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A)

B)
C)
D)

1.The text defines personality as


the set of personal attitudes that characterizes a person.
an individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting.
a predictable set of responses to environmental stimuli.
an unpredictable set of responses to environmental stimuli.

A)
B)
C)
D)

2.Which of the following places the greatest emphasis on the unconscious mind?
the humanistic perspective
the social-cognitive perspective
the trait perspective
the psychoanalytic perspective

A)
B)
C)
D)

3.Which of the following is the correct order of psychosexual stages proposed by Freud?
oral; anal; phallic; latency; genital
anal; oral; phallic; latency; genital
oral; anal; genital; latency; phallic
anal; oral; genital; latency; phallic

A)
B)
C)
D)

4.According to Freud, defense mechanisms are methods of reducing


anger.
fear.
anxiety.
lust.

A)
B)
C)
D)

5.Neo-Freudians such as Adler and Horney believed that


Freud placed too great an emphasis on the conscious mind.
Freud placed too great an emphasis on sexual and aggressive instincts.
the years of childhood were more important in the formation of personality than
Freud had indicated.
Freud's ideas about the id, ego, and superego as personality structures were
incorrect.

A)
B)
C)
D)

6.Research on locus of control indicates that internals are ________ than externals.
more dependent
more intelligent
better able to cope with stress
more sociable

A)
B)
C)

7.Which two dimensions of personality have the Eysencks emphasized?


extraversionintroversion and emotional stabilityinstability
internalexternal locus of control and extraversionintroversion
internalexternal locus of control and emotional stabilityinstability
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D)

A)
B)
C)
D)

A)
B)
C)
D)

A)
B)
C)
D)

A)
B)
C)
D)

melancholicphlegmatic and cholericsanguine


8.With regard to personality, it appears that
there is little consistency of behavior from one situation to the next and little
consistency of traits over the life span.
there is little consistency of behavior from one situation to the next but significant
consistency of traits over the life span.
there is significant consistency of behavior from one situation to the next but little
consistency of traits over the life span.
there is significant consistency of behavior from one situation to the next and
significant consistency of traits over the life span.
9.Humanistic theories of personality
emphasize the driving force of unconscious motivations in personality.
emphasize the growth of potential of healthy individuals.
emphasize the importance of interaction with the environment in shaping
personality.
describe personality in terms of scores on various personality scales.
10.According to Rogers, three conditions are necessary to promote growth in personality.
These are
honesty, sincerity, and empathy.
high self-esteem, honesty, and empathy.
high self-esteem, genuineness, and acceptance.
genuineness, acceptance, and empathy.
11.Regarding high self-esteem, psychologists who study the self have found that selfaffirming thinking
is generally maladaptive to the individual because it distorts reality by overinflating
self-esteem.
is generally adaptive to the individual because it reduces shyness, anxiety, and
loneliness.
tends to prevent the individual from viewing others with compassion and
understanding.
tends not to characterize people who have experienced unconditional positive
regard.

12.Which of Freud's ideas would NOT be accepted by most contemporary psychologists?


A)
Development is essentially fixed in childhood.
B)
Sexuality is a potent drive in humans.
C)
The mind is an iceberg with consciousness being only the tip.

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D)

Repression can be the cause of forgetting.

A)
B)
C)
D)

13.Projective tests such as the Rorschach inkblot test have been criticized because
their scoring system is too rigid and leads to unfair labeling.
they were standardized with unrepresentative samples.
they have low reliability and low validity.
it is easy for people to fake answers in order to appear healthy.

A)
B)
C)
D)

14.A major criticism of trait theory is that it


places too great an emphasis on early childhood experiences.
overestimates the consistency of behavior in different situations.
underestimates the importance of heredity in personality development.
places too great an emphasis on positive traits.

A)
B)
C)
D)

15.For humanistic psychologists, many of our behaviors and perceptions are ultimately
shaped by whether our ________ is ________ or ________.
ego; strong; weak
locus of control; internal; external
personality structure; introverted; extraverted
self-concept; positive; negative

A)
B)
C)
D)

16.In studying personality, a trait theorist would most likely


use a projective test.
observe a person in a variety of situations.
use a personality inventory.
use the method of free association.

A)
B)
C)
D)

17.Id is to ego as ________ is to ________.


reality principle; pleasure principle
pleasure principle; reality principle
conscious forces; unconscious forces
conscience; personality executive

A)
B)
C)
D)

18.Which of the following is the major criticism of the social-cognitive perspective?


It focuses too much on early childhood experiences.
It focuses too little on the inner traits of a person.
It provides descriptions but not explanations.
It lacks appropriate assessment techniques.

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A)
B)
C)
D)

19.Recent research has provided more support for defense mechanisms such as ________
than for defense mechanisms such as ________.
displacement; reaction formation
reaction formation; displacement
displacement; regression
displacement; projection

A)
B)
C)
D)

20.Some contemporary researchers are focusing their work on


basic dimensions of personality.
promoting positive aspects of life.
classic theories of behavior.
negative states.

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Answer Key
1.B
2.D
3.A
4.C
5.B
6.C
7.A
8.B
9.B
10.D
11.B
12.A
13.C
14.B
15.D
16.C
17.B
18.B
19.B
20.B

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