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Petroleum Experts

Petroleum Experts User Manual IPM TUTORIAL October 2009

User Manual

Petroleum Experts User Manual IPM TUTORIAL October 2009

IPM

TUTORIAL

October 2009

2

 

Copyright Notice

The copyright in this manual and the associated computer program are the property of Petroleum Experts Ltd. All rights reserved. Both, this manual and the computer program have been provided pursuant to a Licence Agreement containing restriction of use.

2 Copyright Notice The copyright in this manual and the associated computer program are the property

No part of this manual may be reproduced, transmitted, transcribed, stored in a retrieval system, or translated into any language, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, magnetic, optical or otherwise, or disclose to third parties without prior written consent from Petroleum Experts Ltd., Petex House, 10 Logie Mill, Edinburgh, EH7 4HG, Scotland, UK.

© Petroleum Experts Ltd. All rights reserved.

IPM Suite, GAP, PROSPER, MBAL, PVTP, REVEAL, RESOLVE, IFM, ModelCatalogue and OpenServer are trademarks of Petroleum Experts Ltd.

Microsoft (Windows), Windows (2000) and Windows (XP) are registered trademarks of the Microsoft Corporation

The software described in this manual is furnished under a licence agreement. The software may be used or copied only in accordance with the terms of the agreement. It is against the law to copy the software on any medium except as specifically allowed in the license agreement. No part of this documentation may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or information storage and retrieval systems for any purpose other than the purchaser's personal use, unless express written consent has been given by Petroleum Experts Limited.

Address:

Petroleum Experts Limited Petex House 10 Logie Mill Edinburgh, Scotland EH7 4HG

Tel

: (44 131) 474 7030

Fax : (44 131) 474 7031

email: edinburgh@petex.com Internet: www.petex.com

Contents

I

Table of Contents

0 Chapter 1 Introduction 2 1 About This 2 2 How to use this................................................................................................................................... guide 2
0
Chapter 1
Introduction
2
1
About This
2
2
How to use this...................................................................................................................................
guide
2
Symbols and conventions
..........................................................................................................................................................
3
Chapter 2
Dexterity Examples
5
1
GAP Gas Network...................................................................................................................................
Example
5
Objectives
5
Learning topics.........................................................................................................................................................
6
Executive summary
.........................................................................................................................................................
6
STEP 1 :
GAP
6
STEP 2 :
GAP System Options
8
STEP 3 :
GAP Model Schematically
10
STEP 4 :
the Well
11
STEP 5 : Calculate the Well IPR and VLP
13
STEP 6 :
pipeline
17
STEP 7 :
the GAP Network
18
STEP 8 : Material Balance Prediction
19
STEP 9 : Constraints
..........................................................................................................................................................
24
2
PROSPER Gas...................................................................................................................................
Well Example
31
Objectives
32
Learning topics
.........................................................................................................................................................
32
Summary
32
STEP 1 :
PROSPER
32
STEP 2 :
PROSPER Method/Options
34
STEP 3 :
fluid PVT Data
34
STEP 4 :
Well Inflow and Equipment data
35
3
MBAL Gas Reservoir
...................................................................................................................................
Example
43
Objectives
44
Learning topics
.........................................................................................................................................................
44
Summary
44
STEP 1 :
MBAL
44
STEP 2 :
MBAL Method/Options
47
STEP 3 :
PVT Data
48
STEP 4 :
Tank Parameters
49
4
GAP Gas-Lifted...................................................................................................................................
System Example
50
Objectives
51
Learning topics
.........................................................................................................................................................
51
summary
51
STEP 1 :
Setup
52
Starting
New File
52
GAP
setup
52

Units setup.........................................................................................................................................................

54

Injection

fluid.........................................................................................................................................................

setup 55

STEP 2 :

System..........................................................................................................................................................

schematics 56

II

IPM Worked Examples

Adding Wells.........................................................................................................................................................

Tie-backs.........................................................................................................................................................

56

57

The Platform......................................................................................................................................................... 58 58 Other Options 60 STEP 3 : Describing the wells 61 Well models.........................................................................................................................................................
The Platform.........................................................................................................................................................
58
58
Other
Options
60
STEP 3 : Describing the wells
61
Well models.........................................................................................................................................................
62
IPRs From Existing PROSPER Well Models
63
Importing Existing Vertical Lift tables to the Well Models
65
STEP 4 : Describing the Pipeline network
67
Riser Description
.........................................................................................................................................................
67
'Tie One' .........................................................................................................................................................
Pipeline description
69
‘TieTwo’ Pipeline description
70
STEP
5 : Calculate Production given total lift gas available
70
STEP
6 :
analysis
73
5
Associated Water...................................................................................................................................
/ Gas Injection Model Example
77
Objectives
77
Learning topics
.........................................................................................................................................................
78
summary
78
STEP 1 : Set
Production Model
78
STEP 2 :
the Water Injection Model
81
STEP 3 :
the Production and the Injection System
84
STEP 4 : Performing the Material Balance Prediction
87
Associated
Injection Model
92
Chapter 3
Physics Examples
95
1
PROSPER Gas...................................................................................................................................
Lift Example
95
Objectives
95
Learning topics
.........................................................................................................................................................
96
summary
97
STEP 1 :
Setup
97
STEP 2 :
Model Validation and Data Quality Check
110
STEP 3 :
Lift Design
122
STEP 4 :
of QuickLook Diagnostic tool for gas lift performance validation
127
2
PROSPER ESP...................................................................................................................................
Example
131
Objectives
131
topics
132
summary
133
STEP 1 :
Setup
133
STEP 2 :
Model Validation and Data Quality Check
142
STEP 3 :
Design
146
STEP 4 :
of QuickLook Diagnostic tool for ESP lift performance validation
153
3
MBAL Gas History
...................................................................................................................................
Matching Example
162
Objectives
162
topics
162
summary
162
STEP 1 : Initialise MBAL
163
STEP 2 :
Production History Data
163
STEP 3 : Introduction to Material Balance concepts
165
STEP 4 : Material Balance History Matching
166
STEP 5 : Relative Permeability Matching
172
  • 4 MBAL Oil History

Matching Example

...................................................................................................................................

179

III

Contents

5

Objectives STEP 1 : STEP 2 : Matching STEP 3 : Sensitivity STEP 4 : MBAL
Objectives
STEP 1 :
STEP 2 : Matching
STEP 3 : Sensitivity
STEP 4 :
MBAL Production Prediction Example
Objectives
STEP 1 : Production
STEP 2 : Boundary
STEP 3 :
STEP 4 :
STEP 5 :
STEP 6 :
STEP 7 : Reporting
STEP 8 : Production

..........................................................................................................................................................

179

Learning.........................................................................................................................................................

topics 180

Executive.........................................................................................................................................................

Summary 180

Model..........................................................................................................................................................

Setup 180

..........................................................................................................................................................

to Production History data in MBAL 188

..........................................................................................................................................................

Analysis 195

History..........................................................................................................................................................

Match Quality Check 197

198

198

...................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................................

Learning.........................................................................................................................................................

topics 199

Executive.........................................................................................................................................................

Summary 199

..........................................................................................................................................................

Prediction Setup 199

..........................................................................................................................................................

conditions 200

Well..........................................................................................................................................................

Type Definition 201

Inflow..........................................................................................................................................................

Performance 203

Outflow..........................................................................................................................................................

Performance 207

Well..........................................................................................................................................................

Schedule 209

..........................................................................................................................................................

frequency 210

..........................................................................................................................................................

prediction 211

Chapter 1
Chapter
1

Introduction

2

1

Introduction

All completed example be
All
completed
example
be

files

can

This document contains tutorials for the Petroleum Experts’ software: PROSPER, MBAL and GAP. The tutorials are designed to guide the user through a number of program examples. As a new user, the tutorials provide a good overview of the programs' functionalities and will assist in developing proficiency in use of the tools.

The tutorials are split into two sections. The first set of tutorials is designed for new users and it focuses on the dexterity required to use the programs. The second set of tutorials provides more depth and knowledge on use of the tools in achieving various modeling objectives and the physical and engineering concepts related to these.

  • 1.1 About This Guide The guide assumes one is familiar with basic Windows operations and terminology. The screen displays used in this guide are taken from the examples provided with the software. On occasion, the data files may vary from the examples shown as updates to the program are issued. Where major amendments or changes to the program require further explanation, the corresponding documentation will be provided. What is in this guide: Chapter 2, ‘Dexterity Examples’, contains tutorials that concentrate on basic use of the programs, without much detail about the physics of the engineering models addressed Chapter 3, ‘Physics Examples’, contains tutorials that provide more information about the physics of the engineering models addressed NOTE:

found in C:\Program Files

\Petroleum Experts\IPM 7.x\Samples\Worked Examples\Dexterity Examples\

GAP.

Please note that the files will be in the form of an archived GAP file (GAR file).

The GAR file contains all the

necessary models i.e.,PROSPER, MBAL,

VLP's, etc., that are required to compete the example file.

To access the files, the

GAR file must first be extracted using the following work-flow: from the main menu of GAP select: File | Archive | Extract. Once the GAR file has been extracted, a new instance of GAP can be started and the associated files linked using the tutorial work-flows

  • 1.2 How to use this guide New users to Petroleum Experts’ IPM software should work through all the examples in Chapter 2 before moving on to Chapter 3.

3 IPM Tutorial Manual Users proficient in Petroleum Experts IPM software may find the tutorials in
3
IPM Tutorial Manual
Users proficient in Petroleum Experts IPM software may find the tutorials in Chapter 3
useful.
1.2.1
Symbols and conventions
Throughout the user guide, special fonts and/or icons are used to demonstrate
specific steps, instructions and procedures in the program.
PETEX
program
ALL CAPS
The term PETEX program is used when the
comment is applicable to PROSPER, MBAL
or GAP.
Represent DOS directories, file names, and
commands.
Italics
Used
to
highlight
certain
points
of
information.
Keycap
Bold
fonts are used
to
indicate a
specific
action to be taken.
For example: ‘Click Done
window.’
to
exit
the
Menu
Command
ò
To avoid repeating the phrase ‘Click the
File menu and choose the Open command’,
we use the File|Open convention instead.
Emphasizes specific information to be
entered or be aware of.
7
8
This keyboard icon marks step-by-step
instructions.
This symbol is a reminder to click the
RIGHT mouse button. Clicking the right
mouse button performs specific functions in
MBAL, depending on the active dialogue
box or plot. If you do not have a right
mouse button, holding down the SHIFT key
while a click on the mouse button performs
the required function.

Chapter

Chapter 2
2
2

5

IPM Tutorial Manual

  • 2 Dexterity Examples

5 IPM Tutorial Manual 2 Dexterity Examples This section contains the following tutorials: GAP Gas Network

This section contains the following tutorials:

GAP Gas Network Example:

This example builds a simple onshore gas network integrated model and calculates production from the system in time (production prediction). The well model associated with the integrated model is designed in PROSPER (PROSPER gas well example) and the reservoir model associated with the integrated model is designed in MBAL (MBAL Gas reservoir example).

PROSPER Gas Well Example:

An example that illustrates gas well modeling in PROSPER. The PROSPER well model is used within the GAP Gas Network example. It can also be run in isolation.

MBAL Gas Reservoir Example:

An example that illustrates gas reservoir modeling in MBAL . The MBAL reservoir model is used within the GAP Gas Network example. It can also be run in isolation.

GAP Gas Lift Example:

This example illustrates the design and optimization of an oil production system using gas lift.

All the example files are located in:

C:\Program Files\Petroleum Experts\IPM 7.x\Worked Examples\Dexterity Examples

  • 2.1 GAP Gas Network Example This tutorial example is designed to provide a step-by-step introduction to the GAP program. The emphasis is on the data required to model and analyse the production potential of a dry gas reservoir (no condensate). The actual data is of little importance and for ease of understanding has been chosen to be minimal. However, the systematic approach to building a GAP model using PROSPER well models and MBAL reservoir models is an important element of the tutorial. The PROSPER well modeling and MBAL reservoir modeling phases are separate modules referenced from this GAP tutorial.

2.1.1

Objectives

The system to be modeled is described below:

An onshore gas field is depleted by a well and producing through a pipeline to a separator (pressure of 1300psig). Pipeline is 10,000ft in length with an internal diameter of 6inches.

Dexterity Examples

6

The well is 17, 350ft deep. Fluid is dry gas with no condensate or free water associated with it.

a new well and calculate production
a
new well
and
calculate production

Objectives:

Calculate production capacity of the system Calculate production capacity of the system if the separator is constrained to a gas rate of100MMscf/day.

  • 2.1.1.1 Learning topics This section focuses on how to: Design a simple integrated oil production model in GAP Associate valid well models in GAP Associate valid reservoir/tank models in GAP Calculate system potential Optimise system production to honour a constraint

  • 2.1.1.2 Executive summary Steps taken to achieve the modeling objective is as follows: Describe integrated model schematic in GAP Construct a well model in PROSPER - VLP and IPR models. Design a reservoir/tank model in MBAL Define pipeline model in GAP Calculate production from the integrated model at a point in time - Solve network Perform a production prediction Add

separator limit.

from the system while honouring

  • 2.1.2 STEP 1 : Initialise GAP This section describes how GAP is started and how the location of the required associated files is initialised. Start GAP

by using the following Windows commands: Start | All Programs |

Petroleum Experts IPM 7.X | GAP. See the GAP manual for more details on how to start GAP. The version of GAP being used may be checked by selecting, Help | Ab out GAP.

7 IPM Tutorial Manual The command options (File, Options etc.) on the GAP main menu are
7
IPM Tutorial Manual
The command options (File, Options etc.) on the GAP main menu are laid out in a
logical order (left to right; top to bottom fashion) that reflects the order in which
operations will usually be performed. Click on File | Directories and check that
PROSPER and MBAL Executables point to the current versions of PROSPER and
MBAL respectively. The PROSPER and MBAL applications can also be found in the
Petroleum Experts directory.
Please note that files saved with these versions of GAP, PROSPER and MBAL will
not be readable by previous versions. It is recommended, therefore, that the File |
Directory | GAP and MBAL Data Directory options are set to point to directories
that are exclusively used to store data files created with the current software
versions.

When GAP is started

a

new

file

is

created (unless otherwise

specified in the

preferences). Create a new file by selecting File | New or using the toolbar icon to start a new file.

7 IPM Tutorial Manual The command options (File, Options etc.) on the GAP main menu are

It is important to ensure that consistent units are used throughout the integrated model, particularly when data generated by PROSPER and MBAL are incorporated into a GAP model. Oilfield units will be used for this example. Select Options | Units to view the units used by GAP for input and output, the data validation ranges, and

Dexterity Examples

8

output precision. Near the top of the screen within the tabular heading select Oilfield for both input and output units (as shown in Figure 3), and then select OK.

Figure 3: Oilfield Units for Input and Output
Figure 3: Oilfield Units for Input and Output
  • 2.1.3 STEP 2 : Define GAP System Options In this section the scope of calculations and general options required for the GAP model will be defined. This example is focused on a dry gas reservoir producing to a separator through a delivery pipeline 10000 ft away. No production history is available, but the fluid volume and composition of the reservoir has been estimated, allowing a material balance prediction to be performed. Select Options | Method to set the GAP calculation method.

9 IPM Tutorial Manual Set System type to Production, Optimisation method to Production, PVT Model to
9
IPM Tutorial Manual
Set System type to Production, Optimisation method to Production, PVT Model to
None and Prediction method to Pressure and temperature.
Set Prediction type to On. This tells GAP how to update reservoir pressures during a
Prediction calculation. A constant reservoir pressure can be specified by selecting
None, in which case no prediction calculations are performed: in this case, the
model represents the system at an instant in time and no tank models are required.
Optimisation may be performed for both predictive (depleting reservoir) and non-
predictive (constant reservoir) calculations.

The completed options interface is shown above. This completes the GAP calculation method set-up. Select OK to return to the main GAP window.

Dexterity Examples

10

  • 2.1.4 STEP 3 : Define GAP Model Schematically In this section schematics of the gas production system is designed in GAP. This will include all the components/ elements of the integrated model. The properties of the components and reservoir fluids are entered at a later stage using PROSPER and MBAL.

Dexterity Examples 10 2.1.4 STEP 3 : Define GAP Model Schematically In this section schematics of

The model will consist of a reservoir (specified as a tank), a gas production well and a pipeline connecting the well manifold to the delivery pipeline. It is recommended that the GAP model be specified from the separator (delivery pipeline) end towards the reservoir, allowing complex models to be built easily. Since this example is very simple it makes little difference in what order the components are created.

) is used to create and

The toolbar (

Dexterity Examples 10 2.1.4 STEP 3 : Define GAP Model Schematically In this section schematics of

modify components on the network schematic. Note that when they are selected they remain active until they are unselected. The exception to this is the ‘Delete’ icon, which must be selected for each deletion. To identify an icon, hold the mouse cursor over it until a yellow box appears with a short description of the icon function.

Select the Add Separator icon and click the left-hand mouse button in the main GAP display area towards the top right. The element is labelled 'Separator'. The label is not required, but it is advisable to identify the nodes this way. A separator is considered by GAP to be the end of the production chain or a fixed pressure point in the system. This does not have to represent a separator in reality; rather a node/ point in the system where a known pressure exists.

Next, select the Add Joint icon and add a joint. Label this ‘Manifold 1’. Place the manifold to the left of the separator. Place a second “Manifold 2” to the left of this. A joint is any manifold or intersection where pipes converge. A pipe element is defined in between two joints.

Select the Add Well icon and add a well below the Manifold 2. Label this ‘Well’.

Select the Tank icon and add a Tank, named ‘Tank’ below the well.

Dexterity Examples 10 2.1.4 STEP 3 : Define GAP Model Schematically In this section schematics of

The elements shall be linked together with the Add Link icon by dragging the left- hand mouse button between two components. The connections are made in the direction of fluid flow. Connect the Tank to its Well, and the Well to its wellhead (Manifold 1). Connect manifold 1 to 2 for the pipe and finally connect Manifold 2 to the Separator. Note that a pipe component has been inserted between the two Manifolds. No pipe components are defined between the Tank, Well, and Manifold 2 since any piping between these components is assumed to be implicitly defined by the Well.

Deselect the Link icon to prevent adding more links.

11

IPM Tutorial Manual

The basic model layout has been defined: additional components can easily be added or deleted as the model is refined later. The GAP integrated model schematic is shown below

11 IPM Tutorial Manual The basic model layout has been defined: additional components can easily be

Save the GAP file (using File | Save As) as Gasres.gap in a directory of choice.

  • 2.1.5 STEP 4 : Define the Well In this step the physical characteristics of the well and reservoir which define flow from the reservoir to the wellhead (‘Manifold’ in this example) shall be specified. The performance of well is defined by a VLP and IPR model. Please refer to the well section of the GAP manual for more details on well models and available options. Although data may be entered directly into GAP, PROSPER will be used to generate the well properties. The main advantage of using PROSPER is that the VLPs and IPRs can be generated later by automatic batch calls to PROSPER from GAP. ‘VLP/ IPR Intersection’ shall be selected as the well model in GAP. In addition, well model validation (i.e. matching model to production history) and sensitivity analysis on different design parameters or future condition of the well can be performed using PROSPER. Double click using the left-hand mouse button on the Well component in the GAP model. A well summary screen is displayed where well type and well model to be

Dexterity Examples

12

used are selected. All elements contained in the model are listed on the right and data entry for any component can be made by selecting the required component with a left mouse click. A red cross besides the equipment indicates that insufficient data has been entered. Within the Well data entry screen change the Well Type to Gas Producer (this will change the well colour on the main display screen from green to red). Set the well model as VLP / IPR Intersection. Set the rate model as 'Use volumes'. Rates (for the VLPs) can be defined using volumes or mass More information is available under 'Well summary screen' section of GAP manual.

bottom right hand corner and GAP
bottom
right
hand
corner
and
GAP

Select the “Run PROSPER” button in

automatically launches a PROSPER file. Check that the correct version of PROSPER is loaded, otherwise check File | Directory from within GAP. Go to the PROSPER Gas Well Example to set up the PROSPER model.

Go to the PROSPER Gas Well Example now – Initialise PROSPER.

With the PROSPER well modelling exercise completed, save the file and return to GAP from PROSPER by selecting GAP from the main PROSPER menu. It is recommended that any changes made to a PROSPER file are saved before returning to GAP.

On returning to GAP after creating the PROSPER file the PROSPER.OUT file will

13

IPM Tutorial Manual

automatically be placed in the GAP well summary screen PROSPER file path location. Alternatively, use the Browse button to locate the PROSPER.OUT file. The *.out (e.g. Gasres.OUT) PROSPER file should be used in preference to the input (Gasres.SIN) and analysis (Gasres.ANL) files.

13 IPM Tutorial Manual automatically be placed in the GAP well summary screen PROSPER file path

With the well file path defined, the status becomes valid. To further check that the PROSPER file is properly located select Run PROSPER and return to GAP by selecting GAP on the PROSPER main menu.

Select OK to return to the GAP main window.

Save the GAP file by clicking on the save icon the overwrite confirmation.

or File| Save and selecting Yes to

  • 2.1.6 STEP 5 : Calculate the Well IPR and VLP The Inflow Performance Relation (IPR) and Vertical Lift Performance (VLP) data can now be generated automatically by batch calls to PROSPER. The inflow performance relationship (IPR) of the well has been described in the PROSPER well model. We need to transfer the IPR from PROSPER to GAP. For gas wells, while importing the IPR from PROSPER to GAP, GAP takes three points from the PROSPER IPR, and fits the three points to the Forcheimer Pseudo Pressure IPR model or C & n IPR method (Defined by user in the IPR screen of the well in GAP). From the main GAP main menu select Generate | Generate Well IPR's with PROSPER | All | Generate. PROSPER will automatically be called from GAP and pass the IPR and PVT data to the GAP well IPR data section. The process is displayed below.

13 IPM Tutorial Manual automatically be placed in the GAP well summary screen PROSPER file path

Dexterity Examples

14

Click on All to select all the valid wells in the model (in this case only one).

Figure 10: Select wells message
Figure 10: Select wells message

Click on Generate to proceed and the IPR will be generated (copied across from PROSPER).

Dexterity Examples 14 Click on All to select all the valid wells in the model (in

Click OK and go back to the main screen. Double-click on the Well icon to bring up the well summary screen then select IPR tab to display the fluid PVT properties, layer pressures and temperatures obtained from PROSPER. Click on the More tab (still in red).

15 IPM Tutorial Manual GAP needs to know how water cut and GOR (case of oils)
15
IPM Tutorial Manual
GAP needs to know how water cut and GOR (case of oils) will evolve in future and
for this pseudo-relative permeability curves are required. For this example, fractional
flow rel perms shall be obtained "from tank model". Select this option and the IPR
becomes valid. Alternatively, selecting Validate will also remove the red invalid IPR
designation.
Generate Well VLP's from GAP
From the main GAP menu select Generate | Generate Well VLPs with PROSPER |
All | Data to specify the ranges of data for which the VLP curves should be
generated. PROSPER is called up to load the sensitivity values already stored within
it (if any). Enter the following sensitivity values:
Dexterity Examples 16 Note that the Populate buttons can be used to create the tables rather
Dexterity Examples
16
Note that the Populate buttons can be used to create the tables rather than the
data being entered manually. Data required is as follows:
-
Liquid rate: 1 - 150MMscf/day (Geometric spacing)
-
Manifold pressure: 1300 - 10000 psig (Linear spacing)
-
CGR: 0 and 0.1 stb/MMscf
-
WGR: 0 - 100 (Linear spacing)
This table covers the range of possible gas production rates, manifold (well head)
pressures and water to gas ratios (WGR) that the well may encounter during a
prediction. Since the gas is dry with a CGR of zero, the CGR will always be at this
value. However a minimum value of 0.1stb/MMscf CGR (negligible) is required by
multiphase flow correlations for their calculations. Hence 0 - 0.1stb/MMscf CGR is
input for VLP curves generation.
Select OK and then Generate to perform the calculations using PROSPER: this may
take some time. Select OK | OK when the calculations have completed.

Go back to the main screen. Note that the well is now valid as the thick red circle around the well has now disappeared. Double-click on the Well icon to bring up the well summary screen. Notice also that the colour of the VLP and IPR buttons have now turned green indicating a valid GAP well model.

17 IPM Tutorial Manual Now save the GAP file by clicking on save icon confirmation. and
17
IPM Tutorial Manual
Now save the GAP file by clicking on save icon
confirmation.
and selecting Yes to the overwrite
2.1.7
STEP 6 : Define pipeline
The pipeline profile and equipment data will be input in this section for pressure drop
calculations along the pipe.
Double click on the pipeline in the GAP model using the left-hand mouse button and
select Input at the bottom of the screen, followed by the Description tab, leaving
the Environment properties at their default values for pipeline temperature
calculations. Enter the following pipe data:

Length = 10000 ft TVD downstream = 0 ft TVD upstream = 0 ft Inside diameter = 6 INS Roughness = 0.0006 INS

Dexterity Examples

18

Select OK to return to the main screen.

Dexterity Examples 18 Select O K to return to the main screen. 2.1.8 STEP 7 :
  • 2.1.8 STEP 7 : Solve the GAP Network This section describes how to calculate production from the integrated model. This objective is achieved by solving the network with the separator pressure boundary condition defined. The potential of the system at a point in time is obtained through this approach while MBAL calculations will provide reservoir pressure decline with time for prediction calculations. Double-click using the left-hand mouse button on the GAP well model. Note that all of the Data Summary flags are green and the Well has a green tick next to it in the list of components on the right side of the Equipment Data Entry screen. If this is not the case, then the VLP and IPR models have not been calculated correctly and STEP 5 should be repeated carefully. To calculate the system production, select Solve Network from GAP menu. Set the Separator Pressure to 1300 psig. Select Next | Calculate. Go back to the main screen when calculation is completed. The results of a network solve can be obtained by hovering the mouse over each network element/node as shown below. Among information displayed are: Qoil; Qwat; Qliq; Qgas; Pressure; Temp.; and dP for the exit point of that item.

19 IPM Tutorial Manual The results can also be viewed by selecting Results | Detailed |
19
IPM Tutorial Manual
The results can also be viewed by selecting Results | Detailed | All Items. The gas
production rate from the system is 72 MMscf/day. Select OK to return to the main
GAP window.
Save the GAP file by clicking on save icon
confirmation.
and selecting Yes to the overwrite
2.1.9
STEP 8 : Material Balance Prediction
In this section a tank model is defined using MBAL, and a material balance

prediction of flow and pressure decline is undertaken.

Go to the MBAL Gas Reservoir Example now - Create the Tank. MBAL will be activated directly from GAP by Double Clicking on the tank and then select Run MBAL from the bottom right hand corner of the Summary Screen as shown below.

19 IPM Tutorial Manual The results can also be viewed by selecting Results | Detailed |
19 IPM Tutorial Manual The results can also be viewed by selecting Results | Detailed |
Dexterity Examples 20 If MBAL has been accessed from GAP, upon returning to GAP from MBAL,
Dexterity Examples
20
If MBAL has been accessed from GAP, upon returning to GAP from MBAL, the path
of the MBAL file will be displayed in the Tank Summary Screen of GAP. If the MBAL
file has been prepared by running MBAL standalone/independently, then the file
path can be specified by clicking on browse to locate the Gasres.mbi file. Note that
the Tank component on the right side of the Equipment Data Entry screen now has a
green tick beside its name.
On the GAP main screen, there shall be no red circles around the tank or the well.
This indicates that all the data is valid. The GAP main screen is as shown in the
following figure.
21 IPM Tutorial Manual The material balance tank model is now in place and a prediction
21
IPM Tutorial Manual
The material balance tank model is now in place and a prediction can be performed.
A simple prediction will be run first, with no constraints or events occurring during the
production. This is essentially the same as the Solve Network calculation
performed previously, except that a material balance calculation is performed after
each time step to update the reservoir pressure and PVT properties.
Select Prediction | Run Prediction and set the following time control data.
Start Date
01/01/2005
Step Size
End Date
01/01/2020
1 Year(s)
Select Next | Next and input a Separator pressure of 1300 psig. Select Next | C
alculate and allow the Solve Network cycle to be performed for each of the 15 time
steps requested.
Dexterity Examples 22 Select Main to go to the main interface when the run is completed.
Dexterity Examples
22
Select Main to go to the main interface when the run is completed.
The results of the prediction calculation can be viewed by selecting from the main
GAP menu Prediction | Plot Nodes Prediction Results, and highlighting the
Separator, Manifold 1 and 2 and Well nodes from the resulting list. Since the
components are all in series, the flow parameters should be identical for each node
and curves should overlay.
23 IPM Tutorial Manual Click on Plot and a plot window will appear. Select Variables and
23
IPM Tutorial Manual
Click on Plot and a plot window will appear. Select Variables and plot the Gas rate
against time. Also plot Water rate, Reservoir pressure and Cum Gas Production
results.
Dexterity Examples 24 The initial and peak gas rate should be 72 MMscf/day, and the peak
Dexterity Examples
24
The initial and peak gas rate should be 72 MMscf/day, and the peak water rate
should be 44 STB/day. This water is the vaporised and connate water produced as
the reservoir depressurises, water expands and formation rocks contract. Select M
ain to return the main GAP window.
No constraints have been entered in this system, and it is always recommended that
none is entered until the potential of the system has been established. At this point
the user should consider design options and sensitivity analyses.
Now save the GAP file by clicking on save icon
confirmation.
and selecting Yes to the overwrite
This concludes the first objective of the exercise: calculating the system production
in time.
  • 2.1.10 STEP 9 : Constraints This section explains how to achieve the second objective of the exercise: a constraint will be applied to the maximum flow rate that can be passed through the separator. Production from one well is not enough to meet the target rate constraint. However, the use of two wells gives a production much higher than the target rate. Thus, one of the wells will initially have to be choked back to satisfy the separator constraint.

25

IPM Tutorial Manual

25 IPM Tutorial Manual Select the well icon and add a new well next to the

Select the well icon and add a new well next to the current well.

The already defined well properties (VLPs, IPR, PVT etc) can be copied to the new well by holding the Ctrl key down while selecting the first well with the left mouse button, and dragging the mouse over the new well.

25 IPM Tutorial Manual Select the well icon and add a new well next to the

Add a link between the new well and the Manifold 2 using the link icon, and then deselect the link icon.

Alternatively, right click on the first well and select Copy. Right click anywhere in the model and select Paste to paste the copied well. Link the well to manifold 1.

Enter the Summary Data Entry screen for the second well by double-clicking on the well's icon with the left-hand mouse button. Change its label to Well 2 in the top left of the screen, and then click on the green tab labelled dP Control in the lower part of the screen. These buttons are quick links to different screens of equipment input data. Set the “dP Control” to Calculated. This will simulate the presence of a well head choke that allows GAP to reduce the flow from the well and meet any constraints imposed on the system.

Dexterity Examples 26 Select OK. The potentially choked (controllable) well will have a thin red ring
Dexterity Examples
26
Select OK. The potentially choked (controllable) well will have a thin red ring around
it.
27 IPM Tutorial Manual Input the gas rate constraint at the separator by double-clicking using the
27
IPM Tutorial Manual
Input the gas rate constraint at the separator by double-clicking using the left-hand
mouse button on the separator icon. Navigate to the Constraints data entry section
by clicking on the Constraints tab in the lower half of the Equipment Data Entry
screen. Enter a Max gas production of 100 MMscf/day, and then select OK.
Dexterity Examples 28 The separator constraint is shown on the separator icon as two inward pointing
Dexterity Examples
28
The separator constraint is shown on the separator icon as two inward pointing
arrows. This is shown in the figure below.
29 IPM Tutorial Manual Select Solve Network | Next and click on the Optimise with all
29
IPM Tutorial Manual
Select Solve Network | Next and click on the Optimise with all Constraints
option:

Dexterity Examples

30

Next Calculate to solve the system with the constraint applied. Click on Main to access the main interface when the calculation is finished. Since there are two wells: one fully open and the other with a wellhead choke (dP control), the optimiser will choke back well 2 to achieve the constraint set at the Separator. To access the results, go to Results | Detailed | All Wells. The Gas production for the two wells can be checked. Use Next to move to Well 2 and note that the production has been choked back to 29 MMscf/day to achieve the constraint at separator.

Dexterity Examples 30 Next Calculate to solve the system with the constraint applied. Click on Main

A green rhombus will be seen across the separator indicating that constraint of 100MMscf/day gas rate has been honoured. If this is not visible, the option can be activated by selecting View | Highlight Limiting Constraints from the main menu.

If a prediction run is perforrmed (selecting Optimise with all constraints calculation option), Well 2 will be choked back as long as the potential of the system is greater than the constraint set:

31 IPM Tutorial Manual Save the GAP file using save icon and select Yes to overwrite
31
IPM Tutorial Manual
Save the GAP file using save icon
and select Yes to overwrite the current file.
This concludes the objective of the exercise.
2.2
PROSPER Gas Well Example
This tutorial example is designed to provide a step-by-step introduction to the
PROSPER program. The emphasis is on the data entry required to model a dry gas
producing well for inclusion into an integrated gas system model in GAP. See the
GAP Gas Network Example for further details. Since it is hoped that this example will
be used as a phase in the GAP Gas Network Example, it is anticipated that
PROSPER will have been loaded from within GAP. However if that is not the case,
this example can also be run using the standalone version of PROSPER.

PROSPER is a single well characterisation/modeling program. Its output is principally Inflow Performance Relationship (IPRs) and Vertical Lift Performance curves (VLPs). These relations respectively describe the inflow to the well sandface from the reservoir and the outflow from the well sandface to a manifold (or well head) at the top of the well. These pressure and flow correlations are heavily reliant on the PVT (Pressure, Volume, and Temperature) characteristics of the produced fluid. Using Inflow and Outflow, we know the behaviour of the well in terms of the flow rates vs. bottom hole pressures for a given mean reservoir pressure.

Dexterity Examples 32 In addition PROSPER is equipped with techniques to validate the model by matching
Dexterity Examples
32
In addition PROSPER is equipped with techniques to validate the model by matching
known correlations to observed production history and also performing detailed
sensitivity analyses.
2.2.1
Objectives
The system to be modeled is described below:
A naturally flowing 17,350 feet deep well.
Tubing is 17250 feet long (2.992 inches ID) with 100 feet of casing (6 inches ID).
The reservoir is at 11500psig and 230degF.
Fluid is dry gas with no condensate or free water associated with it.
Objective:
Design
a PROSPER well
model
for input
into
GAP
gas
integrated modeling
exercise.
Calculate production capacity of the well.
2.2.1.1
Learning topics
This section focuses on how to:
Design a simple well model in PROSPER.
Calculate production.
2.2.1.2
Executive Summary
Steps taken to achieve the modeling objective is as follows:
Define PROSPER well modeling options/objectives
Define fluid PVT model
Define well completion data
Define reservoir inflow performance
Calculate production from the well
Save file for inclusion into GAP gas integrated production model.
  • 2.2.2 STEP 1 : Initialise PROSPER If PROSPER has not been started from GAP, it can be run standalone using the following Windows commands: Start | All Programs | Petroleum Experts IPM 7.X | PROSPER. See the PROSPER manual for more details on how to launch PROSPER. It is necessary to check that the current version of PROSPER has been loaded. The

33 IPM Tutorial Manual version of PROSPER being used can be seen in bottom right hand
33
IPM Tutorial Manual
version of PROSPER being used can be seen in bottom right hand side of main
PROSPER interface or by selecting Help | About Prosper.
The command options (File, Options etc.) at the top of the PROSPER window are
laid out in a logical order (left to right; top to bottom fashion) that reflects the order or
workflow required to design well models.
Select File | New
to
start
a
new
file
if required.
This step is not necessary if
PROSPER has been launched from GAP.
Note that files saved with this version of PROSPER will not be readable by previous
versions.
Select File | Preferences followed by the File tab. It is recommended that the
Default Data Directory field is set (using the Browse button) to a directory that is
exclusively used to store data files created with the current software version. This is
as shown in the following figure.

Select the Units tab. It is also important to ensure that consistent units are used throughout, particularly when data generated by PROSPER may be incorporated into an MBAL or GAP model. Oilfield units will be used for this example. Ensure that Input Units and Output Units box have Oilfield selected. Select Done to return to the main PROSPER window.

Dexterity Examples

34

  • 2.2.3 STEP 2 : Define PROSPER Method/Options In this section the well modeling objectives in PROSPER are set e.g. well type, fluid type e.t.c. Detailed information about these options will be entered later.

Dexterity Examples 34 2.2.3 STEP 2 : Define PROSPER Method/Options In this section the well modeling

This example is focused on a dry gas producing well. Select Options | Options to display the System Summary screen. The Options interface defines the well modeling objective and based on this, the necessary data interfaces become active in the model. Set the options shown below and click Done.

NOTE: The modeling Options required will automatically be set if PROSPER was activated directly from GAP.

  • 2.2.4 STEP 3 : Define fluid PVT Data An unmatched Black Oil PVT model shall be employed for fluid characterisation. Select PVT | Input Data to enter the PVT data. Note the options to match Black oil correlations to measured data, or to use PVT data lookup tables. If lookup tables are used, data covering the range of temperatures, pressures and GOR/CGR which may be encountered by the well is required. Enter the following data and select Done.

Gas gravity

0.59

Separator pressure

100 psig

Condensate to Gas Ratio

0 STB/MMscf

35

IPM Tutorial Manual

Condensate gravity Water to Gas ratio Water salinity Mole Percent H2S Mole Percent CO2 Mole Percent N2

50 API 0 STB/MMscf 10000 ppm 0 % 0 % 0 %

specified, this is
specified, this is

not

Though a condensate gravity of 50 degAPI is

used

in

calculations since a CGR of zero is input. However a value of 5 degAPI or greater is

required by default. range defaults.

See the PROSPER manual on details of how to change unit

  • 2.2.5 STEP 4 : Define Well Inflow and Equipment data This step defines the properties of the reservoir and well that will determine the flow rate of the produced fluid for a given reservoir pressure and well head pressure. Select System | Equipment (Tubing etc) to input the well properties. Select All, and then Edit. Enter the following deviation survey data describing a vertical well profile down to a depth of 17350 ft. Click Done when the deviation survey data has been entered.

Measured Depth (ft)

True Vertical Depth (ft)

0

0

17350

17350

Dexterity Examples

36

Dexterity Examples 36 No surface equipment is required in this model. Note that all equipment between

No surface equipment is required in this model. Note that all equipment between the well head and manifold defined in GAP would in general have to be input here so that the various pressure drops due to these equipments are accounted for in the VLP. Select Cancel.

Enter the following tubing and casing data in the downhole equipment screen, and then click Done.

Type

Measured depth

Inside

Roughness

(ft)

diameter (in)

(in)

X’mass

0

-

-

tree

Tubing

 
  • 17250 0.0006

2.992

 

Casing

 
  • 17350 0.0006

6

 
37 IPM Tutorial Manual A temperature profile for the well is required. This is defined by
37
IPM Tutorial Manual
A temperature profile for the well is required. This is defined by a temperature model
selected under System Options. Please see section
more information on temperature models.
of PROSPER Userguide for
This model is performing a pressure and temperature calculation, therefore the
temperature of the surrounding formations and a mean heat transfer coefficient are
required. Enter the following linear geothermal gradient and then select Done.
Measured Depth (ft)
Formation temperature (
o F)
0
60
17350
230

Overall heat transfer coefficient

3 BTU/ft2/F/hr

Dexterity Examples

38

Dexterity Examples 38 The fluid average heat capacities shall be left at their default values. Click

The fluid average heat capacities shall be left at their default values. Click on Done to accept the values.

Back on the main Equipment data entry screen. Select Summary | Draw Downhole to view a schematic of the downhole equipment. Select Main to save the input data and return to the main PROSPER window.

39 IPM Tutorial Manual
39
IPM Tutorial Manual

The equipment data defined will be used with a VLP correlation function for estimation of pressure drops in the well (i.e. define the VLP). The next step is to define the well inflow using an Inflow Performance model.

In PROSPER main screen, select System | Inflow Performance to call up the IPR

Dexterity Examples 40 Input screen. Click on the Petroleum Experts Reservoir Model and Enter Skin By
Dexterity Examples
40
Input screen. Click on the Petroleum Experts Reservoir Model and Enter Skin By
Hand for the Mechanical/Geometrical Skin. Set the following data in the lower right
of the screen.
Reservoir Pressure
Reservoir Temperature
Water Gas Ratio
Condensate Gas Ratio
11500 psig
230 degrees F
0 STB/MMscf
0 STB/MMscf
Select the Input Data button at the top right of the interface and enter the following
data within the Reservoir Model section.

Reservoir Permeability

20 md

Reservoir Thickness

100 feet

Drainage Area

2500 acres

Dietz Shape Factor

31.6

Wellbore Radius

0.354 feet

Perforation Interval

30 feet

Time

100 days

Reservoir Porosity

0.2

Swc

0.2

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IPM Tutorial Manual

Select the Mech/Geom Skin tab and enter a skin value of 2. Select Calculate. An IPR plot showing the inflow to the well as a function of the well’s sandface pressure will be shown. An AOF of 143 MMscf/day is shown as the maximum flow obtainable.

Absolute open flow (AOF) for gases in PROSPER is limited to 150MMscf/day and oils to 40,000stb/day
Absolute open flow (AOF) for gases in PROSPER is limited to 150MMscf/day and oils
to 40,000stb/day by default. If AOF of the well being modelled exceeds these values
(i.e. pressure not at a value of zero), the IPR will be truncated. The limits can be
changed by going to File | Preferences | Limits and inserting higher values for the
AOF.

Model validation cannot be performed for this example since no production/ measured data exists for the well. The next step is to calculate the production of the well (VLP+IPR intersection). Select Calculation | System (IPR+VLP) | 3 variables and enter the following data.

Top Node Pressure

1500 psig

Water Gas Ratio

0 STB/MMscf

Condensate Gas Ratio

0 STB/MMscf

Vertical Lift Correlation

Petroleum Experts 2

Solution Node

Bottom Node

Rate Method

Automatic - Linear

Dexterity Examples

42

Dexterity Examples 42 An unmatched VLP correlation (Petroleum experts 2) will be used to calculate pressure

An unmatched VLP correlation (Petroleum experts 2) will be used to calculate pressure drops in the well. If test data exists, a suitable correlation can be matched to reproduce the pressure drops in the well in reality and this will be selected here.

Select Continue | Continue | Calculate. The production from the system and other parameters are displayed under solution details on the right. Scroll right (towards the bottom of the screen) within the Results display until the dP Friction and dP Gravity columns are shown. Notice that for moderate and large gas flow rates, the frictional pressure drop within the well dominates the gravitational pressure drop to such an extent that these flow rates are unlikely to ever be achieved, suggesting that perhaps a larger diameter well should be considered. Select Plot to display the results.

43 IPM Tutorial Manual The X-axis shows the produced gas flow rate and the Y-axis shows
43
IPM Tutorial Manual
The X-axis shows the produced gas flow rate and the Y-axis shows the well
sandface pressure. The reservoir pressure has been set to 11500 psig and the well
head pressure to 1500 psig. For these pressures, the IPR (green curve) and VLP
(red curve) intersect at a well sandface pressure of 8644 psig and flow rate of 72
MMscf/day, these being the flow conditions that the well would actually achieve (i.e.
the unique flow pressure solution that lies on both the IPR and VLP curves). Move
the mouse cursor within the plot to display the X and Y coordinate values are
displayed at the top right of the screen.
The relatively steep gradient of the VLP curve compared with the IPR curve indicates
that a high percentage of the pressure drop from the reservoir to the well head is as
a result of high frictional resistance within the well.
Select Finish. Save the PROSPER file as Gasres.out in a suitable directory by
clicking File |Save As.
If PROSPER was being run from GAP, select GAP on the menu bar to return to the
GAP Gas Network Example documentation, otherwise select File | Exit.
This completes the PROSPER gas well modeling exercise - Click here to Return to
GAP
  • 2.3 MBAL Gas Reservoir Example This tutorial example is designed to provide a step-by-step introduction to the MBAL program. The emphasis is on the data entry required to model a dry gas reservoir for inclusion into an Integrated gas system model in GAP. See the GAP Gas Example

Dexterity Examples

44

for further details.

MBAL is a reservoir analysis tool that makes use of the production history of a reservoir and the PVT characteristics of the production fluid in performing mass balance calculations to estimate the original volumes of fluid in place and identify the driving mechanisms acting within the reservoir (e.g. fluid expansion, formation expansion and aquifer inflow). Good PVT characterisation and production history are usually an essential input to an MBAL calculation, but for this tutorial example a minimum of input data is required.

Dexterity Examples 44 for further details. MBAL is a reservoir analysis tool that makes use of

With respect to the GAP Gas Example, the purpose of the MBAL model is to define the reservoir characteristics so that material balance prediction calculations can be performed by GAP.

  • 2.3.1 Objectives The system to be modeled is described below: A dry gas reservoir with no condensate or free water associated with it. The reservoir volume is 600Bscf of dry gas at 11500psig and 230degF. Objective: Design a MBAL tank model for input into GAP gas integrated modeling exercise.

    • 2.3.1.1 Learning topics This section focuses on how to: Design a simple reservoir/tank model in MBAL.

    • 2.3.1.2 Executive Summary Steps taken to achieve the modeling objective is as follows: Define MBAL reservoir modeling options/objectives Define fluid PVT model Input tank parameters for volumes and saturations, initial conditions of pressure and temperature e.t.c Save file for inclusion into GAP gas integrated production model.

      • 2.3.2 STEP 1 : Initialise MBAL If MBAL has not been started from GAP, it can be run standalone by using the following Windows commands: Start | All Programs | Petroleum Experts IPM 7.X | MBAL. See the MBAL manual for more details on how to launch MBAL.

45

IPM Tutorial Manual

From GAP the MBAL program can be started from the tank summary screen by clicking on Run MBAL as shown in the following figure.

When MBAL is launched, the following interface appears.
When MBAL is launched, the following interface appears.
Dexterity Examples 46 Check that the current version of MBAL has been loaded. The version number
Dexterity Examples
46
Check that the current version of MBAL has been loaded. The version number can
be checked by selecting Help | About MBAL Package.
From the main MBAL menu select Tool | Material Balance to start an MBAL
material balance session.
The command options (File, Tool, Options etc.) at the top of the MBAL window are
laid out in a logical order (left to right; top to bottom) that reflects the sequence of
operations required to build a valid tank model. Note that files saved with this version
of MBAL will not be readable by previous versions. It is therefore recommended that
the File | Data Directory option is set to a directory that is exclusively used to store
data files created with the current software version.

It is important to ensure that consistent units are used throughout, particularly when data generated by MBAL may be incorporated into a GAP model. Oilfield units will be used for this example. Select Units to view the units used by MBAL for both input and output, as well as the expected data ranges. Select Oilfield for both input and output units, and then select Done.

47 IPM Tutorial Manual 2.3.3 STEP 2 : Define MBAL Method/Options In this section the type
47
IPM Tutorial Manual
2.3.3
STEP 2 : Define MBAL Method/Options
In this section the type of reservoir fluid and tank model that fulfils MBAL modeling
objective will be defined. Their detailed specification will be entered later.
This example is focused on modeling a dry gas reservoir. Select Options to display
the System Options screen. The options interface defines the MBAL tank modeling
objective and based on this, the necessary data sections become active in the
model. Set the options shown in the figure below and then select Done.
Dexterity Examples 48 2.3.4 STEP 3 : Define PVT Data An unmatched Black Oil PVT sahll
Dexterity Examples
48
2.3.4
STEP 3 : Define PVT Data
An unmatched Black Oil PVT sahll be used for fluid characterisation. Select PVT | F
luid Properties to enter the PVT data. Note the options to match Black oil
correlations to measured data, or to use lookup tables of PVT data.
The PVT data used by MBAL must be the same as that used by PROSPER if an
integrated GAP model involving MBAL and PROSPER is to be used. To aid this
process, MBAL can import the PVT data used by PROSPER by using the Import
button to import a PVT file generated by PROSPER (e.g. GASRES.PVT). If this is
done, then the same matching to correlations or tabulated values must be initialised
within MBAL.

Enter the fluid PVT data as shown in the figure below, and select Done. The condensate gravity of 50 API will not be used in calculations since CGR is zero, but a value greater than 5 is required by default. See the MBAL manual for details on how to change unit range defaults.

Gas gravity

0.59

Separator pressure

100 psig

Condensate to Gas ratio

0 STB/MMscf

Condensate gravity

50 API

49

IPM Tutorial Manual

Water salinity Mole percent H2S Mole percent CO2 Mole percent N2

10000 ppm

0 %

0 % 0 %
0
%
0
%

Gas 230 deg F 11500 psig 0.2 fraction 0.2 fraction Use Corr (1/psi) 600000 MMscf

01/01/2005

  • 2.3.5 STEP 4 : Define Tank Parameters This step defines the physical properties of the reservoir required balance calculations.

for material

From MBAL main screen, select Input | Tank Data to input the tank properties. Input the following parameters within the Tank Input Data screen. The Validate button at the bottom of the screens can be used to validate the data input for each screen.

Tank Parameters Tank Type Temperature Initial Pressure Porosity Connate Water Saturation Water Compressibility Original Gas In Place Start of Production

Water Influx

Model

None

Rock Properties Check the From Correlation radio button

Dexterity Examples

50

Relative Permeability Rel Perm from Water Sweep Eff. Hysteresis

Corey Functions 100% No Residual End Point Exponent Saturation Krw 0.2 0.8 2 Krg 0.01 0.9
Corey Functions
100%
No
Residual
End Point
Exponent
Saturation
Krw
0.2
0.8
2
Krg
0.01
0.9
1.5
Note that
the residual
saturation.

saturation for water corresponds to the

connate water

There is no Pore Volume vs. Depth or Production History to be entered. Select D one when the data has been entered.

With no production history available, production history matching is not possible. Select File | Save As to save the MBAL data. Enter the file name GasRes.MBI and save the file in a suitable directory.

If MBAL was being run from GAP, clicking on GAP on the main menu gives the option to return back to GAP. Click on O.K. to return the main GAP interface.

If MBAL was being ran stand-alone, select File | Exit to exit the application. In GAP, from the tank summary screen browse to the MBAL file to validate the tank.

This concludes the MBAL gas reservoir modeling example. - Click here to return to the GAP Tutorial Now.

  • 2.4 GAP Gas-Lifted System Example The main objective of this example is to show how the non-linear optimisation capability of GAP can be used to optimize the gas lift allocation to gas lifted wells in a simple production system, thereby optimising/maximising the total oil production from the field.

51 IPM Tutorial Manual 2.4.1 Objectives This tutorial offers a guide to setting up of the
51
IPM Tutorial Manual
2.4.1
Objectives
This tutorial offers a guide to setting up of the example, and also an overview of
other GAP functionalities that can/will be used to achieve the modeling objective.
These points will be made in the body of the text.
It is encouraged to navigate through other GAP features as one proceeds through
the example as this is a useful way of learning about other features not described
here. For more details on a particular feature, please refer to the main GAP manual.
The system to be modeled is described below:
An oilfield has two gas lifted wells: well GL1 and well GL2.
Each well is tied back to the riser base via a 1500 ft flowline.
Each flowline has an ID of 5 inches.
The riser is 500 ft long and has an ID of 10 inches.
The platform is at 500 ft above the seabed. The seabed is assumed to be
flat.
The objectives of the exercise is to maximise production
from
a
gas
lifted oil
production system by re-allocating produced gas across the wells in the system
using the Solve Network calculation.
NOTE: The model will also include an MBAL tank that is not necessary to have
when using the Solve Network calcualtion, enabling a prediction to be
performed if desired once the gas lift optimisation tutorial has been
completed
2.4.1.1
Learning topics
This section focuses on how to:

Design a simple integrated gas lifted model in GAP Associate valid well models in GAP Associate valid reservoir/tank models in GAP Calculate system potential Optimise system production through gas lift allocation to wells

  • 2.4.1.2 Executive summary The steps required to build the integrated network model are listed below. These generally are the standard steps required and may vary depending on modeling

Dexterity Examples

52

objectives (e.g. inclusion of tank models for reservoir perfomance prediction).

Setting up the system Drawing the schematics of the system Setting up the well models Describing
Setting up the system
Drawing the schematics of the system
Setting up the well models
Describing the surface network
Generating the inflow performances from existing well models
Generating lift curves for the wells
Optimal allocation of gas lift gas available
Analysing the results
2.4.2
STEP 1 : System Setup
This section sets GAP up for construction of the network. The steps are:
Start a new file.
Set up the optimisation method.
Set up the units.
Set up the gas injection source.
2.4.2.1
Starting a New File
Select File ½ New to start up a new file. This option clears the current screen display
and resets the program workspace to initial values.
2.4.2.2
GAP options setup
To set-up the optimisation method and other GAP options, choose Options | M
ethod
Select the following input parameters:
System type: Production
Water and gas injection systems can also be modelled. When performing a
prediction run, these injection systems can be associated with a production
system to provide voidage
reservoirs.
replacement (for example) into the producing
Optimisation Method: Production

Various optimisation methods (e.g. Reveue, heating value e.t.c) are available.

PVT Model: Black Oil Please see Section 1.3 of the GAP User Guide for a detailed description of the fluid modeling options.

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IPM Tutorial Manual

Prediction: None One can run predictive models in GAP, either using a simple decline curve model or by linking to Petroleum Experts’ MBAL program to perform Material Balance calculations. Connectivity to Petroleum Expert’s REVEAL numerical simulator can also be done.

53 IPM Tutorial Manual Prediction: None One can run predictive models in GAP , either using

Temperature Model: Rough Approximation

Prediction Method: Pressure and temperature This allows GAP to perform pressure and temperature drop calculations in pipeline models.

Water Vapor: No Calculation or Calculate Condensed Water Vapor

This option is available for Dry and Wet Gas and Retrograde Condensate fluid types. If the Calculate Condensed Water Vapor option has been set, then the condensation of water vapor will be taken into account in the pressure drop calculations.

This is the default temperature model in GAP. GAP uses an Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient specified by the user alongside enviromental temperature conditions and fluid heat capacities, to determine the heat lost by the fluid to the surroundings.

Dexterity Examples 54 Select Ok to conclude this step. 2.4.2.3 Units setup To set-up the input
Dexterity Examples
54
Select Ok to conclude this step.
2.4.2.3
Units setup
To set-up the input and output units, click on Options | Units and select the unit
system required.

Clicking on the cell below the Input or Output column header (defaulted to Oilfield) will yield a selectable list of available units systems. Oilfield units shall be employed throughout this example.

For more information on units systems in GAP, please refer to the units section of the online help or the GAP manual.

55 IPM Tutorial Manual Click on Ok to complete this step. 2.4.2.4 Injection fluid setup If
55
IPM Tutorial Manual
Click on Ok to complete this step.
2.4.2.4
Injection fluid setup
If the integrated model contains gas injections sources (either gas lifted wells or gas
injection into a reservoir model) or any fluid injection source, the fluid characteristics
need to be defined.
GAP maintains a list of gas injection sources with different gas gravities and impurity
levels (and compositions if compositional tracking is enabled). These can be edited
by selecting Options | Injection fluids. When a new file is created, a default entry is
supplied with a specific gravity of 0.7 and no impurities. This entry can be edited or a
new entry created.
Dexterity Examples 56 When gas lifteed well models are set up, the gas source can be
Dexterity Examples
56
When gas lifteed well models are set up, the gas source can be set to any gas PVT
type defined under Injection fluids.
The default gas fluid properties shall be used.
2.4.3
STEP 2 : System schematics
The schematics of the gas injection network shall be defined in this section The
various network element models will be entered once the network is in place.
2.4.3.1
Adding Wells
To create the wells, click on the ‘Add Well’ icon, from the toolbar. One may now
click on anywhere on the screen and a well icon will be created at that point.
Whenever an equipment icon is created, a label can be entered. Click OK once the
well name is entered.
The first well will be labelled GL1 and the second well GL2. Users are encouraged to
use actual well names as labels for their wells.
A well (or any equipment type) can be moved across the main GAP interface by
holding down the shift key, selecting the icon and moving it to the desired location.
Alternatively, select the Move tool from the toolbar and drag the item to the new
location.
A well (or any equipment type) can be deleted by clicking on the Delete button on the

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2.4.3.2

toolbar and clicking on the element that needs to be deleted. If a piece of equipment needs to be removed from the system temporarily, then it is preferable to Mask the item – select the Mask tool from the toolbar to achieve this.

The option of viewing a grid can be activated by View | Draw Grid. See the
The option of viewing a grid can be activated by View | Draw Grid.
See the GAP manual for more details on user interface functionality.
Ü
TIP: Equipment buttons (such as ‘Add Well’) can be
selected by clicking the right-hand mouse button in the
window area to create a drop-down menu. Alternatively,
the tools are also selectable from the toolbar buttons.

Tie-backs

Joints are needed to hook up the wells to the tiebacks. Joints (or manifolds) are used as connection tools in GAP. They are also used to specify wellheads.

To create a joint icon, select the ‘Add Joint’ option from the toolbar. Click on the screen at desired location (above each well icon, for instance).

The joint to be connected to the well GL1 will be labelled WH1-GL1, and the second joint will be labelled WH2-GL2.

A third joint called "Manifold" shall be used to gather production from the individual

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58

tiebacks and wells. This will be labelled ‘Manifold’. A fourth joint will be used to indicate the "Riser top". These joints will be connected together with pipes at a later stage.

Dexterity Examples 58 tiebacks and wells. This will be labelled ‘Manifold’. A fourth joint will be
  • 2.4.3.3 The Platform The platform is represented as a separator. To create a separator icon, select the ‘Add Separator’ option from the tool bar. Click on the required location on the screen and an icon will be created, as above. The separator will be labelled ‘Platform’.

  • 2.4.3.4 Pipes/Links

    • Ü TIP: Pipes are created using the ‘Add Link’ tool from the toolbar. The reason for this name is that this tool can also be used to create logical connections (for example, well to reservoir, or compressor to manifold): whether a pipe or a connection is made depends on the equipment being connected.

To connect the different equipment, the ‘Add Link’ button is selected from the toolbar. Connections in integrated models in GAP are made in the direction of fluid

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flow. Link well GL1 to its wellhead WH1-GL1 by clicking on the well icon GL1, and drag a connection to the WH1-GL1 joint. Repeat the process with GL2 and WH2-GL2. Repeat the process between WH1-GL1 and Manifold and between WH2-GL2 and Manifold. Link the Manifold to the Riser Top: this will become the Riser. Finally, link the Riser top to the Platform.

Ü
Ü

It can be seen that pipelines are defined between the wells and the manifold, and the manifold and the riser top. However connections between the wells and the wellhead joints and that between Riser top and Platform only have links between them. This is because the well model is expected to include all equipment up to the well head and account for their pressure drops. Pressure drops are modelled for all other pipes and depend on a pipeline description, as described below.

Labeling

Dexterity Examples

60

2.4.3.5

The tieback between WH1-GL1 and the manifold will be labeled ‘Tie One’. The tieback between WH2-GL2 and the manifold will be labeled ‘Tie Two’. the pipe between manifold and riser will be labelled 'Riser'.

Pipe labelling can be achieved by double-clicking on the pipe and entering its label at the
Pipe labelling can be achieved by double-clicking on the pipe and entering its label at
the top left hand corner of the summary interface.
Other Drawing Options
The user interface can be configured in several ways.

It may be desired to input a name for the model. This is done by clicking on Options | Edit System Summary and inputing the title ‘Tutorial GAP Example’ (for example). This text will now appear as a heading for the system network on the main interface. Clicking the right hand mouse button on the main interface and selecting the Fonts option can change the screen fonts. Clicking the right hand mouse button on the title can change the title font. Selecting Icon Sizes from the same drop-down menu can change the sizes of the icons on the GAP screen. This may be useful if building a large model.

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Please consult the user manual or online help for more options.

61 IPM Tutorial Manual Please consult the user manual or online help for more options. TIP

TIP (note on entering equipment data): The basic means of entering data is from the equipment data entry screen. This can be accessed by double clicking on any equipment icon. The data entry screen consists of a data entry area and a list of network equipment on the right. Descriptions of several pieces of equipment can be entered in one edit session by clicking on the entries in the equipment list to bring up different entry screens.

The basic schematic is now set up, as shown above. The next step is to provide information/models about the various equipment in the network.

  • 2.4.4 STEP 3 : Describing the wells This section describes set up of the GAP well models. It is recommended that the system is described from the wells to the top node. There are various quality checking functions that can be performed at the well level prior to building the whole system. These will be demonstrated in the following chapters.

Ü

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62

  • 2.4.4.1 Well models

Well GL1 To describe the well model, double click on the Well GL1 icon. This calls
Well GL1
To describe the well model, double click on the Well GL1 icon. This calls up the ‘Well
Data Entry - Summary screen’ for this well. Enter the following data:
Label: GL1
Mask: Include In System
Well Type: Oil Producer (Gas Lifted)
Well
file:
C:\Program
Files\Petroleum
Experts\IPM
7.x\Samples\Worked
Examples\Dexterity Examples\GL1.OUT
Wells can be modelled using Petroleum Experts’ PROSPER package, as done in this
example. Enter the above PROSPER well file in this field, either typing it directly
or using the ‘Browse’ button to invoke a file browser.
Model: VLP/IPR intersection
Control: Gas Lift Control Mode - Calculated (it is not necessary to include a
Min and Max Gas Injection Rate)

Click Ok to complete this step, or go directly to the next well using the equipment list on the right.

Well GL2

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2.4.4.2

Enter the following data:-

Label: GL2 Mask: Include In System Well Type: Oil Producer(Gas Lifted) Well file: C:\Program Files\Petroleum Experts\IPM
Label: GL2
Mask: Include In System
Well Type: Oil Producer(Gas Lifted)
Well
file:
C:\Program
Files\Petroleum
Experts\IPM
7.x\Samples\Worked
Examples\Dexterity Examples\GL2.OUT
Model: VLP/IPR intersection
Control: Gas Lift Control Mode - Calculated (it is not necessary to include a
Min and Max Gas Injection Rate)
Click Ok to complete this step.
Ü
Note: All data
specified
above
was
input
on the
summary screen. The data entry screen is divided into
three parts as indicated from the toggle buttons at the
bottom right of the screen: Summary, Input, and
Results. Click on the input and results buttons and
have a look at the various categories of data that are
available: for example, the first tab on the input screen
allows you to set up the gas lift injection source for the
well.
Generating IPRs From Existing PROSPER Well Models
With a PROSPER file associated to the GAP well model, an IPR import from prosper
can be made.
When IPR's are transferred, GAP receives three points that lie on the PROSPER IPR
along with PVT parameters and reservoir pressure. GAP then performs a match to
this data to obtain the PI.
To transfer the well IPRs from the existing PROSPER well models select Generate |
Generate well IPRs with PROSPER on the GAP main menu and then follow the on-
screen instructions. The following screen will be displayed:

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64

Dexterity Examples 64 Click on A ll to select all the wells. The screen as below

Click on All to select all the wells. The screen as below will show the selected wells. Click on Generate. This will launch PROSPER and import IPR information into GAP.

Dexterity Examples 64 Click on A ll to select all the wells. The screen as below

The IPR generation process begins and the IPRs are transferred in batch mode. No user intervention is required.

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65 IPM Tutorial Manual Note: IPR parameters can be entered by Click OK to go back
Note: IPR parameters can be entered by
Note: IPR
parameters can be entered by

Click OK to go back to the main screen. Double-click on the Well icon to bring up the well summary screen. Note that IPR tab is green indicating that IPR is now valid.

Save the GAP file by clicking on save icon Example.gap’.

Ü

. Save the file as ‘Tutorial Gas Lift

hand and

matched from the IPR input screen. From the well data entry screen, select the input button and navigate to the IPR tab. As can be seen, this has been filled automatically during the IPR generation process.

  • 2.4.4.3 Importing Existing Vertical Lift tables to the Well Models A well is basically defined by an inflow and an outflow; the inflows (IPRs) have been already transferred to the wells in the above procedure. To import/assign the VLP to the well GL1, double-click on the GL1 well icon, click on the VLP tab (should be red if not valid) and browse for VLP file located in C:\ Program Files \ Petroleum Experts \ IPM 7.x \ Samples \ Worked Examples \ Dexterity examples \ GAP\ GL1.VLP. Note that clicking on the VLP tab on the summary screen is equivalent to selecting the Input button followed by the VLP tab.

Dexterity Examples 66 Repeat this process for the second well. Its VLP file is located in:
Dexterity Examples
66
Repeat this process for the second well. Its VLP file is located in: C:\ Program Files \
Petroleum Experts \ IPM 7.x \ Samples \ Worked Examples \ Dexterity examples \
GAP\ GL2.VLP
Lift curves can be plotted or inspected by clicking on the Plot buttons of the VLP
screen.
Click on Ok to complete this step.
Ü
Note: For this exercise, pre-calculated VLP files are
being assigned to the lift curve entries of the wells. If
the files have not been prepared, they can be
generated in batch mode from GAP using the same
approach as was done for batch generation of IPRs.
With a PROSPER file assigned to a well, lift curves can
be generated by selecting Generate | Generate well
VLPs with PROSPER. Alternatively, GAP can import .
TPD files (generated by PROSPER) to make .VLP files.
To do this, click on Import on the VLP screen and
select the required import file.

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  • 2.4.5 STEP 4 : Describing the Pipeline network

True vertical depths (TVDs) of the pipelines shall be input with respect to the platform in
True vertical depths (TVDs) of the pipelines shall be input with respect to the
platform in this section. The platform is defined to be at zero ft TVD such that the
manifold and tiebacks are at 500ft TVD.
2.4.5.1
Riser Description
To describe the riser, double click on the pipeline and this leads to the ‘Pipe Data
Entry - Summary Screen’.
Enter the following data:
Correlation: Petroleum Experts 4
Go to the input section (by clicking
information:
on the ‘Input’
button) and enter the following
Environment:

This can be used to set up special pipe environmental quantities such as

ambient temperature or heat capacities for pipeline temperature calculations. The default entries are suitable for our requirements. Leave all

Dexterity Examples

68

parameters at their default values.

Next, physical description of the pipeline is input. Go to the ‘Description’ tab and enter the following information:

Enter 0 ft for the downstream TVD (Platform) Point the cursor to the first cell in
Enter 0 ft for the downstream TVD (Platform)
Point the cursor to the first cell in the second row in the ‘Segment Type’
column and select ‘Line pipe’:
Length: 500 ft
TVD: 500 ft
ID: 10"
Roughness: 0.0006" (default)

Ü

TIP: If measured data for the pipe is available (rates, pressures e.t.c), a pressure drop correlation can be tuned to reproduce the data. To do this, click on the Match button on the pipe input interface and follow the instructions detailed in the on-line help or the user manual for pipeline matching.

 

TIP:

If

no

pipeline data is

input,

then the

pipe is

Ü

treated as a simple connection between two nodes,

69 IPM Tutorial Manual and zero pressure drop will be modeled across it. GAP does not
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IPM Tutorial Manual
and zero pressure drop will be modeled across it.
GAP does not insist that pipe data is provided.
Click Ok to complete this, or navigate to the next pipe.
2.4.5.2
'Tie One' Pipeline description
The above process detailed for the riser is repeated for the other system pipes.
Correlation: Petroleum Experts 4
Environment: default
The pipeline description is:
Enter 500 ft for the downstream end (Manifold)
Select ‘Line pipe’ in the first cell in the second row in the ‘Segment Type’
column.
Length: 1500 ft
TVD: 500 ft
ID:
5"
Roughness: 0.0006" (default)
Dexterity Examples 70 2.4.5.3 ‘TieTwo’ Pipeline description Correlation: Petroleum Experts 4 Environment: default The pipeline description
Dexterity Examples
70
2.4.5.3
‘TieTwo’ Pipeline description
Correlation: Petroleum Experts 4
Environment: default
The pipeline description is:
Enter 500 ft for the downstream end (Manifold)
Select ‘Line Pipe’ in the first cell in the second row in the ‘Segment Type’ column.
Length: 1500 ft
TVD: 500 ft
ID:
5"
Roughness: 0.0006" (default)

Click Ok to complete this.

  • 2.4.6 STEP 5 : Calculate Production given total lift gas available The

optimum production from the system given a total

amount to gas

lift

gas

available for the system is calculated in this step. GAP determines the optimum

71 IPM Tutorial Manual amount of gas to be injected in each well to maximise recovery.
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IPM Tutorial Manual
amount of gas to be injected in each well to maximise recovery.
In order to perform the optimisation, click on | Solve Network and then enter
different amount of gas lift gas available given in the following table.
Gas available (MMscf/d)
0
3
6
10
20
Click
on
|
Next
and
production shall be
determined for a platform pressure of
250psig.
Dexterity Examples 72 Click on Next | Calculate. Make sure that the Optimise with all Constraints
Dexterity Examples
72
Click on Next | Calculate. Make sure that the Optimise with all Constraints check
box is ticked before the calculation is started. GAP will allocate the available gas to
the wells to maximise the oil production since gas lift control on each well is set to
'calculated'. When the calculation is finished, click Main to go back to the main
screen.
73 IPM Tutorial Manual 2.4.7 STEP 6 : Results analysis To see the effect of the
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IPM Tutorial Manual
2.4.7
STEP 6 : Results analysis
To see the effect of the optimised injection of increasing amount of lift gas, click on
Results | Detailed | All Separators and Injection Manifolds and the interface
below is seen.
Dexterity Examples 74 The natural flow production of this production network system is about 4000 BOPD.
Dexterity Examples
74
The natural flow production of this production network system is about 4000 BOPD.
With 6 MMscf/day of gas injection, an optimal allocation would increase the
production to around 4794 BOPD.
We also see from these results that increasing the total gas injection beyond 10
MMscf/day does not increase the amount of production by a significant margin. The
maximum production available from this system is nearly 5000 BOPD.
A plot of oil production against lift gas injection can be displayed by clicking on Plot.
75 IPM Tutorial Manual The optimal gas lift distribution between the wells can be viewed by
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IPM Tutorial Manual
The optimal gas lift distribution between the wells can be viewed by clicking on
Results | Summary | All Wells. Select Gas Lift Injection Rate to display how the
amount of gas injection to each well varies with total amount available. Click on Plot
for a graphical view. Select the following as variables:
Gas available: 10 MMscft/d
Y axis variable: Oil Rate

Dexterity Examples

76

Dexterity Examples 76 © 1990-2009 Petroleum Experts Limited
77 IPM Tutorial Manual Ü TIP: One can view and plot allocation results for any node
77
IPM Tutorial Manual
Ü
TIP: One can view and plot allocation results for any
node in the system by entering its data entry screen in
the usual manner and then clicking on the Results
button. The first tab displays the Allocation results.
Press Plot to obtain a plot of these results.
This completes the section on building and optimising a network of Gas Lifted wells.
Save the file as Tutorial Gas Lift example.gap.
2.5
Associated Water / Gas Injection Model Example
In this section a water injection model will be linked to the previously built gas lifted
oil prodcution model. A materal balance prediction will be run on the production
model with its associated injection model.
2.5.1
Objectives

The system to be modeled is described below:

An integrated water injection system comprising of tank model, injection well, a feed pipeline and an injection manifold

Vertical water injector, tubing down to 5500ft (3.5-in I.D.), casing down to 5630ft (6-in I.D.)

Dexterity Examples 78 Reservoir pressure = 4000psi Injectivity Index = 6stb/day/psi 500ft riser (ID 6in) down
Dexterity Examples
78
Reservoir pressure = 4000psi
Injectivity Index = 6stb/day/psi
500ft riser (ID 6in) down to the injection well
The objectives of the exercise is to design an associated water injection system in
GAP which will be coupled to a GAP production system.
2.5.1.1
Learning topics
This section focuses on how to:
Design a simple integrated water injection model in GAP
Associate valid well models in GAP
Associate valid reservoir/tank models in GAP
Calculate system injection potential
Associate/Link the injection model to a production model in GAP
Perform a performance prediction with both models.
2.5.1.2
Executive summary
Steps taken to achieve the modeling objective is as follows:
Couple MBAL tank model to the GAP gas lift production model.
Create a GAP water injection model and draw system schematics.
Associate an MBAL tank model to water injection model.
Design the injection well model in PROSPER.
Design the pipeline network.
Generating the inflow performance from well model.
Generating lift curves for the well.
Calculate injection capacity of the system.
Save the injection model and couple to production model.
Perform prediction run
Analyse results.
2.5.2
STEP 1 : Set the Production Model

The gas lifted production model previously created will be coupled to MBAL tank models for a material balance prediction. This requires adding a Tank Element from the tool bar and defining a reservoir from which the wells are producing. The procedure to couple an MBAL tank model has been described in the first GAP integrated model dexterity example developed in the tutorial. The MBAL tank model for this example has been designed and can be found in the following location: C:\ Program Files \ Petroleum Experts \ IPM 7.x \ Samples \ Worked Examples \ Dexterity examples \ GAP\ TUTORIAL GAP EXAMPLE_TANK. mbi

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The tank needs to be described in the production model. On the tank summary screen select Browse and locate the MBAL file (TUTORIAL GAP EXAMPLE_TANK. MBI).

79 IPM Tutorial Manual The tank needs to be described in the production model. On the

The MBAL model becomes valid.

The GAP wells become invalid (red circles). Double-click on well model GL1 to see where the invalid data location is:

Dexterity Examples 80 It can be seen that the fractional flow model under IPR | More
Dexterity Examples
80
It can be seen that the fractional flow model under IPR | More tab is invalid. Set the
relative permeability option to From Tank Model as shown above to revalidate the
well models.
For more information on fractional flow and relative permeability please review the
MBAL User Guide.
In order to be able to run a material balance prediction, the model must be made
predictive. Ensure that the option to perform predictions in GAP is made active by
selecting Options | Method and set Prediction to On
81 IPM Tutorial Manual Using File | Save As, save the file as Tutorial Gas Lift
81
IPM Tutorial Manual
Using File | Save As, save the file as Tutorial Gas Lift example.gap in a suitable
directory.
2.5.3
STEP 2 : Create the Water Injection Model
The water injection model shall be designed in a separate gap file and coupled to the
production model later. Ensure that the gap production model is saved.
Go to File | New to create a new GAP file.
A water injection model is specified in GAP under Options | Method | System type |
Water Injection. The model is also made predictive by setting prediction 'On'. Click
OK to validate the data.

Dexterity Examples

82

Dexterity Examples 82 , add a well. The next step is to input the elements constituting
, add a well.
, add a well.

The next step is to input the elements constituting the model : reservoir, water injection wells, injection lines and injection manifold.

On the main GAP interface, click on the Add tank icon

and add a tank.

Using the Add well icon

Using the Add separator/injection manifold icon

, add a water injection manifold (a

injection temperature must be entered on the Input | Fluid Screen of the manifold).

Using the Add joint icon and the well.

, add two joints in between the water injection manifold

Using the Add pipe/link icon

Dexterity Examples 82 , add a well. The next step is to input the elements constituting

, link all the elements together. The elements are

linked in the direction of fluid flow starting from the injection manifold to the reservoir/ tank.

The network described is shown below.

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83 IPM Tutorial Manual Using F ile | Save As, save the file as WaterInj. GAP

Using File | Save As, save the file as WaterInj.GAP in a suitable directory.

The physical properties of the different elements constituting the system shall now be specified. The procedure has been explained in detail for each element when the production network was created. The injection system should be completed using the same work-flow/ approach. Design parameters are:

Vertical water injector, tubing down to 5500ft, casing down to 5630ft. Geothermal gradient: 50degF at 0feet and 182degF at 5630ft. Surface injection temperature of 70degF and injection pressure 1500psig Reservoir pressure = 4000psi Injectivity index = 6stb/day/psi 500ft riser (ID 6in) down to the injection well

Water shall be injected into the same tank in the production model. Select Browse to locate the MBAL file (TUTORIAL GAP EXAMPLE_TANK.MBI).

The water injection well is created using the same procedure described for the production wells. IPR and VLPs must be generated as for any other type of well. Generate VLP for a suitable range of liquid rates, manifold pressure and flowing well head temperatures as may be encountered by the water injection well during a

Dexterity Examples

84

prediction run.

The injection flow line can be completed by using pipe data above for pipe length, pipe inside diameter.

Dexterity Examples 84 prediction run. The injection flow line can be completed by using pipe data

Set the well as 'controllable' i.e. wellhead choke can be controlled by the optimiser. This is done either by right clicking on the well, or by selecting dP control as 'calculated on the well summary screen| Input data section.

The red circles around the tank and the well are not present anymore, confirming the validity of the data input on each element of the system.

Save the file.

  • 2.5.4 STEP 3 : Link the Production and the Injection System With the injection model built, the next step is to link the production model and the water injection model. To do so, open the GAP production model. Go to Options | Method and tick the box

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IPM Tutorial Manual

corresponding to Associated Injection Models | Water Injection. The browsing box will then be available. Browse to the water injection model just built. The path corresponding to this file will appear.

85 IPM Tutorial Manual corresponding to Associated Injection Models | Water Injection . The browsing box

Click OK. Both the production and injection models now appear in the GAP main window. Both models can be visualised side by side in the main GAP window by selecting Window | Tile Vertically.

Dexterity Examples 86 It is now possible to make modifications on each model in the same
Dexterity Examples
86
It is now possible to make modifications on each model in the same GAP session.
Save the project done so far. Click on File| Save as and each model will be saved
separately as shown by the following screen. Click Continue to save the production
and water injection models in the same directories chosen previously. If this is not
the case, simply alter the file path name on the interface.

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  • 2.5.5 STEP 4 : Performing the Material Balance Prediction

- - -
-
-
-

A material balance prediction can now be run.

Using the Run Prediction icon

, start the material balance prediction process.

The first screen enables one to select the prediction start and end dates as well as the step size.

87 IPM Tutorial Manual 2.5.5 STEP 4 : Performing the Material Balance Prediction - - -

Several options are available for water injection control (and/or gas injection).

Tank target pressure: This option maintains the reservoir pressure at specified value by voidage replacement with water.

Voidage replacement: Water injection by voidage replacement, as specified by a percentage input by the user.

Water recycling : this option enables to inject a defined percentage of the produced water

-

Fixed Rate : this option enables to inject a defined rate of water.

These constraints will be honoured if selected because the injection well has has a theoretical wellhead choke applied across it (i.e dP choke control).

Set a fixed water injection rate of 3000 STB / d.

Dexterity Examples 88 Click Next to go to the next prediction screen : It summarises the
Dexterity Examples
88
Click Next to go to the next prediction screen : It summarises the input data for the
tank chosen.

Select Next and input 3MMscf/day as gas lift gas available.

89 IPM Tutorial Manual Select Next and input a separator pressure of 250 psig.
89
IPM Tutorial Manual
Select Next and input a separator pressure of 250 psig.

Select Next and input an injection manifold pressure of 2000 psig.

Dexterity Examples 90 NOTE: The water injection well VLP data set must have ben generated with
Dexterity Examples
90
NOTE: The water injection well VLP data set must have ben generated with
Manifold Pressure range that includes the 2000 psig.
Select Optimise with all Constraints and Calculate. This allows the Solve Network
cycle to be performed for each of the 16 time steps requested, while respecting the
constraints input.

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GAP reports the limiting constraints in the system. In this case, these are the maximum gas lift gas available and the fixed water injection rate.

91 IPM Tutorial Manual GAP reports the limiting constraints in the system. In this case, these

Once the calculation is finished, select Main and return to the main GAP window.

To inspect the results, double click on the tank and select Results | Show MBAL Results. This enables accessing the global prediction results for the tank. To check that the constraint on the water injection rate as been respected, select Plot | Variables and choose the variables you want to display on the plot, Average Water Injection Rate Vs. Time.

Select Done and the plot is displayed. It is then noticeable that the constraints on the water injection rate set previously as been fulfilled. The scales can be set by Scales | Edit.

Dexterity Examples 92 2.5.6 Associated Gas Injection Model A similar procedure can be followed to set
Dexterity Examples
92
2.5.6
Associated Gas Injection Model
A similar procedure can be followed to set up a GAP surface network model
associated with a Gas Injection System, as shown on the following screenshots.
93 IPM Tutorial Manual
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Chapter

Chapter 3
3
3

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  • 3 Physics Examples

3.1

This section contains the following tutorials:- PROSPER Gas Lift Example: This example focuses on the design
This section contains the following tutorials:-
PROSPER Gas Lift Example:
This example focuses on the design of a gas lifted oil well in PROSPER.
PROSPER ESP Example:
This example focuses on the design of a ESP (Electrical submersible pump)
lifted oil well in PROSPER.
MBAL Gas History Matching Example:
This example is a continuation of the MBAL gas example outlined in the
dexterity section. It focuses on matching the model to production history and
preparing the model for a prediction through fractional flow matching.
MBAL Oil History Matching Example:
This example focuses on the design of an MBAL oil reservoir model and shows
how to history match the model to production data.
All the example files can be found under:
C:\Program Files\Petroleum Experts\IPM 7.x\Worked Examples\Physics Examples
PROSPER Gas Lift Example
Gas lifting a well involves the injection of gas into the well to reduce the mixture
density of the fluid column (i.e. lighten the fluid), reduce the gravity pressure drop in
the well and this increases inflow into the well (due to a reduce flowing bottom hole
pressure).
This example assumes that the user is already familiar with setting up well models in
PROSPER.
All the example files can be found under:
C:\Program Files\Petroleum Experts\IPM 7.x\Samples\Worked examples\Physics
Examples\Gas Lift

3.1.1

Objectives

The objectives of the exercise are:

  • 1. Design a naturally flowing well in PROSPER.

  • 2. Quality check the test / production data that is available. The well test data

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96

quality check is based on physics providing some validity of test measurements.

3. 4. Design a new gas lift system for this well. 5. PVT Data: Temperature =
3.
4.
Design a new gas lift system for this well.
5.
PVT Data:
Temperature = 250.0 deg F
Bubble Point Pb = 2200.0 psig
GOR at Pb = 500 scf/stb
Oil FVF at Pb = 1.32 rb/stb
Oil viscosity at Pb= 0.4 cp
Oil gravity = 39.0 API
Gas gravity = 0.798
Water Salinity = 100,000 ppm
Gradient Data:
Data Set 1
Well head pressure = 264.0 psig
Water cut = 20.3 %
Liquid rate = 6161.0 stb/day
GOR = 432 scf/stb
Gas Lift = 0 MMscf/day
Injection depth = 13000 ft
Pressure @ 14800 ft = 3382.0 psig

Data Set 2 Well head pressure = 264.0 psig Water cut = 20.3 % Liquid rate = 1100.0 stb/day GOR = 500 scf/stb Gas Lift = 1.0 MMscf/day Injection depth = 8000.0 ft Pressure @ 1500 ft = 500.0 psig

Based on the checked data, the PVT and flow models (VLP+IPR) are input.

Use PROSPER QuickLook analysis for performance diagnosis.

Data Available:

  • 3.1.1.1 Learning topics This section focuses on how to: Design a naturally flowing well in PROSPER Perform data quality check Model validation Design of a gas lifted well in PROSPER

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The single well model will be designed one step at a time and at each step any available test / production data available will be used to validate the model. As new test data becomes available, it will be checked with the model and any inconsistency will be investigated from an engineering and physics point of view.

Fluid Method Separator Emulsions Hydrates Oil and water Black oil Single-stage No Disable warning
Fluid
Method
Separator
Emulsions
Hydrates
Oil and water
Black oil
Single-stage
No
Disable warning
  • 3.1.1.2 Executive summary Steps taken to achieve the modeling objective is as follows: Define modeling objective in PROSPER Input PVT model and match BO correlations to PVT laboratory data Input equipment data: deviation survery, equipment, geothermal gradient Input IPR model. Quality check/Validate test data with PVT using quality control flow correlations Perform a new gas lift design PROSPER Validate gas lift well model using Quicklook tool in PROSPER

    • 3.1.2 STEP 1 : Model Setup The type of well being modelled shall be defined under System Options. Start from a new prosper select the following:

file. Select the Options | Options menu in PROSPER and

Water viscosity Flow type Well type Artificial lift method Type Predict Model Range Output Well completion type Gravel pack Inflow type Gas coning

Use default correlation Tubing flow Producer Gas lift (Continuous) No friction loss in annulus Pressure and temperature (offshore) Rough approximation Full system Show calculating data Cased hole No Single branch No

Physics Examples 98 Next a Black Oil fluid PVT model shall be input (The Black oil
Physics Examples
98
Next a Black Oil fluid PVT model shall be input (The Black oil method was selected
for fluid PVT description under system options). Black oil correlations shall be
matched to laboratory data and the most suitable Black oil correlation which
reproduces fluid PVT behaviour will be selected.
Select
|
PVT
|
Input
Data and
enter the following
fluid properties at standard
conditions:
Solution GOR
Oil gravity
Gas gravity
Water salinity
(No gas impurities)
500 scf/stb
39 API
0.798
100000 ppm
99 IPM Tutorial Manual Click the Match Data button on the above dialog and enter the
99
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Click the Match Data button on the above dialog and enter the PVT match data
available at bubble point conditions of the fluid.
Temperature
Bubble point
GOR @ bubble point
Oil FVF @ bubble point
Oil viscosity @ bubble point
250 degree F
2200 psig
500 scf/stb
1.32 rb/stb
0.4 cp
Physics Examples 100 Click Done on the above dialog to go back to the PVT input
Physics Examples
100
Click Done on the above dialog to go back to the PVT input dialog. Conduct the
matching procedure by clicking the Regression button and then the Match All
button.
Once the correlations have been matched to data, click the Parameters button to
view the statistics and select the best correlation that closely reproduces PVT
behaviour. Based on the regression parameters (parameter 1, a multiplier and
parameter 2, a shift factor) and standard deviation, select the best model. Ideally the
standard deviation should be very small, parameter 1 should equal 1 and parameter
2 should equal zero.
101 IPM Tutorial Manual From the regression results, the Glaso correlation for Pb, Rs and Bo
101
IPM Tutorial Manual
From the regression results, the Glaso correlation for Pb, Rs and Bo and Beggs et al
correlation for oil viscosity give the best match and are selected for the PVT model.
Click on | Done | Done to go back to the main PVT screen. Select the correlations to
use in the main PVT screen.
Physics Examples 102 Once this is done, click on Done to return to the main window.
Physics Examples
102
Once this is done, click on Done to return to the main window.
Next step is to define the well configuration./ equipment data. Click on System |
Equipment (Tubing etc.) menu option and input the following equipment data:
Deviation Survey
The deviation survey is:
Measured depth
(ft)
True vertical depth
(ft)
0
0
1000
1000
2500
2405
6500
5322
15200
11500

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Down hole Equipment Type Measured depth (ft) Internal diameter (in) Roughness (in) X’mass 0 tree Tubing
Down hole Equipment
Type
Measured depth
(ft)
Internal diameter
(in)
Roughness
(in)
X’mass
0
tree
Tubing
14500
3.96
0.0006
Casing
15200
6.00
0.0006
Physics Examples 104 Geothermal Gradient The formation geothermal gradient is given below: Measured depth (ft) Formation
Physics Examples
104
Geothermal Gradient
The formation geothermal gradient is given below:
Measured depth
(ft)
Formation
temperature
(degree F)
0
50
15200
250
Overall heat transfer coefficient (OHTC):8 BTU/hr/ft2/F

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Reservoir model Mechanical / Geometrical skin Reservoir pressure Reservoir temperature Water cut Total GOR Relative permeability
Reservoir model
Mechanical / Geometrical skin
Reservoir pressure
Reservoir temperature
Water cut
Total GOR
Relative permeability
Darcy
Enter by hand
3844 psig
250 degree F
20.3 %
500
No

The next step is to define an Inflow performance relationship.

Click on System | Inflow Performance and select the Darcy analytical IPR model. Input the parameters given below:

Physics Examples 106 Click on Input data to enter the reservoir properties. Reservoir Permeability Reservoir thickness
Physics Examples
106
Click on Input data to enter the reservoir properties.
Reservoir Permeability
Reservoir thickness
Drainage area
Dietz shape factor
Well bore radius
100 md
100 ft
100 acres
31.6
0.354 ft
107 IPM Tutorial Manual Click on the tab labelled ‘Mech/Geom Skin’ and input a skin value
107
IPM Tutorial Manual
Click on the tab labelled ‘Mech/Geom Skin’ and input a skin value of zero i.e. no
feature in reservoir causes an additional pressure drop
Physics Examples 108 Next, the IPR is calculated to register the Absolute Open flow potential (AOF)
Physics Examples
108
Next, the IPR is calculated to register the Absolute Open flow potential (AOF) of the
reservoir. Click on the Calculate button to get the following IPR plot:
109 IPM Tutorial Manual Click on Main on the IPR plot menu to go back to
109
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Click on Main on the IPR plot menu to go back to the main PROSPER window.
The next
step
is
to
define gas
lift
data: gas properties, injection
depths and
pressures e.t.c.
Click on System | Gaslift Data menu and enter the gas lift data as follows.
Gaslift gas gravity
Mole percent H2S
Mole percent H2S
Mole percent H2S
GLR injected
Gas lift method
Maximum Depth of injection
Casing pressure
DP across valve
0.7
0%
0%
0%
0 scf/stb
Optimum Depth of injection
13000 ft
1900 psig
100 psi
Physics Examples 110 As the gas lift data suggests, an optimum depth of injection has been
Physics Examples
110
As the gas lift data suggests, an optimum depth of injection has been chosen but the
injection depth is limited to 13000 feet (the packer depth). Thus with a casing
pressure of 1900psi and 100psi pressure loss across valve, prosper will determine
the optimum point of injection that corresponds to maximum liquid produced. The
0.7gravity gas will be injected at this depth depending on gas injection rates or GLR
injected specified. Various values of injection rates or GLR injected can be
sentisized on during a system calculation.
Click on Done to complete this and to go back to the main PROSPER screen.
Save the file using File | Save As as GLIFTG.OUT for a directory of choice.
3.1.3
STEP 2 : Well Model Validation and Data Quality Check
In this section, the response of the model shall be compared to measured data. The
first step is to perform a data quality check. Data set 1 shall be sued for model
validation.

To match model to test data, Select Matching | Correlation Comparison | Tubing from the main PROSPER menu and enter the following data and selecting the vertical lift correlations as shown below:

Well head pressure

264.0 psig

Water cut

20.3 %

Liquid rate

6161.0 stb/day

GOR

432 scf/stb

GOR free

0 scf/stb

Gas Lift gas rate

0 MMscf/day

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Injection depth Pressure @ 14800 ft Correlations

13000. ft 3382.0 psig Duns and Ros Modified Hagedorn Brown Fancher Brown Petroleum Experts 2

Petroleum Experts 3
Petroleum Experts 3

Click on Calculate | Calculate to perform the calculations. Plot to view the results.

Physics Examples 112 It can be seen at the bottom right hand corner of the plot
Physics Examples
112
It can be seen at the bottom right hand corner of the plot that the test data point lies
to the left of the pressure traverse generated by the Fancher Brown correlation.
The Fancher Brown correlation is a non-slip correlation i.e. it assumes equal flow
velocities for liquid and gas. It thus predicts a no-slip holdup and a minimum
pressure drop. In reality however, there is always some slip between liquid and gas,
holdup is increased and the pressure drop in the pipe is increased. However, the plot
indicates that actual pressure at a point in the well (test point) is lower than the
Fancher Brown correlation which is not physically possible. This suggests some
inconsistent data in the PVT model and/or test data provided equipment data
description of the well is accurate.
From a review of the test data, a GOR of 432 scf/stb at a reservoir pressure of
3844psi was input. However the PVT model shows that the solution GOR at bubble
point pressure is 500 scf/stb. If the PVT model is assumed accurate, then the test
data input is inconsistent with this and should be reviewed. The test GOR is changed
to 500 scf/stb and the calculation is re-done.
113 IPM Tutorial Manual The following plot is obtained:
113
IPM Tutorial Manual
The following plot is obtained:

Physics Examples

114

It can be seen that with consistency between the test data and PVT model, the test data point plots to the right of the Fancher Brown correlation. This illustrates the quality check procedure.

The next step involves matching a vertical lift correlation to the test data to reproduce actual
The next step involves matching a vertical lift correlation to the test
data to
reproduce actual pressure drops in the well. The matched correlation shall be used
in the analysis. Well test Data set 2 shall be used for this purpose.
Again, going through the correlation comparison steps as done for Data set 1, the
data shall be quality checked by performing pressure gradient calculations with
different vertical flow correlations.
Data Set 2
Well head pressure = 264.0 psig
Water cut = 20.3 %
Liquid rate = 1100.0 stb/day
GOR = 500 scf/stb
Gas Lift = 1.0 MMscf/day
Injection depth = 8000.0 ft
Pressure @ 1500 ft = 500.0 psig
Performing the calculations and plotting the results, the following plot is obtained:

The test data point lies to the right of the Duns and Ross Modified (DRM) correlation.

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In like manner as the Fancher Brown (FB) correlation , the DRM correlation represents the maximum pressure loss obtainable in a well if the flow regime is slug flow. One can verify that the flow regime at the gauge depth (i.e. test point) is slug flow by checking the gradient results as shown below. This indicates inconsistent data between the PVT and test measurements assuming well configuration as input under equipment data is accurate.

115 IPM Tutorial Manual In like manner as the Fancher Brown (FB) correlation , the DRM

It can be further noticed that for the same well head pressure and IPR, the gas lift well test (Data set 2) produces at lower flow rates than at naturally flowing conditions (Data set 1). This indicates some inconsistency. If PVT model is assumed accurate, then the well test data needs to be reviewed.

The other point to note is that for the same well head pressure and IPR, with gas lift we are getting lower flow rates than without gas lift as indicated by data point one. It could be that the data point is wrong or the PVT data are incorrect. However we already know that our PVT data are correct, so the data point must be incorrect.

Since Data set 1 has been quality checked, the VLP correlations can be matched to it. The matching process seeks to tune the correlations to reproduce the test data point by matching the two main pressure drop components i.e. gravity and friction using multipliers (parameter 1 and parameter 2) for each correlation. The correlation

Physics Examples

116

that best matches the test will be selected to model flow in the tubing.

Select Matching | Matching | IPR/VLP (Quality Check) and input test data point 1 in the
Select Matching | Matching | IPR/VLP (Quality Check) and input test data point 1
in the VLP/IPR matching interface as shown below:
Well head pressure
Tubing head temperature
Water cut
Liquid rate
GOR
GOR free
Gas Lift gas rate
Injection depth
Pressure @ 14800 ft
264.0 psig
132.8 degree F
20.3 %
6161.0 stb/day
500 scf/stb
0 scf/stb
0 MMscf/day
13000. ft
3382.0 psig

Select the match data spreadsheet row number and click the Estimate U Value button. This procedure validates the temperature model in PROSPER by back calculating the right Overall Heat transfer co-efficient (OHTC or U-value) which reproduces the actual temperature profile across the well using the Rough approximation temperature model. Once this is calculated, it should be updated in the Geothermal Gradient section of the downhole equipment data. Select Yes on the pop up menu to update the U-value.

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Hagerdorn Brown Petroleum Experts 2 Petroleum Experts 3
Hagerdorn Brown
Petroleum Experts 2
Petroleum Experts 3

Since a correlation comparison has been conducted on the data, Hagedorn and Brown, PE2 and PE3 correlations were closest to the test point. The next step is to match these VLP to the measured data and the best correlation will be selected.

Click the Match VLP button and select the following correlations:

117 IPM Tutorial Manual Hagerdorn Brown Petroleum Experts 2 Petroleum Experts 3 Since a correlation comparison

With the match calculations performed, the match parameters (Parameters 1 and 2) can be accessed by clicking on Statistics.

Physics Examples 118 Petroleum Experts 3 correlation gives the best match and will be selected as
Physics Examples
118
Petroleum Experts 3 correlation gives the best match and will be selected as the vertical
lift correlation for the well.
With the VLP correlation matched to test data, the next step is to validate/match the
IPR model. Since the VLP reproduces the actual pressure drop in the well (i.e
passing through the test point); it can be extrapolated to the bottom of the well to
obtain the bottom hole pressure at the test conditions (Qliq, WC and GOR). The
flowing bottom hole pressure and Qliq will plot as a point on a VLP/IPR plot. The
matched VLP honours this point and from the concept of nodal analysis, the IPR
model can be tuned (depending on parameters of most uncertainty in the IPR
model) to pass through this test point; hence honouring the measured data.

This is achieved in the VLP/IPR matching section. From the correlation matched parameters screen, click on | Done | Done. This leads to the VLP/IPR matching interface.

Select ‘VLP/IPR’ to perform the IPR match.

119 IPM Tutorial Manual The objective of this calculation is to obtain the flowing bottom hole
119
IPM Tutorial Manual
The objective of this calculation is to obtain the flowing bottom hole pressure for the
test conditions using the matched VLP correlation. Using the matched PE3
correlation, click on Calculate. The results of the calculation and estimated flowing
bottom hole pressure are indicated.
Physics Examples 120 It can be seen that the Solution Rate and flowing/solution bottom hole pressure
Physics Examples
120
It can be seen that the Solution Rate
and flowing/solution bottom hole pressure
(BHP) as obtained from the model do not correspond with the Test Rate and Test
BHP.
Select Plot and zoom using a left-click and mouse drag over the test point to
observe the VLP / IPR match.
121 IPM Tutorial Manual The square box is the test point which corresponds to test rate
121
IPM Tutorial Manual
The square box is the test point which corresponds to test rate and test BHP as
estimated form the matched VLP correlation. The cross indicates the solution rate
and pressure as calculated by the model. For the model to reproduce the measured
data, the VLP and IPR should intersect at the test point.
Rate and pressure errors are displayed on the right of the plot screen. The IPR
model can then be adjusted to minimise the errors.
There is no universal rule applicable to IPR adjustment. It is based on the IPR model
being used and knowledge of the system. For example, the reservoir pressure and/
or skin may be adjusted to achieve a match. It depends on the users judgement. For
this exercise, the reservoir pressure shall be changed.
Change the reservoir pressure from the VLP/IPR Matching dialogue to 3874psig.
Select VLP/IPR and Calculate and view the tabular results then Plot to view the
graphical solution.

Click on Finish to close the plot window.

Select the IPR button and change the reservoir pressure in the IPR main screen to 3874 psig to up-date the IPR pressure.

Physics Examples

122

3.1.4

Save the file as GliftG1.out in a suitable directory . STEP 3 : Gas Lift Design
Save the file as GliftG1.out in a suitable directory .
STEP 3 : Gas Lift Design

This concludes model validation exercise: matching model to test data.

The objective of this section is to design a gas lift for the prosper well model designed previously. The optimum gas lift rate at the desired well head pressure shall be calculated and the gas lift design performed. Also the various design parameters e.g. casing pressures required to open the valves at injection depth and at surface will be calculated.

The design shall be performed for the well producing at 50% watercut. Gas available for injection is 6MMscf/day at 1900 psig casing injection pressure.

Select the Design | Gas Lift | New Well menu item. Input the following data. Casing sensitive valves which open at casing pressure shall be used.

Design rate method Maximum Liquid rate Maximum gas available Maximum gas during unloading Flowing top node pressure Unloading top node pressure

Calculate from max production 20000 stb/day 6 MMscf/day 6 MMscf/day 250 psig 250 psig

123 IPM Tutorial Manual Operating injection pressure Kick off injection pressure Desired dP across valve Maximum
123
IPM Tutorial Manual
Operating injection pressure
Kick off injection pressure
Desired dP across valve
Maximum depth of injection
Water cut
Minimum spacing
Static gradient of load fluid
Minimum transfer dP
Safety for closure of last unloading valve
Total GOR</