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1.

A)
B)
C)
D)

2.
A)
B)
C)
D)

Psychologists define learning as


the process of
adapting to the environment.
responding to external stimuli.
reinforcing behavioral responses.
acquiring new information or
relatively enduring behaviors.

Acquiring new habits best


illustrates the process of
extrinsic motivation.
instinctive drift.
learning.
spontaneous recovery.

A)
B)
C)
D)

If a sea slug on repeated


occasions receives an electric
shock just after being squirted
3. with water, its protective
withdrawal response to a squirt
of water grows stronger. This
best illustrates
spontaneous recovery.
associative learning.
observational learning.
operant conditioning.

A)
B)
C)
D)

4. Conditioning is the process of


discrimination.
spontaneous recovery.
learning associations.
observational learning.

A)
B)
C)
D)

In classical conditioning a
5. stimulus is any event or situation
that
triggers imitation.
signals a reinforcer.
elicits operant behavior.
evokes a response.

A)
B)
C)
D)

Jordan is frightened by the sound


6. of a train whistle. The sound is
a(n)
intermittent reinforcement.
spontaneous recovery.
operant chamber.
stimulus.

A)
B)
C)
D)

Pets who learn that the sound of


7. an electric can opener signals
the arrival of their food illustrate
shaping.
extrinsic motivation.
classical conditioning.
observational learning.

A)
B)
C)
D)

Children often learn to associate


pushing a vending machine
8. button with the delivery of a
candy bar. This best illustrates
the process underlying
intrinsic motivation.
respondent behavior.
spontaneous recovery.
operant conditioning.

A)
B)
C)
D)

The acquisition of mental


information by observing events,
9.
watching others, or through
language is called
classical conditioning.
cognitive learning.
partial reinforcement.
shaping.

10. After one chimpanzee sees a


second chimp open a box that
contains a food reward, the first

A)
B)
C)
D)

animal opens a similar box with


great speed. This best illustrates
shaping.
spontaneous recovery.
respondent behavior.
observational learning.

A)
B)
C)
D)

The first experimental studies of


11. associative learning were
conducted by
John B. Watson.
B. F. Skinner.
Albert Bandura.
Ivan Pavlov.

12.
A)
B)
C)
D)

A)
B)
C)
D)

John B. Watson considered


himself to be a(n)
physiological psychologist.
cognitive psychologist.
behaviorist.
psychoanalyst.

John B. Watson would have


expressed the greatest
13.
disapproval of attempts to
scientifically study whether
consumer buying habits are
influenced by newspaper
advertisements.
worker productivity is influenced
by hourly wage rates.
academic achievement is
influenced by a positive selfconcept.
aggressive behavior is influenced
by threats of punishment.

14. Last year, Dr. Moritano cleaned


Natacha's skin with rubbing
alcohol prior to administering

each of a series of painful rabies


vaccination shots. Which of the
following processes accounts for
the fact that Natacha currently
becomes fearful every time she
smells rubbing alcohol?
negative reinforcement
classical conditioning
latent learning
operant conditioning

A)
B)
C)
D)

A)
B)
C)
D)

The psychic secretions that


15. Pavlov initially considered an
annoyance were
unconditioned responses.
primary reinforcers.
conditioned responses.
conditioned reinforcers.

A)
B)
C)
D)

In classical conditioning, a
16. stimulus that elicits no response
before conditioning is called a(n)
unconditioned stimulus.
secondary reinforcer.
neutral stimulus.
primary reinforcer.

17.
A)
B)
C)
D)

A)

Which of the following is an


unconditioned response?
playing jump rope
running through a maze to get a
food reward
sweating in hot weather
clapping after a thrilling concert
performance

In Pavlov's experiments on the


18. salivary conditioning of dogs, the
US was
a tone.

B)

salivation to the sound of a tone.


the presentation of food in the
dog's mouth.
salivation to the food in the
mouth.

C)
D)

A)
B)
C)
D)

In Aldous Huxley's Brave New


World, infants develop a fear of
books after books are repeatedly
19.
presented with a loud noise. In
this fictional example, the loud
noise is a(n)
unconditioned stimulus.
unconditioned response.
conditioned stimulus.
conditioned response.

A)
B)
C)
D)

In Pavlov's experiments, the


taste of food triggered the dog's
20.
salivation. Salivation to the taste
of food was a(n)
conditioned response.
unconditioned response.
unconditioned stimulus.
conditioned stimulus.

A)
B)
C)
D)

In Pavlov's experiments, the


sound of the tone triggered the
21.
dog's salivation. Salivation to the
sound of a tone was a(n)
conditioned response.
unconditioned stimulus.
unconditioned response.
conditioned stimulus.

22.
A)
B)
C)

A child's learned fear at the sight


of a hypodermic needle is a(n)
conditioned response.
unconditioned stimulus.
conditioned stimulus.

D)

unconditioned response.

A)
B)
C)
D)

A dog salivates to the sound of a


tone because the tone has
23. regularly been associated with
the delivery of food. In this case,
the tone is called a(n)
unconditioned stimulus.
primary reinforcer.
conditioned stimulus.
immediate reinforcer.

A)
B)
C)
D)

A real estate agent showed Gavin


several pictures of lakeshore
property while they were eating a
delicious, mouth-watering meal.
24.
Later, when Gavin was given a
tour of the property, he drooled
with delight. For Gavin, the
lakeshore property was a
US.
CS.
UR.
CR.

A)
B)
C)
D)

Researchers condition a flatworm


to contract its body to a light by
repeatedly pairing the light with
electric shock. The stage in
25.
which the flatworm's contraction
response to light is established
and gradually strengthened is
called
shaping.
acquisition.
generalization.
spontaneous recovery.

26. In classical conditioning, the


conditioned stimulus signals the

A)
B)
C)
D)

impending occurrence of
latent learning.
a conditioned reinforcer.
an unconditioned stimulus.
operant behavior.

A)
B)
C)
D)

In classical conditioning, the NS


becomes a ________ after it
27.
reliably signals the impending
occurrence of the ________.
US; CS
UR; CR
CS; US
CR; UR

A)
B)
C)
D)

Male Japanese quail became


sexually aroused by a red light
that was repeatedly associated
28.
with the presentation of a female
quail. The sexual arousal
triggered by the red light was a
UR.
US.
CR.
CS.

A)
B)
C)
D)

A geometric figure is most likely


29. to trigger sexual arousal if
presented shortly
after an appropriate UR.
after an appropriate US.
before an appropriate UR.
before an appropriate US.

A)

Associating a conditioned
stimulus with a new neutral
30. stimulus can create a second
(often weaker) conditioned
stimulus. This best illustrates
shaping.

B)
C)
D)

spontaneous recovery.
intermittent reinforcement.
higher-order conditioning.

A)
B)
C)
D)

Extinction occurs when a ________


31. is no longer paired with a
________.
UR; CR
CS; UR
US; UR
CS; US

A)
B)
C)
D)

Makayla developed an intense


fear of flying five years ago when
she was in a plane crash. The
32.
fact that today she can again fly
without distress indicates that
her fear has undergone
spontaneous recovery.
extinction.
generalization.
discrimination.

A)
B)
C)
D)

The reappearance, after a time


33. lapse, of an extinguished CR is
called
generalization.
spontaneous recovery.
secondary reinforcement.
shaping.

A)
B)
C)
D)

The occurrence of spontaneous


34. recovery suggests that during
extinction
the CS is eliminated.
the CR is eliminated.
the CS is suppressed.
the CR is suppressed.

A)
B)
C)
D)

In classical conditioning,
generalization refers to the
35. tendency for the conditioned
response to be evoked by stimuli
that are similar to the
unconditioned stimulus.
primary reinforcer.
conditioned stimulus.
conditioned reinforcer.

A)
B)
C)
D)

Dogs conditioned to salivate to


stimulation of the thigh also
36. begin to salivate when
stimulated on other body parts.
This best illustrates
spontaneous recovery.
continuous reinforcement.
latent learning.
generalization.

A)
B)
C)
D)

Toddlers taught to fear speeding


cars may also begin to fear
37.
speeding trucks and motorcycles.
This best illustrates
generalization.
secondary reinforcement.
shaping.
spontaneous recovery.

A)
B)
C)
D)

Compared with nonabused


children, those who have
experienced a history of abuse
38. show a stronger brain-wave
response to an unfamiliar but
angry-looking face. This best
illustrates
shaping.
generalization.
the law of effect.
negative reinforcement.

A)
B)
C)
D)

Monica's psychotherapist
reminds her so much of her own
father that she has many of the
same mixed emotional reactions
39.
to him that she has to her own
dad. Her reactions to her
therapist best illustrate the
importance of
latent learning.
generalization.
delayed reinforcement.
shaping.

A)
B)
C)
D)

Because of the discomfort and


embarrassment associated with
his childhood bed-wetting,
Andrew becomes nervous
40. whenever he senses an urge to
urinate. If genital arousal
subsequently makes Andrew
unusually anxious, this would
best illustrate
shaping.
generalization.
spontaneous recovery.
secondary reinforcement.

A)
B)
C)
D)

The ability to distinguish


between a conditioned stimulus
41.
and stimuli that do not signal an
unconditioned stimulus is called
acquisition.
discrimination.
generalization.
latent learning.

42. Your heart may race when you


are confronted by a lion but not
when you are approached by a
kitten. This best illustrates the

A)
B)
C)
D)

A)
B)
C)
D)

A)
B)
C)
D)

A)
B)
C)
D)

adaptive value of
shaping.
discrimination.
extrinsic motivation.
spontaneous recovery.

Jacqueline is sexually aroused by


the sight of her handsome
43. boyfriend but not by the sight of
her equally handsome brother.
This best illustrates the value of
shaping.
intermittent reinforcement.
discrimination.
spontaneous recovery.

Pavlov's research on classical


44. conditioning was important
because
it highlighted the role of
cognitive processes in learning.
so many different species of
animals, including humans, can
be classically conditioned.
it demonstrated an essential
difference between animal and
human learning.
all learning depends on
reinforcement.

Just after they taste a sweet


liquid, mice are injected with a
drug that produces an immune
45. response. Later, the taste of the
sweet liquid by itself triggers an
immune response. This best
illustrates
the law of effect.
latent learning.
classical conditioning.
instinctive drift.

A)
B)
C)
D)

A)
B)
C)
D)

A)
B)
C)
D)

To assess whether Mrs. Webster


had suffered from a brain injury,
researchers conditioned her to
blink in response to a sound that
46.
signaled the delivery of a puff of
air directed toward her face. In
this application of classical
conditioning, the sound was a
US.
UR.
CS.
CR.

Watson and Rayner's study of


47. Little Albert demonstrated how
specific fears
can interfere with the process of
learning.
can be used as negative
reinforcers.
are acquired through
observational learning.
may be produced through
classical conditioning.

After learning to fear a white rat,


Little Albert responded with fear
48.
to the sight of a rabbit. This best
illustrates the process of
secondary reinforcement.
generalization.
shaping.
spontaneous recovery.

49. After he was spanked on several


occasions for spilling his milk at a
restaurant, Colin became afraid
to go to the restaurant. In this
case, spanking was a(n) ________

A)
B)
C)
D)

for Colin's fear.


negative reinforcer
conditioned stimulus
secondary reinforcer
unconditioned stimulus

A)
B)
C)
D)

Comedian-writer Mark Malkoff


reported that his fear of flying
faded after he faced his fear and
50.
lived on an airplane for 30 days.
His reduction of fear best
illustrated the process of
shaping.
extinction.
spontaneous recovery.
secondary reforcement.

A)
B)
C)
D)

In which form of learning is


51. behavior influenced by its
consequences?
observational learning
classical conditioning
operant conditioning
latent learning

A)
B)
C)
D)

Laurie's thumbsucking has


become habitual because she
52. feels less anxious when she
sucks her thumb. This best
illustrates the process of
generalization.
classical conditioning.
latent learning.
operant conditioning.

A)
B)

The study of respondent behavior


53. is to ________ as the study of
operant behavior is to ________.
Pavlov; Skinner
Bandura; Skinner

C)
D)

A)
B)
C)
D)

Skinner; Bandura
Bandura; Pavlov

Cats received a fish reward


whenever they maneuvered
themselves out of an enclosed
54. puzzle box. With successive
trials, the cats escaped from the
box with increasing speed. This
illustrates
latent learning.
the law of effect.
respondent behavior.
spontaneous recovery.

55.
A)
B)
C)
D)

A)
B)
C)
D)

56. A Skinner box is a(n)


aversive or punishing event that
decreases the occurrence of
certain undesirable behaviors.
slot machine used to study the
effects of partial reinforcement
on human gambling practices.
chamber containing a bar or key
that an animal can manipulate to
obtain a reward.
television projection device
designed for use in laboratory
studies of observational learning.

57.
A)
B)

B. F. Skinner's work elaborated


what E. L. Thorndike had called
shaping.
observational learning.
the law of effect.
latent learning.

An event that strengthens the


behavior it follows is a(n)
conditioned stimulus.
unconditioned stimulus.

C)
D)

A)
B)
C)
D)

reinforcement.
operant behavior.

Skinner developed a behavioral


58. technology that included a
procedure known as
shaping.
modeling.
latent learning.
intrinsic motivation.

59.
A)
B)
C)
D)

Shaping is a(n) ________


procedure.
latent learning
operant conditioning
classical conditioning
observational learning

D)

You would be most likely to use


60. operant conditioning to teach a
dog to
fear cars in the street.
dislike the taste of dead birds.
wag its tail whenever it is
emotionally excited.
retrieve sticks and balls.

A)
B)
C)
D)

An animal trainer is teaching a


miniature poodle to balance on a
ball. Initially, he gives the poodle
a treat for approaching the ball,
61.
then only for placing its front
paws on the ball, and finally only
for climbing on the ball. The
trainer is using the method of
successive approximations.
delayed reinforcement.
classical conditioning.
secondary reinforcement.

A)
B)
C)

A)
B)
C)
D)

Five-year-old Trevor is
emotionally disturbed and
refuses to communicate with
anyone. To get him to speak, his
teacher initially gives him candy
62.
for any utterance, then only for a
clearly spoken word, and finally
only for a complete sentence.
The teacher is using the method
of
secondary reinforcement.
delayed reinforcement.
spontaneous recovery.
shaping.

A)
B)
C)
D)

A psychologist would be most


likely to use ________ to
63. determine whether nonverbal
organisms can perceive different
colors.
mirror neurons
modeling
a cognitive map
shaping

A)
B)
C)
D)

An event or situation signaling


64. that an operant response will be
reinforced is called a(n)
cognitive map.
unconditioned stimulus.
primary reinforcer.
discriminative stimulus.

65. A pigeon is consistently


reinforced with food for pecking a
key after seeing an image of a
human face, but not reinforced
for pecking after seeing other
images. By signaling that a
pecking response will be

A)
B)
C)
D)

reinforced, the image of a human


face is a(n)
unconditioned stimulus.
partial reinforcement.
discriminative stimulus.
primary reinforcer.

A)
B)
C)
D)

Because Mr. Baron demonstrates


appreciation only for very good
classroom answers, his students
66. have stopped participating in
class. Mr. Baron most clearly
needs to be informed of the
value of
generalization.
modeling.
shaping.
latent learning.

A)
B)
C)
D)

Any stimulus that, when


presented after a response,
67.
strengthens the response is
called a(n)
conditioned stimulus.
unconditioned stimulus.
positive reinforcer.
negative reinforcer.

A)
B)
C)
D)

Every Saturday morning, Arnold


quickly washes the family's
breakfast dishes so that his
68.
father will allow him to wash his
car. In this instance, washing the
car is a(n)
positive reinforcer.
unconditioned response.
conditioned response.
negative reinforcer.

69. Receiving delicious food is to

escaping electric shock as


________ is to ________.
positive reinforcer; negative
reinforcer
primary reinforcer; secondary
reinforcer
immediate reinforcer; delayed
reinforcer
reinforcement; punishment

A)
B)
C)
D)

A)
B)
C)
D)

Positive reinforcers ________ the


rate of operant responding, and
70.
negative reinforcers ________ the
rate of operant responding.
decrease; increase
increase; decrease
increase; increase
have no effect on; decrease

A)
B)
C)
D)

Any stimulus that, when removed


71. after a response, strengthens the
response is called a(n)
conditioned stimulus.
unconditioned stimulus.
positive reinforcer.
negative reinforcer.

A)
B)
C)
D)

Mason, a stockbroker, runs two


miles every day after work
because it reduces his level of
72.
stress. Mason's running habit is
maintained by a ________
reinforcer.
positive
negative
conditioned
partial

73.

Primary reinforcers could best be


described as

A)
B)
C)
D)

cognitive maps.
conditioned stimuli.
conditioned reinforcers.
innately satisfying stimuli.

A)
B)
C)
D)

The taste of food and relief from


74. a headache are both ________
reinforcers.
positive
negative
primary
conditioned

A)
B)
C)
D)

A stimulus that acquires


reinforcing power through its
75. association with a primary
reinforcer is called a ________
reinforcer.
delayed
negative
partial
conditioned

A)
B)
C)
D)

A)

Which of the following is the best


76. example of a conditioned
reinforcer?
applause for an excellent piano
recital
a spanking for eating cookies
before dinner
a cold root beer for mowing the
lawn on a hot day
termination of shock after
removing one's finger from a live
electric wire

Alex was paid $100 for eight


77. hours of work. The money was
a(n)
primary reinforcer.

B)
C)
D)

A)
B)
C)
D)

A)
B)
C)
D)

A)
B)
C)
D)

spontaneous recovery.
conditioned reinforcer.
operant behavior.

The removal of electric shock is


78. to the receipt of money as
________ is to ________.
delayed reinforcer; immediate
reinforcer
primary reinforcer; conditioned
reinforcer
discrimination; generalization
partial reinforcement; continuous
reinforcement

Giving a hungry rat food for


pressing a bar before the rat has
79. a chance to engage in other
incidental behaviors like running
or scratching best illustrates
respondent behavior.
secondary reinforcement.
intermittent reinforcement.
immediate reinforcement.

To quickly teach a dog to roll over


80. on command, you would be best
advised to use
classical conditioning rather than
operant conditioning.
partial reinforcement rather than
continuous reinforcement.
immediate reinforcers rather
than delayed reinforcers.
negative reinforcers rather than
positive reinforcers.

81. Some students study hard


beginning with the first couple of
weeks of a semester because

A)
B)
C)
D)

A)
B)
C)
D)

A)
B)
C)
D)

they subsequently receive very


good final course grades. This
best illustrates that human
behavior is influenced by
classical conditioning.
primary reinforcers.
latent learning.
delayed reinforcers.

Janet has almost finished


painting a neighbor's house, at
which time she'll be paid $2000.
The fact that she is increasingly
82. unlikely to quit painting as she
nears completion of the job best
illustrates that operant behavior
is strongly influenced by ________
reinforcers.
primary
negative
immediate
partial

A response is learned most


rapidly and is most resistant to
83.
extinction if it is acquired under
conditions of
continuous reinforcement
followed by partial
reinforcement.
primary reinforcement followed
by secondary reinforcement.
partial reinforcement followed by
continuous reinforcement.
secondary reinforcement
followed by primary
reinforcement.

Resistance to extinction is most


84. strongly encouraged by ________
reinforcement.

A)
B)
C)
D)

A)
B)
C)
D)

A)
B)
C)
D)

A)
B)
C)

delayed
intermittent
conditioned
negative

The way slot machines reward


85. gamblers with money best
illustrates
spontaneous recovery.
partial reinforcement.
generalization.
shaping.

Four-year-old Della asks her


mother for a special treat every
time they go to the grocery store.
86. At first her mother granted every
request, but now she does so
less consistently. Research
suggests that Della will
soon give up asking for a treat
entirely.
come to ask for a treat only
occasionally.
continue to ask for a treat nearly
every time she goes to the store.
ask for a treat every time her
mother takes her out, even if
they don't go to the grocery
store.

A fixed-ratio schedule of
reinforcement is one in which a
87.
response is reinforced only after
a(n)
specified time period has
elapsed.
unpredictable time period has
elapsed.
specified number of responses
have been made.

D)

unpredictable number of
responses have been made.

A)
B)
C)
D)

Blake is a carpet installer who


wants to be paid for each square
foot of carpet he lays rather than
88.
with an hourly wage. Blake
prefers working on a ________
schedule of reinforcement.
fixed-ratio
fixed-interval
variable-interval
variable-ratio

A)
B)
C)
D)

Paul and Michael sell magazine


subscriptions by telephone. Paul
is paid $1.00 for every five calls
he makes, while Michael is paid
$1.00 for every subscription he
89. sells, regardless of the number of
calls he makes. Paul's
telephoning is reinforced on a
________ schedule, whereas
Michael's is reinforced on a
________ schedule.
variable-ratio; fixed-ratio
fixed-ratio; variable-ratio
fixed-ratio; variable-interval
fixed-interval; variable-ratio

A)
B)
C)
D)

A partial schedule that reinforces


a response after an unpredictable
90.
number of responses is a ________
schedule.
fixed-ratio
variable-ratio
fixed-interval
variable-interval

91. Purchasing state lottery tickets is

A)
B)
C)
D)

A)
B)
C)
D)

A)
B)
C)
D)

A)

reinforced with monetary


winnings on a ________ schedule.
fixed-interval
variable-interval
fixed-ratio
variable-ratio

Asking women for dates is most


92. likely to be reinforced on a
________ schedule.
fixed-interval
fixed-ratio
variable-interval
variable-ratio

A fixed-interval schedule of
reinforcement is one in which a
93.
response is reinforced only after
a(n)
unpredictable time period has
elapsed.
specified time period has
elapsed.
specified number of responses
has been made.
unpredictable number of
responses has been made.

An executive in a computer
software firm works with his
office door closed. At the same
time every hour he opens the
door to see what his employees
are doing. The employees have
94.
learned to work especially hard
during the five minutes before
and while the door is open. Their
work pattern is typical of
responses that are reinforced on
a ________ schedule.
fixed-interval

B)
C)
D)

fixed-ratio
variable-ratio
variable-interval

A)
B)
C)
D)

A partial reinforcement schedule


that reinforces a response that
95. occurs after an unpredictable
period of time is a ________
schedule.
fixed-ratio
variable-ratio
fixed-interval
variable-interval

A)
B)
C)
D)

On the first day of class,


Professor Wallace tells her
geography students that pop
quizzes will be given at
96. unpredictable times throughout
the semester. Clearly, studying
for Professor Wallace's surprise
quizzes will be reinforced on a
________ schedule.
fixed-interval
fixed-ratio
variable-interval
variable-ratio

A)
B)
C)
D)

Watching the night sky for


shooting stars is likely to be
97.
reinforced on a ________
schedule.
fixed-interval
fixed-ratio
variable-interval
variable-ratio

98. Operant response rates tend to


be ________ when linked to a ratio
schedule rather than an interval

A)
B)
C)
D)

schedule. Operant response rates


tend to be ________ consistent
when linked to a variable
schedule rather than a fixed
schedule.
higher; less
lower; more
higher; more
lower; less

A)
B)
C)
D)

Myron quit gambling after he lost


over a thousand dollars betting
99.
on horse races. This best
illustrates the effects of
negative reinforcers.
generalization.
spontaneous recovery.
punishment.

A)
B)
C)
D)

A)
B)
C)
D)

The introduction of a pleasant


stimulus is to ________ as the
100.
withdrawal of a pleasant stimulus
is to ________.
positive reinforcer; negative
reinforcer
acquisition; extinction
reinforcement; punishment
primary reinforcer; secondary
reinforcer

Negative reinforcers ________ the


rate of operant responding, and
101.
punishments ________ the rate of
operant responding.
increase; decrease
decrease; increase
decrease; decrease
have no effect on; decrease

102. Administering an aversive

A)
B)
C)
D)

stimulus following an operant


response is
negative punishment.
positive punishment.
negative reinforcement.
positive reinforcement.

A)
B)
C)
D)

Taking away the driver's license


103. of a reckless teen driver is
intended to serve as a
negative reinforcement.
positive reinforcement.
negative punishment.
positive punishment.

A)
B)
C)
D)

Positive punishment is the


introduction of a(n) ________
stimulus following a behavior and
104.
negative punishment is the
withdrawal of a(n) ________
stimulus following a behavior.
pleasant; pleasant
aversive; aversive
pleasant; aversive
aversive; pleasant

A)
B)
C)
D)

A)
B)

Studies suggest that criminal


105. behavior is most likely to be
deterred by
moderate levels of punishment.
swiftly delivered punishment.
severe levels of punishment.
an unpredictable level of
punishment.

Learning that some responses,


106. but not others, will be reinforced
is called
respondent behavior.
secondary reinforcement.

C)
D)

A)
B)
C)
D)

discrimination.
latent learning.

A child who is punished for


swearing at home but reinforced
for swearing on the school
107.
playground is most likely to
demonstrate a patterned habit of
swearing that is indicative of
negative reinforcement.
instinctive drift.
discrimination.
extinction.

108.
A)
B)
C)
D)

A)
B)
C)
D)

A)
B)

The use of physical punishment


may
lead to the suppression but not
the forgetting of undesirable
behavior.
model aggression as a way of
coping with problems.
lead people to fear and avoid the
punishing agent.
have all of these results.

For purposes of effective child109. rearing, most psychologists favor


the use of
shaping over modeling.
reinforcement over punishment.
classical conditioning over
operant conditioning.
primary reinforcers over
secondary reinforcers.

According to B. F. Skinner, human


110. behavior is controlled primarily
by
external influences.
emotions.

C)
D)

unconscious motives.
conscious thoughts.

A)
B)
C)
D)

In explaining juvenile
111. delinquency, B. F. Skinner would
most likely have emphasized
inherited predispositions.
fear and greed.
faulty child-rearing practices.
a weak internalized conscience.

A)
B)
C)
D)

B. F. Skinner's critics have


112. claimed that he neglected the
importance of the individual's
personal freedom.
early childhood experiences.
pleasure-seeking tendencies.
cultural background.

A)
B)
C)
D)

A)
B)
C)

B. F. Skinner believed that


teaching machines could
113.
promote effective learning
because they allow for both
continuous reinforcement and
latent learning.
positive reinforcement and
punishment.
shaping and immediate
reinforcement.
observational learning and
spontaneous recovery.

Which of the following is LEAST


likely to be considered an
114. important component of effective
student instruction involving the
use of interactive software?
respondent behavior
immediate reinforcement
operant behavior

D)

shaping

A)
B)
C)
D)

Alex learned how to make 3-point


basketball shots by successfully
making very short shots before
115. shooting from increasingly longer
distances from the hoop. This
learning strategy best illustrates
the process of
observational learning.
delayed reinforcement.
classical conditioning.
shaping.

A)
B)
C)
D)

Two years ago, the de Castellane


Manufacturing Company included
its employees in a profit-sharing
plan in which workers receive
semi-annual bonuses based on
116. the company's profits. Since this
plan was initiated, worker
productivity at de Castellane has
nearly doubled. This productivity
increase is best explained in
terms of
latent learning.
operant conditioning.
classical conditioning.
spontaneous recovery.

A)
B)

When grocery shopping with his


mother, 4-year-old Hakim
sometimes throws temper
tantrums if his mother refuses his
117.
requests for a particular snack
food. Parent-training experts
would suggest that his mother
should
threaten to punish Hakim if he
continues his tantrums.
offer to buy the snack food
Hakim wants only if he quiets

down and behaves himself.


continue shopping while ignoring
Hakim's tantrums.
return any snack foods that are
already in her cart to the store
shelves.

C)
D)

A)
B)
C)

D)

To get you to increase the


frequency of your daily exercise,
118. operant behavior specialists are
most likely to recommend that
you
specify your exercise goals and
inform some close friends of your
goals.
congratulate yourself even when
you fail to fulfill your specific
exercise goals.
never reward yourself with a light
snack after achieving specific
exercise goals.
avoid trying to keep track of
exactly how much you have
exercised in a specific weekly
period.

A)
B)
C)
D)

Both classical and operant


conditioning are forms of
associative learning.
respondent behavior.
observational learning.
intrinsic motivation.

A)
B)
C)
D)

An organism learns associations


120. between events it does not
control during the process of
negative reinforcement.
extrinsic motivation.
classical conditioning.
shaping.

119.

A)
B)
C)
D)

Which of the following is an


121. example of a respondent
behavior?
studying for a test.
blushing when embarrassed.
thanking someone for their help.
sniffing to locate the source of a
strange odor.

A)
B)
C)
D)

Voluntary behaviors that produce


122. rewarding or punishing
consequences are called
respondent behaviors.
prosocial behaviors.
operant behaviors.
conditioned responses.

A)
B)
C)
D)

A learned association between


123. behaviors and resulting events is
central to
operant conditioning.
latent learning.
classical conditioning.
intrinsic motivation.

124.
A)
B)
C)
D)

A learned association between


two stimuli is central to
shaping.
negative reinforcement.
extrinsic motivation.
classical conditioning.

An integrated understanding of
associative learning in terms of
genetic predispositions, culturally
125. learned preferences, and the
predictability of certain
associations is most clearly
provided by

A)
B)
C)
D)

A)
B)
C)
D)

Pavlov's experiments.
Watson's behaviorism.
a biopsychosocial approach.
the law of effect.

The idea that any perceivable


126. neutral stimulus can serve as a
CS was challenged by
Garcia and Koelling's findings on
taste aversion in rats.
Pavlov's findings on the
conditioned salivary response.
Watson and Rayner's findings on
fear conditioning in infants.
Bandura's findings on
observational learning and
aggression in children.

A)
B)
C)
D)

Rats easily learn to associate


127. nausea-producing radiation
treatments with
loud sounds.
bright lights.
novel tastes.
high-pitched sounds.

A)
B)
C)
D)

Garcia and Koelling's studies of


taste aversion in rats
128.
demonstrated that classical
conditioning is constrained by
cognitive processes.
biological predispositions.
continuous reinforcement.
latent learning.

A)

In a series of experiments, men


found women more attractive
129.
and sexually desirable when their
photos were framed in
black.

B)
C)
D)

yellow.
violet.
red.

A)
B)
C)
D)

It's easier to train a pigeon to


peck a disk for a food reward
than to flap its wings for a food
130.
reward. This illustrates the
importance of ________ in
learning.
primary reinforcers
generalization
spontaneous recovery
biological predispositions

A)
B)
C)
D)

Animals tend to revert from


newly learned habits to their
131.
biologically predisposed
behaviors. This is an example of
latent learning.
instinctive drift.
the law of effect.
spontaneous recovery.

A)
B)
C)
D)

After pigs learned to pick up and


deposit wooden coins in a piggy
bank, the pigs subsequently
dropped the coins repeatedly and
132.
pushed them with their snouts.
This best illustrates the
importance of ________ in operant
conditioning.
conditioned reinforcement
latent learning
generalization
biological predispositions

133. The views of learning advanced


by Ivan Pavlov and John B.
Watson underestimated the

A)
B)
C)
D)

importance of
spontaneous recovery.
cognitive processes.
associative learning.
discrimination.

A)
B)
C)
D)

The predictability rather than the


frequency of CS-US associations
appears to be crucial for classical
134.
conditioning. This highlights the
importance of ________ in
conditioning.
shaping
discrimination
generalization
cognitive processes

A)
B)
C)
D)

Nikki has learned to expect the


sound of thunder whenever she
135. sees a flash of lightning. This
suggests that associative
learning involves
negative reinforcement.
cognitive processes.
spontaneous recovery.
shaping.

A)
B)
C)
D)

A psychologist who emphasizes


cognitive processes would be
136.
likely to suggest that classical
conditioning depends on
an organism's behavior in
response to environmental
stimulation.
the amount of time between the
presentation of the CS and the
US.
how frequently an organism is
exposed to an association of a CS
and a US.
an organism's expectation that a

US will follow a CS.

A)
B)
C)
D)

Megan fails to see any


connection between how hard
she works and the size of her
annual pay raises. Consequently,
she puts little effort into her job,
137.
even though she really wants a
big raise. This best illustrates the
importance of ________ in the
operant conditioning of work
habits.
primary reinforcers
biological predispositions
spontaneous recovery
cognitive processes

A)
B)
C)
D)

Operant response rates remain


highest when individuals
anticipate that their behavior will
138. actually lead to further
reinforcement. This best
illustrates the importance of
________ in operant conditioning.
secondary reinforcers
cognitive processes
biological predispositions
intrinsic motivation

A)
B)
C)
D)

After a week at college, SuChuan has formed a mental


139. representation of the layout of
the campus and no longer gets
lost. Su-Chuan has developed a
cognitive map.
discriminative stimulus.
law of effect.
fixed-interval schedule.

140. If rats are allowed to wander

through a complicated maze,


they will subsequently run the
maze with few errors when a
food reward is placed at the end.
Their good performance
demonstrates
shaping.
latent learning.
spontaneous recovery.
modeling.

A)
B)
C)
D)

A)
B)
C)
D)

The fact that learning can occur


without reinforcement is most
141.
clearly demonstrated by studies
of
shaping.
latent learning.
extrinsic motivation.
online testing.

A)
B)
C)
D)

Studies of latent learning


highlight the importance of
respondent behavior.
spontaneous recovery.
cognitive processes.
conditioned reinforcers.

A)
B)
C)
D)

The desire to perform a behavior


143. due to promised rewards or
threats of punishment involves
latent learning.
extrinsic motivation.
partial reinforcement.
delayed reinforcers.

A)

Using rewards to bribe people to


engage in an activity they
144.
already enjoy is most likely to
inhibit
respondent behavior.

142.

B)
C)
D)

A)
B)
C)
D)

latent learning.
spontaneous recovery.
intrinsic motivation.

Because Yuri was curious about


human behavior, he enrolled in
an introductory psychology
course. George registered
because he heard it was an easy
145. course that would boost his
grade-point average. In this
instance, Yuri's behavior was a
reflection of ________, whereas
George's behavior was a
reflection of ________.
operant conditioning; classical
conditioning
intrinsic motivation; extrinsic
motivation
an unconditioned response; a
conditioned response
a fixed-interval schedule; a
variable-interval schedule

A)
B)
C)
D)

Our ability to learn by witnessing


146. the behavior of others best
illustrates
respondent behavior.
prosocial behavior.
operant conditioning.
observational learning.

A)
B)

Dan and Joel, both 4-year-olds,


have been watching reruns of
Superman on television. Joel's
147. mother recently found the boys
standing on the garage roof,
ready to try flying. What best
accounts for the boys' behavior?
delayed reinforcement
observational learning

C)
D)

A)
B)
C)
D)

immediate reinforcement
classical conditioning

Jeremy wears his baseball cap


backward because he noticed
148.
that his older brother does so.
This illustrates the importance of
respondent behavior.
immediate reinforcement.
modeling.
shaping.

A)
B)
C)
D)

Skinner is to shaping as Bandura


is to
punishing.
discriminating.
modeling.
generalizing.

A)
B)
C)
D)

In a well-known experiment,
preschool children pounded and
kicked a large inflated Bobo doll
150.
that an adult had just beaten on.
This experiment served to
illustrate the importance of
operant conditioning.
respondent behavior.
observational learning.
spontaneous recovery.

A)
B)
C)
D)

We are most likely to imitate the


151. behavior of models if we observe
that their actions are
conditioned responses.
extrinsically motivated.
followed by reinforcement.
violent or antisocial.

149.

152. The tendency to engage in

A)
B)
C)
D)

behaviors that we observe others


rewarded for performing best
illustrates the influence of
prosocial behavior.
partial reinforcement.
intrinsic motivation.
vicarious reinforcement.

A)
B)
C)
D)

When Adam observed his sister


being scolded after she hit
another child, Adam also
153.
discontinued hitting other
children. This best illustrates the
impact of
spontaneous recovery.
vicarious punishment.
instinctive drift.
intrinsic motivation.

A)
B)
C)
D)

Mirror neurons are believed by


154. some scientists to provide a
biological basis for
the law of effect.
spontaneous recovery.
observational learning.
extrinsic motivation.

A)
B)
C)
D)

It has been suggested that


________ are activated when a
monkey moves a peanut into its
155.
own mouth and when a monkey
simply observes other monkeys
move a peanut into their mouths.
prosocial behaviors
intrinsic motives
cognitive maps
mirror neurons

156. Rhesus macaque monkeys are


more likely to reconcile after a

A)
B)
C)
D)

fight if they grow up with


forgiving older macaque
monkeys. This best illustrates the
impact of
immediate reinforcement.
spontaneous recovery.
observational learning.
shaping.

A)
B)
C)
D)

Five-year-olds copy senseless


and irrelevant adult actions such
as stroking a plastic jar with a
157.
feather before reaching inside
the jar for a toy. This best
illustrates
spontaneous recovery.
instinctive drift.
negative reinforcement.
overimitation.

A)
B)
C)
D)

Without conscious reflection,


people often yawn when they
158. observe others yawning.
Researchers are now considering
whether this can be attributed to
mirror neuron activity.
higher-order conditioning.
latent learning.
spontaneous recovery.

A)
B)
C)
D)

Psychologists are currently


debating whether our physical
159. capacity for mentally simulating
the observed behavior of others
is due to specialized
intrinsic motives.
cognitive maps.
operant chambers.
mirror neurons.

A)
B)
C)
D)

Recognizing that one of your


friends is feeling angry and that
160.
another friend is feeling sad
illustrates an ability known as
modeling.
latent learning.
spontaneous recovery.
theory of mind.

A)
B)
C)
D)

Sandy finds it harder to frown


when watching her brother smile
than when seeing him frown.
161.
Scientists are currently debating
whether this can be attributed to
the activation of
instinctive drift.
extrinsic motives.
mirror neurons.
cognitive maps.

A)
B)
C)
D)

Alex learned to babysit and care


for young children effectively by
observing the many ways his
mother carefully nurtured his
162.
own younger siblings. This best
illustrates the value of
observational learning for
promoting
conditioned responses.
prosocial behavior.
extrinsic motivation.
spontaneous recovery.

A)
B)
C)

Socially responsive toddlers who


readily imitate their parents tend
163. to become preschoolers with a
strong internalized conscience.
This best illustrates the impact of
operant conditioning.
spontaneous recovery.
observational learning.

D)

A)
B)
C)
D)

respondent behavior.

Mr. Schneider frequently tells his


children that it is important to
wash their hands before meals,
164.
but he rarely does so himself.
Experiments suggest that his
children will learn to
practice and preach the virtues
of cleanliness.
practice cleanliness but not
preach its virtues.
neither practice nor preach the
virtues of cleanliness.
preach the virtues of cleanliness
but not practice cleanliness.

A)
B)
C)
D)

Children of abusive parents often


learn to be aggressive by
165.
imitating their parents. This
illustrates the importance of
delayed reinforcement.
observational learning.
respondent behavior.
shaping.

A)
B)
C)
D)

Children often imitate behaviors


166. seen on television. This best
illustrates the impact of
modeling.
respondent behavior.
immediate reinforcement.
spontaneous recovery.

A)

Children are especially likely to


behave aggressively after
167.
viewing TV violence in which an
attractive person commits
justified violence that causes no
visible pain or harm.

unjustified violence that causes


no visible pain or harm.
justified violence that causes a
lot of visible pain or harm.
unjustified violence that causes a
lot of visible pain or harm.

B)
C)
D)

A)
B)
C)
D)

Correlational studies show that


prolonged viewing of televised
168.
violence ________ increased rates
of violent behavior.
inhibits
causes
is unrelated to
predicts

169.
A)
B)
C)
D)

A)
B)
C)
D)

Desensitization and imitation are


two factors that contribute to
the law of effect.
spontaneous recovery.
the violence-viewing effect.
instinctive drift.

Most of the TV shows that 9-yearold Fred watches involve


170.
violence. This is most likely to
lead Fred to
react with a sense of distress at
the sight of two children fighting
on the school playground.
perceive the injuries of victims of
violence as less severe.
be more inhibited about
personally starting a fight on the
school playground.
overestimate the pain and injury
experienced by victims of violent
crime.

Answer Key
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
40.
41.

D
C
B
C
D
D
C
D
B
D
D
C
C
B
C
C
C
C
A
B
A
A
C
B
B
C
C
C
D
D
D
B
B
D
C
D
A
B
B
B
B

42.
43.
44.
45.
46.
47.
48.
49.
50.
51.
52.
53.
54.
55.
56.
57.
58.
59.
60.
61.
62.
63.
64.
65.
66.
67.
68.
69.
70.
71.
72.
73.
74.
75.
76.
77.
78.
79.
80.
81.
82.
83.
84.

B
C
B
C
C
D
B
D
B
C
D
A
B
C
C
C
A
B
D
A
D
D
D
C
C
C
A
A
C
D
B
D
C
D
A
C
B
D
C
D
C
A
B

85.
86.
87.
88.
89.
90.
91.
92.
93.
94.
95.
96.
97.
98.
99.
100.
101.
102.
103.
104.
105.
106.
107.
108.
109.
110.
111.
112.
113.
114.
115.
116.
117.
118.
119.
120.
121.
122.
123.
124.
125.
126.
127.

B
C
C
A
B
B
D
D
B
A
D
C
C
C
D
C
A
B
C
D
B
C
C
D
B
A
C
A
C
A
D
B
C
A
A
C
B
C
A
D
C
A
C

128.
129.
130.
131.
132.
133.
134.
135.
136.
137.
138.
139.
140.
141.
142.
143.
144.
145.
146.
147.
148.
149.
150.
151.
152.
153.
154.
155.
156.
157.
158.
159.
160.
161.
162.
163.
164.
165.
166.
167.
168.
169.
170.

B
D
D
B
D
B
D
B
D
D
B
A
B
B
C
B
D
B
D
B
C
C
C
C
D
B
C
D
C
D
A
D
D
C
B
C
D
B
A
A
D
C
B