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3G WCDMA fundamental concepts

Collected & Presented: Mohammad Tourchian April 2010

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3G WCDMA fundamental concepts Collected & Presented: Mohammad Tourchian April 2010 Confidential 2 © Nokia Siemens

3G UMTS Releases

In December 1999, the first UMTS Release was frozen by 3GPP. This release is commonly called UMTS Release 99. In the specification phase, two main objectives had to be met:

  • New radio interface solution (UTRAN)

  • Core Network (CN) evolution

  • Major highlights on the radio interface solution:

It had to be more efficient to serve more subscribers in one geographical area, resp. to allow higher data rates.

On the other hand, more flexibly was required, too, so that all kinds of present and future multimedia applications could be served.

WCDMA was selected as multiple access technology for the radio interface solution.

Two duplex transmission solutions are available with UMTS Release 99, one based on the TDD and one based on the FDD mode.

The introduction of a new radio interface solution required a new design of the whole radio access network, which is called UTRAN.

  • The UMTS Rel99 CN is an enhanced GSM NSS.

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3G UMTS Releases • In December 1999, the first UMTS Release was frozen by 3GPP. This

3G UMTS Releases

Introduction of GPRS / E-GPRS

3GPP Release 99

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3G UMTS Releases

3GPP Release 4 is a further enhancement of 3GPP Release 99 was introduced in March 2001 3GPP Release 4 contains, but is not limited to

  • low chip rate TDD option

  • e2e transparent packet streaming service

  • Transcoder Free Operation

  • IP transport of CN protocols

  • bearer independent CS core network

3GPP Release 5 is a further enhancement of the previous releases frozen in 2002. 3GPP Release 5 contains, but is not limited to

  • High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA)

  • Initial phase of the IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS)

  • Wideband AMR

  • Location Services enhancements

  • IP transport in the UTRAN

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3G UMTS Releases • 3GPP Release 4 is a further enhancement of 3GPP Release 99 was

3G UMTS Releases

3GPP Release 6 is a further enhancement introduced in 2006 and work is currently ongoing

  • FDD Enhanced Uplink (HSUPA)

  • IMS Phase 2

  • Multimedia Broadcast/Multicast Service (MBMS)

  • Push Services

3GPP Release 5-6 All IP Vision

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3G UMTS Releases • 3GPP Release 6 is a further enhancement introduced in 2006 and work

3G UMTS Releases

UMTS Release 99 1999 2001 UMTS Release 4 2002 UMTS Release 5 2006 UMTS Release 6
UMTS Release 99
1999
2001
UMTS Release 4
2002
UMTS Release 5
2006
UMTS Release 6

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UMTS CN = enhanced GSM NSS

 

UTRAN & WCDMA

 

Bearer independent CS domain

Low chip rate TDD mode

 

UTRA repeater

 

MMS

 

etc.

High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA)

 

Wideband AMR

 

Initial phase of the IP Multimedia Subsystem

 

IP transport in the UTRAN Location Services enhancements

 

etc.

 

FDD Enhanced Uplink (HSUPA)

 

IMS Phase 2

 

Wireless LAN/UMTS Inter-working

Multimedia Broadcast/Multicast Service (MBMS)

Push Services and Presence. •

etc.

3G UMTS Releases UMTS Release 99 1999 2001 UMTS Release 4 2002 UMTS Release 5 2006

Network Architecture

  • The UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network (UTRAN) is part of network that provide users’

access to network that is located between Iu and Uu interfaces.

Base Station (NodeB) Radio Network Controller (RNC)

  • The UMTS core network consists of two logical independent domains:

Network Architecture  The UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network (UTRAN) is part of network that provide

The Packet Switched service domain (PS) The Circuit Switched service domain (CS)

The UMTS core network domains have the same main elements as the GSM, MSC/VLR, GMSC and HLR in CS domain and SGSN & GGSN in PS domain but big difference is seen in the interfaces which allow new implementation of many of the functions.

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Network Architecture  The UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network (UTRAN) is part of network that provide

Network Architecture

UTRAN CN UE Uu Radio Network Subsystem (RNS) circuit MSC/VLR switched (cs) Iub domain Iu-CS RNC
UTRAN
CN
UE
Uu
Radio Network Subsystem (RNS)
circuit
MSC/VLR
switched
(cs)
Iub
domain
Iu-CS
RNC
Uu
Iur
UE
Iu-PS
RNC
packet
Iub
switched
(ps)
SGSN
domain
Radio Network Subsystem (RNS)

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Network Architecture UTRAN CN UE Uu Radio Network Subsystem (RNS) circuit MSC/VLR switched (cs) Iub domain

Network Architecture

The following differences exist between UTRAN and GSM BSS:

  • The new WCDMA Air Interface.

  • A new interface (Iur) is added between RNCs.

It is used among others in soft handover situations, where a UE‘s active cells are under the control of more than one RNC.

  • Iub interface between RNC and BS.

  • The network transport is based on ATM technology.

  • Air interface Ciphering is executed in the RNC.

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Network Architecture The following differences exist between UTRAN and GSM BSS:  The new WCDMA Air

WCDMA Air Interface

IMT-2000 frequency allocations

1850 1900 1950 2000 IMT-2000 UMTS GSM 1800 (FDD) IMT-2000 PCS PCS DECT PHS UMTS (TDD)
1850
1900
1950
2000
IMT-2000
UMTS
GSM
1800
(FDD)
IMT-2000
PCS
PCS
DECT
PHS
UMTS (TDD)
PCS
unlicensed
Mobile
Mobile
Mobile
Mobile
Satellite
Satellite
Satellite
Satellite
IMT-2000
UMTS
UMTS
(TDD)
(TDD)
(TDD)

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2050

2100

2150

2200 MHz

IMT-2000 UMTS (FDD) IMT-2000 Mobile Satellite Mobile Mobile Mobile Satellite Satellite Satellite
IMT-2000
UMTS
(FDD)
IMT-2000
Mobile
Satellite
Mobile
Mobile
Mobile
Satellite
Satellite
Satellite
WCDMA Air Interface IMT-2000 frequency allocations 1850 1900 1950 2000 IMT-2000 UMTS GSM 1800 (FDD) IMT-2000

WCDMA Air Interface

UMTS Air Interface technologies

UMTS Air interface is built based on two technological solutions WCDMA – FDD WCDMA – TDD

WCDMA – FDD is the more widely used solution FDD: Separate UL and DL frequency band

WCDMA – TDD technology is currently used in limited number of networks TDD: UL and DL separated by time, utilizing same frequency

The used carrier frequency band is 5 MHz. The radio interface is organised in 10 ms frames, which are divided into 15 timeslots.

The radio interface is organised in 10 ms frames, which are divided into 15 timeslots.

The modulation is QPSK in UMTS Release 99. (16QAM for HSPA technologies)

We will focus on FDD mode which are widely used.

72*10 ms frames represent one hyperframe, which was introduced for UMTS-GSM Handovers .

72*10 ms frames represent one hyperframe, which was introduced for UMTS-GSM Handovers.

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WCDMA Air Interface UMTS Air Interface technologies  UMTS Air interface is built based on two

WCDMA Air Interface

UMTS & GSM Network Planning

GSM900/1800:

WCDMA Air Interface UMTS & GSM Network Planning GSM900/1800: 3G (WCDMA): Confidential 13 © Nokia Siemens

3G (WCDMA):

WCDMA Air Interface UMTS & GSM Network Planning GSM900/1800: 3G (WCDMA): Confidential 13 © Nokia Siemens

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WCDMA Air Interface UMTS & GSM Network Planning GSM900/1800: 3G (WCDMA): Confidential 13 © Nokia Siemens

WCDMA Air Interface

Differences between WCDMA & GSM

WCDMA GSM Carrier spacing 5 MHz 200 kHz Frequency reuse factor 1 1–18 Power control frequency
WCDMA GSM Carrier spacing 5 MHz 200 kHz Frequency reuse factor 1 1–18 Power control frequency
WCDMA GSM Carrier spacing 5 MHz 200 kHz Frequency reuse factor 1 1–18 Power control frequency
WCDMA GSM Carrier spacing 5 MHz 200 kHz Frequency reuse factor 1 1–18 Power control frequency
 
WCDMA GSM
WCDMA GSM

WCDMA

WCDMA

GSM

GSM
 
         
Carrier spacing 5 MHz 200 kHz

Carrier spacing

Carrier spacing

5 MHz

5 MHz

200 kHz

200 kHz
 
Frequency reuse factor 1 1–18

Frequency reuse factor

Frequency reuse factor

1

1

1–18

1–18
 
         
Power control frequency 1500 Hz 2 Hz or lower

Power control frequency

Power control frequency

1500 Hz

1500 Hz

2 Hz or lower

2 Hz or lower
 
         
Quality control Radio resource management algorithms Network planning (frequency planning)

Quality control

Quality control

Radio resource management algorithms

Radio resource management algorithms

Network planning (frequency planning)

Network planning (frequency planning)
 
         
Frequency diversity 5 MHz bandwidth gives multipath diversity with Rake receiver Frequency hopping

Frequency diversity

Frequency diversity

5 MHz bandwidth gives multipath diversity with Rake receiver

5 MHz bandwidth gives multipath diversity with Rake receiver

Frequency hopping

Frequency hopping
 
         
Packet data Load-based packet scheduling Timeslot based scheduling with GPRS

Packet data

Packet data

Load-based packet scheduling

Load-based packet scheduling

Timeslot based scheduling with GPRS

Timeslot based scheduling with GPRS
 
Downlink transmit diversity Supported for improving downlink capacity Not supported by the standard, but can be

Downlink transmit diversity

Downlink transmit diversity

Supported for improving downlink capacity

Supported for improving downlink capacity

Not supported by the standard, but can be applied

Not supported by the standard, but can be applied
 
         

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WCDMA Air Interface Differences between WCDMA & GSM WCDMA GSM Carrier spacing 5 MHz 200 kHz

Frequency

WCDMA Air Interface

WCDMA Technology

WCDMA

Carrier

3.84 MHz
3.84 MHz
Frequency WCDMA Air Interface WCDMA Technology WCDMA Carrier 3.84 MHz 5 MHz f 5+5 MHz in

5 MHz

Frequency WCDMA Air Interface WCDMA Technology WCDMA Carrier 3.84 MHz 5 MHz f 5+5 MHz in

f

Frequency WCDMA Air Interface WCDMA Technology WCDMA Carrier 3.84 MHz 5 MHz f 5+5 MHz in

5+5 MHz in FDD mode 5 MHz in TDD mode

Frequency WCDMA Air Interface WCDMA Technology WCDMA Carrier 3.84 MHz 5 MHz f 5+5 MHz in

Time

Direct Sequence (DS) CDMA

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WCDMA 5 MHz, 1 carrier TDMA (GSM) 5 MHz, 25 carriers BSS12 Release Content / TAL
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5 MHz, 1 carrier
TDMA (GSM)
5 MHz, 25 carriers
BSS12 Release Content / TAL & PJD / 05 2008
Frequency WCDMA Air Interface WCDMA Technology WCDMA Carrier 3.84 MHz 5 MHz f 5+5 MHz in

WCDMA Air Interface

Transmitter block diagram

Data

WCDMA Air Interface Transmitter block diagram Data Source Coding Channelisation Scrambling Process Process WCDMA Technology Channel

Source

Coding

Channelisation Scrambling Process Process WCDMA Technology
Channelisation
Scrambling
Process
Process
WCDMA Technology

Channel

Coding

WCDMA Air Interface Transmitter block diagram Data Source Coding Channelisation Scrambling Process Process WCDMA Technology Channel

Modulation

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WCDMA Air Interface Transmitter block diagram Data Source Coding Channelisation Scrambling Process Process WCDMA Technology Channel

WCDMA Air Interface

Spreading & Processing Gain

Spread-spectrum transmission is a technique in which the user’s original signal is transformed into another form that occupies a larger bandwidth than the original signal would normally need. This transformation is known as Spreading . Processing gain is the ratio of chip rate to the bit rate.

User bit

rate

R Unspread narrowband signal Spread wideband signal Frequency Power density (Watts/Hz)
R
Unspread narrowband signal
Spread wideband signal
Frequency
Power density (Watts/Hz)

Bandwidth W (3.84 Mchip/sec)

WCDMA Air Interface Spreading & Processing Gain Spread-spectrum transmission is a technique in which the user’s

Processing

gain:

G

p

[

dB

]

 

W

=

 

R

W = const =

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3.84 Mchip

WCDMA Air Interface Spreading & Processing Gain Spread-spectrum transmission is a technique in which the user’s

sec

WCDMA Air Interface Spreading & Processing Gain Spread-spectrum transmission is a technique in which the user’s

Power density (W/Hz)

WCDMA Air Interface

Processing Gain Examples

Voice user (R=12,2 kbit/s)

R
R

Frequency (Hz)

G p =W/R=24.98 dB
G p =W/R=24.98 dB

Packet data user (R=384 kbit/s)

R Power density (W/Hz)
R
Power density (W/Hz)

Frequency (Hz

G p =W/R=10 dB
G p =W/R=10 dB

Spreading sequences have a different length Processing gain depends on the user data rate

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Power density (W/Hz) WCDMA Air Interface Processing Gain Examples R Frequency (Hz) G p =W/R=24.98 dB

WCDMA Air Interface

Spreading

Bits (In this drawing, 1 bit = 8 Chips SF=8)

WCDMA Air Interface Spreading Bits (In this drawing, 1 bit = 8 Chips  SF=8) Baseband
WCDMA Air Interface Spreading Bits (In this drawing, 1 bit = 8 Chips  SF=8) Baseband

Baseband Data

Spreading Code

Spread Signal

Air Interface

Spreading Code

Data

+1 -1 Chi Chip p +1 -1 +1 -1 +1 -1 +1 -1
+1
-1
Chi
Chip
p
+1
-1
+1
-1
+1
-1
+1
-1

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WCDMA Air Interface Spreading Bits (In this drawing, 1 bit = 8 Chips  SF=8) Baseband

WCDMA Air Interface

Example of Information spreading over orthogonal codes

+1 -1 User Input 1 0 0 1 1 Orthogonal Sequence Tx Data 0110 0110 0110
+1
-1
User Input
1
0
0 1
1
Orthogonal
Sequence
Tx Data
0110
0110
0110
0110
0110
1001
0110
0110
1001
1001
+1
-1
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WCDMA Air Interface

Information Recovery

Rx Data Correct Function 1001 0110 0110 1001 1001 0110 0110 0110 0110 0110 1111 0000
Rx Data
Correct Function
1001
0110
0110 1001
1001
0110
0110
0110
0110
0110
1111
0000
0000
1111
1111
1
0 0
1
1
+1
-1
Rx Data
Incorrect Function
1001
0110
0110 1001
1001
0101
0101
0101
0101
0101
1100
0011
0011 1100
1100
?
?
?
?
?
  • When the wrong Walsh sequence is used for despreading, the resulting correlation yields

an average of zero

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WCDMA Air Interface Information Recovery Rx Data Correct Function 1001 0110 0110 1001 1001 0110 0110

WCDMA Air Interface

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WCDMA Air Interface

DL & UL Channelisation Code

Walsh-Hadamard codes: orthogonal variable spreading factor codes (OVSF codes)

SF for the DL transmission in FDD mode = {4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, 256, 512}

SF for the UL transmission in FDD mode = {4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, 256}

Good orthogonality properties: cross correlation value for each code pair in the code set equals 0

In theoretical environment users of one cell do not interfere each other in DL

In practical multipath environment orthogonality is partly lost Interference between users of same cell

The orthogonal variable spreading factor (OVSF) channelization code preserves the orthogonality between different physical channels using a tree-structured orthogonal code.



Orthogonal codes have bad auto correlation properties and thus not suited in an asynchronous environment

Scrambling code required to separate signals between cells in DL and users in UL



When a code is used, its parent & downlink codes are blocked

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WCDMA Air Interface DL & UL Channelisation Code  Walsh-Hadamard codes: orthogonal variable spreading factor codes

WCDMA Air Interface

Channelisation Code Tree

SF=1 SF=2 SF=4 SF=8 SF=16 C (0)=[ .......... C 8 (0)=[11111111] 16 C (1)=[ .......... ..
SF=1
SF=2
SF=4
SF=8
SF=16
C
(0)=[ ..........
C
8 (0)=[11111111]
16
C
(1)=[ .......... .. ]
16
C
4 (0)=[1111]
..
]
C
(2)=[ ..........
16
C
8 (1)=[1111-1-1-1-1]
..
]
C
(3)=[ ..........
C
2 (0)=[11]
16
..
]
C
(4)=[ ..........
16
C
8 (2)=[11-1-111-1-1]
..
]
C
(5)=[ ..........
16
C
4 (1)=[11-1-1]
..
]
C
(6)=[ ..........
16
C
8 (3)=[11-1-1-1-111]
..
]
C
(7)=[ ..........
C
0 (0)=[1]
16
..
]
C
(8)=[ ..........
16
C
8 (0)=[1-11-11-11-1]
..
]
C
(9)=[ ..........
16
C
(2)=[1-11-1]
4
..
]
C
(10)=[ ..........
16
C
8 (5)=[1-11-1-11-11]
.]
C
(11)=[ ...........
C
(1)=[1-1]
16
2
]
C
(12)=[ ........
16
C
8 (6)=[1-1-111-1-11 ]
]
C
(13=[ .........
16
C
4 (3)=[1-1-11]
..
]
C
(14)=[ ........
16
C
8 (7)=[1-1-11-111-1]
]
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C
(15)=[ ........
16
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]

...

SF=256

SF=512

WCDMA Air Interface Channelisation Code Tree SF=1 SF=2 SF=4 SF=8 SF=16 C (0)=[ .......... C 8

WCDMA Air Interface

DL & UL Scrambling Code

DL Scrambling Codes Pseudo noise codes used for cell separition Generated with the shift register of length 18 (2 18 -1=262 143 codes can be generated)

The first 8192 first codes from 262 143 code set are exclusively used in DL, they are organised into 16 hierarhical groups:

512 Primary Scrambling Codes (PSC) 512*15 Secondary Scrambling Codes (SSC) A Scrambling code repeats with every 10 ms frame

UL Scrambling Codes Two different types of UL scrambling codes are generated:

Long scrambling codes created from the Gold pseudo-noise sequence (length of 38 400 chips) Short scrambling codes generated by the quaternary S(2) pseudo-noise sequence (256 chips are periodicaly repeted to get the scrambling code of the frame length) For the common physical channels long scrambling codes must be used For the dedicated channels both long and short scrambling codes can be used

WCDMA Air Interface DL & UL Scrambling Code DL Scrambling Codes • Pseudo noise codes used

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WCDMA Air Interface DL & UL Scrambling Code DL Scrambling Codes • Pseudo noise codes used

WCDMA Air Interface

Primary Scrambling Code

Scrambling codes for downlink physical channels

WCDMA Air Interface Primary Scrambling Code Scrambling codes for downlink physical channels Set 0 Set 1

Set 0

Set 1

Set 511

WCDMA Air Interface Primary Scrambling Code Scrambling codes for downlink physical channels Set 0 Set 1
WCDMA Air Interface Primary Scrambling Code Scrambling codes for downlink physical channels Set 0 Set 1

8192

scrambling

codes

512 sets

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Primary scrambling code 0

Secondary

scrambling code 1

……

Secondary

scrambling code

15

Primary scrambling code

511×16

 

……

Secondary scrambling code

511×1615

WCDMA Air Interface Primary Scrambling Code Scrambling codes for downlink physical channels Set 0 Set 1

WCDMA Air Interface

DL Spreading and Multiplexing in WCDMA

WCDMA Air Interface DL Spreading and Multiplexing in WCDMA SCRAMBLING CODE 3.84 MHz RF carrier RF
WCDMA Air Interface DL Spreading and Multiplexing in WCDMA SCRAMBLING CODE 3.84 MHz RF carrier RF

SCRAMBLING

CODE

3.84 MHz RF carrier

WCDMA Air Interface DL Spreading and Multiplexing in WCDMA SCRAMBLING CODE 3.84 MHz RF carrier RF

RF

 
 
WCDMA Air Interface DL Spreading and Multiplexing in WCDMA SCRAMBLING CODE 3.84 MHz RF carrier RF

CHANNELISATION codes:

CODE 1

X
X

P-CPICH

Pilot

P-CCPCH
P-CCPCH
WCDMA Air Interface DL Spreading and Multiplexing in WCDMA SCRAMBLING CODE 3.84 MHz RF carrier RF

DPCH 1

WCDMA Air Interface DL Spreading and Multiplexing in WCDMA SCRAMBLING CODE 3.84 MHz RF carrier RF

CODE 2

X
X

BCCH

CODE 3

X
X
+
+
WCDMA Air Interface DL Spreading and Multiplexing in WCDMA SCRAMBLING CODE 3.84 MHz RF carrier RF
WCDMA Air Interface DL Spreading and Multiplexing in WCDMA SCRAMBLING CODE 3.84 MHz RF carrier RF

User 1

CODE 4

WCDMA Air Interface DL Spreading and Multiplexing in WCDMA SCRAMBLING CODE 3.84 MHz RF carrier RF
X
X

DPCH 2

DPCH 3

User 2

X
X

CODE 5

X
X
WCDMA Air Interface DL Spreading and Multiplexing in WCDMA SCRAMBLING CODE 3.84 MHz RF carrier RF

User 3

3.84 MHz bandwidth

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WCDMA Air Interface DL Spreading and Multiplexing in WCDMA SCRAMBLING CODE 3.84 MHz RF carrier RF

WCDMA Air Interface

Channelisation Code vs. Scrambling Code

 

Channelisation code

Scrambling code

Usage

Uplink: Separation of physical data (DPDCH) and control channels (DPCCH) from same terminal

Uplink: Separation of mobile (users) Downlink: Separation of sectors (cells)

Downlink: Separation of downlink connections to different users within one cell (Channel separation)

Length

4–256 chips (1.0–66.7 µs) Downlink also 512 chips

Uplink: (1) 10 ms = 38400 chips or (2) 66.7 µs = 256 chips

Different bit rates by changing the length of the code

Option (2) can be used with advanced base station receivers

Downlink: 10 ms = 38400 chips

Number of codes

Number of codes under one scrambling code = spreading factor

Uplink: 16.8 million Downlink: 512

Code family

Orthogonal Variable Spreading Factor

Long 10 ms code: Gold code Short code: Extended S(2) code family

Spreading

Yes, increases transmission bandwidth

No, does not affect transmission bandwidth

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WCDMA Air Interface Channelisation Code vs. Scrambling Code Channelisation code Scrambling code Usage Uplink: Separation of

WCDMA Air Interface

Duplex Transmission Modes:

• Frequency Division Duplex (FDD) • Time Division Duplex (TDD)

Multiple Access:

• Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA)

Modulation:

• Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK) • 16-QAM (HSDPA)

Bandwidth

5 MHz

Time Organisation:

10 ms per radio frame

• 15 time slots per frame • 72 radio frames per hyperframe

• 2560 chips per timeslot

Spreading

• Spreading codes = channelisation codes scrambling codes • Chip rate: 3.84 Mchips • Channelisation codes = orthogonal codes, length: depends on spreading factor • Scrambling codes = pseudo noise codes (derived from Gold code family) length: 38400 chips (10 ms)

Spreading Factors (FDD mode):

UL: 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, 256

DL: 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, 256, 512 The spreading factor can be changed every

TTI (10, 20, 40, or 80 ms).

Handover types: Soft & Softer HO (FDD only), Hard Handover;

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WCDMA Air Interface Duplex Transmission Modes: • Frequency Division Duplex (FDD) • Time Division Duplex (TDD)

Applications Class

Traffic class

Conversational

Streaming

Interactive

Background

class

class

class

Fundamental

Preserve time

Preserve time

Request

Destination is

characteristics

relation between

relation

response

not expecting

information

between information

pattern

the data within a certain time

entities of the stream

Conversational pattern (stringent and low delay)

entities of the stream

Preserve data integrity

Preserve data integrity

Example of the

Voice,

Streaming

Web browsing,

Background

application

video telephony,

multimedia

network games

download of emails

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Applications Class Traffic class Conversational Streaming Interactive Background class class class Fundamental Preserve time Preserve time

Applications Class

Conversational Streaming Interactive Traffic class class class class Speech Video call Streaming video Streaming audio Web
Conversational
Streaming
Interactive
Traffic class
class
class
class
Speech
Video call
Streaming video
Streaming audio
Web browsing
Email
Email (background)
VoIP
Gaming

Background

class

Applications Class Conversational Streaming Interactive Traffic class class class class Speech Video call Streaming video Streaming
Applications Class Conversational Streaming Interactive Traffic class class class class Speech Video call Streaming video Streaming
Applications Class Conversational Streaming Interactive Traffic class class class class Speech Video call Streaming video Streaming
Applications Class Conversational Streaming Interactive Traffic class class class class Speech Video call Streaming video Streaming
Applications Class Conversational Streaming Interactive Traffic class class class class Speech Video call Streaming video Streaming
Applications Class Conversational Streaming Interactive Traffic class class class class Speech Video call Streaming video Streaming
Applications Class Conversational Streaming Interactive Traffic class class class class Speech Video call Streaming video Streaming
Applications Class Conversational Streaming Interactive Traffic class class class class Speech Video call Streaming video Streaming
Applications Class Conversational Streaming Interactive Traffic class class class class Speech Video call Streaming video Streaming

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Applications Class Conversational Streaming Interactive Traffic class class class class Speech Video call Streaming video Streaming

Radio Resource Management (RRM)

Radio Resource Management

RRM is responsible for optimal utilisation of the radio resources:

Transmission power and interference

Logical codes

Radio resources

The trade-off between capacity, coverage and quality is done all the time Minimum required quality for each user (nothing less and nothing more)

  • Maximum number of users

The radio resources are continuously monitored and optimised by several RRM functionalities

service quality

Radio Resource Management (RRM) Radio Resource Management • RRM is responsible for optimal utilisation of the

Optimization

and Tailoring

cell coverage

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cell capacity

Radio Resource Management (RRM) Radio Resource Management • RRM is responsible for optimal utilisation of the

Radio Resource Management (RRM)

RRM Functionalities LC PS RM AC
RRM Functionalities
LC
PS
RM
AC
PC
PC

Network based functions

HC
HC

Connection based functions

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AC Admission Control LC Load Control PS Packet Scheduler RM Resource Manager

PC Power Control HC HO Control

Radio Resource Management (RRM) RRM Functionalities LC PS RM AC PC Network based functions HC Connection

Radio Resource Management (RRM)

Admission Control (AC)

Checks that admitting a new user will not sacrifice planned coverage or quality of existing connections

Admission control handles three main tasks Admission decision of new connections

Take into account current load conditions (from LC) and load increase by the new connection

Real-time higher priority than non-real time In overload conditions no new connections admitted

Connection QoS definition

Bit rate, BER target etc.

Connection specific power allocation (Initial, maximum and minimum power)

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Radio Resource Management (RRM) Admission Control (AC) • Checks that admitting a new user will not

Radio Resource Management (RRM)

Admission Control

25 Planned uplink interference margin; defines the optimum operating poit up to which the AC can
25
Planned uplink interference margin;
defines the optimum operating poit
up to which the AC can operate.
Defines the limit (the first UL
overload threshold) for the UL
20
interference margin, after which the
BS starts its load control actions to
prevent overload.
15
10
Offset
5
0
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
Load
35
© Nokia Siemens Networks
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Interference Margin (dB)

Radio Resource Management (RRM)

Load Control (LC)

  • Cell load is defined as a function of interference – main criterion in WCDMA

  • The load control function within RRM can be divided into:

Preventive load control (e.g. congestion)

Overload control (e.g. dropping of calls in worst case)

T he load control functionality is done by measuring both UL (received interference) and DL (transmit power) periodically on a cell basis separately.

  • RNP parameters define the thresholds for the RRM functionalities

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Radio Resource Management (RRM) Load Control (LC)  Cell load is defined as a function of

Radio Resource Management (RRM)

Possible Load Control actions in order to reduce load:

Downlink fast load control: Deny downlink power-up commands received from the UE Uplink fast load control: Reduce the uplink Eb/No target used by the uplink fast power control Reduce the throughput of packet data traffic Handover to another WCDMA carrier Handover to GSM Decrease bit rates of real time Ues, e.g. AMR speech codec

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Radio Resource Management (RRM) Possible Load Control actions in order to reduce load: • Downlink fast

Radio Resource Management (RRM)

Overload Control Overload threshold x Preventive Load Control Load Target threshold y Time Power
Overload Control
Overload
threshold x
Preventive Load Control
Load Target
threshold y
Time
Power

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Radio Resource Management (RRM) Overload Control Overload threshold x Preventive Load Control Load Target threshold y

Radio Resource Management (RRM)

Packet Scheduler (PS)

Handles

all

non

real

time

traffic,

(packet

data

users).

It

decides

when

a

packet

transmission is initiated and the bit rate to be used.



In the downlink, the Packet Scheduler decides which channel to use, DCH or FACH

  • LC performs the function

of load control in association

with AC & PS

Load change info AC Load status LC PS NRT load
Load change
info
AC
Load status
LC
PS
NRT load

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Radio Resource Management (RRM) Packet Scheduler (PS)  Handles all non real time traffic, (packet data

Radio Resource Management (RRM)

Radio Resource Management (RRM) RT / NRT : Real-time / Non-Real-time RAB : Radio Access Bearer

RT / NRT : Real-time / Non-Real-time

RAB : Radio Access Bearer

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Radio Resource Management (RRM) RT / NRT : Real-time / Non-Real-time RAB : Radio Access Bearer

Radio Resource Management (RRM)

Resource Manager (RM)

Responsible for managing the logical radio resources of the RNC in co -operation with AC and PS

On request for resources, from either AC(RT) or PS(NRT), RM allocates:

DL spreading code UL scrambling code

Radio Resource Management (RRM) Resource Manager (RM) • Responsible for managing the logical radio resources of
Code Type Uplink Downlink Scrambling codes User separation Cell separation
Code Type
Uplink
Downlink
Scrambling codes
User separation
Cell separation

Spreading codes Data & control channels from same UEUsers within one cell

Also looks after code tree management (to maintain orthogonality); Initial code selection – codes concentrated to the same branch

Code re-fragmentation – dynamic reallocation of codes as users enter/leave the system

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Radio Resource Management (RRM) Resource Manager (RM) • Responsible for managing the logical radio resources of

Radio Resource Management (RRM)

Power Control (PC)

Fast, accurate power control is of utmost importance – particularly in UL;

 Fast, accurate power control is of utmost importance – particularly in UL; • UEs transmit

UEs transmit continuously

WCMDA often uses 1 frequency Poor PC leads to increase interference > reduced capacity

From BTS perspective every UE accessing network increase interference

WCMDA capacity is proportional to interference level > minimise interference

UEs and BTSs should always be at the lowest possible transmission power

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Radio Resource Management (RRM) Power Control (PC)  Fast, accurate power control is of utmost importance

Radio Resource Management (RRM)

Open-Loop Power Control

  • Rough estimation of path loss from receiving signal

  • Initial power setting, or when no feedback channel is exist



Fast Close-Loop Power Control

  • Feedback loop with 1.5kHz cycle to adjust uplink / downlink power to its minimum

  • Even faster than the speed of Rayleigh fading for moderate mobile speeds

Outer Loop Power Control

Outer Loop Power Control

  • Adjust the target SIR setpoint in base station according to the target BER

  • Commanded by RNC

 Open-Loop Power Control  Rough estimation of path loss from receiving signal  Initial power

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Outer Loop Power Control

If quality < target, increases SIR TARGET

Radio Resource Management (RRM)  Open-Loop Power Control  Rough estimation of path loss from receiving
Radio Resource Management (RRM)  Open-Loop Power Control  Rough estimation of path loss from receiving
Radio Resource Management (RRM)  Open-Loop Power Control  Rough estimation of path loss from receiving

Fast Power Control

If SIR < SIR TARGET , send “power up” command to MS

Radio Resource Management (RRM)  Open-Loop Power Control  Rough estimation of path loss from receiving

Radio Resource Management (RRM)

Handover Control (HC)

HC is responsible for:

Managing the mobility aspects of an RRC connection as UE moves around the network coverage area

Maintaining high capacity by ensuring UE is always served by strongest cell

  • Soft handover

MS handover between different base stations

  • Softer handover

MS handover within one base station but between different sectors

  • Hard handover

MS handover between different frequencies or between WCDMA and GSM

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Radio Resource Management (RRM) Handover Control (HC) HC is responsible for: • Managing the mobility aspects

Radio Resource Management (RRM)

Soft Handover

RNC

NodeB 1 NodeB 2
NodeB 1
NodeB 2

Softer Handover

RNC NodeB
RNC
NodeB
  • Active Set: current set of cells UE has active connections to (softer/soft)

  • Monitored set: Set of

cells (not

in active set)

possible set handover candidates

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UE

instructed by

RNC to monitored, as

Radio Resource Management (RRM) Soft Handover RNC NodeB 1 NodeB 2 Softer Handover RNC NodeB 

The future is not something we travel to…

it’s something we build

Mohammad Tourchian Nokia Siemens Network Network Planning & Optimization Mohammad.tourchian.ext@nsn.com

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The future is not something we travel to… it’s something we build Mohammad Tourchian Nokia Siemens