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UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA

FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN KIMIA


PROCESS ENGINEERING LABORATORY 1
(CPE435)

NAME
: MUHAMMAD SOLAHUDIN BIN MUSA
STUDENT ID.
: 2014342085
GROUP
: EH2202
EXPERIMENT
: REFRIGERANT UNIT
DATE PERFORMED: 19TH OCTOBER 2015
SEMESTER
:2
PROGRAMME / CODE
: EH220
SUBMIT TO
: DR ZULKIFLI ABDUL RASHID

No.

Title

Allocated Marks (%)

Abstract/Summary

Introduction

Aims

Theory

Apparatus

Methodology/Procedure

10

Results

10

Calculations

10

Discussion

20

10

Conclusion

11

Recommendations

12

Reference / Appendix

13

Supervisors grading

10

TOTAL MARKS

Marks

100

Remarks:
Checked by:
--------------------------Date:
1

Table of content
Table of content...............................................................................................................................2
Abstract............................................................................................................................................3
Introduction......................................................................................................................................4
Aims.................................................................................................................................................5
Theory..............................................................................................................................................6
Experimental procedure...................................................................................................................9
RESULTS.......................................................................................................................................11
Experiment 1..............................................................................................................................11
Experiment 2..............................................................................................................................13
Experiment 3..............................................................................................................................18
Experiment 4..............................................................................................................................21
Discussion..................................................................................................................................24
Conclusion.....................................................................................................................................26
Recommendations..........................................................................................................................27
References......................................................................................................................................28
Appendices....................................................................................................................................29

Abstract
This experiment is carried out to study the mechanical heat pump through the operating
of the equipment SOLTEQ Mechanical Heat Pump (Model: HE165). This experiment is
conducted by doing a series of tests by manipulating the delivery temperatures and flow rates of
the cooling water. Plus, to study the mechanism of a heat pump, coefficient of performance and
heat pump performance curves. Besides, this experiment is investigating the effects of
compressor pressure ratio on the volumetric efficiency. The purpose of conducting this
experiment is to study the thermodynamics concept of energy balance and coefficient of
performance. The heat transfer is been able to determine by applying the energy balance concept.
Next, able to determine the coefficient of performance of the heat pump and how the delivery
temperatures affect the coefficient of performance. Lastly, to produce the performance curves of
the heat pump and vapour compression cycle on a p-h diagram.

Introduction
In the experiment of refrigerant unit, the Mechanical Heat Pump is used to study the
vapour compression cycle. This Mechanical Heat Pump (Model: HE 165) has been designed to
provide students with a practical and quantitative demonstration of the vapour compression cycle.
Refrigerators and heat pumps are both use the vapour compression cycle, and although the
applications of these machines differ, the components are essentially the same. The HE 165 is
capable of demonstrating the heat pump application where a large freely available energy source,
such as the atmosphere, is to be upgraded for water heating. The unit will be of particular interest
to those studying Mechanical Engineering, Energy Conservation, Thermodynamics, Building
Services, Chemical Engineering, Plant and Process Engineering, and Refrigeration and Air
Conditioning.
The heat pump consists of a hermetic compressor, a water cooled condenser, a
thermostatically controlled expansion valve and an air heated evaporator. The arrangements of the
components are in a manner similar to that used for many domestic air-water heat pumps where
they are visible from the front of the unit. During the operation, slightly superheated refrigerant
(R134a) vapour enters the compressor from the evaporator and its pressure is increased. Thus, the
temperature rises and the hot vapour then enters the water cooled condenser. Heat is given up to
the cooling water and the refrigerant condenses to a liquid before passing to the expansion valve.
Upon passing through the expansion valve the pressure of the liquid refrigerant is reduced.
This causes the saturation temperature to fall to below that of the atmosphere. Thus, as it flows
through the evaporator, there is a temperature difference between the refrigerant and the air being
drawn across the coils. The resulting heat transfer causes the refrigerant to boil, and upon leaving
the evaporator it has become slightly superheated vapour, ready to return to the compressor.
The temperature at which heat is delivered in the condenser is controlled by the water flow rate
and its inlet temperature. The evaporating temperature is l a r g e l y d e t e r m i n e d b y t h e
ambient conditions. However, this can be limited, either by restricting the air intake to the
evaporator, or by directing warmed air towards the intake. Instrumentations are all provided
for the measurement of flowrates of both the refrigerant and cooling water, power input to the
4

compressor, and all relevant temperatures.

Aims

To determine the power input, heat output and coefficient of performance of a


vapour compression heat pump system

To produce the performance of heat pump over a range of source and delivery
temperatures

To plot the vapour compression cycle on the p-h diagram and compare with the
ideal cycle

To perform energy balance for the condenser and compressor

To determine the compression ratio and volumetric efficiency

Theory
Refrigerators and heat pumps are devices that absorb heat at a low temperature and reject heat at a
higher temperature. Both refrigerators and heat pumps operate in the same way using a reversed
heat engine cycle, but are labeled separately according to their purpose. Devices that are used to
maintain a temperature below ambient are known as refrigerators (or air conditioners) while
devices that are used to supply heat at a higher temperature than ambient are known as heat
pumps. Some devices, in particular those used for space cooling, may be used as both a heat pump
and a refrigerator (as is the case with the Christchurch Town Hall heating/cooling system).
The vapour compression cycle is the most commonly used refrigeration/heat pump cycle and
involves the same four processes as a heat engine cycle but in the reverse order (i.e. evaporation
compression condensation expansion/throttling). Figure 1 gives a schematic representation of
the four essential mechanical components in this cycle; figure 2 shows the ideal cycle on a
pressure-enthalpy diagram.

Heat out

2
Condenser

Throttle

Work in

Valve
Evaporator

Compressor

1
6

Heat in
Figure 1: Vapour Compression Cycle components

Subcooling

Pressure

Critical Point

Liquid 3

1
Superheating
Enthalpy

Figure 2: Ideal cycle on pressure enthalpy diagram.


In ideal vapour compression cycle the refrigerant vapour is compressed isentropically to a higher
temperature and pressure (12). The compressed vapour is then condensed isobarically which
results in heat rejection to the surroundings (23). The next step is the adiabatic throttling of the
refrigerant to the low temperature and pressure (34). The final step is where the refrigerant is
evaporated isobarically at low temperature and pressure, which results in the absorption of heat
from its surroundings (41). In an actual cycle states 1 and 3 should not lie on the saturation line
as there is subcooling (helpful to obtain state 3 in the diagram) and superheating (necessary to
avoid droplets (two phase region!) in the compressor).
The usual measure of performance of a refrigerator or heat pump is the Coefficient of
Performance COP which for a refrigerator COPR is defined as:

COPR =

heat absorbed at the lower temperature


compressor net work

QE
W

(1a)
For a heat pump COPH:

COPH =

Q
heat rejected at the higher temperature
= C
compressor net work
W

(1b)
where E, C, R, H stand for Evaporator, Compressor, Refrigeration, and Heat pump respectively.
Note: The cooling water and refrigerant flow rate displays is in percentage (%). Below are the
formula to convert cooling water and refrigerant flow rate to LPM

1.Coolingwaterflowrate ( LPM )=

2. Refrigerantflowrate ( LPM )=

Coolingwaterflowrate ( )
x 5 LPM
100

Refrigerantflowrate ( )
x 1.26 LPM
100

Experimental procedure
General Start-up Procedure
1. The unit and all instruments are checked in proper condition.
2. Both water source and drain are checked connected then the water supply is open and
the cooling water flow rate is set at 1.0LPM.
3. The drain hose at the condensate collector is checked connected.
4. Power supply is connected and the main power is switched followed by main switch
at the control panel.
5. The refrigerant compressor is switched on. As soon as temperature and pressure were
constant, the unit was ready for experiment.
General Shut-down Procedure
1. The compressor is switched off, followed by main switch and power supply.
2. The water supply is closed and water is ensured not left running.
Experiment 1: Determination of power input, heat output and coefficient of performance
Objective:
To determine the power input, heat output and coefficient of performance of a vapour
compression heat pump system
Procedures:
1.
2.
3.
4.

The general start-up procedures are performed.


The cooling water flow rate is adjusted to 40%.
The system is allowed to rub for 15 minutes.
All necessary reading is recorded into experimental data sheet.

Experiment 2: Production of heat pump performance curves over a range of source and
delivery temperatures
Objective:
To produce the performance of heat pump over a range of source and delivery
temperatures
Procedures:
1. The general start-up procedures are performed
9

2.
3.
4.
5.

The cooling water flow rate is adjusted to 80%.


The system is allowed to run for 15 minutes.
All necessary readings are recorded into the experimental data sheet.
The experiment with reducing flow rate is repeated so that the cooling water
outlet temperature increases by about 3 (40% and 60%).

6. The experiment might be repeated at different ambient temperature.


Experiment 3: Production of water vapour compression cycle on p-h diagram and energy
balance study
Objective:
1. To plot the vapour compression cycle on the p-h diagram and compare with the ideal
cycle
2. To perform energy balances for the condenser and compressor
Procedures:
1. The general start-up procedures are performed
2. The cooling water flow rate is adjusted to 40% and the system is allowed to run for
15 minutes.
3. All necessary readings are recorded into experimental data sheet.
Experiment 4: Estimation of effect of compressor pressure ratio on volumetric efficiency
Objective:
To determine the compression ratio and volumetric efficiency
Procedures:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

The general start-up procedures are performed.


The cooling water flow rate is adjusted to 40%.
The system is allowed to run for 15 minutes.
All necessary readings are recorded into experimental data sheet.
The experiment might be repeated at different compressor delivery pressure.

10

RESULTS
Experiment 1: Determination of power input, heat output and coefficient of
performance
Cooling Water Flow Rate, FT1

40.1

Cooling Water Inlet Temperature, TT5

28.6

Cooling Water Outlet Temperature, TT6

29.8

Compressor Power Input

161

For reading 1,
Cooling water flow rate, LPM

coolingwaterflowrate( )
x 5 LPM
100

40.1 x 5
100

= 2.005 LPM
2.005 L
1 min

1m 3
1000 L

1 min
60 s

= 3.342 x 10-5 m3/s

Find h5 and h6 from table saturated water-temperature using interpolation


Temperature, C
20
28.6
25
29.8
30

Enthalpy, KJ/kg
83.915
= 119.893
104.83
= 124.91
125.74

11

h5 = 119.893 kJ/kg
Mass flow rate =

h6 = 124.91 kJ/kg
3.342 x 105 m3
s

Ein

Eout

Mh5

QH + mh6

QH

m(h5 h6)

0.03342 kg/s (119.893 124.91) kJ/kg

-0.1676 kJ/s

1000 kg
m3

= 0.03342 kg/s

QH
W

COPH =

water = 1000kg/m3

0.1676 kJ /s
161kJ / s
0.001041

12

Experiment 2: Production of heat pump performance curves over a range of source


and delivery temperatures
Reading 1

Reading 2

Reading 3

Cooling water flow rate, FT 1


Cooling water inlet temperature, TT

%
C

60.3
28.9

39.7
28.9

28.6
28.9

5
Cooling water outlet temperature,

30.0

30.4

31.3

TT 6
Compressor power input

159

160

161

Reading 1,
Cooling water flow rate, LPM

coolingwaterflowrate( )
x 5 LPM
100

60.3 x 5
= 3.02 LPM
100
13

3.02 L
1 min

1m 3
1000 L

1 min
60 s

= 5.033 x 10-5 m3/s

Find h5 and h6from table saturated water-temperature using interpolation.


T (C)
25
28.9
30

h (kJ/kg)
104.83
121.14
125.74

T (C)
30.0

h (kJ/kg)
125.74
h5 = 121.14 kJ/kg
h6 = 125.74 kJ/kg

water = 1000kg/m3

14

5.033 x 105 m3
s

Mass flow rate =

1000 kg
m3

Ein

Eout

mh5

QH + mh6

QH

m(h5 h6)

0.0503 kg/s (121.14 125.74) kJ/kg

-0.2314 kJ/s

QH
W

COPH =

0.2314 kJ /s
159 kJ / s

=
=

= 0.0503 kg/s

0.001455

Reading 2,
Cooling water flow rate, LPM =

coolingwaterflowrate( )
x 5 LPM
100

39.7 x 5
= 1.985 LPM
100
1.985 L
1 min

1m 3
1000 L

1 min
60 s

= 3.308 x 10-5 m3/s

Find hB2,1 and hB2,2from table saturated water-temperature using interpolation


T (C)
25
28.9

h (kJ/kg)
104.83
121.14
15

30

125.74

T (C)
30.0
30.4
35.0

h (kJ/kg)
125.74
127.41
146.64

h5 = 121.14 kJ/kg

h6 = 127.41 kJ/kg

3.308 x 105 m 3
s

Mass flow rate =

1000 kg
m3

Ein

Eout

mh5

QH + mh6

QH

m(h5 h6)

0.0331 kg/s (121.14 127.41) kJ/kg

-0.2075 kJ/s

= 0.0331 kg/s

QH
W

COPH =

water = 1000kg/m3

0.2075 kJ / s
160 kJ / s
0.001298

Reading 3,
Cooling water flow rate, LPM

coolingwaterflowrate( )
x 5 LPM
100

28.6 x 5
100

= 1.43 LPM
1.43 L
1 min

1m 3
1000 L

1 min
60 s

= 2.3833 x 10-5 m3/s


16

Find h5 and h6 from table saturated water-temperature.


T (C)
25
28.9
30

h (kJ/kg)
104.83
121.14
125.74

T (C)
30.0

h (kJ/kg)
125.74

31.3

131.17

35.0

146.64

h5 = 121.14 kJ/kg
Mass flow rate =

h6 =131.17 kJ/kg

2.3833 x 105 m 3
s

1000 kg
m3

water = 1000kg/m3
= 0.0238 kg/s

Ein

Eout

Mh5

QH + mh6

QH

m(h5 h6)

0.0238 kg/s (121.14 131.17) kJ/kg

-0.2387 kJ/s
QH
W

COPH =

0.2387 kJ /s
161kJ / s

=
=

0.001483

From the value that calculated, graph can be constructed

T6(C)

Power
input(kJ/s)

Qh(kJ/s)

COP

Reading 1

30.0

159

0.2314

0.00145

Reading 2

30.4

160

0.2075

0.00130
17

Reading 3

31.3

161

0.2387

0.00148

Graph of Power input vs Temperature


161.5
161
160.5
160

Power Input (kJ/s)

159.5
159
158.5
158
29.8

30

30.2 30.4 30.6 30.8

31

31.2 31.4

Temperature (C)

18

Experiment 3
Refrigerant flow rate, FT2
Refrigerant pressure (low), P1
Refrigerant pressure (high), P2
Refrigerant temperature, TT1
Refrigerant temperature, TT2
Refrigerant temperature, TT3
Refrigerant temperature, TT4
Cooling water flow rate, FT1
Cooling water inlet temperature, TT5
Cooling water outlet temperature ,

%
Bar (abs)
Bar (abs)
C
C
C
C
%
C
C

60.7
2.0
6.9
26.8
76.1
29.4
22.6
39.9
28.9
30.4

159

TT6
Compressor power input

Determination enthalpy of refrigerant


hTT1 at 26.8 C and 2.0 bar (Refer property table; superheated refrigerant134a)

0.19

0.20

0.21

P, MPa
T, C
20
26.8
30

h, enthalpy KJ/kg
270.40
Blank
279.09

270.20
hTT1 = 270.197
278.91

269.99
Blank
278.73

hTT2 at 76.1 C and 0.68 MPa


P, MPa

0.6

0.69

0.7

19

T, C

h, enthalpy KJ/kg

70

309.75

308.20

308.34

76.1

Blank

hTT2 = 308.763

Blank

80

319.57

318.10

318.29

hTT3 and hTT4 at 29.4C

and 22.6C(Property table; refrigerant-134a)

Pressure, KPa

hf

hg

Enthalpy, KJ/kg

650

263.77

680

hTT3 = 264.526

700

265.03

650

85.26

680

hTT4 = 87.396

700

88.82

Vapour compression cycle on the p-h diagram

20

0.8
87.396, 0.69

Pressure (MPa)

0.7

306.2282, 0.69

264.526, 0.69

0.6

2'

0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2

0.1

87.396, 0.20

276.03025, 0.20

0
0

25

50

75

100 125 150 175 200 225

250

275 300

Theoretical graph

Experiment 4
21

Refrigerant flow rate , FT2


Refrigerant pressure (low) , P1
Refrigerant pressure (high) , P2
Refrigerant temperature ,TT1
Refrigerant temperature ,TT2
Refrigerant temperature ,TT3
Refrigerant temperature ,TT4
Compressor Power Input

%
Bar (abs)
Bar (abs)
C
C
C
C
W

60.7
1.9
6.9
27
75.1
29.1
22.4
160

60.8
2.0
7.0
26.8
76.1
30.6
22.8
159

0.2319
0.0492

0.2857
7.93x10^-7

Compressor pressure ratio


Volumetric efficiency
Reading 1
Compressor pressure ratio

suction pressure of refrigerant


discharge pressure of refrigerant
=

1.6 bars
6.9bars

= 0.2319

Volumetric efficiency

Actualvolumetricflowrate
T h eoreticalvolumeofcompressor

Refrigerant flow rate, LPM

refrigerantflowrate( )
100

x 1.26 LPM

= 0.607 x 1.26 LPM


= 0.7648 LPM
Change LPM to the kg/s
3

Mass flow rate= 0.7648 LPM x

= 0.5417

1000 c m
1L

100 cm

x
1 m3

1 min
60 s

x 4.25

kg
m3

kg
s

22

Density of refrigerant 134a = 4.25

Actual volume flow rate

kg
3
m

massflowrate
= densityofrefrigerant 134 a
kg
= 0.5417 s

= 0.1275

Volumetric efficiency =

m3
4.25 kg

m3
s

Actualvolumetricflowrate
T h eoreticalvolumeofcompressor
3

m
= 0.1275 s

s
1.61 x 1 05 m3

= 0.0492

Reading 2
Compressor pressure ratio

suction pressure of refrigerant


discharge pressure of refrigerant
=

2.0 bars
7.0 bars

= 0.2857

Volumetric efficiency

Actualvolumetricflowrate
Theoreticalvolumeofcompressor

23

Refrigerant flow rate, LPM

refrigerantflowrate( )
100

x 1.26 LPM

= 0.608 x 1.26 LPM


= 0.7661 LPM
Change LPM to the kg/s

Mass flow rate= 0.7661 LPM x

= 0.5426

1000 c m
1L

100 cm3

x
1 m3

1 min
60 s

x 4.25

kg
m3

kg
s

Density of refrigerant 134a = 4.25

Actual volume flow rate

kg
m3

massflowrate
= densityofrefrigerant 134 a

= 0.5426

kg
s

m3
4.25 kg

m
= 0.1277 s

Volumetric efficiency =

Actualvolumetricflowrate
T h eoreticalvolumeofcompressor

= 0.1277

m3
s

s
1.61 x 1 05 m3

= 7.93 x 10-7

24

Discussion

This experiment was carried out to calculate the performance each of the equipment in
the refrigerant unit. In the first experiment, the power input of the heat pump was recorded at
161J/s in order to absorb 0.1676 kJ/s heat from the surroundings. The value of enthalpy at given
temperature was calculated using the interpolation method based on the value at Table A-4. The
value obtain was used to calculate the amount rate heat transfer in the system. The coefficient of
performance of the heat pump used is 0.001041
For the second experiment, the same step as the first experiment was repeated at different
cooling water flow rate which is at 60.3%, 39.7% and 28.6%. From the experiment, the power
input for the heat pump is different for each water flow rate, which are, 159kJ/s, 160kJ/s and
161kJ/s respectively. The power input varies as the cooling water flow rate decreases. The same
method was used to calculate the rate of heat transfer and the coefficient of performance (COP)
for the heat pump. The COP calculated for cooling water flow rate at 60.3%, 39.7% and 28.6% is

25

0.00145 , 0.00130 and 0.001483 respectively. The COP of heat pump decreases as the cooling
water flow rate decreases.
In the third experiment, the change in pressure and temperature for refrigerant R-134A
after passing condenser and compressor was recorded. The enthalpy was calculated using
interpolation to calculate the change of enthalpy at compressor and condenser. At the compressor
the superheated refrigerant was compressed from 0.2 MPa at 26.8C to 0.7Mpa at 76.1 C and
the enthalpy calculated is 270.197 kJ/kg and 308.763 kJ/kg respectively. The R-134A enters the
compressor superheated then compressed at constant entropy the leaves as superheated. The
refrigerant then enter the condenser at temperature of 29.4C at 0.7MPa and leave the condenser
at temperature at 22.6C at 0.7MPa. The pressure is constant because the condenser undergoes
the heat rejection process at constant pressure. The enthalpy calculated at 29.4C and 22.6C is
264.526 kJ/kg and 87.396 kJ/kg respectively. The enthalpy was decreased because at the
condenser, the heat energy is released to surrounding cause the heat energy in the refrigerant to
drop.

Last experiment, the compression ratio and volumetric efficiency are been calculated.
The systems are allowed to run at different period of time before the readings were taken. First,
the systems are allowed to run for 15 minute then the steps repeated for 20 minute period.
The values of compressor pressure ratio are 0.2319 and 0.2857 respectively. There is slightly
difference in the ratio calculated. This is due to the difference in the reading of pressure before
entering the compressor. However, the pressure leaving the compressor for both period of time is
the same which is 0.7MPa. The volumetric efficiencies are then calculated, and the values are
0.0492 and 7.93x10^-7 respectively. There is also slightly difference in the value calculated that
is due to the difference in the refrigerant flow rate.
Higher compression ratio allows an engine to extract more mechanical energy from a
given mass of air fuel mixture due to its higher thermal efficiency and is most wanted. Based on
the value of volumetric efficiency, we can compare the actual value of volumetric flow rate in
theory to the value that obtained from this experiment. The differences of both values are high.

26

A several steps might be conducted inaccurately which results in all experiments in such an
outrageous values. Firstly the water flow rate is not in stable condition while taking reading.
Reading is been taken in the range +6 from the actual reading. Next experiment shows that the
flow rate of water that we should take is 80% but the reading is not constant. Hence, the reading
is been taken when it reach 80% and does not increase exceed 80%. This happen because the
water source in laboratory is not enough for this apparatus and the present of pump.
As going through this experiment, time does not give much effect, but a little time
difference could make a little variance from the theory

27

Conclusion
Overall this experiment is considering success. First and foremost experiment, the power
input, heat output and coefficient of performance of a vapour compression heat pump system are
been determined. In experiment 1, the values QH and COPH are -0.1676kJ/s and 0.001040. For
second experiment, the performances of heat pump over a range of source and delivery
temperature are been able to produce. The values of COPH are 0.00145, 0.00130, and 0.001483.
The values are decreasing. From the results, it can be concluded that the heat pump functioning
with a high percent of flow rate have higher efficiency compare to the lower flow rate. As show
in experiment 3, the p-h diagram of vapour compression cycle is been plotted successfully and
able to be compared with the ideal cycle and able to perform energy balances for the condenser
and compressor. It clearly can be seen that the values are differ in small amount. Last
experiment, ratio and volumetric efficiency are been able to be calculated. The ratio is 0.2319
and 0.2857 while for the volumetric efficiency is 0.0492 and 7.93x10^-7 . There is slightly
difference due to difference in pressure and refrigerant flow rate.

28

Recommendations
1. Consultation is compulsory in order to make sure the experiments are conducted
properly.
2. To make sure that the machine in good conditions and the experiment are been doing
wrong, we have to understand the general start up and general shut down.
3. Before the experiment begin, ensure that the mechanical heat pump should run and warm
up early for 15 minutes. It should be notice that, surrounding in the laboratory also affect
the result, thus it hard to get an accurate reading.
4. A trial should not be forgotten before running the experiment. This is due to get an
accurate result in experiment 3. Thus, the graph of vapour compression cycle plotted on
p-h diagram of R-134a is in correct order with appropriate ideal cycle.
5. While running the experiment, if some technical problems occur directly ask the
technician to overcome the problems.

29

References

UiTM Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Laboratory Manual CHE 465, Chemical

Engineering Lab 1
www.tyxer.hubpages.com/hub/theory-of-refrigeration
www.solution.com.my/pdf/HE165(A4).pdf
www.1.eere.energy.gov/manufacturing/tech_deployment/pdf/heatpump.pdf

Yunus A. Cengel, Micheal A. Boles Thermodynamics An Engineering Approach


,McGraw-Hill Book Company, 7th edition 2011.

30

Appendices

Figure 1: Compressor

Figure 2: Condenser

31

Figure 3: R-134A

Figure 4: Evaporator

32