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A)

B)
C)
D)

The school of thought in


psychology that turned away
1. from the study of consciousness
during the first half of the last
century was
behaviorism.
psychoanalysis.
humanistic psychology.
evolutionary psychology.

A)
B)
C)
D)

Since 1960, psychology has


regained an interest in
2. consciousness as psychologists
of all persuasions affirmed the
importance of
the circadian rhythm.
choice blindness.
neuroadaptation.
cognition.

A)
B)
C)
D)

A)
B)
C)
D)

3. Consciousness is
the ability to solve problems,
reason, and remember.
the process of organizing and
interpreting sensory information.
effortless encoding of incidental
information into memory.
our awareness of ourselves and
our environment.

A specialty area that focuses on


the connections between brain
4.
activity and mental processes is
known as
evolutionary psychology.
behavior genetics.
personality psychology.
cognitive neuroscience.

5. Which specialty area would be

A)
B)
C)
D)

most interested in identifying the


cortical activation patterns
associated with a person's
perception of different objects?
evolutionary psychology
cognitive neuroscience
behavior genetics
behaviorism

A)
B)
C)
D)

The simultaneous processing of


6. information at both conscious
and unconscious levels is called
the cocktail party effect.
the pop-out phenomenon.
dual processing.
neuroadaptation.

A)
B)
C)
D)

Although we may be unaware of


our gender prejudices, they often
7. influence the way we consciously
perceive males and females. This
best illustrates
the hollow face illusion.
dual processing.
the pop-out phenomenon.
the cocktail party effect.

A)
B)
C)
D)

A condition in which a person can


respond to a visual stimulus
8.
without consciously experiencing
it is known as
narcolepsy.
change blindness.
REM rebound.
blindsight.

9. Although unable to report the


width of a block in front of her, a
woman identified as D. F. could
grasp the block with just the

A)
B)
C)
D)

right finger-thumb distance. Her


experience best illustrates
blindsight.
the cocktail party effect.
hypnagogic sensations.
the pop-out phenomenon.

A)
B)
C)
D)

A visual perception track enables


most people to recognize objects
at nearly the same time that a
10.
visual action track enables them
to avoid bumping into the
objects. This best illustrates
neuroadaptation.
change blindness.
dual processing.
blindsight.

A)
B)
C)
D)

Shown the hollow face illusion,


people will mistakenly perceive
the inside of a mask as a
protruding face. Yet, they will
11. accurately reach into the
inverted mask to flick off a
buglike target stuck on the face.
This best illustrates the capacity
for
neuroadaptation.
change blindness.
dual processing.
hypnagogic sensations.

A)
B)
C)
D)

A capacity to monitor
simultaneously the color, shape,
12.
and motion of an object best
illustrates
neuroadaptation.
parallel processing.
the cocktail party effect.
change blindness.

A)
B)
C)
D)

A)
B)
C)
D)

A)
B)
C)
D)

Consciousness is to
13. unconsciousness as ________ is to
________.
tolerance; withdrawal
sequential processing; parallel
processing
latent content; manifest content
delta wave; alpha wave

Compared with unconscious


information processing,
14.
conscious information processing
is relatively
fast and especially effective for
solving new problems.
slow and especially effective for
solving new problems.
fast and especially effective for
solving routine problems.
slow and especially effective for
solving routine problems.

Even if musically inclined, it is


difficult to tap a steady three
15. times with your left hand while
tapping four times with your right
hand because both tasks require
hypnagogic sensation.
circadian rhythm.
change blindness.
conscious attention.

16.
A)
B)
C)
D)

Focusing conscious awareness on


a particular stimulus is called
blindsight.
self-consciousness.
change blindness.
selective attention.

A)
B)
C)
D)

Our inability to consciously


process all the sensory
17. information available to us at any
single point in time best
illustrates the necessity of
circadian rhythms.
selective attention.
REM rebound.
hypnagogic sensations.

A)
B)
C)
D)

While reading a novel, Raoul isn't


easily distracted by the sounds of
18. the TV or even by his brothers'
loud arguments. This best
illustrates
latent content.
neuroadaptation.
choice blindness.
selective attention.

19.
A)
B)
C)
D)

A)
B)
C)
D)

The cocktail party effect provides


an example of
neuroadaptation.
REM rebound.
selective attention.
hypnagogic sensations.

A bank teller was so distracted


by the sight of a bank robber's
weapon that she failed to
20.
perceive important features of
the criminal's physical
appearance. This best illustrates
dissociation.
change blindness.
selective attention.
a near-death experience.

21. When their attention is focused


on a task such as reading, people

A)
B)
C)
D)

are less likely to ________ than


when their mind is wandering.
tap their fingers
touch their face
blink their eyes
scratch their arms

A)
B)
C)
D)

Drivers are slower to detect


traffic signals if they are talking
22.
on a cell phone. This best
illustrates the impact of
latent content.
selective attention.
REM rebound.
choice blindness.

A)
B)
C)
D)

Failing to see visible objects


23. when our attention is directed
elsewhere is called
narcolepsy.
neuroadaptation.
paradoxical sleep.
inattentional blindness.

A)
B)
C)
D)

If asked to watch a video and


press a key each time a blackshirted player passed a
basketball, most research
24.
participants remained unaware of
an umbrella-toting woman
strolling across the video screen.
This illustrated
REM rebound.
inattentional blindness.
neuroadaptation.
latent content.

25. While a man provides directions


to a construction worker, two
experimenters rudely interrupt

A)
B)
C)
D)

by passing between them


carrying a board. The man's
failure to notice that the
construction worker was replaced
by a different person during this
interruption illustrates
dissociation.
hypnagogic sensations.
neuroadaptation.
change blindness.

A)
B)
C)
D)

Christy failed to notice that she


received her ice cream in a sugar
cone rather than a waffle cone as
she had requested. She later
26.
indicated to another customer
that she preferred sugar cones
over waffle cones. Christy's
behavior most clearly illustrates
REM rebound.
neuroadaptation.
choice blindness.
the pop-out phenomenon.

A)
B)
C)
D)

The pop-out phenomenon


27. illustrates that some stimuli
almost inevitably trigger
narcolepsy.
neuroadaptation.
selective attention.
hypnagogic sensations.

A)
B)

When working an occasional


night shift, people often feel
groggiest in the middle of the
28. night but experience new energy
around the time they normally
would wake up. This best
illustrates the impact of
neuroadaptation.
selective attention.

C)
D)

A)
B)
C)
D)

the circadian rhythm.


REM rebound.

29. Circadian rhythm refers to


the pattern of emotional ups and
downs we routinely experience.
a pattern of biological functioning
that occurs on a roughly 24-hour
cycle.
the experience of sleep apnea
following an extensive
transoceanic flight.
the cycle of four distinct stages
that we experience during a
normal night's sleep.

A)
B)
C)
D)

With the approach of night, our


body temperatures begin to drop.
30.
This best illustrates the dynamics
of the
hypnagogic state.
circadian rhythm.
alpha wave pattern.
REM rebound.

A)
B)
C)
D)

Most college students are owls,


with performance ________ across
31. the day. Most older adults are
larks, with performance
________ as the day progresses.
improving; declining
declining; improving
declining; staying the same
staying the same; declining

A)
B)

Fast and jerky movements of the


32. eyes are especially likely to be
associated with
sleep spindles.
dissociation.

C)
D)

REM sleep.
sleep apnea.

A)
B)
C)
D)

Jordanna has decided to go to


bed early. Although her eyes are
closed and she's very relaxed,
33.
she has not yet fallen asleep. An
EEG is most likely to indicate the
presence of
delta waves.
alpha waves.
sleep spindles.
rapid eye movements.

A)
B)
C)
D)

A periodic, natural, reversible


loss of consciousness that
34.
involves distinct stages is known
as
the circadian rhythm.
narcolepsy.
dissociation.
sleep.

A)
B)
C)
D)

Sensory experiences that occur


35. without an external sensory
stimulus are called
night terrors.
neuroadaptations.
dissociations.
hallucinations.

A)
B)
C)
D)

Hypnagogic sensations are most


36. closely associated with ________
sleep.
NREM-1
NREM-2
NREM-3
REM

A)
B)
C)
D)

The rhythmic bursts of brain


37. activity that occur during NREM-2
sleep are called
alpha waves.
circadian rhythms.
sleep spindles.
delta waves.

A)
B)
C)
D)

Bed-wetting is most likely to


38. occur at the end of ________
sleep.
NREM-1
NREM-2
NREM-3
REM

D)

During the course of a full night's


39. sleep, people are most likely to
spend more time in
NREM-3 sleep than in NREM-2
sleep.
REM sleep than in NREM-1 sleep.
NREM-1 sleep than in NREM-3
sleep.
REM sleep than in NREM-2 sleep.

A)
B)
C)
D)

At 3 o'clock in the morning, John


has already slept for 4 hours. As
40. long as his sleep continues, we
can expect an increasing
occurrence of
hypnagogic sensations.
muscle tension.
REM sleep.
Stage 4 sleep.

A)

The brain waves associated with


41. REM sleep are most similar to
those of
NREM-1 sleep.

A)
B)
C)

B)
C)
D)

NREM-2 sleep.
NREM-3 sleep.
an awake but relaxed state.

42.
A)
B)
C)
D)

Genital arousal is most likely to


be associated with
sleep apnea.
REM sleep.
NREM-3 sleep.
sleep spindles.

A)
B)
C)
D)

During REM sleep, your skeletal


muscles are relaxed because
43.
messages from the motor cortex
are blocked by the
brainstem.
hypothalamus.
suprachiasmatic nucleus.
dopamine reward system.

A)
B)
C)
D)

The occasional experience of


44. sleep paralysis is most likely as
you awaken from
NREM-1 sleep.
NREM-2 sleep.
NREM-3 sleep.
REM sleep.

45.
A)
B)
C)
D)

REM sleep is called paradoxical


sleep because
our heart rate is slow and steady,
while our breathing is highly
irregular.
we are deeply asleep but can be
awakened easily.
our nervous system is highly
active, while our voluntary
muscles hardly move.
it leads to highly imaginative
dreams that are perceived as

colorless images.

C)
D)

After sleeping for about an hour


46. and a half, Jos enters a phase of
paradoxical sleep. He is likely to
be easily awakened.
have slower, more regular
breathing.
emit slower brain waves.
have very relaxed muscles.

A)
B)
C)
D)

Three hours after going to sleep,


Shoshanna's heart rate
increases, her breathing
47. becomes more rapid, and her
eyes move rapidly under her
closed lids. Research suggests
that Shoshanna is
dreaming.
emitting delta waves.
exhibiting a sleep spindle.
experiencing a night terror.

A)
B)

A)
B)
C)
D)

Forty-year-old Lance insists that


48. he never dreams. Research
suggests that he probably
would report a vivid dream if he
were awakened during REM
sleep.
dreams during NREM-1 rather
than during REM sleep.
experiences more NREM-2 sleep
than most people.
cycles through the distinct sleep
stages much more rapidly than
most people.

49.
A)

The human sleep cycle repeats


itself about every
30 minutes.

B)
C)
D)

90 minutes.
2 1/2 hours.
4 hours.

50.
A)
B)
C)
D)

Research on sleep patterns


indicates that
older adults and newborns have
very similar sleep patterns.
different sleep patterns reflect
differences in latent dream
content.
everyone needs a minimum of 8
hours of sleep per night to
function well.
sleep patterns may be
genetically influenced.

A)
B)
C)
D)

The activation of light-sensitive


retinal proteins in our eyes
51.
signals our brains to decrease
production of
melatonin.
serotonin.
acetylcholine.
dopamine.

A)
B)
C)
D)

The circadian rhythm is


influenced by light-sensitive
52.
retinal proteins that trigger
signals to the
suprachiasmatic nucleus.
dopamine reward system.
thyroid gland.
sleep spindles.

53.
A)
B)

Exposure to bright light causes


the
thyroid gland to increase the
production of melatonin.
thyroid gland to decrease the

production of melatonin.
pineal gland to increase the
production of melatonin.
pineal gland to decrease the
production of melatonin.

C)
D)

A)
B)
C)
D)

Our inability to fall asleep early,


54. as we had planned, is most likely
a reflection of
dissociation.
narcolepsy.
the circadian rhythm.
sleep apnea.

A)
B)
C)
D)

After flying from California to


New York, Arthur experienced a
55. restless, sleepless night. His
problem was most likely caused
by a disruption of his normal
change blindness.
circadian rhythm.
hypnagogic sensations.
sleep paralysis.

56.
A)
B)
C)
D)

A)
B)
C)
D)

Which of the following animals


tend to sleep the least?
giraffes
dolphins
cats
bats

Bats need a lot of sleep because


their high waking metabolism
57.
produces ________ that are toxic
to neurons.
amphetamines
hypnagogic sensations
free radicals
alpha waves

A)
B)
C)
D)

Neural activity that reenacts and


promotes recall of prior novel
58.
experiences is most closely
associated with
hypnagogic sensations.
slow-wave sleep.
neuroadaptation.
hypnosis.

A)
B)
C)
D)

Susan is a political cartoonist


whose work requires her to think
59. imaginatively and present ideas
in visually novel ways. Her work
is most likely to be facilitated by
hypnagogic sensations.
neuroadaptation.
full nights of sleep.
blindsight.

60.
A)
B)
C)
D)

A)
B)
C)
D)

Compared with when they were


only 20 years old, 60-year-olds
spend less time in deep sleep.
spend less time in NREM-1 sleep.
spend more time in paradoxical
sleep.
complete the sleep cycle more
slowly.

Production of the human growth


hormone necessary for muscle
61.
development is most strongly
associated with
sleep spindles.
slow-wave sleep.
hypnagogic sensations.
REM sleep.

62. The best time for athletes to


engage in heavy exercise

A)
B)
C)
D)

workouts is
early in the morning.
shortly before noon.
late afternoon or early evening.
within three hours of bedtime.

A)
B)
C)
D)

When 909 working women


reported on their daily moods,
researchers noted that less time
63.
pressure at work mattered
________ and a good night's sleep
mattered ________.
little; a lot
a lot; little
little; little
a lot; a lot

A)
B)
C)
D)

People who regularly sleep less


than normal experience a(n)
64.
________ risk of depression and
a(n) ________ risk of obesity.
decreased; decreased
increased; increased
decreased; increased
increased; decreased

A)
B)
C)
D)

Sleep deprivation increases


levels of the hunger-arousing
65. hormone _______ and decreases
levels of the hunger-suppressing
hormone ________.
melatonin; cortisol
serotonin; dopamine
ghrelin; leptin
epinephrine; norepinephrine

Sleep deprivation ________ the


production of body fat by
66.
________ levels of the stress
hormone cortisol.

A)
B)
C)
D)

stimulates; increasing
inhibits; increasing
stimulates; decreasing
inhibits; decreasing

67.
A)
B)
C)
D)

A)
B)
C)
D)

Traffic accident rates have been


found to ________ after the spring
68. change to daylight savings time
and to ________ after the fall
change back to standard time.
increase; increase
decrease; decrease
increase; decrease
decrease; increase

69.
A)
B)
C)
D)

A)
B)
C)
D)

Sleep deprivation has been


shown to
increase attentiveness to highly
motivating tasks.
reduce REM rebound.
diminish immunity to disease.
decrease narcolepsy.

A recurring difficulty in falling or


staying asleep is called
narcolepsy.
insomnia.
sleep apnea.
paradoxical sleep.

70. REM sleep is


inhibited by alcohol and inhibited
by sleeping pills.
facilitated by alcohol and
inhibited by sleeping pills.
inhibited by alcohol and
facilitated by sleeping pills.
facilitated by alcohol and
facilitated by sleeping pills.

A)
B)
C)
D)

A need to take larger and larger


71. doses of sleeping pills to avoid
insomnia indicates
narcolepsy.
tolerance.
sleep apnea.
REM rebound.

72.
A)
B)
C)
D)

A)
B)
C)
D)

A)
B)
C)
D)

A recurring difficulty in falling or


staying asleep is called
narcolepsy.
insomnia.
sleep apnea.
paradoxical sleep.

Which of the following is bad


73. advice for a person trying to
overcome insomnia?
Drink a glass of milk 15 minutes
before bedtime.
Avoid taking short naps during
the day.
Drink a glass of wine 15 minutes
before bedtime.
Don't engage in strenuous
physical exercise just before
bedtime.

Which of the following is the best


74. advice for a person concerned
about occasional insomnia?
Relax and drink a glass of milk
before bedtime.
Eat a big dinner late in the
evening so you'll feel drowsy at
bedtime.
Relax with a drink of your
favorite alcoholic beverage just
before bedtime.
Engage in some form of vigorous

physical exercise shortly before


bedtime.

75.
A)
B)
C)
D)

Narcolepsy is a disorder in which


a person
temporarily stops breathing
during sleep.
has sudden uncontrollable
seizures.
experiences uncontrollable
attacks of overwhelming
sleepiness.
has difficulty falling and staying
asleep.

A)
B)
C)
D)

During a heated argument with


his teenage daughter, Mr. Reid
76. suddenly lapsed into a state of
REM sleep. Mr. Reid apparently
suffers from
narcolepsy.
insomnia.
sleep apnea.
REM rebound.

A)
B)
C)
D)

The absence of a hypothalamic


77. neural center that produces
orexin has been linked to
insomnia.
sleep apnea.
narcolepsy.
night terrors.

A)
B)
C)

In which of the following


disorders does the person
78.
repeatedly stop breathing while
asleep?
narcolepsy
sleep apnea
night terrors

D)

A)
B)
C)
D)

insomnia

Mr. Oates always sleeps


restlessly, snorting and gasping
79.
throughout the night. It is most
likely that Mr. Oates suffers from
sleep apnea.
narcolepsy.
night terrors.
insomnia.

A)
B)
C)
D)

Particularly among men, sleep


apnea is linked with
night terrors.
change blindness.
narcolepsy.
obesity.

A)
B)
C)
D)

An air pump that keeps the


sleeper's airway open and
81.
breathing regular is often
prescribed for serious cases of
narcolepsy.
insomnia.
sleep apnea.
night terrors.

A)
B)
C)
D)

82. Night terrors typically occur


among older adults.
during REM sleep.
following sleep apnea.
during NREM-3 sleep.

80.

83.
A)
B)
C)
D)

Nightmares are to ________ as


night terrors are to ________.
REM sleep; NREM-3 sleep
delta waves; alpha waves
NREM-3 sleep; NREM-1 sleep
NREM-1 sleep; REM sleep

84.
A)
B)
C)
D)

Compared with adults, children


are
more likely to experience night
terrors and less likely to
experience sleepwalking.
less likely to experience night
terrors and more likely to
experience sleepwalking.
less likely to experience night
terrors and less likely to
experience sleepwalking.
more likely to experience night
terrors and more likely to
experience sleepwalking.

At 1:00

A.M., Luis gets out of bed


and begins to sleepwalk. An EEG of
85.
his brain activity is most likely to
indicate the presence of

A)
B)
C)
D)

alpha waves.
sleep spindles.
REM sleep.
delta waves.

86.
A)
B)
C)
D)

Research studies of the content


of dreams indicate that
men are less likely than women
to report dreams with sexual
overtones.
the genital arousal that occurs
during sleep is typically related
to sexual dreams.
people are more likely to dream
of failure than of success.
most dreams are pleasant,
exotic, and unrelated to ordinary
daily life.

87. After suffering a trauma, people


commonly report nightmares.

One of the benefits of these


nightmares is that they help
prevent paradoxical sleep.
reduce sleep apnea.
increase REM rebound.
extinguish daytime fears.

A)
B)
C)
D)

88.
A)
B)
C)
D)

While soundly asleep people


cannot
talk and dream at the same time.
incorporate environmental
changes into the content of their
dreams.
learn tape-recorded messages to
which they are repeatedly
exposed.
do any of these things.

D)

According to Freud, the dreams


of adults can be traced back to
erotic wishes.
stressful life events.
physiological needs for brain
stimulation.
random bursts of neural activity.

A)
B)
C)
D)

Freud called the remembered


90. story line of a dream its ________
content.
manifest
paradoxical
hypnagogic
circadian

89.
A)
B)
C)

91. As Inge recalled her dream, she


was dancing with a tall, dark, and
handsome gentleman when
suddenly the music shifted to
loud rock and the man
disappeared. According to Freud,

Inge's account represents the


________ content of her dream.
paradoxical
manifest
latent
hypnagogic

A)
B)
C)
D)

92.
A)
B)
C)
D)

According to Freud, the latent


content of a dream refers to
its accompanying brain-wave
pattern.
the previous day's events that
prompted the dream.
the sensory stimuli in the
sleeper's environment that are
incorporated into the dream.
its underlying but censored
meaning.

A)
B)
C)
D)

Greg remembered a recent


dream in which his girlfriend
suddenly grabbed the wheel of
his speeding car. Greg's therapist
suggested that the dream might
93. be a representation of the
girlfriend's efforts to avoid sexual
intimacy. According to Freud, the
therapist was attempting to
reveal the ________ of Greg's
dream.
neuroadaptation
circadian rhythm
latent content
manifest content

A)
B)

Which theory emphasizes that


dreams play a role in
94.
consolidating the day's
experiences in our memories?
wish-fulfillment theory
cognitive development theory

C)
D)

neural activation theory


information-processing theory

A)
B)
C)
D)

Evidence suggests that we


95. consolidate our memories of
recent life events through
dissociation.
neuroadaptation.
hypnagogic sensations.
REM sleep.

A)
B)
C)
D)

Brain regions that are active as


people learn to perform a visual96. discrimination task are especially
likely to be active again later as
they experience
night terrors.
narcolepsy.
sleep apnea.
REM sleep.

A)
B)
C)
D)

Research indicates that total


97. time spent in REM sleep is
especially high in
males.
infants.
females.
older adults.

A)
B)
C)
D)

Which theory suggests that


dreams are mental responses to
98.
random bursts of neural
stimulation?
cognitive development theory
social influence theory
neural activation theory
wish-fulfillment theory

99. Dreams often involve sudden

A)
B)
C)
D)

A)
B)
C)
D)

A)

B)

C)
D)

emotional reactions and


surprising changes in scene. This
best serves to support the theory
that dreams
strengthen our memories of the
preceding day's events.
reflect one's level of cognitive
development.
prepare us for the stress and
challenges of the following day.
are triggered by random bursts
of neural activity.

Prior to age 9, children's dreams


seem more like a slide show and
less like an active story in which
100.
the dreamer is an actor. This best
illustrates that the content of
dreams reflects children's
latent content.
change blindness.
night terrors.
cognitive development.

101. REM rebound involves the


tendency for REM sleep periods
to become increasingly longer
and more frequent as a normal
night of sleep progresses.
increase in REM sleep that
characteristically follows intense
learning episodes or stressful
daytime experiences.
unusual symptoms of tiredness
and irritability that follow periods
of REM sleep deprivation.
tendency for REM sleep to
increase following REM sleep
deprivation.

102. The best indication that

dreaming serves a necessary


biological function is provided by
the fact that
most dreams are psychologically
meaningless.
the disruption of REM sleep leads
to narcolepsy.
most mammals experience REM
rebound.
sexual tension is naturally
discharged during REM sleep.

A)
B)
C)
D)

C)
D)

103. Hypnosis involves a state of


increased physical stamina.
heightened openness to
suggestion.
improved perceptual skills.
elevated autonomic arousal.

A)
B)
C)
D)

Among those informed that their


104. bodies are swaying, postural
sway is indicative of
REM rebound.
circadian rhythm.
hypnotic ability.
narcolepsy.

A)
B)

105.
A)
B)

C)
D)

Research on susceptibility to
hypnosis indicates that
very few people can actually be
hypnotized.
people who are most easily
hypnotized usually have difficulty
paying attention to their own
personal thoughts and feelings.
how well a person responds to
hypnotic suggestion depends
primarily on the skill and
experience of the hypnotist.
people who are highly responsive
to hypnotic suggestion tend to

become absorbed in imaginative


activities.

A)
B)
C)
D)

A)
B)
C)
D)

A)
B)
C)
D)

Researchers are most likely to


106. question the value of hypnosis
for
reducing fear.
enhancing memory.
relieving pain.
facilitating relaxation.

In one study, both hypnotized


and unhypnotized subjects were
107. told to throw acid in a
researcher's face. In this
experiment, hypnotized people
usually refused to engage in
antisocial behavior.
behaved in the same fashion as
unhypnotized individuals.
were easily influenced to act
against their own will.
experienced much more anxiety
than unhypnotized individuals.

Just prior to awakening Chinua


from a hypnotic state, the
therapist told him that during the
108. next few days he would feel
nauseous whenever he reached
for a cigarette. Chinua's therapist
was attempting to make use of
the cocktail party effect.
posthypnotic suggestion.
hypnagogic sensations.
REM rebound.

109.
A)

People can be hypnotically


induced to
surpass their normal waking

B)
C)
D)

levels of physical strength and


stamina.
perform dangerous acts that they
would not perform in a normal
state.
recall correctly almost anything
that has ever happened to them.
report little pain from placing
their arms in an ice bath.

A)
B)
C)
D)

Which theory suggests that


hypnosis involves inducing
110.
someone to enact the role of a
hypnotic subject?
neural activation theory
dissociation theory
social influence theory
wish-fulfillment theory

A)
B)
C)
D)

The claim that hypnotic


phenomena are regulated by
111. normal conscious processes is
associated with the theory that
hypnosis reflects the power of
parallel processing.
dissociation.
neuroadaptation.
social influence.

A)
B)
C)
D)

Orne and Evans discovered that


unhypnotized subjects performed
the same dangerous acts as
112.
hypnotized subjects. This finding
is most consistent with the
theory that hypnosis involves
blindsight.
dissociation.
neuroadaptation.
conscious role-playing.

A)
B)
C)
D)

Suppose that hypnotized adults


who are encouraged to behave
like children are no more
genuinely childlike than
113.
unhypnotized adults who are
encouraged to act in a childlike
behavior. This fact most clearly
supports
Freud's dream theory.
social influence theory.
neural activation theory.
dissociation theory.

A)
B)
C)
D)

A split in consciousness in which


some thoughts occur
114. simultaneously with and yet
separately from other thoughts is
called
narcolepsy.
dissociation.
paradoxical sleep.
posthypnotic suggestion.

A)
B)
C)
D)

The claim that hypnotic


phenomena occur outside our
115. normal awareness is associated
with the theory that hypnosis
involves
blindsight.
dissociation.
neuroadaptation.
role playing.

A)
B)
C)

If highly hypnotizable people are


no better than others at
116. simultaneously reading a book
and listening to music, this would
most clearly challenge
dissociation theory.
neural activation theory.
Freud's dream theory.

D)

A)
B)
C)
D)

A)
B)
C)
D)

social influence theory.

The divided-consciousness
117. theory of hypnosis receives
support from evidence that
hypnosis can block sensory input.
hypnosis can affect voluntary but
not involuntary behaviors.
hypnotized people are simply
playing the role of good
hypnotic subjects.
hypnotized people can endure
pain without experiencing
emotional distress.

One plausible theory suggests


118. that hypnotic pain relief may
result from
selective attention.
blocking sensory input.
speeding up the circadian
rhythm.
eliciting delta waves
characteristic of deep sleep.

A)
B)
C)
D)

Understanding hypnosis in terms


of focused attention, distinctive
brain activity, and the presence
119.
of an authoritative presence in a
legitimate context, requires an
integrated ________ approach.
wish-fulfillment
neural activation
biopsychosocial
neuroadaptation

A)

Which of the following involves


120. significant life disruption from
the use of psychoactive drugs?
narcolepsy

B)
C)
D)

REM rebound
substance use disorder
near-death experience

121.
A)
B)
C)
D)

Drug use is considered a disorder


when a person
craves the substance.
continues use despite social
problems.
continues use despite hazards.
experiences all of these conditions.

D)

Which of the following occurs in a


122. person with substance use
disorder?
The person must exhibit six or
more symptoms.
Brain circuits change and persist
after quitting drug use.
The person feels powerless to
overcome the disorder.
Neuroadaptation does not occur.

A)
B)
C)
D)

Chemical substances that alter


123. perceptions and moods are
called ________ drugs.
neuroadaptive
narcoleptic
psychoactive
hypnagogic

A)
B)
C)
D)

The need to take larger and


larger doses of a drug in order to
124.
experience its effects is an
indication of
withdrawal.
dissociation.
tolerance.
narcolepsy.

A)
B)
C)

A)
B)
C)
D)

Arlette often consumes up to six


cocktails in a row before she
experiences any noticeable
125.
symptoms of intoxication. This
suggests that Arlette has
developed
narcolepsy.
tolerance.
dissociation.
hallucinations.

A)
B)
C)
D)

The change in brain chemistry


126. that offsets the effects of a
psychoactive drug is called
narcolepsy.
dissociation.
disinhibition.
neuroadaptation.

A)
B)
C)
D)

Compulsive craving of drugs or


certain behaviors despite known
127.
adverse consequences is an
indication of
dissociation.
narcolepsy.
addiction.
hypnagogic sensations.

A)
B)
C)
D)

Muhammed can't sleep, is


constantly anxious, has muscle
128. aches, and craves his daily dose
of cocaine. Muhammed is
experiencing symptoms of
narcolepsy.
withdrawal.
REM rebound.
dissociation.

129. When Celeste was unable to

obtain her regular supply of


heroin, she began to develop
pain and an intense craving for
the drug. Celeste was
experiencing symptoms of
tolerance.
dissociation.
narcolepsy.
withdrawal.

A)
B)
C)
D)

A)
B)
C)
D)

Smokers with ________ levels of


nicotine tolerance are likely to
130. suffer the most severe
withdrawal symptoms when they
discontinue smoking.
high
moderate
low
high or low

131.
A)
B)
C)

D)

A)

Research on the use of addictive


drugs indicates that
an occasional cigarette smoker
almost always becomes a heavy
smoker.
regular marijuana smokers
typically experience an
irresistible craving for THC.
many people are able to stop
using addictive drugs without
professional help.
individuals who receive morphine
from physicians for pain relief
usually develop the irresistible
cravings of an addict.

The greatest danger of viewing


drug addiction as a disease is
132.
that this may lead drug addicts
to
feel increased feelings of shame.

B)
C)
D)

hide the drug abuse from public


view.
feel powerless to overcome the
addiction.
become victims of social hostility
and prejudice.

A)
B)
C)
D)

Psychoactive drugs influence


neurotransmission by
133. stimulating, mimicking, or
________ the activity of
neurotransmitters.
synthesizing
inhibiting
dissociating
hallucinating

A)
B)
C)
D)

134. Depressants are drugs such as


marijuana and LSD.
barbiturates and opiates.
nicotine and caffeine.
cocaine and amphetamines.

A)
B)
C)
D)

The reckless aggressive behavior


that may follow alcohol
135.
consumption best illustrates that
alcohol may act as a(n)
methamphetamine.
disinhibitor.
hallucinogen.
stimulant.

A)

Under the influence of alcohol,


angered people are ________
likely to be aggressive than they
136. would otherwise be and
restaurant patrons are ________
likely to tip generously than they
otherwise would.
more; more

B)
C)
D)

A)
B)
C)
D)

A)
B)
C)
D)

A)
B)
C)

less; less
more; less
less; more

Women who have been drinking


alcohol become ________
137. disposed to casual sex, and men
who have been drinking become
________ disposed to casual sex.
less; more
more; less
less; less
more; more

If heavy drinking follows a period


of moderate drinking, people
138. may poison themselves with an
overdose because the moderate
drinking
stimulates their secretion of
leptin.
reduces their body's level of free
radicals.
depresses their vomiting
response.
increases their inhibitions.

After a stressful day at the office,


Arthur has five or six drinks at a
local bar before going home for
139. dinner. Research suggests that
Arthur's heavy drinking will have
the most adverse effect on his
ability to remember
at the time he is drinking the
names of the people he has just
met.
the next day the names of
the people he talked to and
what he said while drinking.
at the time he is drinking the

D)

name of his employer and his


own home address.
the next day the names of the
business associates he talked to
before going to the bar.

A)
B)
C)
D)

Alcohol consumption disrupts the


140. processing of recent experiences
into long-term memory by
suppressing REM sleep.
increasing anxiety.
decreasing sleep apnea.
increasing self-consciousness.

A)
B)
C)
D)

For those with alcohol use


141. disorder, when alcohol use is
suspended, this leads to
dissociation.
withdrawal.
narcolepsy.
sleep apnea.

A)
B)
C)
D)

Prolonged and excessive drinking


can shrink the brain most
142. intensely in ________ who have
________ of a stomach enzyme
that digests alcohol.
men; more
women; more
men; less
women; less

A)
B)
C)
D)

Alcohol consumption is likely to


________ attention to an arousing
143.
provocation and ________
attention to normal inhibitions.
decrease; increase
increase; decrease
decrease; decrease
increase; increase

A)
B)
C)
D)

A)

B)
C)

D)

Experimental participants who


consumed alcohol rather than a
placebo beverage were less likely
144. to notice that their minds were
wandering during a reading task.
This best illustrates that alcohol
reduces
narcolepsy.
dissociation.
self-awareness.
inattentional blindness.

University men were shown an


erotic movie clip. Compared with
those who thought they had
recently consumed a
145.
nonalcoholic beverage, men who
believed they had recently
consumed an alcoholic beverage
were
more likely to report having
strong sexual fantasies and more
likely to report having feelings of
guilt.
less likely to report having strong
sexual fantasies and less likely to
report having feelings of guilt.
less likely to report having strong
sexual fantasies and more likely
to report having feelings of guilt.
more likely to report having
strong sexual fantasies and less
likely to report having feelings of
guilt.

146.
A)
B)
C)
D)

Which drugs are most likely to be


prescribed as tranquilizers?
amphetamines
barbiturates
hallucinogens
opiates

A)
B)
C)
D)

The use of barbiturates ________


147. anxiety and ________ nervous
system activity.
increases; decreases
decreases; increases
decreases; decreases
increases; increases

A)
B)
C)
D)

148. Morphine and heroin are


amphetamines.
opiates.
hallucinogens.
barbiturates.

A)
B)
C)
D)

A)
B)
C)
D)

149. Repeated use of an opiate


decreases the brain's production
of endorphins.
increases heart and breathing
rates.
is not associated with any serious
withdrawal symptoms.
triggers auditory as well as visual
hallucinations.

Which synthetic opiate is


150. sometimes prescribed as a
substitute for heroin?
methamphetamine
melatonin
methadone
THC

151.
A)
B)
C)
D)

Amphetamines are to ________ as


barbiturates are to ________.
hallucinogens; depressants
stimulants; depressants
hallucinogens; stimulants
stimulants; hallucinogens

A)
B)
C)
D)

Franois was dismayed to


discover that some of his football
teammates were using drugs to
enhance their footwork and
152.
endurance on the playing field.
Which of the following drugs
were the players most likely
using?
morphine derivatives
marijuana
amphetamines
barbiturates

153.
A)
B)
C)
D)

154.
A)
B)
C)
D)

A)
B)
C)
D)

Amphetamines ________ appetite


and ________ self-confidence.
decrease; increase
increase; decrease
increase; increase
decrease; decrease

Young teens are most likely to


start smoking in order to
gain social acceptance.
trigger the release of
lymphocytes.
reduce their mental alertness.
reduce their blood pressure.

By triggering the release of


epinephrine and norepinephrine,
155.
________ boosts alertness and
diminishes appetite.
alcohol
heroin
nicotine
ghrelin

156. A rewarding consequence of

A)
B)
C)
D)

cigarette smoking is that it


reduces
blood pressure and heart rate.
sensitivity to pain.
mental alertness.
the release of epinephrine into
the bloodstream.

A)
B)
C)
D)

Which of the following is a


157. common symptom of nicotine
withdrawal?
anxiety
drowsiness
diminished appetite
insensitivity to pain

A)
B)
C)
D)

When deprived of nicotine,


158. smokers experience heightened
levels of
hallucinations.
distractibility.
narcolepsy.
blindsight.

A)
B)
C)
D)

159. Cocaine is classified as a(n)


hallucinogen.
stimulant.
depressant.
opiate.

A)
B)

Soon after taking a psychoactive


drug, Zachary experienced a
diminished appetite, an
increased pulse rate, dilated
160.
pupils, and feelings of selfconfidence and euphoria.
Zachary most likely experienced
the effects of
heroin.
cocaine.

C)
D)

LSD.
marijuana.

D)

When cocaine is snorted,


161. injected, or smoked, it produces
a rush of euphoria by
creating hallucinations.
blocking the reuptake of
neurotransmitters.
increasing the occurrence of
REM.
triggering a state of dissociation.

A)
B)
C)
D)

When cocaine is injected or


smoked, it produces a rush of
euphoria that lasts 15 to 30
162. minutes. But the stimulant drug
________ can trigger 8 hours or so
of heightened energy and
euphoria.
LSD
heroin
Amytal
methamphetamine

A)
B)
C)
D)

Which of the following is an


163. amphetamine derivative that
acts as a mild hallucinogen?
marijuana
Nembutal
Ecstasy
heroin

A)
B)
C)

164.
A)
B)
C)
D)

One of the dangers of using


Ecstasy at all-night dances is
increased appetite.
dehydration.
lethargy.
pupil constriction.

A)
B)
C)
D)

Reduced immune system


functioning is most likely to
165.
accompany long-term repeated
use of
Nembutal.
caffeine.
Ecstasy.
morphine.

A)
B)
C)
D)

Which of the following is a


psychedelic drug?
LSD
cocaine
heroin
nicotine

A)
B)
C)
D)

After ingesting a small dose of a


psychoactive drug, Laqueta
experienced vivid visual
167. hallucinations and felt as if she
were separated from her own
body. Laqueta most likely
experienced the effects of
cocaine.
LSD.
heroin.
marijuana.

166.

A)
B)
C)
D)

168. Near-death experiences are


typically triggered by
dissociation.
often accompanied by visions of
bright lights.
recalled by nearly all who have
been revived from a cardiac
arrest.
examples of REM rebound.

169. An altered state of consciousness

similar to that of a near-death


experience is most likely to result
from the use of
heroin.
cocaine.
marijuana.
LSD.

A)
B)
C)
D)

A)
B)
C)
D)

THC, the active ingredient in


170. ________, is classified as a
________.
marijuana; hallucinogen
marijuana; stimulant
cocaine; stimulant
cocaine; hallucinogen

171.
A)
B)
C)
D)

A)
B)
C)
D)

Unlike alcohol, the THC in


marijuana
acts as a disinhibitor.
impairs motor coordination skills.
promotes a state of relaxation.
lingers in the body for a week or
more.

Mrs. Roberts, who suffers from


AIDS, has been given an
ordinarily illegal drug at the
172.
university hospital. Considering
her specific medical condition, it
is likely that she has received
LSD.
cocaine.
marijuana.
heroin.

173. With repeated use of most


psychoactive drugs, the
immediate pleasant effects
become ________ and the
unpleasant aftereffects become

________.
less strongly pleasant; less
strongly unpleasant
more strongly pleasant; more
strongly unpleasant
less strongly pleasant; more
strongly unpleasant
more strongly pleasant; less
strongly unpleasant

A)
B)
C)
D)

174.
A)
B)
C)
D)

Symptoms of drug withdrawal


are likely to be
most severe among those with
low levels of drug tolerance.
most severe among those with
moderate levels of drug
tolerance.
most severe among those with
high levels of drug tolerance.
equally severe among those with
low, moderate, or high levels of
drug tolerance.

A)
B)
C)
D)

One biological basis for addiction


175. involves brain activity in the
________ reward system.
sensory
dopamine
motor
melatonin

A)
B)
C)
D)

Females with a history of


physical abuse are at ________
risk for substance addiction.
176.
Those with a history of eating
disorders are at ________ risk for
substance addiction.
increased; decreased
decreased; increased
increased; increased
decreased; decreased

A)
B)
C)
D)

A)
B)
C)
D)

Sixteen-year-old Bethany is
becoming increasingly concerned
177. about her use of marijuana on
weekends. To reduce her use of
this drug Bethany should
recognize that life is stressful and
often beyond control.
be warned that marijuana
interferes with female sexual
functioning.
stop associating with friends who
use marijuana.
recognize that drug use results
from her own lack of social skills.

U.S. sixth graders ________ their


friends' use of marijuana, and
178. university students ________ their
fellow students' enthusiasm for
alcohol.
underestimate; overestimate
overestimate; underestimate
underestimate; underestimate
overestimate; overestimate

Answer Key
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
40.
41.

A
D
D
D
B
C
B
D
A
C
C
B
B
B
D
D
B
D
C
C
C
B
D
D
D
C
C
C
B
B
A
C
B
D
D
A
C
C
B
C
A

42.
43.
44.
45.
46.
47.
48.
49.
50.
51.
52.
53.
54.
55.
56.
57.
58.
59.
60.
61.
62.
63.
64.
65.
66.
67.
68.
69.
70.
71.
72.
73.
74.
75.
76.
77.
78.
79.
80.
81.
82.
83.
84.

B
A
D
C
D
A
A
B
D
A
A
D
C
B
A
C
B
C
A
B
C
D
B
C
A
C
C
B
B
B
B
C
A
C
A
C
B
A
D
C
D
A
D

85.
86.
87.
88.
89.
90.
91.
92.
93.
94.
95.
96.
97.
98.
99.
100.
101.
102.
103.
104.
105.
106.
107.
108.
109.
110.
111.
112.
113.
114.
115.
116.
117.
118.
119.
120.
121.
122.
123.
124.
125.
126.
127.

D
C
D
C
A
A
B
D
C
D
D
D
B
C
D
D
D
C
B
C
D
B
B
B
D
C
D
D
B
B
B
A
D
A
C
C
D
B
C
C
B
D
C

128.
129.
130.
131.
132.
133.
134.
135.
136.
137.
138.
139.
140.
141.
142.
143.
144.
145.
146.
147.
148.
149.
150.
151.
152.
153.
154.
155.
156.
157.
158.
159.
160.
161.
162.
163.
164.
165.
166.
167.
168.
169.
170.

B
D
A
C
C
B
B
B
A
D
C
B
A
B
D
B
C
D
B
C
B
A
C
B
C
A
A
C
B
A
B
B
B
B
D
C
B
C
A
B
B
D
A

171.
172.
173.
174.
175.
176.
177.
178.

D
C
C
C
B
C
C
D