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A)

B)
C)
D)

1.An individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting is his or her
self-esteem.
personality.
reality principle.
hierarchy of needs.

A)
B)
C)
D)

2.The concept of personality most clearly embodies the notion of


moral integrity.
self-consciousness.
behavioral consistency.
self-actualization.

A)
B)
C)
D)

3.Mary enjoys socializing with friends and talking with them on her cell phone. Eileen
prefers quiet times by herself when she can reflect on her own thoughts. The
characteristics of Mary and Eileen indicate that each has a distinctive
fixation.
personality.
attributional style.
collective unconscious.

A)
B)
C)
D)

4.The importance of unconscious conflicts and childhood experiences is of most central


importance to
humanistic theories.
psychodynamic theories.
social-cognitive theories.
trait theories.

A)
B)
C)
D)

5.Psychodynamic theories emphasize that personality involves a dynamic interaction


between
persons and situations.
conditioning and observational learning.
conscious and unconscious mental processes.
unconditional positive regard and self-actualization.

A)
B)
C)
D)

6.By professional training, Freud was a


philosopher.
sociologist.
physician.
literary scholar.
7.Freud became interested in unconscious personality dynamics when he noticed that
certain patients' symptoms
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A)
B)
C)
D)

resulted from the physical abuse they received from their parents during childhood.
reflected an internal locus of control.
illustrated a reciprocal determinism.
made no neurological sense.

A)
B)
C)
D)

8.Freud believed that certain troubling symptoms could be traced to painful unconscious
memories. This led him to suspect that these symptoms resulted from
genetic defects.
an inferiority complex.
psychological processes.
an internal locus of control.

A)
B)
C)
D)

9.Psychoanalysis refers to the personality theory and therapeutic practices developed by


Carl Rogers.
Gordon Allport.
Sigmund Freud.
Albert Bandura.

A)
B)
C)
D)

10.Reporting whatever thoughts come to mind even if they are trivial or embarrassing is
characteristic of
defense mechanisms.
the spotlight effect.
free association.
self-serving bias.

A)
B)
C)
D)

11.Free association is central to the process of


factor analysis.
self-serving bias.
psychoanalysis.
reciprocal determinism.

A)
B)
C)
D)

12.A psychotherapist instructs Dane to relax, close his eyes, and state aloud whatever
thoughts come to mind no matter how trivial or absurd. The therapist is using a technique
known as
fixation.
free association.
factor analysis.
hypnosis.
13.Forgotten memories that we can easily recall were said by Freud to be

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A)
B)
C)
D)

displaced.
preconscious.
fixated.
unconscious.

A)
B)
C)
D)

14.According to Freud, the unconscious is


the part of personality that cannot process information.
the thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories, of which we are largely unaware.
a set of universal concepts acquired by all humans from our common past.
a reservoir of deeply repressed memories that does not affect behavior.

A)
B)
C)
D)

15.Which of the following techniques did Freud use to discover the latent content of his
patients' dreams?
fixation
factor analysis
projective testing
free association

A)
B)
C)
D)

16.Freud believed that ________ are the royal road to the unconscious.
projective tests
dreams
erogenous zones
psychosexual stages

A)
B)
C)
D)

17.Freud suggested that the remembered events and images in our dreams were a censored
expression of the dream's
psychosexual stages.
latent content.
reality principle.
collective unconscious.

A)
B)
C)
D)

18.Matt reported a dream in which he repeatedly fell off a horse. His therapist suggested that
his dream reflected Matt's mixed feelings of affection and resentment toward his own
father. According to Freud, the therapist was attempting to reveal the dream's
factor analysis.
latent content.
erogenous zone.
psychosexual stage.
19.According to psychoanalytic theory, the part of the personality that strives for immediate

Page 3

A)
B)
C)
D)

gratification of basic drives is the


id.
ego.
superego.
erogenous zones.

A)
B)
C)
D)

20.When 2-year-old Matthew was told he would get no dessert until he finished the food on
his plate, he threw his plate on the floor in a temper tantrum. Freud would have suggested
that Matthew was unable to resist the demands of his
superego.
ego.
id.
Oedipus complex.

A)
B)
C)
D)

21.Freud emphasized that the id operates on the ________ principle.


self-transcendence
collectivism
identity
pleasure

A)
B)
C)
D)

22.Ego is to id as ________ is to ________.


unconscious; conscious
biology; morality
reality principle; pleasure principle
regression; repression

A)
B)
C)
D)

23.According to Freud, the component of personality that seeks to reconcile the demands of
the id, superego, and reality is the
collective unconscious.
Oedipus complex.
erogenous zone.
ego.

A)
B)
C)
D)

24.When 16-year-old Hafez received a large inheritance from his grandfather, he was
tempted to purchase an expensive new car. He decided, instead, to deposit all the money
into a savings account for his college education. Hafez shows signs of a
weak superego.
weak id.
strong collective unconscious.
strong ego.

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A)
B)
C)
D)

25.According to Freud, the part of personality that represents our sense of right and wrong
and our ideal standards is the
Oedipus complex.
ego.
id.
superego.

A)
B)
C)
D)

26.Janine is repulsed by the thought of watching a pornographic video. Freud would have
attributed these feelings to Janine's
ego.
id.
superego.
inferiority complex.

A)
B)
C)
D)

27.No matter how long and hard Lerae studies, she always feels she hasn't studied as much
as she should have. A Freudian psychologist would suggest that Lerae shows signs of a
weak id.
weak ego.
strong id.
strong superego.

A)
B)
C)
D)

28.Freud referred to the largely conscious executive part of the personality as the
Oedipus complex.
superego.
ego.
id.

A)
B)
C)
D)

29.Bruce wants to be a loving husband but at the same time wants to express his disgust for
some of his wife's habits. According to Freud, Bruce's ________ might enable him to
partially satisfy both desires.
self-transcendence
superego
Oedipus complex
ego

30.Freud suggested that the id's pleasure-seeking energies focus on distinct pleasuresensitive areas of the body known as
A)
psychosexual stages.
B)
the Big Five.
C)
erogenous zones.

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D)

Oedipus complexes.

A)
B)
C)
D)

31.Two-year-old Damien frequently refuses to obey his parents because he derives immense
pleasure from demonstrating his independence from their control. Freud would have
suggested that Damien is going through the ________ stage of development.
phallic
anal
latency
oral

A)
B)
C)
D)

32.According to Freud, boys are most likely to experience the Oedipus complex during the
________ stage.
anal
phallic
oral
latency

A)
B)
C)
D)

33.The Oedipus complex is the term used by Freud to describe


the erogenous zones that are the focus of the latency stage.
the passive dependence of someone who is orally fixated.
children's efforts to overcome feelings of inferiority.
boys' feelings of guilt and fear of punishment over their sexual desire for their
mother.

A)
B)
C)
D)

34.One night after he heard his parents arguing, 4-year-old Wei had a vivid dream in which
he saved his mother from being bitten by a large snake. A psychoanalyst would most
likely suspect that Wei's dream reflects a(n)
oral fixation.
reaction formation.
self-serving bias.
Oedipus complex.

A)
B)
C)
D)

35.Some psychoanalysts in Freud's era believed that girls experienced unconscious sexual
desires for their father during the phallic stage. These feelings, they thought, reflected
self-actualization.
an Electra complex.
the spotlight effect.
unconditional positive regard.
36.Freud suggested that a boy's identification with his father during the phallic stage

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A)
B)
C)
D)

illustrates the process of


unconditional positive regard.
self-transcendence.
free association.
conflict resolution.

A)
B)
C)
D)

37.Freud suggested that the process of identification is most directly responsible for
strengthening
the Oedipus complex.
free association.
the superego.
erogenous zones.

A)
B)
C)
D)

38.Which theory would most likely predict that boys raised without a father figure will have
difficulty developing a strongly masculine gender identity?
Allport's trait theory
Maslow's humanistic theory
Bandura's social-cognitive theory
Freud's psychoanalytic theory

A)
B)
C)
D)

39.Gender identity refers to


our biological sex.
the sense of being male or female.
the set of socially expected behaviors for males and females.
internalized ideals for appropriate sexual behavior.

A)
B)
C)
D)

40.Gene spends a good deal of time bragging about his numerous sexual exploits. Freud
would have suggested that Gene is fixated at the ________ stage.
oral
latency
phallic
anal

A)
B)
C)
D)

41.Freud referred to a lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual


stage as
projection.
fixation.
displacement.
repression.

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A)
B)
C)
D)

42.Freud suggested that orally fixated adults are especially likely to exhibit
passive dependence.
an inferiority complex.
an Electra complex.
the spotlight effect.

A)
B)
C)
D)

43.According to Freud, an adult who exhibits biting sarcasm and an exaggerated denial of
his or her dependence on others shows signs of a(n)
free association.
unconditional positive regard
self-transcendence.
fixation.

A)
B)
C)
D)

44.Arjean's opinions are so dependent on what her friends think that she will swallow just
about anything they tell her. Freud would have suggested that Arjean demonstrates a
fixation.
free association.
reaction formation.
collective unconscious.

A)
B)
C)
D)

45.Freud suggested that defense mechanisms protect an individual from


anxiety.
self-serving bias.
self-transcendence.
unconditional positive regard.

A)
B)
C)
D)

46.According to Freud, defense mechanisms are used by the


id to defend against the accusations and guilt feelings produced by the superego.
ego to prevent threatening impulses from being consciously recognized.
superego to prevent expression of sexual and aggressive drives.
id, ego, and superego in a repetitive sequence of internal conflicts.

47.Repression refers to the defense mechanism by which people


offer self-justifying explanations in place of the real but threatening unconscious
reasons for action.
B)
retreat to behavior patterns characteristic of a more infantile stage of development.
C)
disguise threatening impulses by attributing them to others.
D)
banish anxiety-arousing thoughts from consciousness.
A)

48.When she was 8 years old, Inge was sexually abused by her uncle. At 14, Inge felt

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A)
B)
C)
D)

A)
B)
C)
D)

uncomfortable whenever she saw this uncle but was unable to understand why she felt
this way. A psychoanalyst would be most likely to suggest that Inge is using the defense
mechanism of
repression.
rationalization.
regression.
displacement.
49.Freud suggested that slips of the tongue illustrate an incomplete
fixation.
displacement.
rationalization.
repression.

50.Regression is a defense mechanism that involves


consciously expressing feelings that are the opposite of underlying unconscious
impulses.
B)
disguising threatening impulses by attributing them to others.
C)
retreating to a more infantile psychosexual stage.
D)
shifting sexual or aggressive impulses toward less threatening targets.
A)

A)
B)
C)
D)

51.Freud would have suggested that an excessive fixation is most likely to contribute to
regression.
learned helplessness.
reciprocal determinism.
self-serving bias.

A)
B)
C)
D)

52.Four-year-old Timmy had not wet his bed for over a year. However, he started bedwetting again soon after his sister was born. Timmy's behavior best illustrates
reaction formation.
projection.
regression.
denial.

53.Reaction formation refers to the process by which people


disguise unacceptable unconscious impulses by attributing them to others.
consciously express feelings that are the opposite of unacceptable unconscious
impulses.
C)
retreat to behavior patterns characteristic of a more infantile stage of development.
D)
offer self-justifying explanations in place of the real but unacceptable unconscious
reasons for action.
A)
B)

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A)
B)
C)
D)

54.Parents who disguise hostility toward their children by becoming overly protective of
them are very likely using the defense mechanism of
projection.
regression.
rationalization.
reaction formation.

A)
B)
C)
D)

55.The defense mechanism by which people disguise threatening impulses by attributing


them to others is called
projection.
displacement.
fixation.
reaction formation.

A)
B)
C)
D)

56.Abdul mistakenly believes that his classmates are unusually hostile. In fact, Abdul is the
most quarrelsome and aggressive child in the school. According to psychoanalytic theory,
Abdul's belief that his classmates are hostile is a
regression.
projection.
denial.
reaction formation.

A)
B)
C)
D)

57.Mrs. Smith, who is White and unconsciously in favor of racial segregation, tells her
friends that most Blacks prefer to live in residential neighborhoods inhabited
predominantly by Blacks. According to psychoanalytic theory, Mrs. Smith best illustrates
reaction formation.
projection.
displacement.
regression.

A)
B)
C)
D)

58.The defense mechanism in which self-justifying explanations replace the real,


unconscious reasons for actions is
projection.
denial.
rationalization.
displacement.
59.Melissa is unconsciously fearful that her husband is a better cook than she. Recently, she
refused his offer to prepare dinner because, said she, You could better spend the time

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A)
B)
C)
D)

playing with our kids. Melissa's comment best illustrates


projection.
rationalization.
displacement.
reaction formation.

A)
B)
C)
D)

60.While Professor Gomez was going through a painful divorce, he tended to create
unnecessarily difficult tests and gave his students unusually low grades. A psychoanalyst
would be most likely to view the professor's treatment of students as an example of
reaction formation.
displacement.
projection.
regression.

A)
B)
C)
D)

61.Children who release unexpressed anger toward their parents by kicking the family pet
illustrate the defense mechanism of
projection.
displacement.
regression.
reaction formation.

A)
B)
C)
D)

62.Refusing to believe or even to perceive painful realities constitutes the defense


mechanism known as
regression.
denial.
displacement.
projection.

A)
B)
C)
D)

63.A refusal to believe direct and highly credible evidence that your spouse is suffering a
terminal illness best illustrates
denial.
displacement.
fixation.
projection.

A)
B)
C)
D)

64.Neo-Freudian personality theorists were most likely to disagree with Freud about the
importance of
the unconscious dynamics underlying behavior.
childhood sexual instincts.
anxiety and defense mechanisms.
distinguishing between id, ego, and superego.

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A)
B)
C)
D)

65.Alfred Adler was a neo-Freudian who proposed the concept


oral fixation.
reciprocal determinism.
inferiority complex.
unconditional positive regard.

A)
B)
C)
D)

66.Hasina was an abused child; as an adult, she is homeless and squanders any money she
can find on alcohol. Alfred Adler would have suggested that Hasina suffers from
an Electra complex.
the spotlight effect.
an inferiority complex.
the Barnum effect.

A)
B)
C)
D)

67.Karen Horney, a prominent neo-Freudian, disputed Freud's assumption that women


have weak superegos.
perceive an internal locus of control.
have stronger sexual instincts than men.
never experience a phallic stage of development.

A)
B)
C)
D)

68.Carl Jung referred to a shared reservoir of memory traces from our species history as the
self-reference phenomenon.
defense mechanism.
collective unconscious.
psychosexual stages.

A)
B)
C)
D)

69.Carl Jung believed that the collective unconscious contains ________ derived from our
species' universal experiences.
archetypes
free associations
defense mechanisms
erogenous zones

A)
B)
C)
D)

70.Which neo-Freudian theorist emphasized the influence of the collective unconscious in


personality development?
Carl Jung
Alfred Adler
Karen Horney
Abraham Maslow

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A)
B)
C)
D)

71.Contemporary psychodynamic theorists are most likely to disagree with Freud's


assumption that
much of our mental functioning is unconscious.
people often struggle with conflicting wishes.
childhood experiences influence our adulthood relationships.
sexual drives are central to personality development.

A)
B)
C)
D)

72.Contemporary psychodynamic theorists assume that childhood experiences have longterm consequences for our
Electra complex.
collective unconscious.
social attachment styles.
erogenous zones.

A)
B)
C)
D)

73.Projective tests are most closely associated with ________ theories.


social-cognitive
psychodynamic
humanistic
trait

A)
B)
C)
D)

74.Mr. Dutoit was asked by his psychotherapist to look at some ambiguous pictures and
make up a story about each. Mr. Dutoit was most likely completing
a projective test.
the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire.
the MMPI.
the Free Association Index.

A)
B)
C)
D)

75.The famous test introduced by Hermann Rorschach asks test-takers to respond to


frightening pictures.
ambiguous stories.
meaningless inkblots.
incomplete sentences.

A)
B)
C)
D)

76.The major reason for criticism of the Rorschach test is that


no computer-aided tool has been designed to facilitate scoring of the test.
only a few of the many Rorschach-derived scores have demonstrated validity.
the test discourages individuals from communicating openly in clinical interviews.
the test can be used effectively only with individuals who are severely maladjusted.

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A)
B)
C)
D)

77.Rorschach inkblot test results diagnose many normal adults as disordered. This indicates
that the test has little
self-serving bias.
factor analysis.
genuineness.
validity.

78.Contemporary psychologists are LEAST likely to agree with Freud's belief that
conscience and gender identity form during the process of resolving the Oedipus
complex.
B)
conscious awareness of our own mental processes is very limited.
C)
memories are often distorted and incomplete.
D)
defense mechanisms help protect individuals from anxiety.
A)

A)
B)
C)
D)

79.According to some scholars, Freud thought that stories of childhood sexual abuse
reported by his adult female patients reflected their
self-transcendence.
inferiority complexes.
childhood sexual wishes.
reciprocal determinism.

C)
D)

80.Freud's theory of personality has been criticized because it


underestimates the importance of biological contributions to personality
development.
is contradicted by recent research demonstrating the human capacity for destructive
behavior.
is overly reliant upon observations derived from Freud's use of projective tests.
offers few testable hypotheses that allow one to determine its validity.

A)
B)
C)
D)

81.Freud emphasized that emotional healing is associated with the


fixation of repressed sexual desires.
projection of repressed fears.
recovery of repressed wishes.
displacement of repressed hostilities.

A)
B)
C)
D)

82.Survivors' vivid memories of Nazi death camp experiences most clearly challenge Freud's
concept of
fixation.
repression.
the Oedipus complex.
motivational conflict.

A)
B)

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A)
B)
C)
D)

83.Compared with Freud, contemporary research psychologists are LESS likely to think of
unconscious mental dynamics as involving
parallel processing.
repressive censoring.
implicit memory.
right hemisphere activity.

A)
B)
C)
D)

84.Subliminal stimuli can briefly prime our responses to subsequent events. This best
illustrates the importance of
factor analysis.
the Barnum effect.
unconscious thought.
the spotlight effect.

A)
B)
C)
D)

85.Right-hemisphere activity enables a split-brain patient's left hand to carry out instructions
the patient cannot verbalize. This best illustrates the importance of
self-serving bias.
unconscious thought.
self-transcendence.
the false consensus effect.

A)
B)
C)
D)

86.People who break speed limits tend to think that many others do the same. This best
illustrates
the spotlight effect.
self-transcendence.
the false consensus effect.
unconditional positive regard.

A)
B)
C)
D)

87.Freud's concept of projection is most similar to what today's researchers call the
spotlight effect.
false consensus effect.
inferiority complex.
Barnum effect.

A)
B)
C)
D)

88.Terror-management theory emphasizes that anxiety is triggered by an awareness of one's


impending death.
erogenous zones.
reciprocal determinism.
unconditional positive regard.

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A)
B)
C)
D)

89.According to terror-management theory, anxiety about our own mortality motivates us to


enhance our
self-esteem.
parallel processing.
reciprocal determinism.
external locus of control.

A)
B)
C)
D)

90.The humanistic perspective emphasized the importance of


projective tests.
self-determination.
reciprocal determinism.
factor analysis.

A)
B)
C)
D)

91.Maslow placed ________ at the base of his hierarchy of needs.


cognitive needs
social needs
bodily needs
spiritual needs

A)
B)
C)
D)

92.Abraham Maslow suggested that those who fulfill their potential have satisfied the need
for
reciprocal determinism.
an external locus of control.
self-actualization.
unconditional positive regard.

A)
B)
C)
D)

93.Jin is searching for a sense of purpose in life that goes beyond fulfilling her own potential
for growth and self-actualization. According to Maslow, Jin is striving for
identification.
self-transcendence.
free association.
reciprocal determinism.

A)
B)
C)
D)

94.Abraham Maslow studied the lives of people such as Abraham Lincoln in order to
understand the nature of
reciprocal determinism.
an internal locus of control.
self-actualization.
the false consensus effect.

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A)
B)
C)
D)

95.Self-actualized people, as described by Maslow, are LEAST likely to be highly


compassionate.
religious.
conforming.
self-accepting.

A)
B)
C)
D)

96.Which theorist emphasized that an individual's personal growth is promoted by


interactions with others who are genuine, accepting, and empathic?
Gordon Allport
Carl Rogers
Sigmund Freud
Albert Bandura

A)
B)
C)
D)

97.According to Carl Rogers, people who are self-disclosing and open with their own
feelings are demonstrating
free association.
the spotlight effect.
identification.
genuiness.

A)
B)
C)
D)

98.Carl Rogers referred to an attitude of total acceptance toward another person as


the spotlight effect.
unconditional positive regard.
self-actualization.
free association.

A)
B)
C)
D)

99.Mrs. Sunstedt believes that parents should accept and try to understand their children's
feelings and should honestly disclose their own inner feelings to their children. Her
approach to parent-child interaction was most explicitly recommended by
Albert Bandura.
Gordon Allport.
Carl Rogers.
Carl Jung.

A)
B)
C)
D)

100.Carl Rogers suggested that the ________ is a central feature of personality.


collective unconscious
inferiority complex
Barnum effect
self-concept

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101.Carl Rogers would have suggested that many of the defense mechanisms described by
Freud are used to minimize the perceived discrepancy between
A)
manifest content and latent content.
B)
the collective unconscious and the personal unconscious.
C)
the actual self and the ideal self.
D)
an internal locus of control and an external locus of control.
102.Which psychologists are most likely to criticize standardized personality tests for failing
to capture the unique subjective experience of the individual personality?
A)
psychoanalytic theorists
B)
trait theorists
C)
social-cognitive theorists
D)
humanistic theorists
103.Which of the following have been criticized the most for offering concepts that are vague
and subjective?
A)
trait theorists
B)
humanistic theorists
C)
social-cognitive theorists
D)
terror-management theorists
104.Maslow's description of self-actualized individuals was said to reflect his own personal
values because he
A)
selectively studied people with qualities he admired.
B)
interpreted their flattering self-descriptions as a self-serving bias.
C)
overemphasized the value of their loyalty to cultural norms.
D)
used projective tests to assess their motives.
105.Humanistic psychologists would most likely be criticized for underestimating the value
of
A)
an internal locus of control.
B)
self-serving bias.
C)
social obligations.
D)
the spotlight effect.
106.Humanistic theorists have been criticized for
A)
overestimating the impact of childhood experiences on adult personality.
B)
underestimating the inconsistency of behavior from one situation to another.
C)
overestimating the degree of similarity among people.

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D)

underestimating the inherent human capacity for destructive and evil behaviors.

A)
B)
C)
D)

107.Freud is to psychoanalytic theory as Allport is to ________ theory.


behavioral
humanistic
trait
social-cognitive

A)
B)
C)
D)

108.A characteristic pattern of behavior or tendency to act and feel in a certain way is called a
self-concept.
fixation.
projection.
trait.

A)
B)
C)
D)

109.A consistent tendency to be shy is best described as a(n)


trait.
projection.
Oedipus complex.
false consensus effect.

110.Trait theorists are more concerned with ________ personality than with ________ it.
A)
predicting; assessing
B)
describing; explaining
C)
changing; analyzing
D)
interpreting; observing
111.The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator classifies people according to personality types
identified by
A)
Gordon Allport.
B)
Carl Jung.
C)
Albert Bandura.
D)
Carl Rogers.
112.The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator labels a person who is sympathetic, appreciative, and
tactful as a(n) ________ type.
A)
thinking
B)
judging
C)
feeling
D)
intuitive

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A)
B)
C)
D)

113.Factor analysis has been used to identify the most basic


self-serving biases.
defense mechanisms.
personality traits.
psychosexual stages.

114.Which of the following is a basic personality factor assessed by Eysenck Personality


Questionnaire?
A)
emotional stability.
B)
self-transcendence.
C)
individualism.
D)
repression.
115.Coretta is quiet, pessimistic, anxious, and moody. In terms of the Eysencks' basic
personality dimensions she would be classified as
A)
unstableintroverted.
B)
manicdepressive.
C)
externaldependent.
D)
passiveaggressive.
116.The Eysencks believed that extraversion and emotionality are
A)
psychosexual stages.
B)
reciprocal determinants.
C)
genetically influenced.
D)
aspects of self-esteem.
117.A frontal lobe area involved in ________ is ________ active in extraverts than in
introverts.
A)
restraining behavior; less
B)
addictive cravings; more
C)
empathy; less
D)
aggression; more

A)
B)
C)
D)

118.People respond to stress with greater anxiety if they have


a weak superego.
an internal locus of control.
unconditional positive regard.
a reactive autonomic nervous system.

Page 20

119.By selective breeding, researchers can produce bold or shy birds. This best illustrates that
some personality differences among birds are
A)
fixations.
B)
empirically derived.
C)
genetically influenced.
D)
defense mechanisms.

A)
B)
C)
D)

120.Personality inventories are designed to assess several ________ at once.


possible selves
defense mechanisms
attributional styles
traits

121.The MMPI is an example of a(n)


A)
projective test.
B)
personality inventory.
C)
inkblot test.
D)
self-esteem test.
122.Which of the following tests was empirically derived?
A)
Free Association Index
B)
Rorschach inkblot test
C)
MMPI
D)
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
123.A personality inventory that utilizes only those items that have been shown to
differentiate particular groups of people is a(n) ________ test.
A)
factor analytic
B)
self-report
C)
projective
D)
empirically derived
124.Dr. Zytowics wants to assess the extent to which a client is suffering from depression,
social withdrawal, and other symptoms of an emotional disorder. Which personality
inventory would be most helpful for this purpose?
A)
MMPI
B)
Rorschach
C)
Free Association Index
D)
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator

Page 21

125.People who take personality inventories can lie in order to create a good impression. This
best illustrates that the objectivity in scoring personality inventories does not guarantee
that they
A)
have validity.
B)
are empirically derived.
C)
assess several different traits.
D)
have been subjected to factor analysis.
126.The tendency to accept favorable descriptions of one's personality that could really be
applied to almost anyone is known as
A)
the Barnum effect.
B)
projection.
C)
the spotlight effect.
D)
unconditional positive regard.
127.Frida was informed by a professional palm reader: You generally communicate openly
with others, but you have certain dark secrets that even your closest friends could never
guess. The fact that Frida was impressed by the palm reader's insight into her personality
best illustrates
A)
the false consensus effect.
B)
the Barnum effect.
C)
the spotlight effect.
D)
an external locus of control.
128.Assessing an individual's standing on the Big Five today has the advantage of providing a
________ personality description.
A)
fixated
B)
flattering
C)
psychosexual
D)
comprehensive
129.The Big Five trait dimensions were identified by means of
A)
the MMPI.
B)
free association.
C)
projective tests.
D)
factor analysis.
130.A person who is careless and disorganized most clearly ranks low on the Big Five trait
dimension of
A)
neuroticism.
B)
extraversion.

Page 22

C)
D)

openness.
conscientiousness.

131.Emotional instability is most closely related to the Big Five trait dimension of
A)
openness.
B)
neuroticism.
C)
agreeableness.
D)
conscientiousness.
132.Being highly imaginative is most closely related to the Big Five trait dimension of
A)
extraversion.
B)
openness.
C)
neuroticism.
D)
conscientiousness.
133.Sheryl is very outgoing and fun-loving. She prefers to be around other people most of the
time. She most clearly ranks high on the Big Five trait dimension known as
A)
openness.
B)
collectivism.
C)
extraversion.
D)
conscientiousness.

A)
B)
C)
D)

134.People are especially likely to demonstrate an increase in ________ during their twenties.
conscientiousness
extraversion
openness
emotional instability

135.Heritability generally runs about ________ percent or a tad bit more for each of the Big
Five trait dimensions.
A)
25
B)
50
C)
75
D)
90
136.Researchers have identified brain areas associated with various Big Five traits. A frontal
lobe area that is sensitive to reward has been found to be larger among those who are high
in
A)
conscientiousness.
B)
agreeableness.

Page 23

C)
D)

openness.
extraversion.

137.People who score high on the Big Five trait dimension known as ________ are also more
likely to earn better high school and university grades.
A)
extraversion
B)
neuroticism
C)
agreeableness
D)
conscientiousness
138.The use of positive emotion words in text messaging is best predicted by the Big Five
trait of
A)
openness.
B)
extraversion.
C)
agreeableness.
D)
conscientiousness.
139.The person-situation controversy involves a debate regarding the influence of ________
and ________ on behavior.
A)
self-concept; self-esteem
B)
optimism; pessimism
C)
environments; traits
D)
the real self; the ideal self
140.Arguments as to whether people's behavior is more strongly influenced by temporary
external influences or by enduring inner influences best characterize the
A)
psychoanalytic perspective.
B)
person-situation controversy.
C)
self-serving bias.
D)
biopsychosocial approach.
141.Which theorists have been most directly criticized for underestimating the variability of
behavior from situation to situation?
A)
social-cognitive
B)
psychoanalytic
C)
humanistic
D)
trait
142.Studies of college students' conscientiousness revealed only a modest relationship
between a student being conscientious on one occasion and being similarly conscientious

Page 24

A)
B)
C)
D)

on another occasion. This should make psychologists more cautious about overestimating
the impact of ________ on behavior.
repression
personality traits
reciprocal determinism
unconditional positive regard

143.Sheen is usually animated and talkative when he is with his girlfriend, but he is often
quiet and reserved at home. He actively participates in many class discussions but
frequently seems reluctant to talk with friends at the campus coffee shop. Sheen's
behavior should make us more cautious about overemphasizing the impact of ________
on behavior.
A)
personality traits
B)
self-actualization
C)
reciprocal determinism
D)
defense mechanisms
144.People's scores on a test of agreeableness are ________ predictors of how agreeable they
will act in one particular situation. Their scores are ________ predictors of how agreeable
they will act on average over many different situations.
A)
poor; poor
B)
good; good
C)
poor; good
D)
good; poor
145.People's scores on a test of extraversion are likely to be most strongly correlated with the
number of social conversations they initiate during the course of a single
A)
hour.
B)
day.
C)
week.
D)
month.
146.Unlike country, pop, and religious music lovers, those who prefer classical, jazz, blues,
and folk music tend to score high on the Big Five trait dimension known as
A)
extraversion.
B)
openness.
C)
neuroticism.
D)
conscientiousness.
147.Social cues are especially likely to influence our behavior in ______ settings, and
personality traits are especially likely to influence our behavior in ______ situations.

Page 25

A)
B)
C)
D)

A)
B)
C)
D)

unfamiliar; informal
unfamiliar; formal
familiar; formal
familiar; informal
148.The stability of personality traits is best illustrated by the consistency of
the false consensus effect.
reciprocal determinism.
expressive styles.
unconditional positive regard.

149.The social-cognitive perspective emphasizes the interactive influences of our traits and
our
A)
temperaments.
B)
situations.
C)
fixations.
D)
self-concepts.

A)
B)
C)
D)

150.The humanistic perspective is to Maslow as the social-cognitive perspective is to


Allport.
Rogers.
Adler.
Bandura.

151.Which perspective most clearly emphasizes that our personalities help create the
situations to which we react?
A)
the psychoanalytic perspective
B)
the social-cognitive perspective
C)
the humanistic perspective
D)
the trait perspective
152.According to Bandura, reciprocal determinism involves multidirectional influences
among
A)
thoughts, emotions, and actions.
B)
behaviors, internal personal factors, and environmental events.
C)
id, ego, and superego.
D)
self-concept, self-actualization, and self-transcendence.
153.Randy's substandard academic performance is both a result and a cause of his feelings of
academic inferiority. This best illustrates the importance of

Page 26

A)
B)
C)
D)

self-serving bias.
the Barnum effect.
reciprocal determinism.
the false consensus effect.

154.Because Mr. Maloney trusts his employees, he treats them kindly. His kindness leads
them to work diligently on his behalf, which in turn increases his trust in them. This
pattern of trust, kindness, diligence, and increasing trust illustrates what is meant by
A)
reaction formation.
B)
the spotlight effect.
C)
external locus of control.
D)
reciprocal determinism.
155.Because Greta is an extravert, she frequently goes to parties where she is encouraged to
laugh and socialize with her friends. Because Jim is an introvert, he frequently spends
weekends in the library where it's easy to quietly reflect and study. Greta and Jim best
illustrate what is meant by
A)
an external locus of control.
B)
reciprocal determinism.
C)
the self-serving bias.
D)
the Barnum effect.
156.Personality is fruitfully studied at multiple levels of analysis because people are best
understood as
A)
unconscious information processors.
B)
biopsychosocial organisms.
C)
demonstrating self-serving bias.
D)
possessing enduring traits.
157.An integrated understanding of Tara's consistent cheerfulness in terms of her supportive
peer relationships, her calm temperament, and her perceived internal locus of control best
illustrates
A)
factor analysis.
B)
self-serving bias.
C)
a biopsychosocial approach.
D)
a humanistic perspective.
158.The process by which people learn a sense of personal control or personal helplessness
has been most strongly emphasized by
A)
psychoanalytic theories.
B)
trait theories.

Page 27

C)
D)

humanistic theories.
social-cognitive theories.

159.The perception that our fate is determined by luck reflects


A)
reciprocal determinism.
B)
self-serving bias.
C)
an external locus of control.
D)
the spotlight effect.
160.Sasha believes that the questions on school tests are so unrelated to course work that
studying is useless. Sasha's belief most clearly illustrates
A)
reciprocal determinism.
B)
the false consensus effect.
C)
an external locus of control.
D)
the spotlight effect.
161.Laura fails to recognize any connection between her unsafe sexual practices and the
likelihood of contracting a sexually transmitted infection. Laura's lack of perceptiveness
best illustrates the dangers of
A)
free association.
B)
unconditional positive regard.
C)
the spotlight effect.
D)
an external locus of control.

A)
B)
C)
D)

162.Those who perceive an internal locus of control believe that


world events are largely controlled by a few powerful people.
an excess of personal freedom decreases life satisfaction.
individuals can influence their own outcomes in life.
self-control grows permanently weaker with exercise.

163.Emma believes that she will succeed in business if she works hard and carefully manages
her time. Her belief most clearly illustrates
A)
reciprocal determinism.
B)
unconditional positive regard.
C)
reaction formation.
D)
an internal locus of control.
164.Those with an internal locus of control act ________ independently and feel ________
depressed than those with an external locus of control.
A)
more; more

Page 28

B)
C)
D)

less; less
more; less
less; more

165.Compared with those who perceive an external locus of control, people who perceive an
internal locus of control are more likely to
A)
be introverted personalities.
B)
give others unconditional positive regard.
C)
conform to social pressure.
D)
cope effectively with stress.
166.The ability to delay short-term gratification for greater long-term rewards illustrates
A)
self-esteem.
B)
displacement.
C)
self-control.
D)
unconditional positive regard.
167.Resisting the temptation to eat chocolate chip cookies led research participants to
subsequently give up sooner than normal on efforts to complete a tedious task. This
illustrated that self-control weakens following
A)
an exertion of energy.
B)
free association.
C)
the spotlight effect.
D)
unconditional positive regard.
168.After expending willpower by stifling prejudice during laboratory tasks, research
participants were temporarily less
A)
hungry.
B)
aggressive.
C)
pessimistic.
D)
sexually restrained.
169.In the long run, people who practice self-regulation through physical exercise and timemanaged study programs experience an increase in
A)
unconditional positive regard.
B)
self-transcendence.
C)
the spotlight effect.
D)
self-control.
170.Learned helplessness is MOST likely to be associated with

Page 29

A)
B)
C)
D)

A)
B)
C)
D)

self-serving bias.
an external locus of control.
the false consensus effect.
unconditional positive regard.
171.Dogs strapped into a harness and given repeated and unavoidable shocks developed
a fixation.
a reaction formation.
learned helplessness.
the false consensus effect.

172.After experiencing inescapable brutalities as a prisoner in a Nazi concentration camp, Mr.


Sternberg became apathetic, stopped eating, and gave up all efforts to physically survive
the ordeal. Mr. Sternberg's reaction most clearly illustrates
A)
an inferiority complex.
B)
the spotlight effect.
C)
learned helplessness.
D)
an internal locus of control.
173.A notable improvement in morale was observed among nursing home patients who
experienced an enhanced sense of
A)
fixation.
B)
free association.
C)
personal control.
D)
factor analysis.
174.Compared with those who made a purchase choice from among 30 different brands of
jam or chocolate, those who chose from among just 6 brands expressed
A)
less self-esteem.
B)
more satisfaction with their choice.
C)
less unconditional positive regard.
D)
more learned helplessness.
175.When faced with an ever-increasing number of consumer product choices, people often
experience the discomfort of
A)
self-serving bias.
B)
the false consensus effect.
C)
information overload.
D)
the spotlight effect.

Page 30

176.Learned helplessness is most likely to promote


A)
unconditional positive regard.
B)
an internal locus of control.
C)
self-serving bias.
D)
pessimism.
177.The best indicator of a person's level of optimism is his or her
A)
ideal self.
B)
gender identity.
C)
attributional style.
D)
unconditional positive regard.
178.Which of the following terms is used to describe the study of 15 positive emotions,
desirable character traits, and enabling communities?
A)
self-actualization
B)
positive psychology
C)
a biopsychosocial perspective
D)
unconditioned positive regard
179.Martin Seligman's positive psychology differs from the humanistic perspective in that it
A)
denies humankind's capacity for evil.
B)
focuses more on a person's defense mechanisms.
C)
emphasizes the use of scientific methods.
D)
has less application to educational settings.
180.Compared with European-American students, Asian-American students express a
somewhat greater ________ about their future performance, which may help to explain
their impressive academic achievements.
A)
unconditional positive regard
B)
self-serving bias
C)
false consensus effect
D)
pessimism
181.Throughout a National Football League season, fans of all teams guessed on average
(across teams and weeks) that their own team stood about a 2 in 3 chance of winning
their next game. This best illustrated
A)
positive psychology.
B)
the spotlight effect.
C)
illusory optimism.
D)
an external locus of control.

Page 31

182.Some sexually active undergraduate women do not consistently use contraceptives


because they see themselves as less vulnerable to unwanted pregnancy than most other
undergraduate women. This best illustrates
A)
low self-esteem.
B)
displacement.
C)
the spotlight effect.
D)
unrealistic optimism.

A)
B)
C)
D)

183.Unrealistic optimism could best be described as a(n)


self-serving bias.
reaction formation.
fixation.
external locus of control.

A)
B)
C)
D)

184.Our ignorance of what we don't know helps to sustain


confidence in our own abilities.
a pessimistic attributional style.
learned helplessness.
an external locus of control.

185.In assessing candidates for spy missions during World War II, U.S. Army psychologists
subjected them to simulated undercover conditions. This best illustrates the use of an
assessment strategy favored by ________ theories.
A)
trait
B)
psychoanalytic
C)
social-cognitive
D)
humanistic
186.Social-cognitive psychologists suggest that the best way to predict a political candidate's
performance effectiveness after election is to assess that individual's
A)
current feelings of personal control.
B)
specific political goals for the future.
C)
general feelings of optimism about the future.
D)
past performance in situations involving similar responsibilities.
187.Social-cognitive theories are LEAST likely to be criticized for neglecting the importance
of
A)
environmental influences.
B)
unconscious motives.
C)
personality traits.

Page 32

D)

genetic influences.

188.Contemporary psychologists are most likely to consider ________ to be of pivotal


importance to personality.
A)
the superego
B)
unconditional positive regard
C)
the sense of self
D)
the collective unconscious
189.Larry studies diligently because he is haunted by an image of himself being unable to get
a job after graduation. Larry's diligence best illustrates the motivational impact of
A)
self-transcendence.
B)
unconditional positive regard.
C)
possible selves.
D)
the spotlight effect.
190.Overestimating the extent to which others notice and evaluate our appearance and
performance is called
A)
external locus of control.
B)
self-serving bias.
C)
the spotlight effect.
D)
fixation.
191.If we are nervous about our personal appearance after adopting a new hairstyle, we are
likely to ________ the extent to which others notice our nervousness and we are likely to
________ the extent to which they notice our new hairstyle.
A)
overestimate; underestimate
B)
underestimate; overestimate
C)
overestimate; overestimate
D)
underestimate; underestimate

A)
B)
C)
D)

192.Individuals with high self-esteem are more likely than those with low self-esteem to
work persistently at difficult tasks.
experience an external locus of control.
dismiss flattering descriptions of themselves as untrue.
underestimate the accuracy of their own beliefs.

A)
B)

193.A person whose self-esteem is momentarily threatened is especially likely to


demonstrate an independence from social pressure to conform.
criticize others.

Page 33

C)
D)

experience an internal locus of control.


be motivated by a desire for self-actualization.

194.Athletes often attribute their losses to bad officiating. This best illustrates
A)
learned helplessness.
B)
the spotlight effect.
C)
self-serving bias.
D)
the Barnum effect.
195.Research on self-perception indicates that most people
A)
feel more personally responsible for their failures than for their successes.
B)
view themselves very favorably in comparison to most others.
C)
underestimate the accuracy of their beliefs and judgments.
D)
are unrealistically pessimistic about their personal future.
196.Jacinda failed her last history midterm. Which of the following conclusions would be
most representative of a self-serving bias on Jacinda's part?
A)
I really didn't prepare well enough for that test.
B)
I wasn't concentrating as hard as I should have during the test.
C)
I lack ability in history.
D)
I think the test questions were ambiguous and confusing.
197.Although Rolf frequently cheats on classroom tests, he justifies his behavior by
erroneously thinking that most other students cheat even more than he does. His mistaken
belief best illustrates
A)
the spotlight effect.
B)
reaction formation.
C)
an external locus of control.
D)
self-serving bias.
198.In every one of the 53 countries surveyed, people typically expressed self-esteem above
the midpoint of the most widely used self-esteem scale. This best illustrates the
pervasiveness of
A)
extraversion.
B)
the spotlight effect.
C)
self-serving bias.
D)
an external locus of control.
199.Which of the following is MOST likely to be associated with high self-esteem?
A)
the spotlight effect

Page 34

B)
C)
D)

self-serving bias
an external locus of control
reciprocal determinism

200.Psychologist Jean Twenge refers to today's new generation as Generation Me because it


expresses high levels of
A)
openness.
B)
narcissism.
C)
free association.
D)
unconditional positive regard.
201.Narcissism refers to excessive
A)
self-transcendence.
B)
self-control.
C)
self-love.
D)
self-pity.
202.Narcissism is associated with
A)
less gambling and less cheating.
B)
less gambling and more cheating.
C)
more gambling and less cheating.
D)
more gambling and more cheating.
203.People are more critical of their ________ selves than of their ________ selves.
A)
past; current
B)
current; past
C)
possible; impossible
D)
impossible; possible
204.A person who experiences defensive self-esteem is ________ to demonstrate self-serving
bias and is ________ to feel angry when criticized.
A)
unlikely; likely
B)
likely; unlikely
C)
unlikely; unlikely
D)
likely; likely
205.Kelly loves to boast about her accomplishments and becomes very upset when anyone
criticizes her. Kelly most clearly demonstrates
A)
the spotlight effect.
B)
the false consensus effect.

Page 35

C)
D)

defensive self-esteem.
learned helplessness.

206.Accepting ourselves without undue dependence on the approval of others best illustrates
A)
reciprocal determinism.
B)
free association.
C)
positive psychology.
D)
secure self-esteem.

Page 36

Answer Key
1.B
2.C
3.B
4.B
5.C
6.C
7.D
8.C
9.C
10.C
11.C
12.B
13.B
14.B
15.D
16.B
17.B
18.B
19.A
20.C
21.D
22.C
23.D
24.D
25.D
26.C
27.D
28.C
29.D
30.C
31.B
32.B
33.D
34.D
35.B
36.D
37.C
38.D
39.B
40.C
41.B
42.A
43.D
44.A

Page 37

45.A
46.B
47.D
48.A
49.D
50.C
51.A
52.C
53.B
54.D
55.A
56.B
57.B
58.C
59.B
60.B
61.B
62.B
63.A
64.B
65.C
66.C
67.A
68.C
69.A
70.A
71.D
72.C
73.B
74.A
75.C
76.B
77.D
78.A
79.C
80.D
81.C
82.B
83.B
84.C
85.B
86.C
87.B
88.A
89.A
90.B

Page 38

91.C
92.C
93.B
94.C
95.C
96.B
97.D
98.B
99.C
100.D
101.C
102.D
103.B
104.A
105.C
106.D
107.C
108.D
109.A
110.B
111.B
112.C
113.C
114.A
115.A
116.C
117.A
118.D
119.C
120.D
121.B
122.C
123.D
124.A
125.A
126.A
127.B
128.D
129.D
130.D
131.B
132.B
133.C
134.A
135.B
136.D

Page 39

137.D
138.C
139.C
140.B
141.D
142.B
143.A
144.C
145.D
146.B
147.A
148.C
149.B
150.D
151.B
152.B
153.C
154.D
155.B
156.B
157.C
158.D
159.C
160.C
161.D
162.C
163.D
164.C
165.D
166.C
167.A
168.D
169.D
170.B
171.C
172.C
173.C
174.B
175.C
176.D
177.C
178.B
179.C
180.D
181.C
182.D

Page 40

183.A
184.A
185.C
186.D
187.A
188.C
189.C
190.C
191.C
192.A
193.B
194.C
195.B
196.D
197.D
198.C
199.B
200.B
201.C
202.D
203.A
204.D
205.C
206.D

Page 41