0 Stimmen dafür0 Stimmen dagegen

2 Aufrufe10 Seitenbuckling of rectangular plates

Oct 19, 2016

© © All Rights Reserved

PDF, TXT oder online auf Scribd lesen

buckling of rectangular plates

© All Rights Reserved

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

2 Aufrufe

buckling of rectangular plates

© All Rights Reserved

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

- The Law of Explosive Growth: Lesson 20 from The 21 Irrefutable Laws of Leadership
- Hidden Figures: The American Dream and the Untold Story of the Black Women Mathematicians Who Helped Win the Space Race
- Hidden Figures Young Readers' Edition
- The E-Myth Revisited: Why Most Small Businesses Don't Work and
- Micro: A Novel
- The Wright Brothers
- The Other Einstein: A Novel
- State of Fear
- State of Fear
- The Power of Discipline: 7 Ways it Can Change Your Life
- The Kiss Quotient: A Novel
- Being Wrong: Adventures in the Margin of Error
- Algorithms to Live By: The Computer Science of Human Decisions
- The 6th Extinction
- The Black Swan
- The Art of Thinking Clearly
- The Last Battle
- Prince Caspian
- A Mind for Numbers: How to Excel at Math and Science Even If You Flunked Algebra
- The Theory of Death: A Decker/Lazarus Novel

Sie sind auf Seite 1von 10

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/ijmecsci

non-uniform inplane loads

Sarat Kumar Panda, L.S. Ramachandra

Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Kharagpur 721302, India

a r t i c l e in fo

abstract

Article history:

Received 20 December 2008

Received in revised form

20 December 2009

Accepted 18 January 2010

Available online 25 January 2010

In the present paper, buckling loads of rectangular composite plates having nine sets of different

boundary conditions and subjected to non-uniform inplane loading are presented considering higher

order shear deformation theory (HSDT). As the applied inplane load is non-uniform, the buckling load is

evaluated in two steps. In the rst step the plane elasticity problem is solved to evaluate the stress

distribution within the prebuckling range. Using the above stress distribution the plate buckling

equations are derived from the principle of minimum total potential energy. Adopting Galerkins

approximation, the governing partial differential equations are converted into a set of homogeneous

linear algebraic equations. The critical buckling load is obtained from the solution of the associated

linear eigenvalue problem. The present buckling loads are compared with the published results

wherever available. The buckling loads obtained from the present method for plate with various

boundary conditions and subjected to non-uniform inplane loading are found to be in excellent

agreement with those obtained from commercial software ANSYS. Buckling mode shapes of plate for

different boundary conditions with non-uniform inplane loadings are also presented.

& 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords:

Buckling

Non-uniform inplane loading

Parabolic loading

Ritz method

Galerkin method

1. Introduction

Often, plates are a part of complex structural system and hence

load coming on it may not be always uniform. For example, in the

case of I-beam or wide anged beam subjected to bending

moment at the ends or lateral loads on the ange, the web of the

beam is subjected to non-uniform inplane loads. The load exerted

on the aircraft wings, or on the stiffened plate in the ship

structures or on the slabs of a multi-storey building by the

adjoining structures usually is non-uniform. The type of distribution in an actual structure depends on the relative stiffnesses of

the adjoining elements. Behaviour of structures subjected to nonuniform inplane compressive loading and shear loading is

important in aircraft, civil and ship-building industries. Much

work has been reported in the literature on the buckling of

rectangular plates subjected to uniform inplane loading. However,

very few papers deal with the buckling of plates subjected to nonuniform inplane loads. Buckling of plates subjected to sinusoidal

[1] and parabolic [2] inplane compressive loading was obtained

by earlier researchers based on unrealistic inplane stress

distribution. Wang et al. [3] have adopted Galerkin procedure

with Legendre polynomials as shape function to analyse buckling

of rectangular plates subjected to linearly varying inplane edge

compressive load with two loaded edges simply supported, one

0020-7403/$ - see front matter & 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.ijmecsci.2010.01.009

rotationally restrained. Biggers and his co-workers have exploited

the stiffness-tailoring concept to improve the buckling load

capacity of plates subjected to, compressive load [4], and shear

load [5]. Whereas, Baranski and Biggers [6] have used the same

concept to study the postbuckling response of damaged composite plates. In a companion paper Xie and Biggers [7] have

extended the stiffness-tailoring concept to improve the compressive buckling loads and ultimate loads of at pates and curved

panels with cutouts. Buckling of moderately thick composite

plates subjected to partial edge compression was studied by

Sundaresan et al. [8] within the framework of nite element

method. Solving the prebuckling equations, authors obtained

stress distributions within the plate and hence evaluated the

geometric stiffness matrix. Bert and Devarakonda [9] studied

buckling analysis of simply supported rectangular Kirchhoff plate

subjected to sinusoidal distribution of inplane loading by superposition method based on more realistic but approximate stress

distribution. In recent years, Kang and Leissa [10,11], Leissa and

Kang [12] presented exact solutions for the Kirchhoff plate having

two opposite edges simply supported subjected to linearly

varying inplane loading. They have considered all other possible

boundary conditions on the unloaded edges. As the loaded edge is

simply supported, authors assumed the transverse displacement

(w) to vary as sin((mpx)/a) (where a is the size of the plate along

x-direction and b along y-direction) and reduced the governing

partial differential equation to an ordinary differential equation in

y with variable coefcients, for which an exact solution was

ARTICLE IN PRESS

820

S. Kumar Panda, L.S. Ramachandra / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 52 (2010) 819828

Applying the boundary conditions at y= 0 and b yields the

eigenvalue problem for nding the buckling load. Zhong and Gu

[13] studied buckling analysis of ReissnerMindlin plate with

various thicknesses to width ratio and subjected to linearly

varying inplane load. For the case of linearly varying load the

stress eld within the plate coincides with the applied inplane

load distribution. Gurdal et al. [14] worked on ber orientation

variation for at rectangular composite laminates that possess

variable stiffness properties. The variable stiffness concept

provides exibility to the designer for trade-offs between overall

panel stiffness and buckling load. Recently, Wang et al. [15]

obtained the buckling loads of thin rectangular plates under

parabolic edge compression by differential quadrature (DQ)

method. Authors considered nine possible combinations of

boundary condition of the plate in their study. Jana and Bhaskar

[16] have solved the plane elasticity problem exactly by superposition of Airys stress function represented by Fourier series.

They have also obtained the inplane stress distribution by the

extended Kantorovich method based on the principle of minimum

complementary energy. Using these distributions, authors have

obtained buckling loads for simply supported plate by Galerkin

method for various inplane load distributions.

From the above literature survey it is observed that, buckling

loads of layered composite plates subjected to parabolically

distributed inplane loads are not available in the literature. In

this study, buckling loads of isotropic and composite plates

subjected to non-uniform inplane loads are evaluated for nine

different sets of boundary conditions of the plate considering

higher order shear deformation theory proposed by Reddy [17]. In

the rst step, the plane elasticity problem is solved to evaluate the

stress distribution within the prebuckling range by Ritz procedure. Using the above stress distribution and adopting multi-term

Galerkins approximation, the governing partial differential

equations of plate buckling are converted into a set of homogeneous linear algebraic equations. The critical buckling load is

obtained from the solution of associated linear eigenvalue

problem. For the nine cases of boundary conditions, appropriate

beam functions are used as displacement eld approximation in

Galerkins method. When the two loaded edges are simply

supported and applied inplane load is uniform or linearly varying,

the plate buckles with a particular number of half-waves in the

loading direction depending on the length to width ratio of

the plate and in combination of two or more half-waves along the

unloaded edge. Similarly if the applied inplane loading is nonuniform the buckling mode is a combination of two or more halfwaves in both loaded direction as well as the unloaded direction

independent of boundary conditions. The buckling loads obtained

by the present method are compared with those of Leissa and Kang

[12] and Wang et al. [15] wherever possible. The present results

compare well with the literature values. The present results are

also compared with the buckling loads obtained from commercial

nite element software ANSYS and found to compare well.

2. Formulation

Consider a composite rectangular plate having length a and

breadth b and made up of n layers of equal thickness. The coordinate system is such that the middle plane coincides with the

xy plane and the z-axis is perpendicular to the middle plane.

Using Reddys higher order shear deformation theory, the

displacement eld can be written as

u u0 zw0;x f zf1 ;

v v0 zw0;y f zf2 ;

w wo

thickness of the plate. Fx is the rotation of normal to midplane

about y-axis and Fy is the rotation of the normal to midplane about

x-axis due to shear deformation alone. f1 and f2 are, respectively,

the total rotation of normals to midplane about y- and x-axis. The

von Karman nonlinear straindisplacement relations at a generic

point z distance away from the midplane can be written as

ey eoy zwo;yy f zf2;y

gxy eoxy 2zwo;xy f zf1;y f zf2;x

where

3

o o

x, y

1

1

eoy vo;y wo;y 2 ; goxy uo;y vo;x wo;x wo;y 4

2

2

The stress strain relations for the composite plate in the

material co-ordinate axes are given by

fsg Q feg

n

o

fsgT sx sy tyz txz txy ;

n

o

fegT ex ey gyz gxz gxy

system, {s}T cartesian components of stress at any point and {e}T

are the corresponding strains. The governing partial differential

equations of nonlinear buckling of plate are derived from the

principle of minimum total potential energy and is stated as

ZZ

d1 p fnxx Nx ;x nxy Nxy ;y du nxy Nxy ;x

R

nyy Ny ;y dv Mx;xx 2Mxy;xy My;yy nxx Nx w;x

nxy Nxy w;y ;x nxy Nxy w;x nyy Ny w;y g;y dw

Px;x Pxy;y Qxa df1 Pxy;x Py;y Qya df2 gdxdy

Z b

Z b

nxx Nx N x dudy

nxy Nxy N xy dvdy

0

0

Z b

Z b

Z b

@@w

Mx

Px @f1 dy

Pxy @f2 dy

dy

@x

0

0

0

Z b

@Mxy

@w

@w

nxx Nx

Qx

dwdy

nxy Nxy

@y

@x

@y

Z 0a

Z a

nxy Nxy N xy dudx

0

0

Z a

Z a

Z a

@@w

My

Py @f2 dx

Pxy @f1 dx

dx

@y

0

0

Z 0a

@Mxy

@w

@w

nyy Ny

Qy

dwdx 0

nxy Nxy

@x

@y

@x

0

6

The force and moment resultants are dened as

00

1 0

1 0

11

0

1

Mx

Px

sx

Nx

Z h=2

BB N C B M C B P CC

Bs C

@@ y A; @ y A; @ y AA

@ y A1; z; f zdz

h=2

Nxy

Mxy

Pxy

txy

Qx ; Qy

h=2

txz ; tyz dz

h=2

Qxa ; Qya

h=2

h=2

where f 0 (z)=(d/dz)(f(z)); Nx, Ny, Nxy, and Mx, My, Mxy are,

respectively, the force and moment resultants; Px, Py, Pxy are

ARTICLE IN PRESS

S. Kumar Panda, L.S. Ramachandra / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 52 (2010) 819828

curvature f1,x, f2,y, (f2,x + f1,y) due to shear deformation. Qxa ; Qya

are additional transverse shear force resultants. nxx, nyy, nxy are the

plate internal stress resultants due to applied end non-uniform

inplane loading and can be determined by the Principle of Least

Work applied to membrane problem. Minimizing the total

potential energy and substituting for force and moment resultants

in terms of displacement components, the partial differential

equations governing the postbuckling analysis of cross-ply

composite plate in displacement variables are obtained and are

given in Appendix A (Eqs. (A.1)(A.5)).

2.1. Plate prebuckling analysis

In the present investigation, parabolically and linearly varying

inplane compressive loads are considered. However, for linearly

varying in-plane load, the stress distribution within the plate

coincides with the applied edge loading. In the case of parabolic

non-uniform inplane loading, the stress distribution within the

plate due to applied inplane loading is obtained by solving the

plate membrane problem. The correct stress distribution within

the plate is the one which satises the boundary condition and

minimizes the membrane strain energy of the plate. The

membrane strain energy of a plate of thickness h of composite

plate is given by

8

92

9

31 8

n

>

ZZ > nxx >

= A11 A12 A16

< xx >

=

h <

6

7

nyy 4 A12 A22 A26 5

nyy dxdy

10

V

>

2 >

:n >

; A A A

:n >

;

xy

xy

A

16

26

66

where

nyy

@2 F

;

@x2

nxx

@2 F

;

@y2

nxy

@2 F

;

@x@y

Aij

h=2

Q ij dz

11

h=2

function. The membrane strain energy is minimized in this study

using Ritz method [18]. The boundary conditions of the plate

membrane problem are given here for parabolically varying

uniaxial inplane load (see Fig. 1) as the following.For

y

y

1 y 0; b N xy 0 N y 0

x 0; a N xy 0 N x 4N 0

b

b

12

where

F0 2N 0

y2 y y2

2

3 b 2b

which gives

N yy

@2 F0

0;

@x2

N xx

N xy

@2 F0

0

@x@y

@2 F0

y

y

4N 0

1

b

b

@y2

The remaining functions F1, F2, F3 are chosen such that the

stresses corresponding to them vanish at the boundary.

Substituting Eqs. (11) and (14) into Eq. (10) and carrying out

integration, an expression in second degree in a1, a2 and a3 is

obtained. Then, the strain energy function V is minimized with

respect to the constants a1, a2 and a3. Then the constants a1, a2

and a3 are evaluated from the 3 algebraic equations resulting

from the condition, (qV/qa1)= 0, (qV/qa2) =0, (qV/qa3)=0.

2.2. Plate buckling analyses

The critical buckling load of composite rectangular plate with

various boundary conditions and subjected to parabolically

varying inplane compressive load is obtained using Galerkins

method. In the present investigation following nine sets of

boundary conditions are considered: SSSS, SSCS, SCSS, CSCS, SCSC,

SSCC, CCSC, CCCS and CCCC, where S stands for simply supported

edge and C for clamped edge. The letters indicate the boundary

conditions on the edge of the plate in the anti-clockwise fashion

starting from the left hand corner. In the Galerkins method, the

out-of-plane displacement eld w(x,y) satisfying the boundary

conditions of the plate is expressed as the product of beam

function as [19]

wx; y

1 X

1

X

Xm xYn y

15

m1n1

where Xm(x) and Yn(y) are the eigen functions of the beam having

the same boundary conditions as that of two opposite edges of the

plate. This choice of functions satises all boundary conditions of the

plate exactly. In present case following beam functions are adopted.

(a) Simply support along two opposite edges, at x =0 and x= a

F F0 a1 F1 a2 F2 a3 F3 a4 F4

13

where a1,a2,a3, y are constants and are determined such that the

boundary conditions (12) are satised. In the present case, for

parabolic loading, the stress function is assumed as

y2 y y2

F 2N 0

2 x2 ax2 y2 yb2 a1 a2 x a3 y

3 b 2b

14

mpx

m 1; 2; 3; . . .

16

a

(b) Clamped support along two opposite edges, at x= 0 and x= a

ss

Xm

x sin

cc

Xm

x cosxm

x 1

sinxm =2

x 1

coshxm

a 2

sinhxm =2

a 2

m 2; 4; 6; . . .

17

where xm are obtained as roots of

tanxm =2 tanhxm =2 0

18

and

y

y

N x = 4 N0 (1 )

b

b

821

cc

Xm

x sinxm

x 1

sinxm =2

x 1

coshxm

a 2

sinhxm =2

a 2

m 3; 5; 7; . . .

tanxm =2tanhxm =2 0

b

x

Fig. 1. Geometry and loading of the plate.

19

at x =a

cs

Xm

x sinxm

x 1

sinxm =2

x 1

sinhxm

2a 2

sinhxm =2

2a 2

m 2; 3; 4; . . .

20

where xm are obtained as roots of Eq. (19).

ARTICLE IN PRESS

822

S. Kumar Panda, L.S. Ramachandra / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 52 (2010) 819828

and y= b by replacing x by y, a by b and m by n in respective

equations, where m and n are, respectively, the number of nodal

lines along x and y directions. In all cases, only normal inplane

displacements are allowed and inplane tangential displacements

and out of plane displacements are prevented.The boundary

conditions for SSSS plate are

vo wo Px

nxx Nx N x ;

ny Ny N y ;

fo2

uo wo f1 Py My 0

21

at y b

25

at x 0; a

at y 0; b

at y 0

uo wo f1 Py My 0

ny Ny N y ;

u~ o

Mx 0

w0;y uo vo wo f1 f2 0

v~ o

mpx

npy

Umn cos

cos

a

b

m1n1

j

i

X

X

j

i

X

X

cs

Vmn Xm

xXncs y

m1n1

mpx npy

Umn cos

sin

a

b

m1n1

j

i

X

X

u~ o

j

i

X

X

v~ o

Vmn sin

mpx

a

m1n1

j

i

X

X

~o

w

cos

f~ 1

o

npy

b

f~ 2

ss

Wmn Xm

xXnss y

mpx npy

Kmn cos

sin

a

b

m1n1

j

i

X

X

f~ 2

Lmn sin

mpx

a

m1n1

cos

cs

Wmn Xm

xXncs y

m1n1

j

i

X

X

mpx

npy

Kmn cos

cos

a

b

m1n1

j

i

X

X

cs

Lmn Xm

xXncs y

26

assumed by suitably combining the displacement functions

described above.

j

i

X

X

j

i

X

X

m1n1

m1n1

f~ 1

~o

w

npy

b

22

3. Numerical results and discussion

o

at x 0; a

at y 0; b

w0;x uo vo wo f1 f2 0

w0;y uo vo wo f1 f2 0

23

N x 4N 0

mpx npy

u~ o

Umn sin

sin

a

b

m1 n1

j

i X

X

j

i X

X

v~ o

Vmn sin

m1 n1

~o

w

o

f~ 1

j

i X

X

m1 n1

j

i X

X

h

y i

Nx N0 1Z

;

b

cc

Wmn Xm

xXncc y

Kmn sin

m1 n1

npy

sin

b

mpx npy

o

f~ 2

Lmn sin

sin

a

b

m1 n1

i

X

j

X

24

x= 0, y= 0 and simple support at x= a, y=b are

o

w0;x uo vo wo f1 f2 0

nxx Nx N x ;

v w Px

fo2

y

y

1

b

b

27

mpx npy

sin

a

b

mpx

vary according to parabolic and linearly varying functions.

Parabolically varying inplane load is represented by (see Fig. 1)

at x 0

Mx 0

at x a

y A 0; b

28

load distribution (uniform (Z = 0), trapezoidal (Z =0.5), triangular

(Z =1), partial tension (Z = 1.5) and pure bending (Z =2.0)). Initially

the plate membrane equations are solved to determine the

stress distribution within the plate as described in Section 2.1.

In the present case, the stress function is represented as a

truncated series with four terms (14). After evaluating

the constants ai (i =1,2,3), the stress distribution within the

plate are obtained. The explicit expressions for constants ai for the

case of isotropic plate are given below. Similar expressions

in the case of composite plate are given in Appendix A

(Eqs. (A.7)(A.9))

a1

14

12

b 5:1844b a2 36:4435b10 a4 29:0127b8 a6 36:4435b6 a8 5:1844b4 a10 b2 a12

29

a2

b14 5:1844b12 a2 36:4435b10 a4 29:0127b8 a6 36:4435b6 a8 5:1844b4 a10 b2 a12

30

a3

b14 5:1844b12 a2 36:4435b10 a4 29:0127b8 a6 36:4435b6 a8 5:1844b4 a10 b2 a12

31

a/b

0.4

m= 1

0.5

m =1

0.6

m= 1

0.7

m =1

0.8

m= 1

0.9

m= 1

1.0

m =2

Energy method [12]

Present methodn

Present method

93.247

93.2

93.305

93.231

75.910

75.9

75.943

75.879

69.632

69.6

69.652

69.588

69.095

69.1

69.108

69.036

72.084

71.9

72.093

72.007

77.545

77.3

77.545

77.443

75.910

75.9

75.943

75.774

a/b

g=1

0.4

m=1

0.5

m =1

0.6

m= 1

0.65

m= 1

0.7

m= 1

0.8

m=1

0.9

m= 1

1.0

m= 2

1.2

m= 2

1.4

m=2

Energy method [12]

Present methodn

Present method

174.4

175.0

174.5

174.3

145.2

145.0

145.3

145.1

134.8

135.0

134.8

134.6

133.7

133.8

133.7

133.6

134.6

134.7

134.6

134.4

141.0

141.0

141.0

140.8

152.0

152.1

152.0

151.8

145.2

145.0

145.3

144.9

134.8

135.0

134.8

134.4

134.6

135.0

134.6

134.1

a/b

g =2

0.3

m= 1

0.4

m=1

0.5

m =1

0.6

m= 1

0.7

m= 2

0.8

m= 2

1.0

m= 2

1.2

m= 3

1.5

m= 3

2.0

m=4

Energy method [12]

Present method*

Present method

464.5

467.0

467.2

466.9

400.4

402.0

401.5

401.3

391.5

392.2

392.1

391.8

411.8

412.2

412.1

411.7

422.5

424.0

424.1

422.4

400.4

402.0

401.5

400.3

391.5

392.0

392.1

391.0

400.4

402.0

401.5

399.6

391.5

392.0

392.1

389.7

391.5

392.0

392.1

387.9

ARTICLE IN PRESS

g =0

S. Kumar Panda, L.S. Ramachandra / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 52 (2010) 819828

Table 1

Comparision of dimensionless buckling load coefcient ki for SCSC rectangular plate (a/h = 100) subjected to linearly varying inplane load.

823

ARTICLE IN PRESS

824

S. Kumar Panda, L.S. Ramachandra / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 52 (2010) 819828

stress distribution is unnecessary since the internal stress

distribution coincides with the applied inplane load distribution.

G23 =G13 = G12 =E22/2.5, n12 = 0.25 for isotropic plate and E1 = E2 = 25,

G12 =G13 = 0.5E2, G23 = 0.6E2, n12 = 0.25 for composite lamina in the

analysis. Dropping the nonlinear terms in the plate nonlinear

equations, the plate buckling equations are obtained. Using

displacement elds given in Section 2.2 and adopting Galerkins

method, the governing partial differential equations of plate

buckling equations are converted into a set of linear homogeneous algebraic equations. For a nontrivial solution this is posed

as an eigenvalue problem, solving which critical buckling loads

are obtained. To validate the present formulation, the dimensionless buckling load coefcients of a SCSC plate obtained by the

present method (neglecting shear deformation and considering

only w displacement) are compared with that of Leissa and Kang

[12] in Table 1 for Z = 0, 1 and 2 and for various aspect ratios. The

buckling loads obtained by the present method considering

higher order shear deformation and inplane displacements are

also given in the table. It is observed that the present results

without shear deformation compare well with the energy method

values. For uniform (Z = 0) compressive load, the present results

compare well with that of Leissa and Kang. For triangular (Z = 1)

and pure inplane (Z =2) loading, the present results obtained

without shear deformation compare well with that of Leissa and

Kang results for a/b o1.0. The dimensionless buckling load

coefcients for a simply supported isotropic plate (h/a= 0.01)

obtained by the present method are given in Table 2 for uniform

and parabolic load distributions. In case of plates with aspect

ratios a/b= 1 and 3 and subjected to uniformly distributed inplane

loads the converged value of buckling load is obtained by

considering one term in the displacement eld approximations.

For parabolically distributed loads, 6 terms are required to obtain

the converged buckling load in the case of square plate. However

for the plate with aspect ratio a/b= 3, 15 terms are required to

obtain the converged buckling load. The number of terms

required to obtain the converged buckling load also varies

depending upon the boundary conditions. In all further

calculations 36 terms are considered.The variation of

dimensionless buckling load coefcients ki( = Ncrb2/p2D) of a

SCSC isotropic plate (a/h =100) with two opposite simply

supported edges subjected to linearly varying inplane load

against aspect ratio of the plate is shown in Fig. 2, for various

=2

400

Buckling Coefficient

450

m=1

350

m=2

m=3

m=4

m=6

m=5

300

250

= 1.5

200

150

= 1.0

100

= 0.5

=0

50

m=1

m=2

m=3

m=4

0

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

a/b

2.0

2.5

3.0

Fig. 2. Variation of buckling coefcients of SCSC plate with the aspect ratio (a/b)

for different inplane load distributions.

Fig. 3. Buckling modes for SCSC rectangular isotropic plate under uniform inplane

load distributions (Z = 0).

Table 2

Dimensionless buckling load of SSSS rectangular isotropic plate with uniform and parabolic in-plane loadings.

a/b= 1

a/b = 3

Uniform

Parabolic

Uniform

Parabolic

Mode

(m n)/term

Buckling

coefcient (ki)

Modes

(m n)/terms

Buckling

coefcient (ki)

Mode

(m n)/term

Buckling

coefcient (ki)

Modes

(m n)/terms

Buckling

Coefcient (ki)

[1 1]/ (1)

3.997

(1,1)

[1 1] /(1)

[2 2] /(4)

[2 3] /(6)

[3 2] /(6)

[3 3] /(9)

[4 3]/(12)

[3 4]/(12)

5.252

5.251

5.250

5.241

5.241

5.241

5.241

[1 1]/ (1)

3.997

(3,1)

[1 1] /(1)

[3 3] /(9)

[4 3]/(12)

[5 3]/(15)

[6 3]/(18)

[6 4]/(24)

[6 5]/(30)

[6 6]/(36)

5.633

5.632

5.622

5.547

5.547

5.547

5.547

5.547

Ki( =Ncrb2/p2D).

ARTICLE IN PRESS

S. Kumar Panda, L.S. Ramachandra / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 52 (2010) 819828

825

(a/b43) plates, the buckling loads remains the same. For uniform,

trapezoidal and triangular loading (i.e., Z = 0, 0.5 and 1) the

buckling mode in the loading direction is four half-waves (m) for

the plate aspect ratio a/b= 2.8, where as for partial tension and

pure bending the buckling mode is ve and six half-waves (m)

respectively (see Fig. 2). The three dimensional buckling modes

with contour plots (lines of constant displacements) for all the

above cases is shown in Figs. 36.Nine different plate boundary

conditions are considered with parabolic inplane load

N x 4N 0 y=b1y=b distributions. For all the boundary

conditions, the aspect ratio a/b is varied up to 3. Effect of shear

deformation is shown in Figs. 79 for plate with SSSS, SCSS and

SCSC boundary conditions respectively for length to thickness

ratios a/h= 100, 50, 20 and 10. The buckling loads are calculated

for all these boundary conditions by considering 6 terms along

x-axis and 6 terms along y-axis in the multi-term Galerkin

method from convergence considerations. However, for SSSS plate

less number of terms is required to obtain converged buckling

loads as shown in Table 2. In Figs. 79, m= 1, m =2,y, indicate the

Fig. 6. Buckling modes for SCSC rectangular isotropic plate under pure inplane

bending load distributions (Z = 2.0).

16

Buckling Coefficient

14

12

10

8

m=1

a/h = 100

a/h = 50

a/h = 25

a/h = 10

m=3

m=2

4

Fig. 4. Buckling modes for SCSC rectangular isotropic plate under triangular

inplane load distributions (Z = 1.0).

2

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

a/b

2.0

2.5

3.0

loading for different aspect ratios (a/b) and length to thickness (a/h) ratio.

Fig. 5. Buckling modes for SCSC rectangular isotropic plate under partial inplane

tension load distributions (Z = 1.5).

length to thickness ratio, the non-dimensional buckling load

decreases and the curve bends away as shown in the gure. From

Figs. 79, it is clear that the effect of shear deformation increases

with the increase in aspect ratio and end restraint. Thus the effect

of shear deformation is the maximum for SCSC boundary

condition as observed from Fig. 9. It is observed that the plate

buckles into more number of half-waves for the same aspect ratio

as the edge restraint increases from SSSS to SCSC.

The plates with SSSS, SCSS and SCSC boundary conditions, the

plates buckle into two half-waves for a/b ratio beyond 1.325,

1.075 and 0.9, respectively. Buckling into four half-waves is

possible only for SCSS and SCSC plates within a/b= 3. The plate

buckles into three half-waves at a/b ratio 2.475 for SSSS boundary

condition, 1.950 for SCSS and 1.625 for SCSC boundary condition

(see Figs. 79). The buckling modes for SSSS, SCSS and SCSC plate

for parabolic inplane loading are shown in Figs. 1012 for aspect

ARTICLE IN PRESS

826

S. Kumar Panda, L.S. Ramachandra / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 52 (2010) 819828

16

y

Buckling Coefficient

14

12

a/h = 100

a/h = 50

a/h = 20

a/h = 10

b

x

10

m=1

m=3

m=2

6

4

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

a/b

2.0

2.5

3.0

loading for different aspect ratios (a/b) and length to thickness (a/h) ratio.

16

y

a/h = 100

a/h = 50

a/h = 20

a/h = 10

14

Buckling Coefficient

Fig. 10. Buckling modes for SSSS rectangular isotropic plate under parabolic

inplane load distributions.

12

m=2

m=1

10

m=3

m=4

8

6

4

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

a/b

2.0

2.5

3.0

Fig. 11. Buckling modes for SCSS rectangular isotropic plate under parabolic

inplane load distributions.

loading for different aspect ratios (a/b) and length to thickness (a/h) ratio.

boundary condition buckles in three half-waves for aspect ratio

a/b= 2.8. Figs. 11 and 12 show the four half-waves buckling for

SCSS and SCSC plates. It is observed that for the same aspect ratio,

the SCSS and SCSC boundary condition plate buckles into more

number of half-waves due to the increase in boundary restraint.

Recently, Wang et al. [15] obtained the accurate non-dimensional buckling load coefcients of thin rectangular isotropic

plates under parabolic edge compression by differential quadrature (DQ) method for above nine boundary conditions. However, they have not considered shear deformation in their

analysis. The buckling loads of plates with all the above boundary

conditions are also obtained by commercially available nite

element software ANSYS. In ANSYS, 8 noded SHELL93 element has

been used to discretize the plate geometry. The element has

6 degrees of freedom at each node; translations along x, y and

z directions and rotations about the nodal x, y and z axes.

The present results for isotropic plate with nine boundary

Fig. 12. Buckling modes with for SCSC rectangular isotropic plate under parabolic

inplane load distributions.

ARTICLE IN PRESS

S. Kumar Panda, L.S. Ramachandra / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 52 (2010) 819828

827

Table 3

Comparison of dimensionless buckling load coefcient ki of isotropic rectangular plate (a/h = 100) with different boundary conditions subjected to parabolic in-plane

loading.

Support

SSSS

SSCS

SCSS

CSCS

SCSC

SSCC

CCSC

CCCS

CCCC

Source

Present

Wang et

ANSYS

Present

Wang et

ANSYS

Present

Wang et

ANSYS

Present

Wang et

ANSYS

Present

Wang et

ANSYS

Present

Wang et

ANSYS

Present

Wang et

ANSYS

Present

Wang et

ANSYS

Present

Wang et

ANSYS

a/b

al.[15]

al.[15]

al.[15]

al.[15]

al.[15]

al.[15]

al.[15]

al.[15]

al.[15]

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.8

1.0

1.5

2.0

3.0

9.654

9.663

9.661

17.02

17.02

17.02

10.06

10.06

10.06

30.65

30.69

30.70

10.52

10.54

10.53

17.28

17.29

17.29

17.58

17.59

17.58

30.54

30.58

30.54

31.01

31.03

31.01

7.271

7.274

7.273

12.03

12.03

12.03

7.877

7.888

7.880

21.01

21.02

21.01

8.652

8.663

8.661

12.49

12.50

12.49

13.04

13.06

13.05

21.35

21.38

21.36

21.74

21.80

21.76

6.078

6.080

6.079

9.401

9.399

9.399

6.938

6.940

6.939

15.82

15.83

15.82

8.087

8.092

8.088

10.07

10.09

10.08

10.94

10.95

10.94

16.42

16.44

16.43

17.15

17.17

17.16

5.211

5.211

5.212

7.035

7.045

7.041

6.692

6.698

6.699

10.95

10.96

10.95

8.877

8.887

8.882

8.231

8.233

8.232

9.814

9.821

9.817

12.12

12.12

12.12

13.66

13.71

13.68

5.242

5.262

5.250

6.254

6.277

6.285

7.551

7.573

7.582

9.032

9.054

9.062

9.172

9.194

9.194

7.957

7.971

7.973

9.847

9.868

9.867

10.88

10.91

10.91

13.55

13.58

13.57

5.704

5.734

5.739

6.023

6.058

6.065

7.104

7.135

7.135

8.127

8.153

8.163

9.114

9.141

9.130

7.645

7.679

7.678

9.340

9.393

9.378

9.735

9.767

9.761

11.58

11.63

11.61

5.478

5.628

5.531

5.768

5.825

5.825

7.412

7.482

7.465

7.063

7.123

7.121

9.053

9.120

9.080

7.390

7.598

7.420

8.309

9.367

9.323

9.185

9.246

9.230

11.17

11.26

11.21

5.547

5.630

5.621

5.671

5.756

5.744

7.373

7.456

7.403

6.495

6.571

6.557

9.117

9.345

9.226

7.451

7.544

7.492

9.205

9.352

9.235

8.571

8.693

8.634

10.77

10.92

10.79

Table 4

Dimensionless buckling coefcients kc of rectangular cross-ply laminated (0/90/0)

plate (a/h = 100) with different boundary conditions subjected to parabolic inplane loading.

Support

SSSS

SSCS

SCSS

CSCS

SCSC

SSCC

CCSC

CCCS

CCCC

Source

Present

ANSYS

Present

ANSYS

Present

ANSYS

Present

ANSYS

Present

ANSYS

Present

ANSYS

Present

ANSYS

Present

ANSYS

Present

ANSYS

a/b

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0

35.69

35.71

70.38

70.58

35.73

35.83

133.31

133.51

35.77

35.79

70.31

70.45

70.38

70.42

133.21

133.33

133.31

133.71

41.50

41.55

77.54

78.35

44.88

44.92

145.92

146.28

49.90

49.90

80.79

80.85

83.93

84.01

148.60

148.75

150.69

150.83

54.42

55.61

90.73

91.80

73.53

73.75

162.35

162.63

103.66

103.73

105.81

105.97

127.51

127.63

174.49

175.38

193.26

194.21

87.38

88.87

119.68

120.27

146.77

147.53

192.89

192.68

199.42

201.91

162.17

163.37

218.13

219.35

233.96

234.51

296.00

298.12

154.26

156.81

171.89

173.19

224.23

227.41

247.03

248.00

281.31

284.20

249.86

252.18

315.11

318.14

342.35

344.11

406.95

410.17

227.32

229.55

246.06

248.09

301.95

304.66

333.43

337.21

424.48

428.98

336.10

340.27

437.39

443.24

436.43

438.44

525.41

532.82

conditions are compared with the ANSYS results and that of Wang

et al. [15] in Table 3. The small difference of values between the

three results is due to the reason that in the present method shear

deformation and inplane displacement have been considered,

where as Wang et al. [15] have not considered the same. Critical

buckling coefcients kc(Ncra2/E22p2h3) of 3-layered cross-ply

parabolic compression is given in Table 4 along with the ANSYS

results. Material properties used in the analysis are E1 = E2 =25,

G12 = G13 = 0.5E2, G23 =0.6E2, n12 =0.25. In ANSYS, linear SHELL99

shell element has been used to discretize the plate geometry. The

element has 6 degrees of freedom at each node; translations along

x, y and z directions and rotations about the nodal x, y and z axes.

The present results compare well with that of Wang et al. [15] and

ANSYS results.

3.3. Conclusions

Leissa and Kang used power series (i.e., method of Frobenius)

method to obtain the buckling load of the plate with linearly

varying inplane loads. Authors mentioned in their conclusion that

whenever the inplane edge loading is more general than linearly

varying ((i.e., Ny = f(y)) the method is not fruitful and suggested

rst to solve the plane elasticity problem to determine Nx, Ny and

Nxy. In present study, the buckling load of a composite plate

subjected to parabolically distributed compressive inplane loads

are reported for the rst time. For this case, rst plane elasticity

problem is solved to determine the stress distributions within the

plate. Using the above stress distribution and adopting Galerkins

approximation the critical buckling loads are evaluated. Beam

functions are used as shape functions in the Galerkin technique. It

is observed that, whenever the plate restrained condition

increases, the number of terms required is more to get the

converged buckling load. When the two loaded edges are simply

supported and applied inplane load is uniform or linearly varying,

the plate buckles with a particular number of half-waves in the

loading direction depending on the length to width ratio of the

ARTICLE IN PRESS

828

S. Kumar Panda, L.S. Ramachandra / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 52 (2010) 819828

the unloaded edge. Similarly if the applied inplane loading is

non-uniform the buckling mode is combination of two or more

half-waves in both loaded direction as well as the unloaded

direction independent of boundary conditions. As the applied load

is non-uniform we need to take six terms in x-direction and six

terms in y-direction to get the converged buckling load up to

aspect ratio of a/b= 3 for maximum restrained plate i.e., CCCC

where

p1 uo;x 0:5wo;x 2 ; q1 vo;x 0:5wo;y 2 ;

p2 wo;xx ; q2 wo;yy ; r2 2wo;xy ;

o

o

o

o

p3 f1;x ; q3 f2;y ; r3 f1;y f2;x

A:6

composite plate are

a1

0:0303a12 b2 4:2449a10 b4 70:3424a8 b6 222:9a6 b8 135:6604a4 b10 15:7885a2 b12 0:2174b14

A:7

a2

0:0087a12 b2 1:2245a10 b4 20:2911a8 b6 64:3181a6 b8 39:1328a4 b10 4:5544a2 b12 0:0627b14

A:8

a3

12

10

0:0105a b 1:4728a b3 24:4064a8 b5 77:3628a6 b7 47:0696a4 b9 5:4781a2 b11 0:0754b13

A:9

required to get the converged solution. From Figs. 79, it is clear

that the effect of shear deformation increases with the increase in

aspect ratio and end restraint. It is observed that for the same

aspect ratio, the SCSS and SCSC boundary condition plate buckles

into more number of half-waves due to the increase in boundary

restraint (vide Figs. 11 and 12). The buckling loads of isotropic and

composite plates presented for different boundary conditions and

loading conditions in this paper can be used to benchmark future

studies.

Appendix A

Nonlinear governing partial differential equations of cross-ply

composite plate in displacement variables are,

A11 uo;xx A66 uo;yy A12 A66 vo;xy A11 wo;xx A66 wo;yy wo;x A12 A66 wo;y wo;xy 0

A:1

A12 A66 uo;xy A66 vo;xx A22 vo;yy A66 wo;xx A22 wo;yy wo;y A12 A66 wo;x wo;xy 0

A:2

o

D11 wo;xxxx 2D12 wo;xxyy D22 wo;yyyy 4D66 wo;xxyy E11 f1;xxx

o

wo;xx A11 p1 A12 q1 wo;x A11 p1;x A12 q1;x nxx wo;xx nxx;x wo;x

2wo;xy A66 r1 wo;x A66 r1;y wo;y A66 r1;x 2nxy wo;xy nxy;y wo;x

nxy;x wo;y wo;yy A12 p1 A22 q1 wo;y A12 p1;y A22 q1;y

nyy wo;yy nyy;y wo;y 0

A:3

E22 wo;yyy E12 2E66 wo;xxy F66 f2;xx F22 f2;yy F12 F66 f1;xy H44 f2 0

A:4

o

E11 wo;xxx E12 2E66 wo;xyy F11 f1;xx F66 f1;yy F12 F66 f2;xy H55 f1 0

A:5

References

[1] van der Neut A. Buckling caused by thermal stresses. In: High temperature

effects in aircraft structures. AGARDograph 1958;28:21547.

[2] Benoy MB. An energy solution for buckling of rectangular plate under nonuniform inplane loading. Aeronautical Journal 1969;73:9747.

[3] Wang JTS, Biggers SB, Dickson JN. Buckling of composite plates with a free

edge in edgewise bending and compression. AIAA Journal 1984;22(3):3948.

[4] Biggers SB, Srinivasan S. Postbuckling response of piece-wise uniform tailored

composite plates in compression. Journal of Reinforced Plastics and

Composites 1994;13(9):80321.

[5] Biggers SB, Pageau SS. Shear buckling response of tailored composite plates.

AIAA Journal 1994;32(5):11003.

[6] Baranski AT, Biggers Jr. SB. Postbuckling analysis of tailored composite plates

with progressive damage. Composite and Structures 1999;46:24555.

[7] Xie D, Biggers Jr. SB. Postbuckling analysis with progressive damage modeling

in tailored composite plates and shells with a cutout. Composites and

Structures 2003;59(2):199216.

[8] Sundaresan P, Singh G, Rao VG. Buckling of moderately thick rectangular

composite plate subjected to partial edge compression. International Journal

of Mechanical Science 1998;40(11):110517.

[9] Bert CW, Devarakonda KK. Buckling of rectangular plates subjected to

nonlinearly distributed inplane loading. International Journal of Solids and

Structures 2003;40:4097106.

[10] Kang JH, Leissa AW. Vibration and buckling of SSFSSF rectangular plates

loaded by in-plane moments. International Journal of Structural Stability and

Dynamics 2001;1(4):52743.

[11] Kang JH, Leissa AW. Exact solution for the buckling of rectangular plates

having linearly varying in-plane loading on two opposite simply supported

edges. International Journal of Mechanical Science 2005;42:422038.

[12] Leissa AW, Kang JH. Exact solution for vibration and buckling of an SSC

SSC rectangular plate loaded by linearly varying inplane stresses. International Journal of Mechanical Science 2002;44:19259455.

[13] Zhong H, Gu C. Buckling of simply supported rectangular ReissnerMindlin

plates subjected to linearly varying inplane loading. Journal of Engineering

Mechanics 2006;132(5):57881.

[14] Gurdal Z, Tatting BF, Wu CK. Variable stiffness composite panels: effects of

stiffness variation on the in-plane and buckling response. Composite: Part A,

Applied Science and Manufacturing 2008;39:91122.

[15] Wang X, Wang Xinfeng, Shi X. Accurate buckling loads of thin rectangular

plates under parabolic edge compressions by the differential quadrature

method. International Journal of Mechanical Science 2007;49:44753.

[16] Jana P, Bhaskar K. Stability analysis of simply-supported rectangular plates

under non-uniform uniaxial compression using rigorous and approximate

plane stress solutions. Thin-Walled Structure 2006;44:50716.

[17] Reddy JN. A simple higher-order theory for laminated composite plates.

Journal of Applied Mechanics 1984;51(4):74552.

[18] Timoshenko SP, Gere JM. Theory of elastic stability, 2e. New York: McGrawHill; 1961.

[19] Warburton GB. The vibration of rectangular plates. Proceedings of the

Institution of Mechanical Engineering, Series A 1954;168(12):37184.

- Elastic Buckling of Plates With HoleHochgeladen von201087
- Laterally+unsupported+beamsHochgeladen vonluuquanghieu
- civl432_plate_girder_designHochgeladen vonAvinash Juluru
- Crack Width Check for Water Tank BaseHochgeladen vonShamim Ahsan Zubery
- IS 7906_1Hochgeladen vonkamalkraj4002
- Stability Analysis of Single-layer Elliptical Parabolid Latticed Shells With Semi-rigid JointsHochgeladen vonponshhh
- Finite Element Analysis and Reliability Assessment of Spherical LPG ...Hochgeladen vonSuleyman Halicioglu
- 00084950Hochgeladen vonJohnSmith
- Optimal Designs of Submerged Domes full thesis reportHochgeladen vonlunar_vip
- thermal_01.pdfHochgeladen vonAlfia Bano
- Lecture 1Hochgeladen vonBobor Emmanuel Ofovwe
- ASTM Structural Sections Imperial 2006Hochgeladen vonOscar Cruz
- FEM of the Buckling Critical Loads in Unbraced Steel FramesHochgeladen vonwliew00691
- SOIL_MECHANICS_AND_FOUNDATIONS_DIVISION_Proceeding.pdfHochgeladen vonRakesh7770
- Abaqus Fem Analysis of the Postbuckling Behaviour of Composite PDF e1094Hochgeladen vonFabricio
- Mechanics of Materials Ch 4 NotesHochgeladen vonTrav Black
- Large-scale+Vacuum+Vessel+Design+and+Finite+Element+AnalysisHochgeladen vonSamson Raphael
- AISC EC comparative studyHochgeladen vonruov
- Steel FramesHochgeladen vondarebusi1
- مشروعي.docxHochgeladen vonYazenJasem
- AISC 2013 Berman Bruneau.pdfHochgeladen vonDipak Borsaikia
- Full Text 01Hochgeladen vonAsywida Fahmi
- Chapter - (C) NewHochgeladen vonMeza Dhayan
- SFD-IS-800-2007Hochgeladen vonahmedsabercg
- SoM Qus BankHochgeladen vonReddy Babu
- BS5950_UB.xlsHochgeladen vonLibrary
- 26 On the bending and buckling behaviors of Mindlin nanoplates considering surface energies.pdfHochgeladen vonBoonme Chinnaboon
- Beam DesignHochgeladen vonSarat Srinivas Beesetti
- Assign-5Hochgeladen vonH
- SCBF Parallel NewHochgeladen vonZarna Modi

- fake companies listHochgeladen vonkkkraja
- GATE Aerospace Engineering AE Best Books 2019 Download PDFHochgeladen vonkkkraja
- Gate Aerospace Study Material and Online Test Series - Goodwill Gate2iitHochgeladen vonkkkraja
- Flight_Mechanics_Sample_Complete.pdfHochgeladen vonkkkraja
- aircraft performance-2.pdfHochgeladen vonkkkraja
- Aircraft Structures_gate_pathshala.pdfHochgeladen vonkkkraja
- Airflow Around a BulletHochgeladen vonrav_ranjan
- Aerodynamics-3_2.pdfHochgeladen vonkkkraja
- Aerodynamics Sample2Hochgeladen vonkkkraja
- QuoraHochgeladen vonkkkraja
- CAD Customization Engineer - Job DetailsHochgeladen vonkkkraja
- Notification UPSC Asst Chemist Scientist Other PostsHochgeladen vonBharani Yandamoori
- 05. Aero.pdfHochgeladen vonImranKabir
- Gas Turbine Engine_fundamentalsHochgeladen vonHammad Ahmed
- ABAQUS Tutorial 12.pdfHochgeladen vonkkkraja
- Theories of FailureHochgeladen vonkkkraja
- ADVERTISEMENTHochgeladen vonwec33DFS
- Tip3-5Hochgeladen vonkkkraja
- Laplace_Table.pdfHochgeladen vonkkkraja
- The Gradient and Directional DerivativeHochgeladen vonkkkraja
- 6. Aerofoil MH70Hochgeladen vonkkkraja
- Composites Part a- Applied Science and Manufacturing Volume 35 Issue 7-8 2004 [Doi 10.1016%2Fj.compositesa.2004.01.014] J. Cugnoni; Th. Gmür; A. Schorderet -- Identification by Modal Analysis of CompoHochgeladen vonkkkraja
- analysis of laminated composite plate using matlabHochgeladen vonkkkraja
- Symmetric bending of laminated platesHochgeladen vonkkkraja
- Bending Equation of Circle Plates(Httpwww.me.Ust.hk~MeqpsunNotesChapter3.PDF)Hochgeladen vonhemendra76
- DFTHochgeladen vonenderozyetis9518

- BAEK Et Al. Fatigue Life Prediction Based on the Rainflow Cycle Counting Method for the End Beam of a Freight Car BogieHochgeladen vonPPN
- The Cornus Method_ONLINEHochgeladen vonHema Anilkumar
- Material Properties Exercise ReportHochgeladen vonEdgar Sánchez Prados
- artigoHochgeladen vonoscavier
- TobagoSKGhoshHochgeladen vonki70
- BCF Type Local WF 400 (Full Weld)Hochgeladen vonPuji Kurniawan
- HW2 FEM 2014-2Hochgeladen vongreatkurosh
- 16EASMay-2224Hochgeladen vonmutashima
- Axisymmetric Indentation of Curved Elastic Membranes by a Convex Rigid IndenterHochgeladen vonAnonymous PufNjg
- Note 1 - Plastic Analysis 1Hochgeladen vonAmira Syazana
- Brb Shear Walls Shake Table TestHochgeladen vonnagaraju
- Dynamic Analysis of a Clamped BeamHochgeladen vonFrancisco Lopez Santos
- TIVAR_1000_PDS_GLOB_E_19092016Hochgeladen vonsulatnigabo
- Advanced Soil MechHochgeladen vonmusiomi2005
- Crack ArrestorHochgeladen vonJulia Wade
- HASILHochgeladen vonZulfikar N Joel
- Geotech Book (2)Hochgeladen vonAnastasios Karahalios
- Various Types of Shear ConnectorsHochgeladen vonsilverware1
- #07_09 Metal Forming, Sheet Metal Working, Bulk Deformation_Prosman 2017_2Hochgeladen vonricoferyanto
- Mohr’s CircleHochgeladen vonSaurabh Gawade
- Aircraft Structure and basic loadsHochgeladen vonsreetejlakkam
- Saad PresentationHochgeladen vonAmir Khan
- Plane StrainHochgeladen vonBaseer Ahmad
- Seismic Analysis - WikipediaHochgeladen vonNasir Ahanger
- SPTHochgeladen vonCivilax.com
- Load and Resist FactorHochgeladen vonGuss Alva
- 857452158 Modeling Tools in ANSYSHochgeladen vonswapnil kale
- Hierarchical Corrugated Core Sandwich Panel ConceptsHochgeladen vonAnh Rdz
- L7 - Shaft DesignHochgeladen vonAmar Upadhayay
- Wind loadHochgeladen vonAkash Khandelwal

## Viel mehr als nur Dokumente.

Entdecken, was Scribd alles zu bieten hat, inklusive Bücher und Hörbücher von großen Verlagen.

Jederzeit kündbar.