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Chapter 4: Individual Traits and Differences


Multiple Choice Questions
1. Which one of the following is not part of what makes an individual unique?
a. heredity
b. genes
c. gender
d. athletic ability
(d; Easy; p. 101-103)
2. The interactionist view of individual differences suggests:
a. the environment determines who we are
b. genes are the most important factor in making people who they are
c. heredity and the environment both influence individual differences
d. culture is one of the key factor in determining how people behavior
(c; Medium; p. 102)
3. Although female babies tend to develop language skills earlier than males, parents speak more to girls
than boys and schools expect girls to be proficient in language. This is an example of:
a. the interactionist approach
b. sexism in our society
c. typical problems boys face in their development
d. the importance of parental influence
(a; Medium; p. 102) (AACSB: Reflective Thinking)
4. The primary reason boys are more competitive and aggressive than girls is that:
a. boys are genetically more aggressive
b. boys watch more violent movies and play more video games
c. typical male genetic traits are reinforced by society
d. parents spend less time with boys than with girls
(c; Easy; p. 1032)
5. Personality is best defined as:
a. a persons traits based on their genes
b. a set of traits that make a person unique
c. how people behave based on their values
d. behaviors that make people different
(b; Medium; p. 104)
6. Which of the following is not part of the definition of personality?
a. personality is stable over an extended period of time
b. personality is a set of traits
c. personality determines what we do
d. personality is influenced by genes and the environment
(c; Medium; p. 103)
7. Jose believes in being honest in all situations. This is a reflection of Joses __________.
a. values
b. personal choice
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c. culture
d. temperament
(a; Easy; p. 103) (AACSB: Reflective Thinking)
8.

___________ are natural aptitudes, whereas __________ are acquired talents.


a. Personality traits; behaviors
b. Abilities; skills.
c. Leadership skills; management skills
d. Values; cultural tendencies
(b; Easy; p. 103)
9. Abilities tend to be:
a. stable over an extended period of time
b. related to culture
c. based on values
d. related to leadership
(a; Easy; p. 103)
10. Individual difference characteristics affect a persons behavior most when:
a. the situation provides clear guidelines
b. the situation is loosely structured
c. the person is strong willed
d. the person is flexible
(b; Easy; p. 104)
11. Christie is a lively, informal, and outgoing person who just started a new job. She quickly realizes
that her new company is formal and very subdued. Christie adjusts her behavior and tones down her
natural enthusiasm to adopt a more quiet style. This is an example of:
a. weak personality
b. conformity pressure
c. responding to situational cues
d. the impact of culture and socialization on new employees
(c; Challenging; p. 103-104) (AACSB: Reflective Thinking)
12. When people are encouraged to behave outside their zone of comfort, they are likely to:
a. learn and grow even though the behavior is threatening to them
b. develop leadership skills
c. become frustrated
d. resist change and revert to the comfort zone at all costs
(a; Medium; p. 104)
13. Which of the traits generally cannot be acquired through time and appropriate experience?
a. knowledge of industry
b. self-confidence
c. intelligence
d. honesty
(c; Easy; p. 104-105)
14. Which one of the following influences a persons value system?
a. abilities
b. skills
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c. leadership
d. culture
(d; Medium; p. 105)
15. Which of the following have been found to be relatively universal values?
a. Individuality and Individual dignity
b. Personal achievement and performance
c. Fairness and honesty
d. Desire for recognition and rewards
(c; Challenging; p. 106)
16. Japanese managers are likely to reward team effort over individual achievement. This is because:
a. the Japanese culture values community
b. individuals tend to perform less well in Japan
c. the Japanese are less competitive
d. individual achievement is only rewarded in special cases
(a; Medium; p. 108-109) (AACSB: Multicultural and Diversity) (AACSB: Reflective Thinking)
17. Which of the following cultures value the leaders ability to conform to social order?
a. the United States
b. Germany
c. Japan
d. The Philippines
(c; Medium; p. 108-109) (AACSB: Multicultural and Diversity) (AACSB: Reflective Thinking)
18. One of your Navajo employees quits after you surprise him with having won the companys most
valuable employee performance award which is advertised on the company web site, newsletter, and
local television. His quitting is likely to be due to:
a. his shyness and personal reserve
b. his cultures emphasis not standing out
c. the lack of individual recognition
d. unknown factors that often influence a persons behavior
(b; Challenging; p. 108) (AACSB: Multicultural and Diversity) (AACSB: Reflective Thinking)
19. Hard work, patriotism and frugality are values typically held by people in which of the following age
groups?
a. Those over 65
b. Those from 50 to 65
c. Those 35 to 50
d. Those 25 to 35
(a; Medium; p. 109) (AACSB: Multicultural and Diversity)
20. Non-conformity, idealism, and distrust of the establishment are values typically held by people in
which of the following age groups?
a. Those over 65
b. Those from 50 to 65
c. Those 35 to 50
d. Those 25 to 35
(b; Medium; p. 109-110) (AACSB: Multicultural and Diversity)

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21. Ambition, material comfort, and success are values typically held by people in which of the following
age groups?
a. Those over 65
b. Those from 50 to 65
c. Those 35 to 50
d. Those 25 to 35
(c; Easy; p. 109-110) (AACSB: Multicultural and Diversity)
22. Enjoyment of life and desire for autonomy and flexibility are values typically held by people in which
of the following age groups?
a. Those over 65
b. Those from 50 to 65
c. Those 35 to 50
d. Those 25 to 35
(b; Easy; p. 110) (AACSB: Multicultural and Diversity)
23. ____________ are often found to be close to their family.
a. The Baby Boomers
b. The Generation Xers
c. The Yuppies
d. The Millennials (Nexters)
(d; Easy; p. 110) (AACSB: Multicultural and Diversity)
24. Andy, who is in his early forties, cannot understand why Malcolm, his coworker is so distrustful of
their manager and often defies her authority. Malcolm is likely to belong to which of the following
generations?
a. the Baby Boomers
b. the Generation Xers
c. the Yuppies
d. the Millennials
(a; Easy; p. 109-110) (AACSB: Multicultural and Diversity)
25. Older generations in Western Europe and the U.S. tend to _____________ than younger generation.
a. be more suspicious of authority
b. have a stronger sense of cultural superiority
c. be more independent
d. be more tied to their parents and family members
(b; Easy; p. 109-110) (AACSB: Multicultural and Diversity)
26. A __________ view of ethics suggests that what is right or wrong depends on the situation.
a. universalist
b. contingency
c. relativist
d. cultural
(c; Easy; p. 110-111) (AACSB: Ethical Reasoning)
27. United States laws forbid business people to bribe others even in cultures where bribery is expected
or necessary. This approach to ethics reflects a ___________ view of ethics.
a. universalist
b. contingency
c. relativist
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d. cultural
(a; Easy; p. 110) (AACSB: Ethical Reasoning)
28. Which of the following countries has been rated as the least corrupt by Transparency International?
a. Paraguay
b. Singapore
c. The United States
d. Canada
(b; Medium; p. 111) (AACSB: Multicultural and Diversity)
(AACSB: Ethical Reasoning)
29. Cross-cultural research about deception shows that:
a. people in individualist cultures feel guilty about lying.
b. people in collectivist cultures use more deception.
c. deception is a universal concept.
d. most people lie to protect themselves.
(b; Easy; p. 111) (AACSB: Multicultural and Diversity) (AACSB: Ethical Reasoning)
30. What can a Western manager negotiating in Japan or Korea expect?
a. Open and honest negotiation
b. Cooperation based on the need for collective harmony
c. Some deception followed by guilt
(c; Medium; p. 111) (AACSB: Multicultural and Diversity) (AACSB: Ethical Reasoning)
31. Examples of people, such as movie producer Scott Rudin, show that _________ may be more
important than __________.
a. ability to relate to others; intelligence
b. consideration for people; focus on the task
c. cognitive ability; social skills
d. cultural knowledge; task skills
(a; Easy; p. 112)
32. _____________ is increasingly being suggested as being more important than ____________.
a. Ability to relate to others; intelligence
b. Consideration for people; focus on the task
c. Cognitive ability; social skills
d. Cultural knowledge; task skills.
(a; Easy; p. 112)
33. You are selecting a team leader to head a new team that is likely to face considerable stress. Which of
the following leaders would be most appropriate?
a. a leader with above average intelligence
b. a leader with moderate intelligence
c. a leader with both high cognitive and social intelligence
d. a leader selected by the team members
(b; Challenging; p. 112) (AACSB: Reflective Reasoning)
34. Which of the following is not a component of emotional intelligence?
a. self-awareness
b. self-regulation
c. sympathy
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d. optimism
(c; Medium; p. 113)
35. ___________ is the ability to read others and be able to put yourself in their place.
a. self-monitoring
b. empathy
c. consideration
d. social skills
(b; Easy; p. 113)
36. Leaders who are high on ____________ are better able to guide their followers through challenging
tasks because they can recognize perceptual patterns and coordinate group activities.
a. self-monitoring
b. empathy
c. consideration
d. social skills
(b; Challenging; p. 112-113)
37. Emotional intelligence is important in leadership because:
a. caring about others is important
b. good self-presentation is key to leadership
c. emotional intelligence has been found to be related to cultural sensitivity
d. the ability to harmonize with others plays a key role in leadership
(d; Medium; p. 112-113)
38. While addressing employees after 9/11, Ken Chenault the CEO of American Express, openly
expressed his sorrow and embraced grief-stricken employees. His behavior is an example of:
a. his ability to present the appropriate emotions when needed
b. his high level of emotional intelligence
c. his excellent self-presentation skills
d. his leadership skills
(b; Medium; p. 114)
39. _____________ and ______________ are often terms used to describe creativity.
a. Divergent; lateral thinking
b. Opportunistic; thrill seeking
c. Bold; aggressive
d. Strategic; forward looking
(a; Challenging; p. 115)
40. In addition to coming up with new ideas, creative leaders must also have:
a. consideration for others
b. technical expertise
c. strong task focus
d. strong risk taking ability
(b; Challenging; p. 115)
41. Which one of the following is one of the characteristics of creative people?
a. high risk-taking
b. leadership skills
c. tolerance for ambiguity
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d. being able to give up quickly


(c; Easy; p. 115)
42. Which of the following is not one of the characteristics of creative people?
a. perseverance in the face of obstacle
b. extremely high risk taking
c. openness to new ideas
d. ability to tolerate lack of structure
(b; Challenging; p. 115)
43. Which one of the following is not one of the leadership skills?
a. technical
b. interpersonal
c. conceptual
d. organizational
(d; Medium; p. 116)
44. Marta has just been appointed to a top level executive position in her company. Which of the
following leadership skills is she most likely to need and use?
a. technical
b. interpersonal
c. conceptual
d. organizational
(c; Medium; p. 116)
45. Most organizations provide skills training to their employees and leaders because:
a. skills can be learned
b. new skills can quickly be translated into behaviors
c. skills are not influenced by culture
d. the same set of skills can be applied in all situations
(a; Medium; p. 116)
46. Understanding personality traits can help leaders because:
a. traits often predict who will be an effective leader
b. traits determine how people behave
c. some traits are consistently associated with leadership
d. traits are easier to learn than abilities or skills
(c; Challenging; p. 117)
47. Which of the following is not part of the Big Five personality dimensions?
a. conscientiousness
b. emotional intelligence
c. openness to experience
d. agreeableness
(b; Challenging; p. 117-118)
48. ________________ and ____________ are both part of the Big Five personality dimensions.
a. Locus of control; need for control
b. Cognitive; emotional intelligence
c. Emotional stability; consideration for others
d. Extraversion; openness to experience
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(d; Medium; p. 117-118)


49. Which of the Big Five personality dimensions is most strongly correlated to job performance?
a. conscientiousness
b. emotional intelligence
c. openness to experience
d. agreeableness
(a; Medium; p. 118)
50. _____________ is the Big Five personality dimension that is important in jobs such as management
that require social interaction.
a. Emotional intelligence
b. Extraversion
c. Openness to experience
d. Agreeableness
(b; Medium; p. 118)
51. The XYZ corporation is looking for (a) leader who can develop high job commitment and create high
job satisfaction. According to recent research on the Big Five personality dimensions, which
characteristics should they look for in that leader?
a. high conscientiousness, openness to experience, moderate emotional stability, and high
agreeableness
b. high on emotional stability, extraversion, and agreeableness, and low on conscientiousness
c. low on introversion, agreeableness, and emotional intelligence, and high on
conscientiousness
d. high on control and high on consideration
(b; Challenging; p. 118) (AACSB: Reflective Thinking)
52. Locus of control is an indicator of:
a. how much control a person needs
b. how much control a person feels she/he has
c. the control level of leaders
d. control available in the situation
(b; Challenging; p. 119)
53. People with ____________ believe that the events around them are the result of their actions.
a. type A personality
b. internal locus of control
c. external locus of control
d. type B personality
(b; Challenging; p. 119)
54. Which of the following is not one of the characteristics of people with internal locus of control when
compared to those with external locus of control?
a. Internals experience lower anxiety.
b. Internals set hard goals.
c. Internals conform more to authority
d. Internals are more task-oriented.
(AACSB: Reflective Thinking)
(c; Challenging; p. 119)

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55. Todd Smith is the CEO of Widget Corp. He tends to select risky and innovative strategies for his
company and is proactive in his planning. Based on this information, Todd is most likely:
a. a good manager.
b. a Type A who needs control.
c. a person with internal locus of control.
d. a high self-monitor.
(AACSB: Reflective Thinking)
(c; Challenging; p. 119)
56. Sally Colbert is very energetic, focuses on deadlines, is highly ambitious and likes working alone.
Based on this information, Sally is most likely to be:
a. a good manager.
b. a Type A who needs control.
c. a person with internal locus of control.
d. a high self-monitor.
(AACSB: Reflective Thinking)
(b; Medium; p. 131)
57. _______________ is the underlying construct in Type A.
a. The need for control
b. How well people read their environment
c. The need for power
d. How people make decisions
(AACSB: Reflective Thinking)
(a; Challenging; p. 120)
58. Which one of the following is one of the defining characteristics of Type As?
a. Relaxed approach to time
b. Very cooperative
c. Focus on one task at a time
d. Hostility
(d; Medium; p. 120-121)
59. Which of the following best describe Type As?
a. Type As are strategic thinkers who are proactive.
b. Type As try to do more in less time.
c. Type As are willing to cut corners to achieve their goals.
d. Type As are good at persuading others.
(b; Medium; p. 120-121)
60. ____________ need an increasing amount of control while ____________ feel that they have control
over their environment.
a. Extroverts/high Machiavellians
b. Low self-monitors/high self-monitors
c. Type As/people with internal locus of control
d. People who are sensing-feelers/those who are intuitive-thinkers
(c; Challenging; p. 123)
61. _____________ is one of the major challenges Type A managers are likely to face.
a. Worrying too much about time and deadlines
b. Inability to delegate tasks
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c. Setting goals that are not challenging


d. Inability to plan
(b; Medium; p. 123)
62. High self-monitors may have an advantage in leadership because:
a. they are better planners
b. they set challenging goals
c. they are flexible
d. they handle power well
(c; Challenging; p. 124)
63. You are trying to select a leader to head a team that will be negotiating an international deal for your
company. Which one of the following individual characteristics may be useful to you in making that
decision?
a. Locus of control
b. Type A
c. Self-monitoring
d. Intelligence
(c; Challenging; p. 124) (AACSB: Reflective Thinking)
64. __________ are cynical and manipulative, while ____________ are trusting and poor negotiators.
a. High self-monitors; low self-monitors
b. Type As; type Bs
c. Internally controlled; externally controlled
d. High machs; low machs
(d; Medium; p. 125)
65. The high Machiavellian leader is likely to be _____________ but not necessarily ___________.
a. considerate; task focused
b. successful; effective
c. good planners; good implementers
d. task oriented; people oriented
(b; Medium; p. 125)
66. People from Hong Kong and the Peoples Republic of China tend to score higher on the
Machiavellian scale. This may be related to:
a. the higher power distance in the Chinese culture
b. the higher level of collectivism
c. the low-context culture
(a; Challenging; p. 125) (AACSB: Multicultural and Diversity)
67. Which is not a characteristic of narcissism as described by the American Psychiatric Association?
a. preoccupation with power and success
b. ability to tolerate criticism
c. sense of entitlement
d. lack of empathy for others
(b; Medium; p. 126)
68. In dealing with abusive bosses you should do all of the following except
a. make sure your work is impeccable
b. get defensive

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c. maintain a strong social network


d. plan an exit strategy
(b; Challenging; p. 127)
69. Which of the following is one of the primary reasons leaders fail?
a. An authoritarian style
b. Intimidation and arrogance
c. Too much focus on people
d. Financial focus
(b; Challenging; p. 127)
70. In addition to a leaders individual characteristics, which factor contributes to leadership failure?
a. organizational climate and culture
b. other leaders
c. hiring practices
d. national cultural values
(a; Medium; p. 128)
True/False Questions
71. Traits alone do not define leaders.
a. true
b. false
(a; Easy; p. 101)
72. The primary reason boys are more competitive and aggressive than girls is that typical male genetic
traits are reinforced by society.
a. true
b. false
(a; Easy; p. 103) (AACSB: Reflective Thinking)
73. The individual characteristic of values has the most influence on leadership.
a. true
b. false
(b; Medium; p. 103)
74. The impact of personality on individual behavior tends to be limited to personal aspects of life. (
a. true
b. false
(b; Easy; p. 103)
75. Values are principles that a person believes.
a. true
b. false
(a; Easy; p. 103)
76. Honesty is the best policy is an example of a personality trait.
a. true
b. false
(b; Easy; p. 103)
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77. You cannot train leaders to develop abilities, but you can train them to develop skills.
a. true
b. false
(a; Medium; p. 103)
78. Individual characteristics influence behavior most when the situation is clearly structured.
a. true
b. false
(b; Medium; p. 104)
79. When the situation provides strong cues as to how people are supposed to behave, their personality
plays a lesser role.
a. true
b. false
(a; Easy; p. 104)
80. Personality and other individual characteristics are the only factors that dictate how people behave.
a. true
b. false
(b; Medium; p. 104)
81. Personality and other individual characteristics provide a range of behaviors that are comfortable for
people.
a. true
b. false
(a; Easy; p. 104)
82. Most people have difficulty acting outside the zone of comfort that is determined by their individual
difference characteristics.
a. true
b. false
(a; Medium; p. 104)
83. Most learning takes place when people behave according to their individual difference
characteristics.
a. true
b. false
(b; Medium; p. 104)
84. Behaving outside their zone of comfort is one way people can learn and grow.
a. true
b. false
(a; Medium; p. 104)
85. Kirkpatrick and Locke asserted that traits alone are enough to make an effective leader.
a. true
b. false
(b; Medium; p. 105)
86. Drive, if taken to the extreme, can be detrimental to effective leadership.
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a. true
b. false
(a; Easy; p. 105-106)
87. Despite some changes, top executives in the United States and the rest of the world are still
heterogeneous.
a. true
b. false
(b; Challenging; p. 107)
88. Factors such as age and gender influence a persons value system.
a. true
b. false
(a; Easy; p. 108) (AACSB: Multicultural and Diversity)
89. The primary influence on a persons value system is personality traits.
a. true
b. false
(b; Easy; p. 108)
90. Most cultures in the world value compassion and frugality.
a. true
b. false
(a; Medium; p. 108) (AACSB: Multicultural and Diversity)
91. Individual dignity is valued mostly in Western cultures.
a. true
b. false
(a; Medium; p. 108) (AACSB: Multicultural and Diversity)
92. Hard work, frugality and patriotism are values typically held by the generation raised by parents
who went through the depression.
a. true
b. false
(a; Medium; p. 109) (AACSB: Multicultural and Diversity)
93. Baby boomers typically value ambition and material comforts.
a. true
b. false
(b; Easy; p. 109-110) (AACSB: Multicultural and Diversity)
94. Yuppies are often success-driven.
a. True
b. false
(a; Medium; p. 109-110) (AACSB: Multicultural and Diversity)
95. Generation Xers value autonomy and flexibility.
a. true
b. false
(a; Medium; p. 109-110) (AACSB: Multicultural and Diversity)

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96. Those who belong to the Millennial generation tend to resent authority and are highly independent.
a. True
b. false
(b; Medium; p. 109-110) (AACSB: Multicultural and Diversity)
97. The Generation Xers and Millenials are similar to each other in that both tend to have little loyalty to
their jobs and companies.
a. true
b. false
(a; Medium; p. 109-110) (AACSB: Multicultural and Diversity)
98. Generational value differences exist all over the world.
a. true
b. false
(b; Medium; p. 109) (AACSB: Multicultural and Diversity)
99. Singapore has been rated as one of the most corrupt countries in the world.
a. true
b. false
(b; Easy; p. 111) (AACSB: Multicultural and Diversity)
100.

Of the 180 industrialized countries measured by the Transparency International Index, the
United States as the highest in integrity.
a. true
b. false
(b; Medium; p. 111)
104

Of the 180 industrialized countries measured by the Transparency International Index,


Afghanistan ranked higher in integrity than the United States.
a. True
b. False
(b; Medium; p. 110)
101.
The relativist view of ethics suggests that what is right or wrong depends on the situation or
culture.
a. true
b. false
(a; Challenging; p. 110) (AACSB: Multicultural and Diversity) (AACSB: Ethical Reasoning
102.
You take a universalist view of ethics when you believe that the same rules cannot apply to
everyone.
a. true
b. false
(b; Challenging; p. 110) (AACSB: Ethical Reasoning)
103.
The Japanese and Koreans may use more deception, but they often experience considerable
guilt.
a. true
b. false
(a; Medium; p. 111) (AACSB: Ethical Reasoning)

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104.

Several sets of abilities are clearly linked to leadership.


a. true
b. false
(b; Challenging; p. 111)
105.

Intelligence is not clearly related to leadership.


a. true
b. false
(a; Medium; p. 112)
106.

Intelligence is not clearly related to leadership but is related to perceptions of leadership.


a. true
b. false
(a; Easy; p. 112)
107.

Research shows that a more intelligent leader is able to succeed regardless of the situation.
a. true
b. false
(b; Medium; p. 112)
108.

The most important component of emotional intelligence is sympathy for others.


a. true
b. false
(b; Challenging; p. 113)
109.

Emotional intelligence is important because caring for others always pays off.
a. true
b. false
(b; Easy; p. 113)
110.

Emotional intelligence is key to leadership because leadership requires working with others.
a. true
b. false
(a; Medium; 113-114)
111.
The way a leader delivers a message is sometimes more important than the content of the
message.
a. true
b. false
(a; Easy; p. 114)
112.

Convergent thinking is another term often used to describe creativity.


a. true
b. false
(b; Medium; p. 115)
113.

Creativity is the ability to develop new ideas or combine existing ones in novel ways.
a. true
b. false
(a; Easy; p. 115)

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114.

People tend to become more creative when they are put under intense stress and pressure.
a. true
b. false
(b; Medium; p. 115)
115.

According to Theresa Amabile, most people can be creative with experience and motivation.
a. true
b. false
(a; Medium; p. 115)
116.
As leaders move up the organization, they rely less on technical skills and more on conceptual
skills.
a. true
b. false
(a; Challenging; p. 116)
117.

Conceptual skills involve communication and conflict management.


a. true
b. false
(b; Medium; p. 116)
118.

Once leaders learn new skills, they can quickly implement them in their organization.
a. true
b. false
(b; Challenging; p. 116)
119.

A leaders personality influences his or her preference, style and behavior.


a. true
b. false
(a; Medium; p. 117)
120.

Over the years, researchers have identified five major personality dimensions.
a. true
b. false
(a; Challenging; p. 118)
121.
Emotional stability is the Big Five personality dimension most strongly linked to job
performance.
a. true
b. false
(b; Challenging; p. 117-118)
122.

The Big Five personality dimensions are strongly linked to leadership.


a. true
b. false
(b; Challenging; p. 117-118)
123.

Extroversion is a required dimension for successful leadership.


a. true
b. false
(b; Medium; p. 117-118)
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124.

Extraversion is important for almost any job or position.


a. true
b. false
(b; Challenging; p. 117-118)
125.

Some degree of anxiety and worrying can be helpful for leaders.


a. true
b. false
(a; Medium; p. 118)
126.
Locus of control is an indicator of how much a person feels s/he has control over the
environment.
a. true
b. false
(a; Medium; p. 119)
127.

Leaders with internal locus of control tend to be more ethical in their decision making.
a. true
b. false
(a; Medium; p. 119)
128.

People with external locus of control are proactive and rebound well from stressful situations.
a. true
b. false
(b; Medium; p. 119)
129.

Being a Type A can be helpful to managers because they are better able to delegate tasks.
a. true
b. false
(b; Medium; p. 120-121)
130.

Type A managers are more successful than Type B managers.


a. true
b. false
(b; Medium; p. 120-121)
131.
Several of the Type A characteristics are similar to the high energy and motivation that is
considered to be important in leadership.
a. true
b. false
(a; Medium; p. 120-121)
132.

Type A and locus of control are closely related.


a. true
b. false
(b; Medium; p. 123)
133.

High self-monitors read and use environmental cues better than low self-monitors.
a. true
b. false
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(a; Medium; p. 123-124)


134.

High self-monitors are particularly skilled at delegating tasks.


a. true
b. false
(b; Challenging; p. 123-125)
135.

High self-monitors emerge as leaders more often than low self-monitors.


a. true
b. false
(a; Medium; p. 124)
136.

Research shows that low self-monitors resolve conflict cooperatively.


a. true
b. false
(b; Medium; p. 124)
137.
Because they are good at managing relationships, high machs tend to be the most effective
leaders.
a. true
b. false
(b; Easy; p. 125)
138.

High Machiavellians are likely to be successful but not effective.


a. true
b. false
(a; Medium; p. 125)
139.
Research indicates that the Chinese score higher on the Mach scale and are more willing than
many Westerners to use social power to accomplish their goals.
a. true
b. false
(a; Medium; p. 125) (AACSB: Multicultural and Diversity)
140.

Narcissistic individuals desire to have power and influence over others.


a. true
b. false
(a; Medium; p. 126)
141.

Hitler and Stalin are well-known tyrants in history who exhibited strong narcissistic tendencies.
a. true
b. false
(a; Medium; p. 126)
142.
Positive narcissistic leaders may use their self-confidence and influence to achieve organizational
goals.
a. true
b. false
(a; Medium; p. 126)

Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

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143.
Research about why leaders fail indicates that the primary cause of failure is lack of technical
expertise.
a. true
b. false
(b; Medium; p. 127)
144.

Leaders who fail are most often rigid, isolated from others and uncaring.
a. true
b. false
(a; Medium; p. 127)
Short Answer/ Essay Questions:
145.
Discuss the differences between the earlier approaches during the Trait Era and the more complex
approach of recent approaches.
(Easy; p. 101)
146.
Define and differentiate between the individual differences characteristics of abilities, skills, and
personality.
(Medium; p. 102-104)
147.

List and explain the universally accepted leadership characteristics that transcend cultures.

(Medium; p. 106-107)
148.
Define values and explain the differences in values between western countries and those located
in the middle and Far East.
(Medium; p. 107-108; p. 110-111)
149.
Transparency Internationals 2009 survey rated the United States 19 out of 180 when measuring
least/most corrupt nations. Discuss your impressions, using textbook value concepts, about why the
U.S. professes to be the most ethical country yet ranks behind countries like Denmark, Singapore, and
Canada.
(Challenging; p. 110-111)
150.
Explain the research results that show a curvilinear relationship between intelligence and
leadership.
Challenging; p. 112)
151.
Explain and give examples how a leader can positively use Niccolo Machiavellis philosophy,
resulting in Mach Scores, to improve the organization in a constructive manner.
(Medium; p. 125)
152.
Rick Scott was a founder and CEO of Columbia Healthcare system until the FBI raided several of
his Hospitals for Medicare fraud. He was subsequently fired by Darla Moore, Vice President of
Rainwater, Inc., one of the largest private investment firms in America. Rainwater had substantial
ownership in Columbia Healthcare. Moore was the first woman to be profiled on the cover of
Fortune magazine in its 70-year history and was named to their list of the Top 50 Most Powerful
Women in American Business. Nevertheless, Scott overcame the stigma of corruption and in
November 2010 won the election as Governor of Florida.
a. Research and explain what traits and characteristics Scott brings to his endeavors that
allowed him to overcome the Columbia scandal and win the Florida election.
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b. From your research and explain (submit document specific research article urls)
Scotts value system that allowed him to overcome the stigma of corruption and go
on to seek election for a political office.
(Challenging; Internet;) (ASCB: Reflective Thinking; Critical Thinking)
153.
The US professes a philosophy of high ethical behavior in business and government. How then is
it that Bernard Madoff was able to turn his wealth management business into a massive Ponzi
scheme? He defrauded thousands of investors of almost $65 billion over a period of time that possibly
began in the 1980s. In June 2009, Madoff was sentenced to 150 years in prison, the maximum
allowed.
a. Using the Big Five Personality Dimensions, explain Madolffs personality relative to
each of the dimensions. Document each with an example of each dimension.
b. Using the concepts of Type A and Type B personality and that of Locus of Control,
explain what aspects from those concepts were necessary over this same period of
time to prevent or stop Madoff from continuing with his behaviors.
(Challenging; p. 117; p. 125; Internet) Critical Thinking)

Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall