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A)

B)
C)
D)

1.Mental health workers label behavior as disordered when it


is aggressive, persistent, and intentional.
is selfish, habitual, and avoidable.
represents a significant dysfunction in a person's cognitions, emotions, or behaviors.
is biologically influenced, unconsciously motivated, and difficult to change.

A)
B)
C)
D)

2.Dysfunctional behaviors are maladaptive, which means that they


interfere with normal day-to-day life.
are socially unacceptable.
differ from those of most other people in your culture.
can result only from genetic changes.

A)
B)
C)
D)

3.Alexis is socially withdrawn and has few close friends. This behavior is most likely to be
diagnosed as a symptom of psychological disorder if it is
also noticeable in other members of her family.
preventing her from functioning effectively.
not caused by a biological disorder.
difficult for her to change.

A)
B)
C)
D)

4.Inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity are major symptoms of


OCD.
PTSD.
ADHD.
DID.

A)
B)
C)
D)

5.Larry has difficulty organizing his daily schedule of work responsibilities. He often
makes careless mistakes or fails to complete his work because he is easily distracted.
Larry's behavior is most characteristic of
social anxiety disorder.
attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.
generalized anxiety disorder.
obsessive-compulsive disorder.

A)
B)
C)
D)

6.ADHD is diagnosed ________ often in girls than in boys. In the decade after 1987, a(n)
________ proportion of American children have been treated for this disorder.
more; increasing
less; decreasing
more; decreasing
less; increasing
7.Which of the following disorders most often coexists with a learning disorder or with
defiant and temper-prone behavior?
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A)
B)
C)
D)

panic disorder
anorexia nervosa
obsessive-compulsive disorder
attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

A)
B)
C)
D)

8.Although Adderall is a ________ drug, it is commonly used in the treatment of


________.
stimulant; PTSD
stimulant; ADHD
depressant; PTSD
depressant; ADHD

A)
B)
C)
D)

9.The major problem associated with explanations of psychological disorders in terms of


demon possession is that these explanations
were relevant only to severe disorders such as schizophrenia.
encouraged many to believe there was no such thing as insanity.
led to some harsh and ineffective remedial treatments.
relieved people of personal responsibility for their own behavior.

A)
B)
C)
D)

10.According to the medical model, psychological disorders are


sicknesses that need to be diagnosed and in most cases cured.
maladaptive responses to a troubling environment.
purely imaginary symptoms of distress.
learned habits that need to be extinguished.

A)
B)
C)
D)

11.The discovery that psychologically disordered behavior could result from syphilis
infections facilitated the credibility and acceptance of
psychoanalytic theory.
the medical model.
DSM-5.
the social-cognitive perspective.

A)
B)
C)
D)

12.The medical model of psychologically disordered behavior is most likely to be criticized


for neglecting the importance of
social circumstances and psychological factors.
biological evolution.
the DSM-5.
genetically influenced abnormalities.
13.It would be most difficult to use the ________ to explain why anorexia nervosa occurs

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A)
B)
C)
D)

mostly in Western cultures.


learning perspective
medical model
social-cognitive perspective
biopsychosocial approach

A)
B)
C)
D)

14.Some psychological disorders occur primarily in one culture. However, ________ occurs
worldwide.
dissociative identity disorder
anorexia nervosa
schizophrenia
susto

A)
B)
C)
D)

15.Both the inseparability of mind and body and the interaction of nature and nurture are
most clearly emphasized by
DSM-5.
the medical model.
the learning perspective.
the biopsychosocial approach.

A)
B)
C)
D)

16.Professor McIntosh emphasizes that depression often involves the interactive influences
of self-focused rumination, rejection from others, and low serotonin levels. The
professor's emphasis best illustrates
the medical model.
the learning perspective.
linkage analysis.
a biopsychosocial approach.

A)
B)
C)
D)

17.The DSM-5 is most clearly designed to ________ psychological disorders.


explain
classify
cure
prevent

A)
B)
C)
D)

18.The DSM-5 does NOT


include a classification of personality disorders.
explain the causes of the various psychological disorders.
include a very broad range of psychological disorders.
provide guidelines for diagnosing psychological disorders.

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A)
B)
C)
D)

19.DSM-5 focuses on clinicians' reports of observable behavior in order to


facilitate the reliability of diagnoses.
shorten the time it takes to make a diagnosis.
avoid invading clients' psychological privacy.
reduce the need for medical terminology in psychological assessments.

A)
B)
C)
D)

20.APA's diagnostic manual is used for several purposes, including


descriptions of disorders.
estimates of how often a disorder occurs.
determining who is eligible for treatment.
all of these purposes.

21.DSM-5 is most likely to be criticized for


attempting to explain behavior by simply labeling it.
classifying an excessively broad range of human behaviors as psychologically
disordered.
C)
failing to base diagnoses on observable behaviors.
D)
inhibiting scientific efforts to discover the underlying causes of psychological
disorders.
A)
B)

A)
B)
C)
D)

22.Clinicians diagnose the presence of a personality disorder using the ________ in the
DSM-5.
biological predispositions identified
diagnostic criteria and codes
biopsychosocial levels of analysis
cultural definitions of disorder

A)
B)
C)
D)

23.A fundamental problem with the diagnostic labeling of psychologically disordered


behaviors is that the labels often
bias our perceptions of the labeled person.
represent attempts by psychologists to explain behavior by simply naming it.
interfere with effective research on the causes of these disorders.
interfere with effective treatment of these disorders.

A)
B)
C)
D)

24.After George learned that Mrs. Min suffered from schizophrenia, he mistakenly
concluded that her tendencies to laugh easily and smile frequently were symptoms of her
disorder. This best illustrates the
unreliability of DSM-5.
shortcomings of the medical model.
biasing power of diagnostic labels.
dangers of the biopsychosocial approach.

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A)
B)
C)
D)

25.David Rosenham and his fellow researchers were admitted as patients into various
hospitals after they falsely complained of auditory hallucinations. After hospital
clinicians analyzed these patients' quite normal life histories
the patients were typically discharged from the hospital in less than a day after
admission.
the clinicians refused to prescribe any medications for these patients.
the patients actually began to experience auditory hallucinations.
the clinicians identified patient life history dynamics contributing to a psychological
disorder.

A)
B)
C)
D)

26.When children are told that certain classmates have learning disabilities, they may behave
in ways that inhibit the success of those students in the classroom. This best illustrates the
dangers of
the medical model.
linkage analysis.
self-fulfilling prophecies.
the psychoanalytic perspective.

A)
B)
C)
D)

27.The ability of mental health professionals to quickly communicate the characteristics of


their patients' complex symptoms is most clearly facilitated by the use of
linkage analysis.
diagnostic labels.
the medical model.
the biopsychosocial approach.

A)
B)
C)
D)

28.A deluded Scotsman, Daniel M'Naughten, tried to assassinate a government official in


1843. He was sent to a mental hospital rather than to a prison because he was judged to
have schizophrenia.
be depressed.
be manic.
be insane.

A)
B)
C)
D)

29.Maladaptive behaviors that reduce worry and fear are most indicative of
bipolar disorder.
an anxiety disorder.
anorexia nervosa.
attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.
30.Rishi, a college student, complains that he feels apprehensive and fearful most of the time

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A)
B)
C)
D)

but doesn't know why. Without warning, his heart begins to pound, his hands get icy, and
he breaks out in a cold sweat. Rishi most likely suffers from
bipolar disorder.
obsessive-compulsive disorder.
generalized anxiety disorder.
a phobia.

A)
B)
C)
D)

31.A generalized anxiety disorder is characterized by


offensive and unwanted thoughts that persistently preoccupy a person.
a continuous state of tension, apprehension, and autonomic nervous system arousal.
hyperactive, wildly optimistic states of emotion.
alternations between extreme hopelessness and unrealistic optimism.

A)
B)
C)
D)

32.Freud suggested that for those suffering a generalized anxiety disorder, the anxiety is
cyclical.
free-floating.
catatonic.
completely outside of conscious awareness.

A)
B)
C)
D)

33.Generalized anxiety disorder is ________ common among men than women and
________ common among younger adults than older adults.
more; more
less; less
more; less
less; more

A)
B)
C)
D)

34.While he was studying, Matthew was suddenly overwhelmed by feelings of intense


apprehension. For several minutes he felt so agitated that he could not catch his breath.
Matthew was most likely suffering from
bipolar disorder.
a panic attack.
obsessive-compulsive disorder.
a delusion.

A)
B)
C)
D)

35.In comparison to generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder is characterized by periods


of distress that are
more intense and more prolonged.
less intense and less prolonged.
more intense and less prolonged.
less intense and more prolonged.

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A)
B)
C)
D)

36.Which of the following disorders is characterized by the most sudden and unpredictable
episodes of distress?
social anxiety disorder
panic disorder
bipolar disorder
bulimia nervosa

A)
B)
C)
D)

37.Incapacitating efforts to avoid specific anxiety-producing situations is most indicative of


certain
delusions.
hallucinations.
phobias.
obsessions.

A)
B)
C)
D)

38.Kaylee is so afraid of spiders and insects that she avoids most outdoor activities and even
refuses to go to the basement of her own house alone. Kaylee appears to suffer from
obsessive-compulsive disorder.
histrionic personality disorder.
bipolar disorder.
a phobia.

A)
B)
C)
D)

39.An immediate and irrational anxiety response to the mere sight of blood is indicative of
mania.
catatonia.
a specific phobia.
a dissociative disorder.

A)
B)
C)
D)

40.An incapacitating and highly distressing fear about being embarrassed in the presence of
others is most characteristic of
panic disorder.
social anxiety disorder.
antisocial personality disorder.
obsessive-compulsive disorder.

A)
B)
C)
D)

41.Anxiety about being in places or situations from which escape might be difficult is
indicative of
obsessive-compulsive disorder.
a mood disorder.
agoraphobia.
bipolar disorder.

Page 7

A)
B)
C)
D)

42.Sadie is so fearful of being overwhelmed by anxiety that she rarely steps outside her
apartment. The thought of going shopping and getting lost in a crowd terrifies her, so she
has her groceries delivered. Because of her fear, she earns her living as a freelance writer,
working at home. Sadie's behavior is most characteristic of
agoraphobia.
generalized anxiety disorder.
antisocial personality disorder.
obsessive-compulsive disorder.

A)
B)
C)
D)

43.Cecil is preoccupied with thoughts of jumping out the window of his tenth-floor
apartment. To reduce his anxiety, he frequently counts his heartbeats aloud. Cecil would
most likely be diagnosed as experiencing
panic disorder.
bipolar disorder.
generalized anxiety disorder.
obsessive-compulsive disorder.

A)
B)
C)
D)

44.Obsessions are
persistent, irrational fears of specific objects, activities, or situations.
false beliefs of persecution or grandeur.
periodic episodes of intense dread accompanied by frightening physical sensations.
offensive and unwanted thoughts that persistently preoccupy a person.

A)
B)
C)
D)

45.Mrs. Swift is alarmed by her own intrusive and irrational thoughts that her house is
contaminated by germs. Her experience best illustrates the agitating effects of
mania.
an obsession.
agoraphobia.
panic disorder.

A)
B)
C)
D)

46.The billionaire aviator Howard Hughes insisted that his assistants carry out elaborate
hand-washing rituals and wear white gloves when handling any document he would later
touch. His behavior best illustrated the symptoms of
antisocial personality disorder.
obsessive-compulsive disorder.
bipolar disorder.
schizophrenia.
47.Repeatedly thinking about your own death is to ________ as repeatedly washing your

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A)
B)
C)
D)

hands is to ________.
schizophrenia; dissociation
depression; mania
delusion; phobia
obsession; compulsion

A)
B)
C)
D)

48.The incidence of OCD is greatest among


preadolescent children.
teens and young adults.
middle-aged adults.
older retired persons.

A)
B)
C)
D)

49.The social withdrawal and haunting nightmares of battle-scarred war veterans best
illustrate symptoms of
DID.
ADHD.
OCD.
PTSD.

A)
B)
C)
D)

50.Two years after being brutally beaten and raped, Brianna still experiences jumpy anxiety
and has trouble sleeping and vivid flashbacks of her assault. Brianna is most clearly
showing signs of
panic disorder.
posttraumatic stress disorder.
generalized anxiety disorder.
social anxiety disorder.

A)
B)
C)
D)

51.Some people are more vulnerable to PTSD because they have a sensitive ________,
which floods the body with stress hormones.
motor cortex
cerebellum
limbic system
frontal lobe

A)
B)
C)
D)

52.Brain scans of PTSD patients suffering memory flashbacks reveal an aberrant and
persistent activation of the
right occipital lobe.
left occipital lobe.
right temporal lobe.
left temporal lobe.

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A)
B)
C)
D)

53.Some psychologists believe that due partly to a broader definition of trauma, mental
health professionals have been overdiagnosing
panic disorder.
PTSD.
OCD.
schizophrenia.

A)
B)
C)
D)

54.Most political dissidents who survive dozens of episodes of torture do not later exhibit
PTSD. This best illustrates survivor
mania.
catatonia.
dissociation.
resiliency.

A)
B)
C)
D)

55.Positive psychological changes that result from struggling with extremely challenging life
crises demonstrate
dissociation.
linkage analysis.
posttraumatic growth.
the medical model.

A)
B)
C)
D)

56.According to the ________ perspective, anxiety is sometimes produced by the submerged


mental energy associated with repressed impulses.
biological
learning
psychoanalytic
social-cognitive

A)
B)
C)
D)

57.Which perspective emphasizes the role of classical conditioning in the onset of anxiety or
other disorders?
humanistic perspective
psychodynamic perspective
biological perspective
learning perspective

58.Rats that received unpredictable electric shocks in a laboratory experiment subsequently


became apprehensive when returned to that same laboratory setting. This best illustrates
that anxiety may result from
A)
stimulus generalization.
B)
observational learning.

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C)
D)

reinforcement.
classical conditioning.

A)
B)
C)
D)

59.Melissa is fearful of men and refuses to go out on dates. Her therapist suggests that she is
fearful because she was sexually abused by her father when she was young. The
therapist's suggestion most clearly reflects a ________ perspective.
humanistic
learning
biological
psychoanalytic

A)
B)
C)
D)

60.Luke suffers from acrophobia, a fear of high places. Luke's therapist suggests that his
reaction to heights is a generalization of the fear triggered by a childhood playground
accident in which he fell off a jungle gym. The therapist's suggestion reflects a ________
perspective.
learning
psychoanalytic
humanistic
biological

A)
B)
C)
D)

61.A person attacked by a fierce dog develops a fear of all dogs. This best illustrates
dissociation.
agoraphobia.
stimulus generalization.
linkage analysis.

A)
B)
C)
D)

62.Compulsive hand washing often increases in frequency because it relieves feelings of


anxiety. This best illustrates the impact of ________ on compulsive behaviors.
reinforcement
dissociation
observational learning
stimulus generalization

A)
B)
C)
D)

63.Julius is obsessed with avoiding germs and feels compelled to bathe at least 10 times a
day. His therapist suggests that Julius continues his maladaptive bathing because this
behavior temporarily reduced his anxiety on many past occasions. The therapist's
suggestion most directly reflects a ________ perspective.
biological
learning
psychoanalytic
humanistic

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A)
B)
C)
D)

64.Obsessive thoughts typically ________ anxiety and compulsive behaviors typically


________ anxiety.
increase; increase
decrease; decrease
increase; decrease
decrease; increase

A)
B)
C)
D)

65.As Jordan watches, his brother receives an electric shock from touching the frayed toaster
cord. Jordan is now intensely afraid of toasters. This best illustrates that fear can be
learned through
stimulus generalization.
observational learning.
linkage analysis.
reinforcement.

A)
B)
C)
D)

66.Irrational beliefs and hypervigilance to any possible threats can sometimes contribute to
feelings of anxiety. This best illustrates that anxiety disorders, OCD, and PTSD can be
affected by
dissociation.
catatonia.
flat affect.
cognitive influences.

A)
B)
C)
D)

67.We can more easily extinguish a fear of driving a car than a fear of holding snakes. This
is best explained from a ________ perspective.
learning
biological
psychoanalytic
humanistic

A)
B)
C)
D)

68.It has been suggested that compulsive acts typically exaggerate behaviors that contributed
to the survival of the human species. This idea best illustrates the ________ perspective.
humanistic
learning
psychoanalytic
biological
69.A traumatic experience may trigger a lasting phobia in a child with a sensitive, highstrung temperament. The same experience, however, may have no long-term impact on a

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A)
B)
C)
D)

child with a more relaxed temperament. This best illustrates the role of ________ in the
development of phobias.
explanatory style
catatonia
genetic predispositions
mood disorders

A)
B)
C)
D)

70.Some studies suggest that an anxiety gene affects the brain's level of the neurotransmitter
dopamine.
serotonin.
epinephrine.
acetylcholine.

A)
B)
C)
D)

71.Brain scans of people with ________ reveal higher-than-normal activity in brain areas
involved in habitual behaviors.
dissociative identity disorder
antisocial personality disorder
obsessive-compulsive disorder
major depressive disorder

A)
B)
C)
D)

72.The anterior cingulate cortex, a brain region that monitors our actions, seems especially
likely to be hyperactive in those with
generalized anxiety disorder.
a dissociative disorder.
obsessive-compulsive disorder.
antisocial personality disorder.

A)
B)
C)
D)

73.Fears can be blunted by giving people ________ as they recall a traumatic experience.
glutamate
dopamine
propranolol
norepinephrine

A)
B)
C)
D)

74.The prominent feature of mood disorders is the experience of


social anxiety.
flat affect.
emotional extremes.
paranoia.
75.The experience of depression ________ risk taking and ________ aggression.

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A)
B)
C)
D)

inhibits; stimulates
stimulates; inhibits
inhibits; inhibits
stimulates; stimulates

A)
B)
C)
D)

76.Professor Pott emphasizes that normal depression serves an adaptive function by slowing
people down and preventing them from engaging in life-threatening behaviors. The
professor's emphasis best illustrates the ________ perspective.
social-cognitive
evolutionary
psychoanalytic
learning

A)
B)
C)
D)

77.A major depressive disorder is most likely to be characterized by


delusions of persecution.
alternations between extreme hopelessness and unrealistic optimism.
a persistent irrational fear of other people.
feelings of personal worthlessness.

A)
B)
C)
D)

78.Near-daily distress because of fatigue or loss of energy are most likely to be associated
with
antisocial personality disorder.
major depressive disorder.
obsessive-compulsive disorder.
dissociative identity disorder.

A)
B)
C)
D)

79.For the last month, Gabrielle has felt lethargic and has been unable to get out of bed in
the morning. She has withdrawn from friends and family because she feels worthless and
unlovable. Gabrielle is most likely suffering from
agoraphobia.
major depressive disorder.
PTSD.
antisocial personality disorder.

A)
B)
C)
D)

80.A disorder in which an individual is overexcited, hyperactive, and wildly optimistic is


known as
paranoia.
mania.
anorexia nervosa.
catatonia.

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A)
B)
C)
D)

81.Elmer, the owner of an auto service station, suddenly began smashing the front fenders
and hoods of two customers' cars. When asked why, he excitedly explained that he was
transforming the cars into real racing machines. When an employee tried to restrain
him, he shouted that everybody was fired and quickly began breaking the car windows.
Elmer is exhibiting symptoms of
a dissociative disorder.
catatonia.
a panic attack.
mania.

A)
B)
C)
D)

82.In which disorder do people alternate between states of lethargic hopelessness and wild
overexcitement?
panic disorder
bipolar disorder
obsessive-compulsive disorder
schizophrenia

A)
B)
C)
D)

83.Between 1994 and 2003, there was a 40-fold increase in the number of people 19 and
under diagnosed each year with
panic disorder.
bipolar disorder.
bulimia nervosa.
obsessive-compulsive disorder.

A)
B)
C)
D)

84.During the manic phase of bipolar disorder, individuals are most likely to
be overactive.
experience delusions of persecution.
feel uncontrollable grief and despair.
experience visual or auditory hallucinations.

A)
B)
C)
D)

85.George Frideric Handel composed his Messiah during three weeks of intense, creative
energy. Many believe Handel suffered a mild form of
agoraphobia.
a dissociative disorder.
bipolar disorder.
catatonia.

A)
B)

86.Cognitive changes that accompany depression include a(n)


decrease in self-focused thinking.
increased expectation of negative outcomes.

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C)
D)

A)
B)
C)
D)

increased externalization of blame.


increased obsession with experiencing physical pleasure.
87.Gender differences in depression are least noticeable among
preadolescent children.
teen children.
young adults.
old adults.

D)

88.Research regarding depression indicates that


depression is typically unrelated to stressful life events.
depression is unlikely to be overcome without professional help.
depression is associated with abnormally high levels of the neurotransmitter
serotonin.
with each new generation, depression is increasing in its prevalence.

A)
B)
C)
D)

89.The highest rates of depression occur in ________ countries among ________.


developed; children
underdeveloped; children
developed; young adults
undeveloped; young adults

A)
B)
C)
D)

90.Depression is more likely to be a shared tendency between identical twins than between
fraternal twins. This most clearly supports explanations of this mood disorder from a
________ perspective.
psychoanalytic
biological
social-cognitive
humanistic

A)
B)
C)
D)

91.The heritability of bipolar disorder has been estimated to be ________ than the
heritability of major depressive disorder and ________ than the heritability of
generalized anxiety disorder.
less; greater
greater; less
less; less
greater; greater

A)
B)
C)

92.Suicide rates in the United States are ________ among Whites than Blacks and ________
among men than women.

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A)
B)
C)
D)

higher; higher
lower; lower
higher; lower
lower; higher

A)
B)
C)
D)

93.Compared with the general population, those who have suffered ________ have at least
five times greater risk of suicide.
obsessive-compulsive disorder
dissociative identity disorder
major depressive disorder
panic disorder

A)
B)
C)
D)

94.The risk of suicide is greatest when people


anticipate the onset of a depressive episode.
experience the first symptoms of a depressive episode.
experience depressive symptoms at their most extreme levels of severity.
begin to rebound from their depression.

A)
B)
C)
D)

95.Of those who commit suicide about ________ have tried to kill themselves before and
________ discussed suicide beforehand.
one-third; only a minority
one-tenth; only a minority
one-third; most
one-tenth; most

A)
B)
C)
D)

96.Suicide rates in the United States are ________ among Whites than Blacks and ________
among men than women.
higher; higher
lower; lower
higher; lower
lower; higher

A)
B)
C)
D)

97.Rates of nonsuicidal self-injury in the United States are highest among


adolescent males.
adolescent females.
older adult males.
older adult females.
98.Gaining relief from negative thoughts through the distraction of pain is one of the
motives for

Page 17

A)
B)
C)
D)

obsessive-compulsive disorder.
attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.
posttraumatic stress disorder.
nonsuicidal self-injury.

A)
B)
C)
D)

99.Linkage analysis is of greatest interest to those who attempt to explain mood disorders
from a ________ perspective.
psychoanalytic
biological
social-cognitive
humanistic

A)
B)
C)
D)

100.Neuroscientists have found decreased axonal white matter in the brains of people with
generalized anxiety disorder.
agoraphobia.
bulimia nervosa.
bipolar disorder.

A)
B)
C)
D)

101.Drugs that alleviate mania tend to reduce levels of the neurotransmitter


acetylcholine.
norepinephrine.
dopamine.
estrogen.

A)
B)
C)
D)

102.Abnormally low levels of the neurotransmitter serotonin are associated with


panic attacks.
schizophrenia.
depression.
dissociative disorders.

103.By boosting serotonin, antidepressant drugs stimulate the growth of neurons in the
A)
cerebellum.
B)
hippocampus.
C)
reticular formation.
D)
sympathetic nervous system.
104.Which perspective has emphasized the impact of learned helplessness on depression?
A)
psychoanalytic
B)
biological
C)
social-cognitive

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D)

humanistic

105.According to the social-cognitive perspective, women are more vulnerable to depression


than men because they are more likely to
A)
have unrealistically optimistic goals in life.
B)
feel overwhelmed by all they have to do.
C)
experience low levels of norepinephrine.
D)
experience cyclical variations in hormone levels.
106.Women are at greater risk of depression than men partially because women are more
likely to ________ in response to stressful circumstances.
A)
overthink
B)
externalize blame
C)
suffer memory loss
D)
become socially withdrawn

A)
B)
C)
D)

107.The social-cognitive perspective has emphasized that depression is perpetuated by


motivational conflict.
self-blaming attributions.
catatonia.
conscious role playing.

A)
B)
C)
D)

108.Internal, stable, and global explanations of one's own failures are indicative of
optimism.
extraversion.
pessimism.
introversion.

109.Depressed people explain their failures in terms that are internal, stable, and global. Their
explanations tend to be self-focused and
A)
catatonic.
B)
dissociative.
C)
overgeneralized.
D)
free-floating.
110.Which perspective suggests that explaining our own failures in terms that are global,
stable, and internal contributes to depression?
A)
psychoanalytic
B)
biological
C)
learning

Page 19

D)

social-cognitive

111.Inanna suffers from chronic depression. According to the social-cognitive perspective,


how is she most likely to respond when told that she performed very poorly on a test she
took the previous day?
A)
I'm academically incompetent and always will be.
B)
Yesterday was just my unlucky day.
C)
I suspect that none of the students in my class did well on that test.
D)
Hardly any of the professors are effective teachers.
112.A therapist suggests that Margaret is depressed because she attributes her failures to her
own incompetence instead of blaming her parents and teachers for the unreasonable
demands they place on her. The therapist's interpretation most clearly reflects a ________
perspective.
A)
biological
B)
psychoanalytic
C)
humanistic
D)
social-cognitive
113.One difficulty with a purely attributional explanation of depression is that negative
attributions
A)
are more characteristic of men than of women.
B)
may be a consequence rather than a cause of depression.
C)
do not coincide with actual episodes of depression.
D)
are more clearly associated with mania than with depression.

A)
B)
C)
D)

114.People who suffer chronic depression are at high risk for experiencing
unrealistic optimism.
reduced self-awareness.
excessive levels of norepinephrine.
social rejection.

115.To break the vicious cycle of depression, the social-cognitive perspective suggests that
people should be encouraged to explain their failures in terms that are both
A)
internal and stable.
B)
external and global.
C)
internal and global.
D)
external and temporary.
116.Stressful events interpreted with a negative explanatory style can encourage dampened

Page 20

A)
B)
C)
D)

A)
B)
C)
D)

mood states that lead to behavioral withdrawal and subsequent social rejection by others.
This best illustrates
bipolar disorder.
free-floating anxiety.
depression's vicious cycle.
posttraumatic stress disorder.
117.Schizophrenia is most likely to be characterized by
disorganized thinking and disturbed perceptions.
a lack of guilt feelings.
alternations between extreme hopelessness and unrealistic optimism.
periodic intervals of uncontrollable violence.

118.A disorder in which a person loses contact with reality and experiences irrational ideas
and disordered perceptions is a
A)
phobia.
B)
dissociation.
C)
psychosis.
D)
bulimia nervosa.
119.Jabar, a 25-year-old auto mechanic, thinks he is Napoleon. He further believes he is being
imprisoned against his will in the psychiatric hospital where his relatives have brought
him for treatment. Jabar is most likely suffering from
A)
obsessive-compulsive disorder.
B)
schizophrenia.
C)
panic disorder.
D)
dissociative identity disorder.
120.Mr. Hunt believes that he is the president of the United States and that he will soon
become the King of the Universe. Mr. Hunt is most clearly suffering from
A)
delusions.
B)
obsessions.
C)
hallucinations.
D)
compulsions.
121.In which type of disorder is a person's speech likely to be so full of unrelated words and
phrases that it could be characterized as a word salad?
A)
panic disorder
B)
obsessive-compulsive disorder
C)
schizophrenia
D)
dissociative disorder

Page 21

122.A breakdown in selective attention is most likely to be experienced by those who suffer
from
A)
obsessive-compulsive disorder.
B)
phobias.
C)
generalized anxiety disorders.
D)
schizophrenia.
123.Wilma is extremely agitated because she hears voices that tell her to sexually seduce the
male nurses in her hospital ward. Wilma is most clearly suffering from
A)
obsessive-compulsive disorder.
B)
catatonia.
C)
a dissociative disorder.
D)
hallucinations.
124.Flat affect and catatonia are symptoms most closely associated with
A)
schizophrenia.
B)
obsessive-compulsive disorder.
C)
bipolar disorder.
D)
antisocial personality disorder.
125.Although Mrs. Petrides usually sits passively in a motionless stupor, she sometimes
repetitiously shakes her head or waves her arms. She most likely suffers from
A)
dissociative identity disorder.
B)
a bipolar disorder.
C)
an obsessive-compulsive disorder.
D)
catatonia.
126.The onset of schizophrenia is typically associated with early
A)
infancy.
B)
childhood.
C)
adolescence.
D)
adulthood.
127.Positive symptoms of schizophrenia are the ________ of inappropriate behaviors, and
negative symptoms are the ________ of appropriate behaviors.
A)
absence; absence
B)
presence; presence
C)
absence; presence
D)
presence; absence

Page 22

128.One of the negative symptoms of schizophrenia is


A)
an expressionless face.
B)
loud and meaningless talking.
C)
inappropriate laughter.
D)
uncontrollable outbursts of rage.
129.Schizophrenia is said to be chronic when
A)
it is responsive to drug therapy.
B)
it is accompanied by hallucinations.
C)
it develops slowly.
D)
recovery is likely even without professional help.
130.Schizophrenia that develops rapidly, seemingly as a reaction to stress, is called ________
schizophrenia.
A)
chronic
B)
catatonic
C)
acute
D)
process
131.People with reactive schizophrenia more often have the ________ symptoms that respond
to drug therapy.
A)
negative
B)
positive
C)
bipolar
D)
unipolar

A)
B)
C)
D)

132.Schizophrenia is associated with an excess of receptors for


norepinephrine.
dopamine.
serotonin.
acetylcholine.

A)
B)
C)
D)

133.Dopamine overactivity appears to be most clearly related to


flat affect.
agoraphobia.
hallucinations.
bipolar disorder.

Page 23

134.Vigorous activity in the thalamus of schizophrenia patients has been found to be


associated with
A)
hearing voices.
B)
flat affect.
C)
disorganized speech.
D)
repetitive rocking motions.

A)
B)
C)
D)

135.Among schizophrenia patients, the fluid-filled areas of the brain are


abnormally large and the thalamus is abnormally small.
abnormally small and the thalamus is abnormally large.
abnormally small and the thalamus is abnormally small.
abnormally large and the thalamus is abnormally large.

136.Brain scans have found enlarged fluid-filled areas in people with


A)
antisocial personality disorder.
B)
panic disorder.
C)
schizophrenia.
D)
agoraphobia.
137.Low birth weight and maternal diabetes are known risk factors for
A)
dissociative identity disorder.
B)
major depressive disorder.
C)
obsessive-compulsive disorder.
D)
schizophrenia.
138.Evidence suggests that prenatal viral infections contribute to
A)
generalized anxiety disorders.
B)
obsessive-compulsive disorder.
C)
schizophrenia.
D)
bipolar disorders.

A)
B)
C)
D)

139.Danes born in densely populated areas have been found to be at increased risk for
agoraphobia.
schizophrenia.
dissociative disorders.
generalized anxiety disorders.

140.People born in ________ during the month of ________ are at increased risk for
schizophrenia.
A)
North America; February

Page 24

B)
C)
D)

Asia; September
Australia; February
Europe; September

141.Research on the causes of schizophrenia strongly suggests that


there is a genetic predisposition to schizophrenia.
almost anybody will develop schizophrenia if exposed to extensive environmental
stress.
C)
schizophrenia patients suffer from a deficiency of the neurotransmitter serotonin.
D)
if adopted children's adoptive parents have schizophrenia, they will, too.
A)
B)

142.If identical twins share a single placenta rather than having separate placentas, their
chances of being similarly affected by ________ are dramatically increased.
A)
OCD
B)
schizophrenia
C)
a dissociative disorder
D)
antisocial personality disorder
143.An adopted child's chances of developing schizophrenia ________ if the biological
parents have schizophrenia. The child's chances ________ if the adopted parents have
schizophrenia.
A)
increase; increase
B)
do not increase; do not increase
C)
increase; do not increase
D)
do not increase; increase
144.During prenatal development, nutritional deprivation may influence the expression of
certain genes that are known to increase the risk of specific physical and psychological
disorders. This best illustrates the impact of
A)
stimulus generalization.
B)
epigenetic factors.
C)
linkage analysis.
D)
dissociation.
145.Disruptive or withdrawn behavior, poor peer relations, and solo play have been noted as
early warning signs of
A)
panic disorder.
B)
agoraphobia.
C)
schizophrenia.
D)
obsessive-compulsive disorder.

Page 25

146.Psychologists are LEAST likely to suggest that ________ contribute(s) to the


development of schizophrenia.
A)
neglectful child-rearing practices
B)
prenatal viral infections
C)
dopamine overactivity
D)
shrinkage of cerebral tissue
147.Which of the following has been pinpointed as an early warning sign for the subsequent
onset of schizophrenia?
A)
periodic panic attacks
B)
sudden weight increase
C)
violent behavior
D)
poor muscle coordination
148.Disruptions in conscious awareness and sense of identity are most characteristic of
________ disorders.
A)
bipolar
B)
obsessive-compulsive
C)
generalized anxiety
D)
dissociative
149.William, an airplane pilot, is unable to remember anything of a bombing raid in which his
plane was severely damaged and two crew members were killed. Because he himself
suffered no physical injuries, psychologists suspect that William probably suffers from
A)
panic disorder.
B)
a dissociative disorder.
C)
a phobia.
D)
bipolar disorder.
150.A sense of being separated from your body and watching yourself with a sense of
detachment is a symptom of
A)
obsessive-compulsive disorder.
B)
generalized anxiety disorder.
C)
agoraphobia.
D)
dissociation.
151.The experience of a fugue state is indicative of a(n) ________ disorder.
A)
panic
B)
mood
C)
dissociative

Page 26

D)

obsessive-compulsive

A)
B)
C)
D)

152.Exhibiting two or more distinct and alternating personalities is a symptom of a(n)


social anxiety disorder.
dissociative disorder.
obsessive-compulsive disorder.
antisocial personality disorder.

A)
B)
C)
D)

153.The experience of multiple personalities is most likely to be characterized by


a massive dissociation of self from ordinary consciousness.
offensive and unwanted thoughts that persistently preoccupy a person.
delusions of persecution and grandiosity.
a lack of guilt feelings.

154.College students were asked to pretend that they were accused murderers. Under
hypnosis, they typically expressed a second personality when prompted to do so by the
examining psychiatrist. This most strongly suggests that dissociative identity disorder
may involve
A)
low self-esteem.
B)
unconscious fear.
C)
a negative explanatory style.
D)
role playing.
155.Researchers have suggested that the role playing of fantasy-prone patients in response to
the leading questions of therapists has often contributed to
A)
obsessive-compulsive disorder.
B)
dissociative identity disorder.
C)
bipolar disorder.
D)
agoraphobia.
156.A biological perspective would be LEAST helpful for explaining the
A)
prevalence of schizophrenia throughout the world.
B)
fluctuations in mood experienced by those suffering a bipolar disorder.
C)
fear of snakes experienced by a high percentage of Americans.
D)
dramatic increase in reported cases of dissociative identity disorder during the
1980s.
157.Connie exhibits multiple personalities. Evidence that information learned by her
secondary personality influences the moods and behaviors of her primary personality
would most clearly rule out the contribution of ________ to her symptoms.

Page 27

A)
B)
C)
D)

role playing
sexual trauma
dissociation
motivational conflict

158.Noah's therapist suggests that Noah developed a dissociative identity disorder in order to
misbehave without feeling a strong sense of personal shame. The therapist's suggestion
most directly reflects a ________ perspective.
A)
humanistic
B)
social-cognitive
C)
psychodynamic
D)
biological
159.Evidence that many DID patients have suffered abuse as children leads some
psychologists to include dissociative disorders under the umbrella of
A)
panic disorder.
B)
social anxiety disorder.
C)
generalized anxiety disorder.
D)
posttraumatic stress disorder.

A)
B)
C)
D)

160.Anorexia nervosa is typically characterized by


an unusually high rate of metabolism.
cyclical fluctuations between extreme thinness and plumpness.
frequent migraine headaches.
a fear of being fat.

161.About eight months ago, 14-year-old Shelley went on a drastic weight-loss diet that
caused her to drop from 110 to 80 pounds. Although she is now dangerously underweight
and under-nourished, she continues to think she looks fat. Her frustrated father recently
forced her to eat a peanut butter sandwich, but Shelley immediately went to the bathroom
and threw it all up. Shelley most clearly suffers from
A)
agoraphobia.
B)
bulimia nervosa.
C)
catatonia.
D)
anorexia nervosa.
162.The onset of ________ nearly always begins after a dieter has broken diet restrictions and
gorged.
A)
anorexia nervosa
B)
obsessive-compulsive disorder
C)
bulimia nervosa

Page 28

D)

agoraphobia

163.Twenty-two-year-old Tawana is slightly overweight and loves to eat, particularly snack


foods and rich desserts. Fearful of becoming overweight, she frequently takes a laxative
following episodes of binge eating. Tawana most clearly suffers from
A)
bulimia nervosa.
B)
anorexia nervosa.
C)
bipolar disorder.
D)
social anxiety disorder.
164.Unlike those with bulimia nervosa, those with binge-eating disorder are not likely to
________ following binge eating.
A)
experience remorse
B)
gain weight
C)
purge or fast
D)
suffer indigestion
165.People with anorexia nervosa often come from families that
A)
lack educational opportunities.
B)
are high achieving and competitive.
C)
are unable to afford adequate food.
D)
don't care about physical appearance or excess weight.
166.Over the past 50 years, American women have expressed ________ satisfaction with
their physical appearance and have experienced a(n) ________ incidence of serious
eating disorders.
A)
increasing; decreasing
B)
increasing; increasing
C)
decreasing; decreasing
D)
decreasing; increasing
167.Those most vulnerable to anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are those who ________
value thinness and have the ________ body dissatisfaction.
A)
least; least
B)
most; greatest
C)
least; greatest
D)
most; least
168.Psychological disorders characterized by inflexible, enduring, and socially maladaptive
behavior patterns are called ________ disorders.

Page 29

A)
B)
C)
D)

A)
B)
C)
D)

acute
free-floating
reactive
personality
169.The distinctive features used to identify the three clusters of personality disorders are
obsessions, compulsions, and delusions.
genetics, culture, and self-awareness.
optimism, pessimism, and perfectionism.
anxiety, eccentricity, and impulsivity.

170.Those with an avoidant personality disorder are most likely to display


A)
a lack of guilt feelings.
B)
a sense of self-importance.
C)
shallow, attention-getting emotions.
D)
a fear of social rejection.
171.One cluster of personality disorders marked by dramatic or impulsive behaviors is
exemplified by the ________ personality disorder.
A)
avoidant
B)
schizoid
C)
catatonic
D)
histrionic

A)
B)
C)
D)

172.Those with narcissistic personality disorder are likely to be preoccupied with


an irrational fear of people.
delusions of persecution.
physical symptoms of distress.
their own self-importance.

173.The term psychopath refers to an individual with


A)
schizophrenia.
B)
bipolar disease.
C)
dissociative identity disorder.
D)
antisocial personality disorder.
174.Antisocial personality disorder is most likely to be characterized by
A)
a persistent, irrational fear of people.
B)
episodes of intense autonomic nervous system arousal.
C)
disruptions in conscious awareness and sense of identity.

Page 30

D)

A)
B)
C)
D)

a lack of guilt feelings.


175.Which of the following disorders is more common among men than women?
obsessive-compulsive disorder
antisocial personality disorder
dissociative identity disorder
schizophrenia

176.Anthony is 32 years old, well above average in intelligence, and quite charming. He has
swindled several older people out of their life savings, and he seems to have little feeling
for his victims, nor does he fear the consequences of getting caught. His behavior is
evidence of
A)
schizophrenia.
B)
obsessive-compulsive disorder.
C)
a personality disorder.
D)
a dissociative disorder.
177.There is some evidence that a relatively low level of autonomic nervous system arousal
may contribute to
A)
posttraumatic stress disorder.
B)
antisocial personality disorder.
C)
dissociative disorders.
D)
generalized anxiety disorder.
178.The reduced self-control of murderers is most closely related to reduced brain activity in
their ________ lobes.
A)
frontal
B)
temporal
C)
occipital
D)
parietal

A)
B)
C)
D)

179.A hyper-reactive dopamine reward system has been observed among those with
antisocial personality disorder.
obsessive-compulsive disorder.
generalized anxiety disorder.
posttraumatic stress disorder.

180.A World Health Organization study of 14 countries estimated that ________ had the
highest prevalence of mental disorders during the prior year.
A)
Japan

Page 31

B)
C)
D)

Germany
Mexico
the United States

181.Among women, the stresses and demoralization of poverty are especially likely to
precipitate
A)
ADHD.
B)
depression.
C)
schizophrenia.
D)
dissociative disorders.

Page 32

Answer Key
1.C
2.A
3.B
4.C
5.B
6.D
7.D
8.B
9.C
10.A
11.B
12.A
13.B
14.C
15.D
16.D
17.B
18.B
19.A
20.B
21.B
22.B
23.A
24.C
25.D
26.C
27.B
28.D
29.B
30.C
31.B
32.B
33.D
34.B
35.C
36.B
37.C
38.D
39.C
40.B
41.C
42.A
43.D
44.D

Page 33

45.B
46.B
47.D
48.B
49.D
50.B
51.C
52.C
53.B
54.D
55.C
56.C
57.D
58.D
59.B
60.A
61.C
62.A
63.B
64.C
65.B
66.D
67.B
68.D
69.C
70.B
71.C
72.C
73.C
74.C
75.C
76.B
77.D
78.B
79.B
80.B
81.D
82.B
83.B
84.A
85.C
86.B
87.A
88.D
89.C
90.B

Page 34

91.D
92.A
93.C
94.D
95.C
96.A
97.B
98.D
99.B
100.D
101.B
102.C
103.B
104.C
105.B
106.A
107.B
108.C
109.C
110.D
111.A
112.D
113.B
114.D
115.D
116.C
117.A
118.C
119.B
120.A
121.C
122.D
123.D
124.A
125.D
126.D
127.D
128.A
129.C
130.C
131.B
132.B
133.C
134.A
135.A
136.C

Page 35

137.D
138.C
139.B
140.A
141.A
142.B
143.C
144.B
145.C
146.A
147.D
148.D
149.B
150.D
151.C
152.B
153.A
154.D
155.B
156.D
157.C
158.C
159.D
160.D
161.D
162.C
163.A
164.C
165.B
166.D
167.B
168.D
169.D
170.D
171.D
172.D
173.D
174.D
175.B
176.C
177.B
178.A
179.A
180.D
181.B

Page 36