (67 in) including the 2:1 semi-elliptical domed end caps.
Construction materials
Composite overwrapped pressure vessel with titanium liner.
Many pressure vessels are made of steel. To manufacture a cylindrical or spheric
al pressure vessel, rolled and possibly forged parts would have to be welded tog
ether. Some mechanical properties of steel, achieved by rolling or forging, coul
d be adversely affected by welding, unless special precautions are taken. In add
ition to adequate mechanical strength, current standards dictate the use of stee
l with a high impact resistance, especially for vessels used in low temperatures
. In applications where carbon steel would suffer corrosion, special corrosion r
esistant material should also be used.
Some pressure vessels are made of composite materials, such as filament wound co
mposite using carbon fibre held in place with a polymer. Due to the very high te
nsile strength of carbon fibre these vessels can be very light, but are much mor
e difficult to manufacture. The composite material may be wound around a metal l
iner, forming a composite overwrapped pressure vessel.
Other very common materials include polymers such as PET in carbonated beverage
containers and copper in plumbing.
Pressure vessels may be lined with various metals, ceramics, or polymers to prev
ent leaking and protect the structure of the vessel from the contained medium. T
his liner may also carry a significant portion of the pressure load.[4][5]
Pressure Vessels may also be constructed from concrete (PCV) or other materials
which are weak in tension. Cabling, wrapped around the vessel or within the wall
or the vessel itself, provides the necessary tension to resist the internal pre
ssure. A "leakproof steel thin membrane" lines the internal wall of the vessel.
Such vessels can be assembled from modular pieces and so have "no inherent size
limitations".[6] There is also a high order of redundancy thanks to the large nu
mber of individual cables resisting the internal pressure.
Safety features
Leak before burst
Leak before burst describes a pressure vessel designed such that a crack in the
vessel will grow through the wall, allowing the contained fluid to escape and re
ducing the pressure, prior to growing so large as to cause fracture at the opera
ting pressure.
Many pressure vessel standards, including the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Co
de[citation needed] and the AIAA metallic pressure vessel standard, either requi
re pressure vessel designs to be leak before burst, or require pressure vessels

to meet more stringent requirements for fatigue and fracture if they are not sho
wn to be leak before burst.[7]
Safety valves
Example of a valve used for gas cylinders.
As the pressure vessel is designed to a pressure, there is typically a safety va
lve or relief valve to ensure that this pressure is not exceeded in operation.
Maintenance features
Pressure vessel closures
Pressure vessel closures are pressure retaining structures designed to provide q
uick access to pipelines, pressure vessels, pig traps, filters and filtration sy
stems. Typically pressure vessel closures allow maintenance personnel.
Uses
Pressure vessels are used in a variety of applications in both industry and the
private sector. They appear in these sectors as industrial compressed air receiv
ers and domestic hot water storage tanks. Other examples of pressure vessels are
diving cylinders, recompression chambers, distillation towers, pressure reactor
s, autoclaves, and many other vessels in mining operations, oil refineries and p
etrochemical plants, nuclear reactor vessels, submarine and space ship habitats,
pneumatic reservoirs, hydraulic reservoirs under pressure, rail vehicle airbrak
e reservoirs, road vehicle airbrake reservoirs, and storage vessels for liquifie
d gases such as ammonia, chlorine, and LPG (propane, butane).
A unique application of a pressure vessel is the passenger cabin of an airliner;
The outer skin carries both the aircraft maneuvering loads and the cabin pressu
rization loads.
A pressure tank connected to a water well and domestic hot water system.
A few pressure tanks, here used to hold propane.
An expansion vessel for heating systems.
A pressure vessel used as a kier.
A pressure vessel used for The Boeing Company s CST-100 spacecraft.
Alternatives to pressure vessels
Natural gas storage
Gas holder
Depending on the application and local circumstances, alternatives to pressure v
essels exist. Examples can be seen in domestic water collection systems, wh