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DifferencesandShortNotes.

SummonsCaseandWarrantCase

AsperSection2(w),"summons­case"meansacaserelatingtoanoffence,andnotbeingawarrant­caseandasper

Section2(x), "warrant­case"meansacaserelatingtoanoffencepunishablewithdeath,imprisonmentforlifeor imprisonmentforatermexceedingtwoyears.CrPCclassifiesanoffenceaseithercognizableornon­cognizable,anda trialprocedureassummonscaseorwarrantcase.Thus,thetermssummonscaseandwarrantcaseareinreferenceto theprocedureadoptedforthetrialofthecase.Thus,thedifferencebetweenthetwocanbeseenfromthepointofviewof theirtrialproceduresashighlightedbelow­

D2CCPAWO

SummonsCase

Warrantcase

 

CrPCprescribestwoproceduresforthetrialof

CrPCprescribesonlyoneprocedureforallsummonscases,

awarrantcasemymagistrate­oneforcase

whetherinstituteduponapolicereportorotherwise.

instituteduponapolicereportandoneforcase

institutedotherwisethanonapolicereport.

Nochargeneedstobeframedonlytheparticularsoftheoffence

Achargeneedstobeframedagainstthe

needstobeconveyedtotheaccused.

accused.

AsperS.252,iftheaccusedpleadsguilty,themagistratemust

AsperS.241,Afterthechargeisframed,the

recordthepleaoftheaccusedandmay,inhisdiscretion,convicthim accusedmaypleadguiltyandthemagistrate

onsuchplea.

mayconvicthimonhisdiscretion.

Accusedmypleadguiltybypostwithoutappearingbeforethe

Accusedmustappearpersonally.

magistrate.

 

Magistratecandischargetheaccusedif

Theaccusedmaybeacquitted,ifthecomplainantisabsentorifthe

complainantisabsent,ornochargeisframed,

complainantdies.

oriftheoffenceiscompoundableandnon

cognizable.

 

Thecomplainantmay,withthepermissionofthe

Thecomplainantmay,withthepermissionofthecourt,withdrawthe

court,withdrawtheremainingchargesagainst

complaintagainsttheaccused.

anaccused,ifheischargedwithseveral

offencesandconvictedononeormoreofthem.

Whenawarrantcaseistriedasasummonscaseandiftheaccused

Whenasummonscaseistriedasawarrant caseandiftheaccusedisdischargedunderS

245,thedischargewillamounttoacquittal.

isacquittedunderS.255,theacquittalwillonlyamounttodischarge.

Trialofawarrantcaseasasummonscaseitisaseriousirregularity

Trialofasummonscaseasawarrantcaseisan

andthetrialisvitiatediftheaccusedhasbeenprejudiced.

irregularitywhichiscurableunderSection465.

Asummonscasecannothavechargesthatrequireawarrantcase. Awarrantcasemaycontainchargesthatreflect asummonscase.

Accusedgetsonlyoneopportunity.

Accusedmaygetmorethanoneopportunityto

cross­examinetheprosecutionwitness.

 

Achargeunderawarrantcasecannotbesplit

upintoitsconstituentsfortrialundersummons

case.

 

Afterconvictingtheaccused,themagistratemay

Nosuchpowertothemagistrateinsummonscase.

takeevidenceregardingpreviousconvictionnot

admittedbytheaccused.

 

Allcaseswhicharepunishablebydeath,

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Allcaseswhicharenotpunishablebydeath,imprisonmentforlife,or

imprisonmentforlife,orformorethantwoyears

formorethantwoyearsaresummonscases.

arewarrantcases.

Conversion

 

AsperSection259,asummonscasecanbeconvertedintoa

Awarrantcasecannotbeconvertedintoa

warrantcaseifthecaserelatestoanoffencethatentailsmorethan6

monthsofimprisonmentaspunishmentandthejudgefeelsthatin

summonscase.

theinterestofjusticeitthecaseshouldbetriedasawarrantcase.

Itisimportanttonotethatthequestionwhetherasummonsorawarrantshouldbeissuedinthecaseisnotrelatedto

whetherthecaseisasummonscaseorawarrantcase.

CompoundableandNonCompoundableOffences­Someoffenceslargelyaffectonlythevictimandnoconsiderable harmisconsideredtobedonetothesociety.Insuchoffences,iftheoffenderandvictimcompromise,thereisnoneedto wastecourt'stimeinconductingatrial.TheprocessofreachingacompromiseiscalledCompounding.Conceptually, suchoffences,inwhichacompromisecanbedoneandatrialcanbeavoided,arecalledCompoundableoffence.Restof

theoffencesarenon­compoundable.Technically,offencesclassifiedasCompoundablebySection320ofCrPCare

compoundable.Section320specifiestwokindsofCompoundableoffences­onewherepermissionofcourtisrequired

beforecompoundingcanbedoneforexample,voluntarilycausinggrievoushurt,Theft,criminalbreachoftrust,assaulton awomanwithintentiontooutragehermodesty,etc.andonewherepermissionofthecourtisnotrequiredforexample,

causinghurt,adultery,defamation,etc.AsperS.320(3),iftheabetmentofanoffenceisanoffenceandiftheoffenceis

compoundablethenabetmentisalsocompoundable.

Onlytheperson,whoisspecifiedintheclassificationtablesinSection320,hastherighttocompoundtheoffence.The

personisusuallythevictim.Theoffendercannot demandcompoundingasaright.

However,whenanoffenderhasbeencommittedtotrialorwhenhehasbeenconvictedandhisappealispending, compoundingcanonlybedonewiththeleaveofthecourttowhichheiscommittedortowhichthetrialispending.Ifan offenderisliableforenhancedpunishmentoradifferentpunishmentonaccountofapreviousconviction,compounding

cannotbedone.HighCourtandCourtofSessionmay,undertheirpowerofrevisioninSection401,canallowanyperson

tocompoundanycompoundableoffence.

Whenanoffenceiscompounded,itisequivalenttoanacquittal.

Compoundable OffenceSection320

NonCompoundableOffence

OffencesclassifiedascompoundablebyS.320ofCrPC

Restoftheoffences

Offencemostlyaffectsaprivateparty.

Privatepartyaswellassocietybothare

considerablyaffectedbytheoffence.

Thevictimandtheoffendermayreachcompromisewithorwithout Nocompromiseisallowed.Evencourtdoesnot

thepermissionofthecourtdependingontheoffence.

havethepowertocompoundtheoffence.

Uponcompromise,theoffenderisacquittedwithoutanytrial.

Fulltrialisheldandacquittalorconvictionisgiven

aspertheevidence.

InBhimaSinghvsStateofUP,AIR1974,SCheldthatwhenanoffenceiscompoundablewiththepermissionofthe

court,suchpermissionmaybegrantedbySCwhileanappealismadeagainsttheconvictionprovidedthepartieshave settledthematteramicably.

InRamLalvsStateofJ&K,1999,SCheldthatwhenanoffenceisdeclarednon­compoundablebylaw,itcannotbe

compoundedevenwiththepermissionofthecourt.However,thecourtmaytakethecompromiseintoaccountwhile deliveringjudgment.

ThecaseofBSJoshivsStateofHaryana,AIR2003isinterestinginthisregard.Thecasewasaboutthematterrelated

toSection498A,whichisnon­compoundableoffence.Inthiscase,thepartiesreachedacompromisebuttheHighCourt

refusedtoquashtheFIR,onthegroundthattheoffenceisnon­compoundable. However,SCheldthatinthebackdropof theinterpretationofthevariousrelevantprovisionsoftheCodeunderChapterXIVandoftheprinciplesoflawenunciated

bythisCourtinaseriesofdecisionsrelatingtotheexerciseoftheextraordinarypowerunderArticle226ortheinherent

powersunderSection482oftheCode,suchpowercouldbeexercisedeithertopreventabuseoftheprocessofanycourt

orotherwisetosecuretheendsofjustice,thoughitmaynotbepossibletolaydownanyprecise,clearlydefinedand

sufficientlychannelisedandinflexibleguidelinesorrigidformulateandtogiveanexhaustivelistofmyriadkindsofcases

whereinsuchpowershouldbeexercised.Itfurtherobservedthatinthiscase,thepartieswerenotaskingfor

compoundingtheoffencebutforquashingtheFIR.Itobservedthatsincebecauseoftheamicablesettlement,thereisno

chanceofconvictionandinsuchacasethecourthasthepowertoquashtheproceeding.

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InformationandComplaint

Information

Complaint

 

AsperSection2(d),acomplaintmeansanyallegationmade

Nolegaldefinition.ItisusedinitsregularEnglish

meaning.

orallyorinwritingtoamagistrate,withaviewtohistaking

actionunderthiscode(CrPC),thatsomeperson,whether

knownorunknown,hascommittedanoffence,butdoesnot

 

includeapolicereport.

Noactionfromthemagistrateisexpected.

Thepurposeofcomplaintisthatthemagistratetakesaction

onitandproviderelief.

Nocognizanceistaken.

MagistratetakescognizanceoftheoffenceasperSection

190.

Itmayincludeinformationaboutcommissionof

 

offences,apprehensionaboutbreachofpeace,and

presenceofabsconderandsuspectedpersonsto

Itisalwaysaboutcommissionofanoffence.

policeofficersormagistrate.Thus,aninformationmay

notnecessarilyaboutanoffence.

SufficientgroundsforcommitmentandSufficientgroundsforconviction

Sufficientgroundsforcommitment

Sufficientgroundsfor

conviction

WhenamagistratetakescognizanceofanoffenceunderSection190(uponreceiptofa

Uponholdingthetrial,ifthe courtissatisfied withthe evidenceprovidedbythe prosecutethattheaccusedis guiltyoftheallegedoffence, heconvictstheoffender.

complaintorotherwise),heexaminesthecomplaintinaccordancewithSection200by

examiningthefactsandthewitnesses.Ifhefindsthatthecomplaintiswithmerits,the caseisdeemedcommittedfortrialandthemagistrateissuestheprocessunderSection

204.IftheoffenceisexclusivelytriablebyCourtofSession,themagistratecommitsthe

casetoCourtofSessionunderSection209.

 

Theevidencemustprovethe

Atthisstageitisnotconsideredwhetherthegroundsaresufficientforconviction.

guiltoftheaccusedwithout

anydoubt.

DischargeandAcquittal

Discharge

Acquittal

SessionTrial

SessionTrial Ifafterevaluatingtheevidencegivenby theprosecute,thejudgeconsidersthat thereisnoevidencethattheaccused hascommittedtheoffence,thejudge

AsperSection227,if,uponconsiderationoftherecordofthecaseandthe

documentssubmittedtherewith,andafterhearingthesubmissionsofthe

acquitstheoffenderunderSection232.

accusedandtheprosecutioninthisbehalf,theJudgeconsidersthatthereis

However,iftheoffenderisnotacquitted

notsufficientgroundforproceedingagainsttheaccused,heshalldischarge

underSection232,heispermittedto

theaccusedandrecordhisreasonsforsodoing.

givehisdefenseandevidence.After hearingtheargumentsofboththe parties,thecourtmayacquitofconvict

thepersonunderSection235.

WarrantTrialByMagistrate

 

AsperSection239,if,uponconsideringthepolicereportandthedocuments

sentwithitundersection173andmakingsuchexamination,ifany,ofthe

accusedastheMagistratethinksnecessaryandaftergivingtheprosecution

andtheaccusedanopportunityofbeingheard,theMagistrateconsidersthe

chargeagainsttheaccusedtobegroundless,heshalldischargethe

accused,andrecordhisreasonsforsodoing.

WarrantTrialByMagistrate

AsperSection248,if,inanycase

underthisChapterinwhichacharge

hasbeenframed,theMagistratefinds

theaccusednotguilty,heshallrecord

anorderofacquittal.

Dischargedoesnotmeanthattheaccusedhasnotcommittedtheoffence.It

Acquittalmeansthattheaccusedhas

justmeansthatthereisnotenoughevidencetoproceedwiththetrial.

beenheldinnocent.

 

Theaccusedcannotbetriedagainfor

Iffurtherevidenceisgatheredlateron,theaccusedmaybetriedagain.

thesameoffenceoncehehasbeen

acquitted.

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CognizableoffenceandNon­cognizableoffence

Cognizableoffence

NonCognizableoffence

 

DefinedinSection2(l)­"non­

cognizableoffence"meansan

offenceforwhich,and"non­

DefinedinSection2(c)­"cognizableoffence"meansanoffenceforwhich,and

cognizablecase"meansacase

"cognizablecase"meansacaseinwhich,apoliceofficermay,inaccordancewiththe

inwhich,apoliceofficerhasno

FirstScheduleorunderanyotherlawforthetimebeinginforce,arrestwithout

authoritytoarrestwithout

warrant.

warrant.

Examples­Murder,Dowrydeath,grevioushurt,theft.

Example­keepingalottery

office,voluntarilycausinghurt,

dishonestmisappropriationof

property.

 

AsperSection155,Policehas

PolicehastorecordinformationaboutacognizableoffenceinwritingasperSection

toenterinformationinregister

154.

prescribedforitandreferthe

informanttoamagistrate.

 

Policeofficercannotinvestigate

Policecanstartinvestigationwithouttheorderofamagistrate.

thecasewithouttheorderofa

magistrate.

Ingeneral,cognizableoffencesareofseriousnaturewhichinvolveimprisonmentof morethanthreeyears.However,thereisnosuchpreciserule.Tobecognizable,an offencemustbedeclaredsobythelawdefiningthatoffence.Severaloffenceswhich

 

carrylessprisontermsuchasrioting(2yrs)havebeendeclaredcognizable,while

severalwithbiggerprisontermsuchasFalseEvidence(7yrs)orRapebyamanwith

hisownwifeofnotlessthan12yrshavebeendeclarednon­cognizable.

FirstInformationReport

ThenameFIRisgiventotheinformationgivenbyanypersonaboutacognizableoffenceandrecordedbythepolicein

accordancewithSection154.Asperthissection,everyinformationrelatingtothecommissionofacognizableoffence,if

givenorallytoanofficerinchargeofapolicestation,shallbereducedtowritingbyhimorunderhisdirection,andbe

readovertotheinformant;andeverysuchinformation,whethergiveninwritingorreducedtowritingasaforesaid,shall

besignedbythepersongivingit,andthesubstancethereofshallbeenteredinabooktobekeptbysuchofficerinsuch

formastheStateGovernmentmayprescribeinthisbehalf.

SCinthecaseofStateofBombayvsRusyMistry,AIR1960,definedFIRasso­AFIRmeanstheinformation,by

whomsoevergiven,totheofficerinchargeofapolicestationinrelationtothecommissionofacognizableoffenceand

whichisfirstinpointoftimeandonthestrengthofwhichtheinvestigationintothatoffenceiscommenced.

Thus,FIRisnothingbutinformationofthenatureofacomplaintoraccusationaboutacognizableoffencegivenbyany persontothepolicesothatthepolicecanstartinvestigation.Whenapersonreportsanyinformationaboutacognizable offencetothepolice,thepoliceisboundtoregisteracaseandproceedwithinvestigation. However,forpoliceto investigatethematter,theoffencemustbeacognizableoffence.Thepoliceisnotallowedtoinvestigateanon­cognizable offencewithoutanorderfromamagistrate.So,oncethedutyofficeriscertainthattheoffenceallegedtohavebeen committedisacognizableoffence,hedirectsthecomplainanttoputhisstatementinwriting.Inthepresenceofthe complainant,thedutyofficershallcompleteallthecolumnsintheFIRregisterwiththeinformationgivenbythe complainant.HeshallthenreadoutallthecontentsoftheFIRregisteredtothecomplainant.Oncethecomplainantis certainthatallthedetailshavebeencorrectlywritten,heshouldsigntheFIR.

FIRmerelycontainsthefactsoftheoffenceasknownbytheinformant.TheFIRisastatementbythecomplainantofan

allegedoffence.Theinformantisnotrequiredtoprovehisallegationsinanymanneratthepolicestation.Itisthejobof

thepolicetoascertainfacts,verifydetailsandsubstantiatethechargesorotherwise.

However,thefactsmustnotbevague.Thefactsmustdivulgeatleastsomeconcreteinformationabouttheoffence

committed.IncaseofTapinderSinghvsState,1972,SCheldthatwhenatelephonemessagedidnotdisclosethe

namesoftheaccusednordiditdisclosethecommissionofacognizableoffence,itcannotbecalledaFIR.

IncaseofStateofUPvsRKShrivastava,1989,SCheldthatiftheallegationsmadeinanFIRdonotconstitutea

cognizableoffence,thecriminalproceedinginstitutedonthebasisoftheFIRshouldbequashed.

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Sometimesmultiplepersonsmayreportthesameincidentandinsuchsituationthepolicemustusecommonsenseand

recordonestatementasFIR.Usually,thestatementthatcontainsenoughinformationtoallowthepolicetoproceedwith

investigationisrecordedasFIR.

EvidentiaryValueofFIR AFIRisnotsubstantiveevidencethatis,itisnotevidenceofthefactswhichitmentions.However,itisveryimportant sinceitconveystheearliestinformationabouttheoccurrenceofanoffenceanditcanbeusedtocorroboratethe

informationunderSection157ofIndianEvidenceActortocontradicthimunderSection145ofIndianEvidenceAct,ifthe

informantiscalledasawitnessinatrial.ItisconsideredthatFIRhasabettercorroborativevalueifitisrecordedbefore thereistimeandopportunitytoembellishorbeforethememoryoftheinformationbecomeshazy.Theremustbea

reasonablecauseforthedelay.Forexample,incaseofHarpalSinghvsStateofHP,1981,involvingrape,theFIRwas

registeredafter10days.Itwasheldthatthedelaywasreasonablebecauseitinvolvedconsiderablematterofhonorfor

thefamilyandthatrequiredtimeforthefamilytodecidewhethertotakethemattertocourtornot.AsFIRcanalsobeused incrossexaminationoftheinformant.

However,iftheFIRismadebytheaccusedhimself,itcannotbeusedagainsthimbecauseofSection25ofEvidenceact

whichforbidsanyconfessionmadetothepolicetobeusedagainsttheaccused.

AFIRcanalsobeusedasadyingdeclarationunderSection32ofIndianEvidenceAct.

SummaryTrial

1.Akindoffasttrackproceedingwhereacaseisresolvedinonesitting.

2.Meantforpettyoffenses,toreducetheburdenofcourt

S.260­ WhenacaseinvolvingthefollowingoffensescomestoCJM,MM,andJMFCforhearing,theyhavethe

discretionarypowertodecidewhethertheywanttotrythecasesummarilyornot.Thereare9suchoffences­

anyoffencethatdoesnothavedeath,lifeimprisonmentorimprisonmentofmorethan2yrsaspunishment,theft,lurking

housetrespass,receivingstolenproperty,assistinginconcealmentofstolenproperty,abetmentoftheoffencescovered underthissection,attemptoftheseoffences. Ifatanypointinwhiletryingthematterinthismanner,ifthecourtthinksthatitisundesirabletotrythecasesummarily,it shallrecallanywitnesseswhomayhavebeenexaminedandproceedtore­hearthecaseinthemannerprovidedinthis code(i.e.asasummonstrialorwarranttrial)

S.261­HighCourtmaygivepowertoJudicialMagistrateSecondclasstotryoffencesinvolvingimprisonmentofless

than6monthssummarily.

S.262­Sentenceofimprisonmentofmorethan3monthscannotbepassedinasummarytrialandtheprocedure

adoptedinasummarytrialwillbesameastheprocedureadoptedinaSummonscaseexceptthefollowingchanges­

S.263­Thejudgemustrecordthefollowingparticularsintheprescribedformat­serialnumberofthecase,dateof

offence,dateofcomplaint,nameofcomplainant,name,age,address,parentageofaccused,offencecomplainedand offenceproved,pleaoftheaccusedandhisexamination,findings,sentence,anddateofterminationoftheproceeding.

S.264­Iftheaccuseddoesnotpleadguilty,thejudgemustrecordthesubstanceoftheevidenceandgivereasonsfor

thejudgment.

S.265­Everythesuchrecordandjudgmentshallbeinthelanguageofthecourt.

InRamLochanvsState,1978,itwasheldthatalthoughtryingagovt.servantsummarilyislegal,itshouldnotbedone

sobecauseuponconviction,govt.servantmaylosehisjob,whichisaseriousloss.

AppealandRevisioninSummaryTrials

Noappealliesifonlyasentenceoffinenotexceeding200/­isawarded.ArevisionapplicationwouldlietotheHighCourt

insuchacase.