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- 06931157
- Module 1
- DESIGN & IMPLEMENTATION OF RECONFIGURABLE FRONT END FOR MIMO-OFDM
- Wireless Technology Recognition Based on RSSI Distribution at Sub-Nyquist Sampling Rate for Constrained Devices
- SPIJ-8
- A GPU Implementation of a Real-Time MIMO Detector
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- Self-Optimization of Antenna Tilt in Mobile Networks
- R4-030797
- 201-209
- LESSON-1
- adaptive_ofdm
- IJETR042334
- 7.LTE MIMO Principle-36
- antena for LTE.rtf
- A Blind SLM Scheme for Reduction of PAPR in OFDM Systems
- Active interference cancellation technique for MB-OFDM
- A Synchronization Technique for Generalized Frequency Division Multiplexing

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MIMO-OFDM Systems

. . . .

. . .

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. . ., .,

E-Mail: hansenchang@l63.com~ .

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. . . . . .

. . . . .

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used to form multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO)

channels to increase the capacity by a factor of the

minimum number of transmit and .receive ,'antennas.

Orthogonal frequency division multipleXing (OFDM) for

MIMO: channels (MtMO-OPDM) .can :-improve-.the

performance by mitigating intersymbol interference and

.enhancing .System: capacity. Thiw paper investigates

pilot-symbol aided, channel estimation .(PSACE) .for

MIMO-O.F.DM. . . systems......Two'. app,roaches are

*investigated:..fir$t, zero. pilot .pattern .use all available

pilot symbols simultaneously;. .second, ' nonzero., pilot

pattern is. . al1o.cated for- each ., transmit, . antenna

exclqsively. The ,Wiener .filters are derived .for both

approaches.

. ,

.

'

:.

National Key Lab. of Communications

University'of Electronic Science and Technology

Chengdu, 610054, P.R. China

.E-Mail: lsq@uestc.edu&

. '.

. . . . .

.' '.

. . . .

'

. .

order to detect the received signal coherently, an' accurate

channel estimate is essential. By periodically inserting

pilots in the transmitted signa1,'while the.sampling theorem

is satisfied, the channel .response can be reconstru~ted~~~.

PSACE has been successfully applied to OFDM e.g. 141.

More recently, channel estimatiod for MIMO-OFDM

systems has been investigated['. 6l. The estimator based on

the least squares (LS) and minimum mean squared error

(MMSE) criterion for MIMO-OFDM systems have been

derived in [7].While there.is a hard limit for the minimum

number of pilots for the LS estimator, Nu, the MMSE

estimator exists even if the.number of pilots, Np, is less than

By applying the 'sampling theorem, the minimum

number of pilots, Npnrjn,for which the signal can be

reconstructed, can be derived. In this paper it is shown that

.

estimator does exist, i.e. NPn,,=N,,. Otherwise, the MMSE

Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is

, .

estimator will experience an irreducible error floor: Thus,

:very attractive :for. high-speed wireless communication

by using an.MMSE estimator the requirements for Np are

because of its various advantages in lessening the severe

not relaxed..

effects ' of. freqaency-selective .fading' 'and 'Inter-symbol

., The channel estimation approaches assume that all NT

,'Infe~erence(ISI)['l: Applying' multiple antennas at both

transmit antennas utilize all available pilots .simultaneously,

ter 'and receiver -sides, especially when' the

e.g. zero pilot pattern.. Alternatively, by exclusively

ent provides rich scattering, can'greatly improve

assign.ing.:each transmit antenna a subset of .all available

.the capacity" of a wireless .'So~nunication'link :in

pilots, e.g. nonzero pilot pattern, PSACE. for single antenna

flat-fading'21.To 'deal with the frequency-selective 'nature of

systems can be applied in a straightforward way. However,

broadband wireless channels, OFDM can be combined.with

if such zero pilot pattern sequences are used; the number of

..

multiple-input multiple-output,(MlMO) techniques. .

available pilots per transmit antenna kreduced by Nr times.

Transmitting a data signal over a wireless fading channel,

. . .

..

. . .

In, this paper MIMO-OFDM .channel, estimation utilizing

zero and nonzero pilot pattern are compared. It is shown

* This Work was: pz$ly~s~pqarl~dby National 863 Program of'china

(2001AA1230131) and Nalional NaNral Science Foundation of China

that the requirements for N-in, as well as the MMSE of

(60390540-3) . . . . . . . . . .

both approaches are equivalent.

. . .

. ~, ,.,.

,.,,.

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1: INTRODUCTION

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. . , _ . .

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0-7803-8647-7/04/$20.0002004 IEEE.

299

model and channel model in MIMO-OFDM system are

briefly described in section II; the Wiener filter and the

corresponding MSE are derived in section 111; results are

presented in section IV; and the conclusions are finally

given in Section V.

constant during one OFDM symbol. The channel of the

qth tap,

variable with zero mean. All channel taps and all

subcarriersm and n is given by

pw)[m-n]

"H

illustrated in Fig. 1, For OFDM the signal stream is divided

into N, parallel substreams, e.g. subcamers. The kth

subcarrier, of the lth symbol block, named OFDM symbol,

transmitted from antenna i, is denoted by $1. Then, the

received signal of the jth receive antenna after OFDM

demodulation is obtained's1

EIHr'Hyl

Channel estimation of OFDM system is dependent on the

choice of the pilot sequences and the pilot spacing D,in the

frequency and D, in the time. Fig. 2 denotes the pilot pattern

of frequency. In order to reconstruct the signal, there exists

a maximum Qand D,,dependent on the maximum delay of

j = l , ...,N,;k = I ,.._.

N.

with zero mean and variance No. Throughout the paper, it is

assumed that the intersymbol interference (ISI) is

completely eliminated by inserting the guard intervals;

meanwhile, time and frequency synchronization is perfect.

Although

h'',')(f,r) . Considering a frequency selective, Rayleigh

fading channel, modeled by a tapped delay line with L

non-zero tapstS1, Ht;') can be described by[']

be satisfied D , N r r z / T S l and

f,JFD, S l / 2 , fm

N f l ~channels have approximately the same maximum

c.r,, .

delay,

A. Channel Model

For PSACE utilizing a nonzero pilot pattern, the Nr pilot

The channel gain function (CGF), Hl(ln, is obtained by sequences are generally chosen from orthogonal designs.

sampling the analog CGF H ( ' . I ) ( t , f ) at time and We use phase-shifted sequences, defined b p l

2:) = e - / b i i l N ~,. k- = { l , ...,N p }

frequency instants f =IT,, and f = Wr, where Tsym=

(4)

( N F ~ + N ~ and

~ ) TT~ =~ NmTspl

~

represents the OFDM

i = (I.. ..,N,)

rz)

minimum number of pilots required to reconstmct the

signal of all Nr channels can be established.

z<r* pilo,

n.mm

I It31 I I I I I<e,I I I I

I I I Iis1 1 1 I I IP,,' I

c .

Ti

T I 2 i.

rrrpvrncy

3'00

data

While

phase-shifted

pilot

sequences

are

assumed

Walsh-Hadamard sequences, there is no difference in terms

of MSE or the maximum OFThe total transmit power that is

allocated for transmitted pilots, is futed. Thus, the

signals; interpolate between the pilots in order to get an

estimate for each data symbol; as well as to average over

the noise. We consider two approaches. The first approach

If a zero pilot pattern is used, one transmit antenna is

exclusively allocated a subset of all available pilot slots.

Mathematically, the N ~ p i l osequences

t

can be written in the

form

antenna's signal has a dedicated number of pilot slots,

which is exclusively reserved for that transmit antenna. So,

if transmit antenna i is transmitting a pilot at a certain

subcarrier, all other transmit antennas are silent. The second

other antennas are silent that transmit antenna can use all

Nrtransmit antennas transmit a pilot, as illustrated in Fig. 2.

available power.

sequences.

111. PILOT-SYMBOL

AIDEDCHANNEL

ESTIMATION

B. Wiener filter

~

i we ~focus

~ on~channel

,

estimation in frequency

direction ( m a r r i e r index k). Thus, the index denoting

the OFDM symbol I, will be dropped in the following.

For PSACE, Np known pilot subcarriers are periodically

between

multiplexed into the N~ subcarriers. fie

two adjacent pilots isD, = L N , / N , ] , where 1x1 being the

largest integer not larger than x, PSACE was first

a d required a flat

introduced for single carrier

signals, interpolate between pilots and average over the

noise. The channel gain function (CGF) estimate for

wbcamer is given by

fipn = w v . n ( k ) p ~= R m

( ' , ! I ( ~YY) ~ ( ! ! - ~ I

w(.'I

(m?}

,=,

AWGN term are given by

p'"

jp

sehuence,

+'", ...,$)y

=qffI

[~(','l(k),...,~~~)(k)],

in general, depends

and the

@""

In order to determine the filer, knowledge about the

channel statistics is required. The auto-correlation matrix of

the Ieceived

pilots is described by

p~;

= E[pL,'ptij"

where

expressed as

5 4 1 = p$('l"'.'l

(k

subset of the transmitted signal sequence containing only

the pilots,

= {A'?} ,with k = b,.

In vector notation the received pilot sequence of one

OFDM symbol from receive antenna j can be conveniently

(7)

Rkil

= ~ ~ ( o R ~ ; IN~I ( v

(8)

/-I

the CGF, and the described by N$, where I denotes the.identity matrix. With

(3) the mthrow and nthcolumn of can be expressed as

[R!il)m,a = E [ fi"."#"."'

I

"

E@N,"

,,_,,

f;!)Ep,

]=&)[D,+-4]

(9)

n pilots apart is &'[D,n],

since the pilots sample the

301

The cross-correlation vector between the received pilots

R (,.,I

, ( k ) = E ,r+Iq(,J"

and

With ' L = l k / D , ]

I=%(

(VI

,~

k .~('1''

R!i)(k)'=E[Af')H(',')

,. .(lo)

. ..

"I. ,.'.'I

The nth

'

'

.

, .

. .

{R!f(k)} = E[HYJ@'?] = pi:][& D,n] . , ( l l )

I

',

.,

' ,

,.>

.. ,..

. . .

"..

:.'.:.>

can he expressed in the general fofm . . . . . . .. . .. . . . :

,,

" '

.', .:;

..,

. . . . . .

,~

C. MSEAnalysis

..

.,

,'

and (10)

.~

..

signals are mutually uncorrelated. . ~.

.

,

Generally,'it is of great computational complexity to' use

all pilots Np. Instead a window of size M/can be slid over

. '

the'frequency grid, with MJ<Np.

,

.

,

pattern

all pilot slots cany information for each transmit

.....

D. Time Domain

. Estimation.

'v

accounts

..

is used to detekink'the cokelation functions RI( .and

.' (12);'is valid for a i y esiimatbr '. w "with' -or

~gJ(k)

'

from

.

.

(7j.wiiI have dimension'Np =N& , ,

. -.

To estimate the CGF of antenna pair (ij),pilot sequence

..

.. . .. . . .

.,.

. . I

: . . .; . : . . . . . . s

After the fust-stage described -in previous section, we

finish the channel estimation in time by linear interpolate

using CIR of three 'pilot; Fig. 3;'denoteS the time

the channel

interpolation; Given a tertain subcariier, b,:

.. . . .. . . . .

estimation at time is'givenby[lol

'

.>

antenna's signal is NT times increased, so Dl. = D,NT.The

. .

resulting Wiener filter W'""(k) from (7) has one non-zero

. . . .

coefficient followed by NT1 zero coefficients. By using

. . .

. . . . . .

.

.

infornktion about the CGF of antenna i, PSACE w j h zero,

,.

.. . .. .. . . .

..

',

I .

antenna system Y".'J= 8","+ R dimension Dp= N ,. /,,.N, .

In terms of the equivalent single antenna system, ?','),

appropriate

Wiener

filter

the:

of

i W J ( k )=,R:$(~)R;;

w(',J1(+)from (7). Thus, .the dimension of the optimum

Wiener filter is Nr times lower than

for PSACE.

...

'

D,

.'I

: ,

. . .

. D,'

.,.

...:*',

. .

+'I

*.I1

~z:8la&

. .

'4.'.

Pilot

. ..

..

.

~.

. ,

fi".'

rji:n

4H.l.

Data

1wQh

.

t

Tim

''

. . . .

Fig. 3 Time dimension interpolation

model is M.1225 Vehicular Channel A, with 6 paths, Tab. 1:.

presents the environment parameters of channel. A carrier

frequency is set to be 2GHz; and the maximum Doppler

frequency shift is lOOHz, adbandwidth of 20MHz.is used,:

and guard interval is 12.8trs, the total number.of subcarriers

is N=1024, and the OFDM symbol is modulated by QPSK

(Quadrature Phase Shift Keying). The pilot spacing meets

the parameters D,NI 5 5 in the frequency domain, and

.

302

I Tap 1

ChannelA

REFERENCES

IT-kFLA

Relative delay@)

Average power(dB)

310

-1.0

710

-9.0

1090

-10.0

2510

-20.0

mobile

channel

using

orthogonal

division

multiplexing, IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 33, pp.

.Eb/NO(dB)

nonzero pilot pattern and zero pilot pattern

against the SNR EdNo. A Wiener filter is employed that is

perfectly matched to the channel statistics and uses all

available pilots. The performance of PSACE with zero pilot

pattern degrades about 0.5dB comparing with the

perforniance using nonzero pilot pattern.

V. CONCLUSIONS

[2] G J. Foschini and M. J. Gans, On limits of wireless

communications in a fading environment when using

multiple

antennas.

Wireless

Personal

Communications, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 311-335, March

1998.

[3] J. K. Cavers, An Analysis of Pilot Symbol Assisted

Modulation for Rayleigh Fading Channels, IEEE

Trans. Vehic. Technol., vol: VT- 40, pp. 68C693, Nov.

1991.

[4] P. Hoeher, S. Kaiser, and P. Robertson,

Pilot-Symbol-Aided Channel Estimation in Time and

Frequency, in Proc. Communication Theoxy

Mini-Conf. (CTMC) within IEEE Global Telecommun.

Conf. (GLOBECOM97), Phoenix, USA, pp. 90-96,

1997.

[5] Y. Li, N. Seshadri, and S. Ariyavisitakul, Channel

Estimation for OFDM Systems with Transmitter

Diversity in Mobile Wireless Channels, IEEE J. Sel.

Areas Commun., vol. 17, pp. 461-470, Mar. 1999.

[6] Y. Li, Simplified Channel Estimation for OFDM

Systems with Multiple Transmit Antennas, IEEE

Trans. Wireless Commun., vol. 1, pp. 67-75, Jan. 2002.

[7] Y. Gong and K. Letaief, Low Rank Channel Estimation

for Space- Time Coded Wideband OFDM Systems, in

examined. The Wiener filter, which is the optimum MMSE

estimator, has been derived for both approaches. Bounds for

the minimum number of pilots were derived by applying the

sampling theorem. The MMSE is independent on the

chosen pilot sequences, provided that a set of orthogonal

pilot sequences is chosen. Simulation results show the

performance using nonzero pilot pattern is improved,

[SI

Atlantic City, USA, pp. 722-776,2001.

J. G Proakis, Digital Communications. New York

[9] J. G Proakis and D. G Manolakis, Digital Signal

Processing; Principle, Algorithms, and Applications.

Prentice Hall, NJ, USA, 3rd ed., 1996.

[IO] S. Sampei, T. Sunaga, Rayleigh fading compensation

for QAM in land mobile radio channels, IEEE Trans.

Veh. Tech.Vol. 42,no. 2, pp.137-147,May 1993.

303

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