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Intermediate
Students Book

OXFORD

Rob Nolasco

>N ew

otreetwise
Intermediate
Students Book

OXFORD
U N IV E R S IT Y PR ESS

Rob Nolasco

Bullies
W arm -up
1 Read these statements about bullying.
W hat do you think of each one?
Bullying is a problem in every school.
Most bullies are boys.
Most of the victims of bullying are boys.
Many bullies are cowards.
People are sometimes bullied because of
what they wear.

L isten in g @
Read the interview. Try to guess the missing
words. Listen and check your answers.
Jill
I believe youve been having problems
in school.
K elly You can say that again!
Jill
W hat happened?
K elly Well we used to live in Surrey but we
moved to Birmingham earlier this year. When I first went to
Kingsbury school, the kids used to make fun of my southern
accent, but I didn't think much of it. Some of the boys would
make remarks and ( 1 ) _______ jokes as well.
J ill
Such as?
K elly Silly things really. Theyd hide my (2 ) ________ case or
books, the usual things. As I said. I didnt think much of it until
things ( 3 ) ________to get a lot worse.
J ill
W hat happened then?
K elly All the kids in my class had expensive new trainers,
except me. They would taunt me and make fun of my
(4 )
I mean, I really like trainers but I never nag my
mum about clothes because she cant really afford the
(5 ) _______ I want. Anyway one day, a group of girls hid my
shoes in the changing room after a sports lesson. Then they
kept pushing their ( 6 ) _______ in my face. I got so angry that I
told the teacher. Well, I got my shoes back but it made them so
mad that they attacked me after ( 7 ) _______ . I had so many
bruises that I was taken to casualLy for X-rays.

Glossary
make fun of: lo
laugh al sb/sth in an
unkind wav
to keep doing
slh: to do <th again
and again
mad: I here I angrv

3 Listen again and answer these questions.


1 W h y did the students in Kellys school make fun of her?

2 W hat kinds of jokes did they play on her?

3 When did the problem get worse?


4 W h y did they attack her?

10

Issue one Part two

V o cab u lary
4 Match these words from the
interview to the definitions.
nag casualty
taunt bruise

accent

1 To talk to someone
continuously in a
complaining and critical way.
2 A way of pronouncing words
that is connected with the
country area or social class
you come from.
3 Dark mark on the skin
caused by a blow that injures
but does not break the skin.
4 The part of a hospital where
people hurt in accidents get
immediate help.
5 To make someone unhappy
by saying cruel or unkind
things to them.

Taking risks
W arm -up
t

In Brilain, young men under twenty-one have


the most car accidents because they show off
and drive too fast. Women drivers of all ages
have fewer accidents than male drivers. W h o
are the worst drivers in your country?

R e a d i n g SsJ
2 Read the article and put the phrases in the

3 W ho do you think had most responsibility for


the accident?

V o cab u lary
4 Match the verbs in A to the definitions in B.
A
break down
overtake

gaps.
Phillip Oldfield, 18, was showing off
all the driver could see was the roof of
Oldfields car
he had earlier admitted to police
The car ended up on its roof
One of the passengers
Less than three and a half hours later
had picked up Heather and three other pals

swerve
accelerate
brake
knock down
run over

B
make something, e.g. a car,
move faster
knock someone down and pass
over (part of) his body
cease to function because of
a fault
pass a moving person or
vehicle
change direction suddenly
slow down
make someone fall

Now use each verb in a sentence of your own.

'Show-off' kills girl 3 hours after driving test


T een ag e d riv er w a s eg g ed o n , ju ry to ld

Glossary
show off: try to
imprest others with
one's abilities
egg oil: strongly
encourage
fiercely: violently
weave (ab out)-.
move along by
twisting and turning
overreach: fail by
trying to do more
than is possible
reckless: careless,
not thinking o f the
consequences

A teenager killed a 15-year-old girl in a


crash only T H R EE H O U R S after passing his
driving test, a court heard yesterday.
(1) _______ after being egged on by the girl
and her friend who had encouraged him to
show them what his father's car 'could do'.
He went round a left-hand bend at over 100
kph, took off and hit a Land Rover parked in a
lay-by. (2) _______ - and schoolgirl Heather
Wright, a passenger in the back seat, was
killed.
Oldfield, of Ferrybridge, Yorkshire, (3)
________ just before the tragedy.
The jury at Leeds Crown Court heard that
the young driver:
FIER C ELY accelerated and braked to throw
his passengers around.
O VERTO O K a car after driving so closely
behind it that (4 )________ .
W E A V E D about and hit the kerb twice.
Prosecutor David Wagstaffe said: 'The
accused had just got through his driving test.
(5 )
he had killed someone by his

100

Issue eleven Part one

bad driving. He was deliberately showing off


and had overreached his ability.'
(6)
, David Cackett, 17, urged
Oldfield to slow down and told him he was
just being silly when he accelerated and
braked, the jury heard.
But Heather and another girl taunted
Cackett, saying, 'Ooh, M r Mature'.
Oldfield denies causing death by reckless
driving although ( 7 ) ________ that he had lost
his nerve at the critical moment and this had
led to disaster.
The trial continues.

Improve your grammar


I

Phrasal verbs
a Look at these pairs of sentences.
1 When I looked up I saw him in the window.
I looked the word up in a dictionary.
2 I ran out of the room.
We ran out of money while we were shopping.
Which of the sentences contain a phrasal verb?
What makes it a phrasal verb?
Write a simple definition of a phrasal verb.

Now look at these examples.


He picked his friends up in the car.
He picked up his friends in the car.
To pick up is an example of a phrasal verb that
takes an object. The object (his friends) can
come before or after the particle (up).
When the object is a pronoun (it, them), it
always comes before the particle.
Example
He picked them up in the car.
Not

He picked up thorn in the cor.

5 Complete these sentences with an appropriate


form of a phrasal verb from the list below. Use
each verb once.
break down go out with get through
look after ring off end. up
1 He failed all his exams an d ______ with
nothing.
all his exams last week.

3 My car doesnt work very well. Its always


4 M y girlfriend and I _____
three years now.
5 My grandmother used to
was a baby.
6 The person
phone.

You should give up cigarettes.


He showed his new car off.
Turn off that music!
Please call the m eeting off.

P ro n u n ciatio n S
S e n te n c e s tr e s s
7 Listen and mark the stress in these sentences.
1
2
3
4
5

She egged him on.


It ended up on its roof.
W e broke down on the way to work.
W h y does he always show off?
He ran someone over a few years ago.

Listen again, and repeat with the same stress.

L isten in g @
8 Lincoln Trent (pictured here)
is a snowboarder. Have you
ever heard of or seen
snowboarding? Do you think
its risky? W h y /W h y not?
Now listen to the interview
with Lincoln and answer these
questions.

P ra c tic e

2 He

3
4
5
6

each other for


me when I

as soon as I answered the

6 Rewrite the sentences replacing the words in


italics with it or them.

1 How old is Lincoln?


2 Does he snowboard in
competitions?
3 How often does he practise?
4 W here does he work?
5 Do the people at work know
about his snowboarding?
6 Does his mum like
snowboarding?
7 Has he broken his wrist?
8 W h y does he like
snowboarding?
9 W hat is his ambition?

T alk in g p o in t
9 W ork in small groups, and discuss these
questions.
1 Would you take part in something like
snowboarding? W h y/W h y not?
2 W hat do you think of people like Lincoln
Trent? Are they show-offs or people taking
part in a serious sport?

1 W ill you fill in this licence application form,


please?
2 W h y dont you look the words up in a
dictionary?

Issue eleven Part one

101

The future
W arm -up

L i s t e n i n g fsj
2 Listen to a report about consumer products of the future and
tick the objects that are mentioned.

1 Look at the everyday objects


above. W hich of these use
computer technology? W hat
would you expect from an
intelligent (computer
operated) version in the
future? Share your answers
with the class.
Example
An intelligent car would
find its own w ay to its
destination.

102

Issue eleven Part two

motor car

EH

Apollo spaceship

EH

motorbike

EH

electric bulb

EH

satellite

EH

washing machine

3 Listen again and decide which object will:


1 talk to satellites so that we do not get lost.
2 be programmed with your personal details so that advertisers
will direct advertisements to you.
3 monitor your health.
4 be able to change its shape.
W hich of these developments would you want? W h y?

G e t t i n g S t r e e t w i s e ! fs]

{ Improve your grammar

Reacting to som ething new

^ Future perfect
will + have + past participle
Example
By the end of the century, they will have built an
intelligent house.
a

We can use the future perfect for an action that


will be complete on, or before, a certain date
or time in the future. It is normally used with
time expressions like by then, by the end of the
century, by the year 2000, by eight o'clock, etc.

When talking about plans, we often include


expressions like if all goes well, all being well, if
it goes according to plan.
Example
All being well, I will have retired by the age of
sixty-five.

6 Some people are visiting an exhibition of

P ra c tic e
4 Complete these sentences with the future
perfect form of the verbs below.
develop

build

perfect

introduce

finish

1 By the end of the century, this village______


into a small town.
2 By the end of this year, the transport
authorities
a ban on smoking in buses
and taxis.
3 T hey
houses on this land by the end of
the century.
4 Come and see me at ten. I
homework by then.

my

5 W hen he has been in England for ten years, he


his English.
5 Use w ill have * past participle to answer these
questions.
1 A woman smokes forty cigarettes a day. How
many will she have smoked this time next year?
She w ill______
2 Approximately how much will she have spent?
(Use the current price in your country.)
She w ill______
3 A man saves 5 a week. How much will he
have saved in a years time?
He w ill______
4 W hat will you have achieved by the age of 30?
By the age of 30 I w ill______

houses of the future. Listen. W h o do you think


is speaking in each extract? W h y?
Listen again. W hat is the function of these
expressions?
So what do you think?
Isn't it nice, Mum?
Isnt this a fantastic kitchen?
7 Divide these responses into positive and
negative reactions.
Its different.
I think its great.
W hat a lovely house!
Im not sure I really like it.
W ow!
Listen again. W hat is the difference between
positive and negative sounding intonation?

8 Work in pairs. Tell your partner what you think


of the houses. Try to use the correct intonation.

T alking p o in t
9 Work in pairs or small groups. Imagine you
have been asked to design a house for the
future.
W hat rooms will you have?
W hat appliances will there be?
Make a list of your ideas and share them with
the class. Vote for the best idea.

Issue eleven Part two

103

A day in the life of ..


R ead in g @

1 Read the article and find:

In 'A day in the life of


people describe their
lives - not only their daily routine, but also other
aspects such as their work, leisure, tastes, habits
and activities.
Debra McAlley wrote to New Streetw ise
describing her day.

1
2
3
4
5

iM k t roughly 7.30 a.m. my radio alarm rings on


^ ^ n y bed. It is very loud. I need that to wake
me. I lie for a while deciding whether to
pretend to be ill. This trick usually doesnt
work, but I try anyway. My mother never
believes me.
So I finally crawl out of bed at 8 a.m.
I usually go to school by car at 8.40 a.m.

The time Debra goes to school.


The time she has breakfast on Sunday.
The reason why she likes school.
W hat she does after school.
W hat she does when she goes to bed.

As I work in a shop which sells jeans on a


Saturday, I only have a lie-in on Sundays. I
stay in bed so long that I sometimes have my
Sunday breakfast at about 3 p.m., followed
by lunch at 5.30 pm! My mother doesnt
approve, and my father thinks its a big joke.
However, having a good sleep at the
weekend is very important to me.
I usually enjoy school if Im up-to-date with
my school work. I hate feeling left behind. I
enjoy school mainly because of the number
of friends I have there.
After school I either have basketball
practice for the school team, or I go home
to get myself ready to go out with my
boyfriend Craig. I see Craig almost every
evening. I either do my homework before
I see him, during the time I see him, or
when he leaves for the bus at 11 p.m. My
homework always gets done.

DcbrQ McAlly, seventeen,

lives

in Wallsend on Tyneside where she is at


Burnside High School.

Li
104

eb
Issue eleven Part three

When I go to bed I often think about


possible careers and dream of becoming
rich and famous. Then ) worry about
anything and everything. I worry about
school, money, my future, the next day,
what I look like, what people think
about me and what I could do to
change the way people think about me.
I usually fall asleep at about 1 a . n ^
when Ive worried myself silly.
|

4 Improve your writing


Describing your day
a A piece like this is constructed from the
answers to lots of questions we might want to
ask about a person's routines, etc.

The main tense used is the simple present and


the opening sentence sets the mood for what
follows.
Example
At roughly 7.30 a.m. my radio alarm rings.

3 Complete these sentences so that they are true


for you.
1
2
3
4

W hen I get up in the morning I hate_______ .


I ________going to school because________ .
After school I either_______ o r ________.
In the evening, my father often asks me

5
6
7
8

M y mother always tells m e_______ .


I do my homework_______ .
Im not keen o n _______ .
I worry about_______ o r _______ .

C The text is made more interesting for the


reader by:
giving the reasons for some of the routines.
giving some idea of what the writer's friends,
family, teachers, etc. think or feel.
Example
My Mum never believes me.

4 Read through Debra's article again and write

d Notice how we can use either... or to express


choice/options. This avoids repetition.
Example
After school I either have basketball practice
for the school team or I go home.

5 Share your questions with a partner. Did you

Remember to use expressions with -ing to talk


about likes and dislikes.
Example
l hate feeling left behind.

P rac tice
2 Join the sentences with e ith e r... or.
Example
At lunch 1sometimes have a sandwich and I
sometimes eat in the school canteen.
A t lunch I either have a sandwich, or I eat in
the school canteen.
1 In the morning I sometimes walk to school and
sometimes my father takes me.
2 In the evening I sometimes do my homework
and I sometimes watch TV.
3 I sometimes dream of becoming rich and I
sometimes dream of getting a good job.
4 After school, I sometimes play football and I
sometimes play basketball.

ten questions that the interviewer might have


asked her.

Examples
W hat tim e do you get up?
Do you like getting up?

have with the same ones? W rite down any that


you did not think of.

W riting
6 W ork with a different partner. Your aim is to
find out your partners routines and habits.
1 Use the list of questions you made earlier as a
basis for interviewing your partner. Ask
additional questions if you want to.
2 Make notes of her/his answers and use your
questions and the Im prove yo ur w riting
guidelines to write a piece called A life in the
day o f ... about your partner.

S elf c h e c k
7 Show your draft to your partner. Discuss
possible corrections before copying out a final
version.

Issue eleven Part three

105

New Streetwise songbook


Rocket m an cs

She packed my ( 1) b____


Pre-flight,
Zero hour, nine a.m.,
And Im going to be ( 2 ) h
by then.

last night,

as a kite

I miss the Earth so much,


I (3) m________my wife.
Its lonely out in (4) s_______
On such a timeless flight.

Glossary
kite: a children's
toy that floats on
the wind

And I think its going to be a long, long


(5) t_______
Till touchdown brings me round again to find
I'm not the ( 6) m________they think I am at
(7) h_______ .

touchdown: when
a spaceship lands

Oh, Im a (8 ) r________man,
Rocket man burning out his fuse up here alone.
Mars aint the kind of place to raise your kids,
In fact, it's (9) c_________ashell,
And theres no one there to raise them if you
did.
And all this science,
I dont ( 10) u________ ,
Its just my ( 1 1 ) j_______ ,five days a week,
A rocket man.

fuse: electric wire

1 Do you think people will live or work on other


planets in the future? Would you like to live or
work in space?

2 Look at the song. Try to predict the words that


go in the gaps. The first letter has been
provided.

106

Songbook

3 Listen and check your answers.


4 Does the rocket man enjoy his job? W hat
doesnt he like about it? Have you changed
your mind about your answers to exercise 1?

r ^ l lEW

treetwi

Discrimination

r. r~

Why do people discriminate


against others?

BLACKS, COLOUREDS
& ASIANS
ANTSUNDU, KIEURLIN8
EN ASIERS

Truth and lies

When and how


often do people lie?

Discrimination
W arm -up

R ead in g

W hen we discriminate against a person or group


we treat them differently (usually worse) than
others.

2 Read the story of a young man living in a

1 Answer these questions in small groups. If you


answer yes, tell your friends what you did and
how you felt at the time. If you answer no, try
to imagine how you would feel if you were
discriminated against because of your age, sex
or dress.
1 Has anyone ever stopped you doing something
because of your age?
2 Has anyone ever refused to let you into a
public place because they did not like the way
you were dressed?
3 Has anyone ever discouraged you from doing
anything because of your sex?

society where discrimination used to be an


accepted way of life and answer these
questions.
W here does the story take place?
W h at does Allen want?
W h o spoke and behaved calmly? Allen or the
old woman?
W h y did the old woman refuse to give Allen a
card?
W h y did the old woman ignore him?
W h o helped Allen?
W h y did she agree to let Allen have a card?

T H E LIBRARY V I S I T
H e walked quickly up the library
steps, ignoring the white faces he
passed. H e went into the building and
walked to the desk. W hen the old
woman looked up, her jaw dropped.

Yes, the woman snapped.


Might I see it, please?
T h e old woman ignored him again. A
crowd had gathered. Allen was afraid
she might call the police if he asked
her again. But he had to have a library
card.

W hat do you want? she said sharply.


Id like to apply for a library card, he
said firmly.

agitated: nervous
and anxious
cops: (slang) police

Ju st dien a young white woman came

You cant come to this library, she


said nervously.

out of a back office. She was probably


coming out to tell him to leave before she called the cops.

W hy not? he asked calmly.

May I help you? the woman said pleasantly.

You ju st cant, the old woman said, more agitated. She


had lowered her head and was busy stam ping some cards
on her desk.

Yes, I would like to apply for a library card and this


woman told me I can't have one. 1 do n't understand why.
All I want to do is read.

I would take proper care o f the books. Although he was


angry, his voice was as pleasant as if he were talking about
the weather.

W hat are you interested in? the young woman continued.

T h is is the white library, the old woman blurted out. Its


for white people. You people have your own library.

impress her.

But one does not have the wide choice o f books there that

the library for coloured people doesnt have this kind of


book, I dont think wed be breaking any rules if we let this
young man have a card.

are available here.


Glossary

T h e old librarian turned a deep red and lowered her head


again. W hen Allen realized she was going to ignore him, he
became {lightened. He couldnt let her win.
Is there a law against my using this library?

108

Issue twelve Part one

Oh, Allen began eagerly, Id like the T hayer biography o f


Beethoven. He was sincere, but he was also trying to
Well, Mrs Helms, the younger woman said, since I know

T h e old librarian was furious, but she only spluttered,


W hatever you say, Mrs Macintosh.

V o cab u lary

P ra c tic e

3 Look at the text and write a list of the adverbs

7 Complete these sentences with an appropriate


form of say, tell or ask.

used to describe how people speak.

Examples
nervously, firm ly
4 Find verbs in the text that begin with the
letters in brackets and mean:
1
2
3
4

say something suddenly without thinking (b...)


pay no attention to someone (i...)
speak in a quick and angry way (s...)
to speak with difficulty because you are angry
or excited (s...)

P r o n u n c i a t i o n [s]
Tone
5 Listen and repeat these sentences with the
same tone of voice.
1 'I want a library card, he said nervously.
2 May I help you? she asked pleasantly.
3 'I want a library card, he said firmly.

1 When I walked into the library an old white


wom an
me what I wanted.
2 I _____ her that I wanted a library card.
3 S h e _____ that I couldnt come to this library.
4 I _____ her that 1would take care of the
books.
5 Sh e_____ it was against the law.
6 I _____ her if I could see the law.
7 A young white wom an
me what I
wanted.
8 I _____ her I was interested in reading
biographies.
9 S h e _____ she would give me a card.

L i s t e n i n g [g]
8

Listen to Gina (Extract 1) and Tracy (Extract 2 ).


W h o is talking about what she sees as age
discrimination? W h o is talking about what she
sees as sex discrimination?
Now listen again. Who:

6 Here are some sentences with verbs which are


often used to describe how people speak. How
would you read them?
1
2
3
4
5
6

1 was stopped by the police after a party?


2 wasnt allowed to play football?

This is the white library, she blurted out,


This is mine,' she snapped.
But youre not allowed in here, she spluttered.
Sh! Daddys asleep, she whispered.
Get out of my house, she shouted.
I wish I didnt have so much to do! she sighed.
Now listen and repeat the sentences with the
same tone.

4 Improve your grammar


Say, tell and ask
a

Complete these sentences with an appropriate


form of so/, tell or ask.
1 He_______her that he wanted a library card.
2 The younger woman
Allen if she might
help him.
3 He_______ he wanted to see a biography of
Beethoven.

How did you know which one to use?

T alk in g p o in t
9 Answer these questions in small groups.
1 Do you agree that Gina's and Tracys stories are
examples of discrimination?
2 Do you have similar problems and attitudes in
your country?

Issue twelve Part one

109

( Improve your grammar


Used to or would + infinitive
a

We use used to +infinitive to talk about things


that happened regularly in the past.
Example
They used to make fun of my accent.

b We use used to +infinitive for things that were


true in the past but are not true now, such as a
discontinued habit. This is often in contrast
with the present.
Example
I used to smoke but now I dont.
C Used to +infinitive expresses states in the past.
Examples
l used to be short.
I used to live in Canada.

T alking p o in t
7 This is how some New Streetw ise readers beat
bullying. W hich of these is the best?
I changed schools.
M y parents spoke to his parents.
I told a teacher.
I stood up to a bullv and he ran awav.
I wrote to a magazine for advice.
In a small group share:
your experiences of bullying
your ideas on how to stop it.

G ettin g S tre e tw ise ! @


Expressing sympathy

d We use would + infinitive to talk about repeated


actions in the past.
Example
They would hide my books.
It is not used with be, have, live when they
express states in the past.
Example
I used to have long hair. Not) would have long
would +infinitive cannot replace used to to
express a discontinued habit.

P rac tice
5 Read the interview again, then cover it. Write
six sentences about the things that the bullies
would do to Kelly.
Example
Thev would make fun of her.

6 Complete the sentences with used to or would.


Put an asterisk (*) next to sentences where you
can only use used to.
1 Kellv's parents________live in the south.
2 The boys________make fun of her.
3 The girls in her class________have very
expensive shoes.
4. K ellv______ crv when she got home from
school.
5 The other children________shout horrible
things at her.
6 K ellv______ wear old shoes but now she
doesnt.
7 K ellv______ be a victim of bullying.

My friend Jane helped me in hospital.


8 Look at the picture. W hat do you think Kelly
and Jane are saving? Now listen to see if vou
were right. Tick the expressions that Jane uses
to express sympathy.
Are you all right?
You dont look too good!
Oh dear!
How terrible!
How awful!
Don't worry. Itll be OK.
I hope you feel better soon.
9 Work in pairs. Write a similar conversation
between you and one of the people in these
pictures.

Issue one Part two

11

Parents!
W arm -up
1 Make a list of three things that you do which make the adults in
your house really angry. Share your answers in small groups.
W hat do your lists have in common?
W h y do adults get angry about the things on the list? Can you
come up with any solutions?
R e a d in g

[HO

Z Below are some of the typical things that parents say to


teenagers. Read the article and pul the phrases in the gaps.
If I have to tell you to pick those up one more time ...
W hat do you mean youre not hungry? Its taken me two
hours to cook it, so you can sit there till youve eaten it.
No, you can't go to Sharons party on Saturday night, weve
got Auntie Pat and Uncle John coming round.
No, you cant have another pair of jeans. Do you think 1am
made of money?

One minute they're friendly, the next


minute they're shouting and
screaming loudly enough for the
whole street to hear. So what is it that
turns a normal happy parent into a
raging beast? You, probably!

1]________________________
Is your room untidy? Do you leave things on the floor?
You may find it hard enough to keep one room tidy, so
imagine what its like for your mum and dad trying to
keep a whole house in order.
Get into the habit of hanging your clothes up when you
take them off and taking glasses and plates down to the
kitchen. Before too long you'll be doing it without
thinking.
2J____________________________________________
Even though you may not realize it, your parents are
probably quite sympathetic to your requests for new
clothes. But they're not buying themselves new things
every week, are they? The simple truth is that there are
more important things to spend money on, like the
electricity bill and food.

110

Issue twelve Part two

Decide if these statements


are true or false according
to the text.
It is easy to keep a house
tidy.
Parents would really like
to buy you more clothes.
Teenagers should still be
allowed to go out when
relatives come to visit.
Cooking is exciting.
Teenagers should offer
to help in the kitchen.

Although you may hate missing a


party to listen to some boring old
relatives go on and on about what a
sweet baby you were, you have no
choice. Even if you moan, groan and
sulk, your parents wont change their minds. Parents like
to show off their family.
In spite of your disappointment, the best thing you can
do is to help entertain your relatives. Theyll be so
pleased with you afterwards that they'll probably let you
go to the next two parties.

4J____________________________________
Despite the fact that you dont want to eat, think of it
from the cooks point of view. If you cook two meals a
day, it means 730 meals a year. Can you imagine how
boring this can get? Imagine how the cook feels when
you say you're not really hungry. Not only that, your
parents are probably worried that you aren't eating
enough.
Eat fewer snacks and leave room for your meals. Finally,
offer to do the cooking every now and then. Your offer
may not be accepted, but the cook will be delighted.

V o cab u lary
4 Match the phrases in column A with the
definitions in column B.
B
are sympathetic to complain
go on and on
understand
moan and groan display something youre
sulk
proud of
show off
talk a lot
be in a silent bad temper

1
2
3
4
5

< Improve your grammar


I

Discourse links
although/though/even though/even if/
in spite of/despite

a We use them to join two contrasting


statements or points of view.
Examples
Although I wasn't hungry, I had to eat my
dinner.
Even if you're not hungry, you'll have to eat
your dinner.
b Although/though are always followed by
subject +verb.
Example
Although I wasnt hungry ...
c

In spite of/despite have a similar function, but


despite is more formal. They are followed by a
noun or pronoun, or a gerund.
Example
I ate my dinner in spite of not being hungry.

d In spite of and despite can also be followed by


the fact that +subject +verb.
Example
I ate my dinner in spite of the fact that I wasn't
hungry.

P rac tice
5 Complete the sentences with although, even
though, despite or in spite of.
1 ________I wanted to go to the party, I stayed at
home.
2 He was still smiling________being fed up and
angry.
3 She went to the party________her mothers
warnings.
4 1didnt eat much,________I was hungry.
5 She refused to buy her daughter new clothes
________having a lot of money

being tired, I tidied my room before


going to bed.
7 _______ my moaning and groaning mum
refused to let me go to the party.
8 I really like my parents_______ we sometimes
argue.

G e t t i n g S t r e e t w i s e ! [s]
Persuasion
6 Imagine you have been invited to a really good
party but your aunt and uncle are coming to
visit you. You know that your mother will want
you to stay at home.
W ork in pairs and decide how you would
persuade her to let you go. W rite down some
of the expressions you might use.

Examples
Please!
A ll m y friends are going.

7 Listen, and compare your version with the one


on the tape. W hat were the expressions she
used to persuade her mother? How could she
have been more successful?
8 W ork in pairs. Imagine you want permission to
go camping for two weeks. Your mother is
(naturally) worried about this. Decide on an
approach that will persuade her to let you go.
Prepare a dialogue to perform for the class.

T alking p o in t
9 W ork in pairs or small groups. Look at
Im possible parents again and discuss these
questions.
1 Would any of the situations make you angry if
you were a parent? W h y / W h y not?
2 Is life in your country similar or quite
different? Give examples.
3 Each situation is introduced by remarks that
parents often use in Britain. Agree on a list of
expressions that parents use all the time with
teenagers in your country.

Issue twelve Part two

111

Truth and lies


W arm -up
1 Read those everyday lies. Think of a situation
where someone might use them. Share your
ideas with the class.
'Sorry, I didnt realize what the time is.'
It wasnt me.
i'll pay you back soon.'
Thanks. Its just what I always wanted.
i m sorry. I cant come out tonight, Im
doing my homework.

R e a d i n g Ml
2 Read the stories and find:
1 the name of someone who took a dress
without permission.
2 the name of the boy Alex blamed for his
fathers accident.
3 the reason why the tree cracked.
4 the reason why the suit got green stains.

I took the dress to the cleaners but it was ruined.


When my sister got home she went to her room. A few
minutes later I could hear her screams from downstairs!
I apologized but I was never allowed to borrow her
clothes again. I never even dared to ask.'
Alex, 14, lied to his dad when an innocent game in
the garden went wrong:

Sometimes telling a lie seems an easy way out.


But watch o u t it could backfire on you ...
Julie, 16, was sorry that she wore her sister's dress to
a party.
When I was sixteen I was invited to a brilliant party
that I really wanted to go to but I had nothing to wear.
Now, my sister Jean had a gorgeous designer dress
worth 500. I'd always loved it but she'd always refused
to let me wear it so I decided to borrow it I took the
dress from her wardrobe. Mum saw me so I said, "Jean
asked me to take it to the cleaners." I put the dress in a
bag and as soon as I got it out of the house, I hid it in
a shed.
On the night of the party, I stuffed the dress in my
bag and put it on at a friend's house.
It was a great party until this boy decided to throw
me into the swimming-pool. I really screamed but he
laughed and threw me in. The moment I got out I
realized that the pale grey dress had lots of green stains
from the chemicals in the pool.

112

Issue twelve Part three

'A few years ago, my friends and I decided to see


how many people could get into my dad's hammock. It
managed to hold eight of us before there was a loud
cracking noise as the tree started to break.
I knew that I had been silly so I didnt tell anyone
what had happened.
Later that day my dad came in from work. He made
himself a cup of tea and went to the end of the garden.
After he'd got into the hammock, there was a loud
cracking sound and the tree fell on his head. Dad
screamed.
I panicked so I told my parents that it was my friend
Paul who did it.
Dad went to casualty and Paul doesn't speak to me
any more.'

W riting

Improve your writing

5 Fiona and her friend, Jo, got caught out when


Telling a story (2)
a

Start the story by setting the scene. Use


expressions like:
A few years ago ...
When I was sixteen ...

they said there camping in the garden - and


went to an all-night party instead.
Put the pictures in the right order. Follow the
Im prove your w riting guidelines and write
Fionas story.

Make sure that your story has a structure.


Make sure each paragraph marks an important
part of the story, in this context you might have
paragraphs that:
set the scene.
describe the lie.
describe what went wrong.
describe what happened in the end.

C Make the order of events clear by:


using time expressions such as later that day,
as soon as, then, a few minutes later, etc.
using the past perfect where appropriate.

Use direct and indirect speech.

P rac tice
3 Put the verbs in brackets in the correct form of
the past or past perfect.
My parents went away for the weekend and
( 1) ________(tell) me I could stay at home if 1
looked after the house. Unfortunately I
decided to have a party. It (2)

(be) a

nightmare. There ( 3 ) ________(be) so much


noise the police ( 4 ) ________(come), and
someone ( 5 ) ________(smash) the TV. When
mum and dad (6) ___

(come back) 1 said

that a burglar ( 7 ) ___

(steal) the TV. Dad

Dad won't let me go


to Jim's all-night party.

( 8 ) ________(phone) the police. W hen they


(9 ) _______ (arrive) it (1 0 )________(be) the
same policeman who ( 1 1 ) _______ (come) the
night before. He said, 'Now then, did the theft
happen before or after your party? M y parents
( 1 2 ) ______(be)

furious because I

(13) ______(lie).

4 Invent a situation and turn the excuses in the


Warm-up into indirect speech.

Example
I was home very late last night so I apologized
to my parents and told them that I hadnt
realized what the tim e was.

6 Write a real or imaginary story where you tell


a lie which goes wrong.

S elf c h e c k
7 W ork in small groups. Exchange stories.
W hich do you think is the best one. W h y?

Issue twelve Part three

113

Grammar review
Issues 11 and 1 2

P hrasal verbs
Form

verb +preposition/adverb particle (e.g. down, up,


out, after, off, etc.)

1 In snmc cases the meaning of the phrasal verb is clear


from the verb +preposition/adverb particle combination.

Examples
Please sit down.
H e took o ff his jacket.
Sometimes the combination has a special meaning.

Example
The plane took off. (= It rose in the air.)
2 It is important to know whether the combination is
'transitive (i.e. requires an object), or intransitive' (i.e.
cannot take an object).

Examples
Get up is intransitive: 1alw ays gel. up at six o'clock.
Let in is transitive: W ill you let the cat in, p/ease?
W hen the phrasal verb takes an object, the particle can
come either:
before the object: He picked up the g irls in his car.
or
after I he object: He picked the girls up in his car;
Note
If the object is very long it comes after the particle.
H e picked up I he two girls and their friends in his car.
If the object is a pronoun, it usually comes before the.
particle.

Example
He picked them up in his car.
However, there are some phrasal verbs which take an
object but are never separated from the adverb particle.

Example
My unc/e looked after me as a chi/d.

3 Some common phrasal verbs:


he against (tr) = be opposed to
he for (tr) = be in favour of
break down (intr) = stop working
break in (intr) = enter by force
bring up (tr) = educate and train (children)
call o/7~(tr) = cancel (a meeting, appointment, etc.)
curry on (intr) = continue (usually work or duty)
clean out (tr) (a room, drawer, ek:.) = clean thoroughly
clean up (tr or intr) = make tidy and clean
come across (tr) = find bv
t' chance
come o/Hintr) = succeed
drop in (intr) = pay a short unannounced visit
fill in (tr) = complete (forms, etc.)
find oul (tr) = discover information
gel on w ith (tr) = be friendly with someone
get through (I t or intr) =succeed (in an exam, in
contactingsomeone)
get up (intr) = rise from ones bed
give up (tr or intr) = stop (trying Lo do) something
go out w ith (tr) = have a romantic relationship with
someone
go up (intr) = rise (especially prices, the temperature)
hold up (tr) = rob (especially a bank)
knock out (tr) = hi( someone so hard that they fall
unconscious
leave out (tr) = omit
let in (tr) = allow to enter
look after (tr) = take care of, make sure someone is safe
and well
look up (tr) = find a word in a book, e.g. a dictionary
make up (tr) = invent a story, excuse, etc.
pick up (tr) = call for, take with you in a car, el c.
pul (som ething) off (tr) = postpone
pul (someone) o ff (tr) = cause someone to lose interest
pul up (tr) = erect (a building statue, etc.), raise (prices)
ring up (tr or intr) =telephone
run into (something) (tr) = hit (with a vehicle)
run into (someone) (tr) = meet someone by chance
show off (tr or intr) =try to impress others
set o ff (intr) = start a journey
tik e o ff (intr) =
-rise in the air (usually a plane)
take up (tr) = start to practise a hobby a job
wash up (tr or intr) = wash the plates, dishes, etc.
watch out (intr) = look out, be careful

F u tu re p e r fe c t

Say, f e / l a n d ask

Form

Say, tell and ask are transitive verbs.

w ill +have +past participle

Uses
1 For an action that w ill be
finished at some time
before a certain date in the
future. Il is normally used
with time expressions like
by then, by the year, etc.

Examples
I w ill have built m yself a
house by the year 2015.

2 W ith expressions like if


a ll goes well, if it goes
according to plan, etc.,
to talk about future plans.

If a ll goes well, I w ill have


retired by the age o f 55.

Notes
W e can also use shall with I/we.
In speech, w ill is usually contracted to 'II.

A dv erb s of m a n n e r
sharply, firm ly, evenly are examples of adverbs of manner.
Most adverbs of manner are formed by adding -ly to the
corresponding adjectives.
Note
There are some exceptions, e.g.
fast fast, good >well, hard hard
1 Adverbs of manner tell us how something was done.
2 They usually come after the verb.
Example
He spoke quietly.
Or they come after the object if there is one.
Example
He answered her question clearly.
3 W hen there is a preposition before Lhe objecL, the adverb
can be placed either before the preposition or after the
object.
Example
The woman in the library looked angrily at Allen.
The woman in the library looked at Allen angrily.
4 If the object is a long phrase, the adverb usually goes
before the preposition.
Example
He looked angrily at all the people who were in I he
library.

Uses
1 Say is commonly used with
direct speech.

Examples
'Goodnight, he said, and
wenl Lo bed.

2 In reported speech, Lell


musL normally be followed
by a personal direct. objecL.

I le didn't Lell me that he


was leaving.

3 Tell +someone +to +


infinitive is used to
report commands.

She Lold him to hurry up.

4 In reported speech, say is


used wit hout. a personal
object.

Ile didnt say that he.


was leaving.

5 W hen reporting do/does


questions with ask, we
use if or whether.

He asked me if/w hether I


liked pop music.

6 W hen reporting whquestions, we use Lhe


same question word.

She asked rtie where my


sister was.
I asked what herjo b was.

Note
When reporting questions, there is no inversion of subject
and verb. The word order is the same as in a statement.

D is c o u r s e lin k s
although, though, even though, even if, in sp ite of,
despite.
Use
To join two contrasting
statements or points of view.

Example
Even though I hate pop
concerts, I went to see
Elton John. (= I hale pop
concerts, but 1 went to see
Ellon John.)

Notes
Although, though, even though and even if are always
followed by subject +verb.
Example
Although I fell ill, I went Lo school.
Even if it rains, I ll still go to the match.
In spite o/and despite are followed by
an ~ing form: In spite o f feeling ill, I went to school.
a noun or pronoun: Despite my illness, 1 went to school.
the phrase the fact that +subject +verb: In spite o f the
fact that I was ill, I went to school.
Despite is more formal than in spile o f

1 u->! >

Grammar
,_. I ., ... practice
'; 1 *

115

Grammar practice

2 Replace the words in italics with a pronoun. Be careful


with the word order.

Example
1 Lhink he egged the driver on.
I think he egged him on.

A ......................................................................
1

Complete the sentences using an appropriate form of a


suitable phrasal verb from the list.
fill in pick up look out look after
give up get through break down

go up

Example
The plane took off half an hour later than scheduled.
1 1 _______ the entry form but I didn't enter the
competition.
2 M y falher w ill
u s________at around eight.
3 After three attempts h e
his First Certificate
exam.
4 Prices________all lhe time these days.
5 _______ , he shouted. Theres a car coming!
6 Hello! Is that you, John? Look, my ca r________so Im
going to be late.
7 M y aunt and uncle_______ me when I was a child.
8 They
smoking last year.

2 Complete these sentences with an appropriate form of


say, te ll or ask.

Example
John never says Good morning' these days.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

Last night. /Mexandra_______ me that she was fed up.


________me. WhaL do you think of her?
He _______ me if I enjoyed learning English.
He said h e _______ them if he saw them.
W h a t _______y o u ________if you see them?
I never
that 1 didn't like school,
Y o u _______ her Lhe truth, didnt you?
1 _______ you where you bought those trainers.

B ......................................................................
1 Replace Lhe words in italics with an appropriate form of
a suitable phrasal verb. Be careful of word order.

Example
M y car stopped working yesterday.
M y cor broke down yesterday.
W h y dont you telephone him?
I really e n jo y I b e co m p an y of him and his brothers.
The meeting was postponed for a month.
1found the book by chance in a street market.
I in el Tony by chance.
They will raise all the prices next week.
7 The sLo ry w a s n L true. He in v e n te d it.
8 He started practising karate two years ago.

1
2
3
4
5
6

1 W ill you fill this form in, please?


2 Look the words up in a dictionary,
3 She has always looked after the children.
4 Ill pick Andy and Sally up from the house.
5 They put the building up in a week.
6 Clear up the room, please.
3

Complete the sentences using the future progressive or


the fuLure perfect form of the verb in brackeLs.

Examples
If all goes well he w ill have made (make) a lot of money
in five years time.
This time next week 17/ be travelling (travel) round Italy.
1 If all goes well, my Mum _ _ _ _ _ (lose) six kilos by the
summer.
2 I _______ (not leave) university by the age of twenty.
3 W hat
yo u ________(do) this time next week?
4 In ten years' time the w o rld ________(change) a lot.
5 If we dont hurry the train _______ (leave) before we get
to the station.
4 Complete each of these sentences so that Lhey mean the
same as the sentence printed before it.

Example
He is short, but he is very good at basketball.
Although he is short, he is very good at basketball.
1 I was hungry, but I didn'l feel like eating.
Even though ____________________________________ _____
2 She was very fat, but she was always very active.
Despite_______________________________________________
3 In spite of being angry, he didnt show it.
Although____________________________________________
4 He wanted to go to the cinema, but he stayed at home.
In spite of __________________ _________________________
5 He may go, but I dont think I will.
Even i f _____
6 Although it was raining, Lhey decided to go Lo Lhe
beach.
Despite______________________ ._______________________

C ............... ............ ..........................................


Working in small groups, write sentences which illustrate
the meaning of each of these phrasal verbs.
wash up get on with show off come off find out
knock out let out set off make up go round

Example
Gina is m y friend, but I dont get on w ith her sister.

116

Grammar practice

Wordlist

overcome /aova'kAm/
panic. /'paenik/
paralyse /'paerolaiz/

ag g re ssive /a'gresiv

phobia /'foubio/

d o so m e th in g w ith m y life

Issue one

physical /'fizikl/
rational /'ra jn a l/
release /ra'lirs/
stage fright /'steid 3 ,frait/
sweat (v) /swet/
symptom /'simptom/
uncommon Mn'koman/
unreasonable /An'ri:znabl/

part o n e
a d v e rt /'sedrat/
a m b itio u s /aem'bijos/
b and /baend/
crea te /kri:'eit/
d ed icaLed (a d j) /d ed i.k eitid /
h it (n ) /hit/
h y p e /haip/
in t e r v ie w (v ) /'intavju:/
jo in / d p m /
m a n a g e r /'maenad 33 /
m a rk e tin g ( n ) /'m o ikstuj/
n u m b e r o n e /in Am ba 'w on/
o u tg o in g /a o t'g a o w n ]/
p ro m o te /pra'm aut/
p u b lic ity /pA'blisiti/
sin g le ( n ) /sujgl/
sp e n d /spend/
stre e tw is e /'$tri:twaiz/
success /sak'ses/
th e re su lt o f so m e th in g /5s
n'z.Alt a v SAinOii]/
to b e im p ressed w ith /to bi:
im 'p re st w i5/

Issue one
part two
accenL ( n ) /'icksent/
a ffo rd /a'faxl/
b ru ise (n ) /bru:z/
b u lly (n ,v ) /'buli/
c a s u a lty /'ka g u lti/
c o w a r d /'kanad/
c ru e l /'kraal/
cu ts /kAts/
en d up /'end Ap/
keep d o in g so m e th in g /ki:p
'd u :ii] SAmBii)/
m ake fu n o f /,m eik 'fAn av/
m ake re m a rk s /,m cik ra 'm a :k s/
n a g ( v ) /nseg/
p la y jo k e s /.plci d^aoks/
s y m p a th y /'simpaOi/
tau n t ( v ) /to :nV
tra in e rs (n p i) /'treinaz/
v ic t im /'vik tim /

Issue one
part three
a c h ie v e m e n t /a'tfi:vm an t/
a p p re h e n sive /jepri'hensiv/
a sh a m ed /a'Jeim d/
d iv e /daiv/
excuse (n ) /ik'skju:s/
hassle (a d j) /'haesl/
in a b ility /ina'biliti/
n e rv o u s ;"n 3:vos/
re lie v e d (a d j) /ra'li:vd/
s c a red (a d j) /'skead/
su ffe r fro m /'sAfa .from/

supposed lo /sa'paozd ta/


terrified (adj) /'terifaid/
understanding /Anda'stasndirj/
vertigo /'v3:tigao/

Songbook
bliss /blis/
everlasting /.evo'la:stir|/
guiding /'gaidirj/
hero /'hiarou/
j a y /d$oi/
lonely /'loonli/
melody / mcladi/
owe izu i
sig h (v ) /sat/
strive /straiv/
survive /sa'vaiv/

Issue two
part o n e
aerosol /'eara.SDl/
ancestor /amsesta/
art gallery /,a:t 'gaelori/
cave /keiv/
exhibition /eksi'-bifn/
frustration /fra'strci.fn/
graffiti /gro'fi:ti/
individual (adj) /,indi'vid 3 Uol/
influence (n ) /'infloans/
initials Zi'nijlz/
mindless /'maindlos/
motivate /'mautivcit/
mural /'mjuoral/
personal slam p /'p3:ssnl
'stamp/
pop culture /'pop 'ka!tJa/
prehistoric /,pri:i'stnrik/
relief /ra'li:l7
roots /ru:ts/
scribble (n ) /'skribl/
signature /'signaljo/
slogan /'slaugn/
s o c i o l o g i s t / ,s a o s i 'D l i d 3 i s t /

lag (n ) /tag/
thought out /'fb:t ,aut/
vandal /'vasndl/
vandalism /'vaendalissm/
youth culture /'ju :0 'k ilt fa/

Issue tw o
part two
afraid /a'freid/
awful /'o:fol/
blood /bUd/
danger /'deind3 o/
definition /.defi'nij'n/
divert Jdat'v3:t/
fear (n ) /fia/
fun-fair /'fAn-fea/
instinct /'mstiqkt/
muscle /'mAsl/
nightmare /'naitmco/

is s u e tw o
part three
antique (n) /aen'tirk/
be allowed to /bi: o'laud tu:/
bored /bo:d/
curtain /'k3:tan/
ornam ent /'o:nomant/
wardrobe /'wo:draob/

Is s u e th re e
part o n e
argue /'o:gju:/
common /'kom an/
do the washing/cleaning/etc.
/du: 6a 'woj'irj. 'kli:niq/
equal (adj) /'i:kvval/
feminism /'feminism/
homemaker /"hao.meika/
housework /' haosvv3:k/
immoral /i'm oral/
look after /lok 'a:fto/
prejudice (n) /'predjudis/
properly /'propati/
reflect /n'flekt/
reinforce /,ri:in'fo:s/
responsibility /ri'sponsabiliti/
role /raol/
sew /sao/
sexism /'seksizm/
silly /'sili/
take care (of) /teik 'kca(r) ( dv)/
trend /trend/
w age-eam er /'wcidj-yma/
womens lib /'vvimmz ,lib/

Is s u e th re e

a n tiso cia l /sen 11' s a u jl


craze /kreiz/

experL /'eksp3:t
g e n lle /'d jcn tl/
get m y life back

get m a i la if

bask/
g e l rid o f /get rid av
ju n k ie /'d^Anki/
sh y /fai/
sta y a w a y /stei a 'w ei
ta k e o v e r /tcik 'aovath e la le s l thin g /5 a leitist Orrj
v io le n t /'valiant/

Songbook
lo b o th e r so m eo ne /ta b o da

SAinwDn/
d rift /drift/
to face so m eo ne /ta 'fcis
s.\m won/
g e t a w a y /get o'wci/
get so m e o n e d o w n /get
's.Amwon

daon/

go up ;gou 'Ap/
h u s llin g /'hAslir)/
ral-race /'rat-reis/
ro o f / ru :P
s h o w (n ) /Jan/

Is s u e four
part o n e
a u d ie n c e /'o:dians/
b rid e /braid/'
can cel /'kaensl/
c o n c e rt /'konsat/
c ro w d /kraod/
d is a p p o in t'd (a d j) /disa p o m tid
d is a p p o in lin g (a d j) /disa'pointiri
d is a p p o in tm e n t /d iso 'p o m tn w n i
e n c o re /Dij'ka:/
en g ag ed /cn 'g e id jd /
fan ( n ) /fan/
fia n ce e /fi:'Dnsei/
h itch -h ik e /'hitj-.haik/

honeymoon /L\ni:mu:n/
hooked Zhukt/

part two

keen /ki:n/

ambition /asm'bijn/
be up to something /bi: 'A p to
SAmBiq/
blankets /'blwqkits/
channel (n) /'tjaenl/
faked /feikt/
fat /f e t/
fit (adj) /fit/
gesture /"djestja/
get across /get ak'rns/
oil /ail/
pasta /'p asta/

m a rrie d /'m a;ri:d/

Is s u e th re e

stage (n ) / stc id y

part three
addict /'adikt/
addictive /a'diktiv/

du:

SAmOii] w ifl m a i lari'

match /msetj/
n ervo u sn ess /'nsivasnas/

overwhelm ed /auvswelmd/
p o stp o n e d /paospaond/

queue (v ) /kju:/
screa m

(v)

/skri:m/

season /'si:zn/
seat (n ) /si: t/
s e c u rity g u ard /sa 'k ju a riti ,go:d/
so aked (a d j) /'saukt/
sp read /spred/
su p p o rt band (n ) /sa'pa:t b a n d /
te d d y b e a r /"tedi beo/
tic k e t /' tik it/

Wordlist

117

wedding /'wedii]/
whistling /'wislrtj/
work oul (v) /waik 'aot/
worried /'wAri:d/

is s u e four
part two
black belt /'blsek belt/
blow (n ) /blou/
cure /kjoa/
damage (v ) /'dsemidj/
devoted (adj) /dl'voutld/
faith fei0/
fighl /fait/
followers /'folaoaz/
hurl (adj) /h3:l/
impressive /im'presiv/
injury /'indjari/
inner force /'ins ,fa:s/
instructor /in'strAkta/
internal organs /m'Liinol
'aigan 7.i
in vestigation /in,vesti' geiJn/
licence /'laisans/
long-term /lnrj-'taim/
m artial a ils /,mo.'.[l '<r.ls/
mental healing / men 11 'hiiliij/
normal /'no:ml/
persuade /pa'sweid/
prevent /pn'vent/
protect /pra'tekl/
punch /pAiitjy
qualification /,kvvol i fr' kcij'n/
self-defence /.self-di'fens/
stomach ./'stAmak/
unqualified /An k wollfaid/
w rist /rist/

is s u e four
part three
alarm / sic: 111/
arrest (v ) /a'rest/
authorities /o:'0Dnti:z/
burglar /'b.xgla/
burglary /'b3:glari/
burgle /'bsigl/
bury /'beri/
cashier /kae j'ia/
cem etery /'sernotri/
crim inal /'krimml/
freeze /fri://
go smoothly /gao smu:51i/
grab /gneb/
hand over (v ) /Tuend 'aova/
hold-up / hold-Ap/
hopeless /'haoplas/
kidnap /'kidnasp/
kidnapper /'kidnaepa/
kidnapping ( 11) /'kidnacpiq/
mug (v ) /mAg/
mugger / iiiAga/
mugging (n ) /'niAgnj/
murder (n. v ) /ni3:da/
murderer /'muxlara/
pinned /pmd/
ran aw av /rasn a'wei/

118

Wordlist

rob /rob/
robber /'robs/
robbery' /'robori/
scooped /sku :pt/
snatch /snajtJ/
steal /stial/
theft /Ocft/

provoke /pra'vaok/
realize /'nalaiz/
reason (with) /'riizn (wifi)/
reply /ra'plai/
stricL /strikt/
talk things over /'ta:k Oios

Lhief /0i:f7

w ant to kn o w /w ont ta 'nao/


w o rry (v) /'w A ri/

unaware /Ana'wea/
/ip /'zip/

Is s u e five
part o n e
anxiety /aerj'zaiati/
ashtray /'aejtrei/
to ban /ta 'bten/
best seller /best 'sela/
b u ll /bAl/
chant, (v ) A Joint/
cigarette /siga'ret b.\t/
corner shop /'ka:na JDp/
cough (v ) /kof/
cover up /kAva(r) Ap/
dizzy /'dizi/
fag /[kg/
famt (v ) /feint/
feel dizzy /fill dizi/
health risk /'helO risk/
heavy smoker /'hevi 'smauka/
impress /ini'pres/
insist (on) /in sist/
lung cancer /1a 13 'k;ensa/
make your eyes w ater /nieik
ya(r) 'mz waits/
nicotine /'nikatiin/
non-smoker /nDii-'smouka/
passive smoking /pxsiv
'smaukii]/
pregnant /'pregnant/
puff ( 11) /pAtY
risk /risk/
smoke (n, v ) /sinauk/
throat /Oraot/
throw up /'Orao Ap/

Is s u e five
part two
advice /aed'vais/
advise /aid 'vaiz/
agony column /'Leg0111 ,knlam/
agree /a'gri:/
be allowed to /bi: a 'lau d ta/
break rules /breik rualz/
cope (w ith ) /'kaop (wift)/
cross (m y) m ind /kros (m ai)
inaind/
decide /d i'said /
dye (v ) /dai/
em barrassed /im'bserist/
feel (like) /fial (la ik )/
inquire 'm'kwaia/
look after /lo k 'ciifta/
m ake-up /'m eik-Ap/
pick som ething up /'pik SAmflii}
'.vp/
point out /'paint aot/

'aova/

issue five
part th ree
be on strike /bi: on 'stralie./
beard /biad/
b o w lin g alley /'baohg ;eli/
cellar /'sela/
crazy (about) /'kreizi (abaot)/
diary /'darri/
enjoyable /in'jaiabl/
excited /ik'saiud/
frown upoti /'frao n ,apn>n/
interesting /'intrestirj/
jealous /'d je b s/
journal /'djainal/
keep a diary' /'kiip a 'dairi/
limp<n) /lump;
nice /nais/
personal /'pjcsanl/
productive /pra dAktiv/
suspicious /sa'spijas/
un certain /ah ' sen an/
unpleasant /An 'plezan 1/
upset (v ) /Ap set/
w o lf /w o lf'

Songbook
calm (adj) /kann/
fault ( 11) /fait/
relax /ri'laks/
settle down /sctl 'daon/
lake it. easy /tcik it 'iizi/
turn away /lain a'wei/

issue six
part on e
amazed /a'meizd/
appearance /a'piarans/
ask out /oisk 'aut/
big-headed /.big-'hedid/
bottom (n) /'botarn./
brillianl /'brihanl/
bust ( 11) /b.\st/
centre of attention /'scnto(r) av

a'tcnjxi/
criticize /'kntisaiz/
envious /'cnvias/
feel depressed /,fi:l di'presl/
feel sorry (for oneself) /,ti:l 'son
(fa won'self)/
flatter /'flasta/
have a sense of humour /.haev a
sens a 'hjuinia/
height /hail;
leader of the pack /'liida(r) av
5a pick/
miserable / mizrabal/

one of the crowd /'wdii av 0a


'kraod/
perfect (ad j) /'paifckt/
pleased /pliizd/
realistic /ria'listik/
regard /n'goid/
regret (v ) /n'gret/
self-confident /self-'kDiifidant/
stare /stea/
tummy /'tAini/
w ish /wij/

issue six
part two
biology /baia lDd3 i/
bleak /bli:k/
choke (v ) /t jaok/
communities /ka'm ju:nid:zJ
cosls /kosts/
cut down /TcAt 'daon/
Dark Ages /'dci:k eid 3 iz/
developmental /di'vcbpm enll/
dig up /'dig Ap/
disaster /di'zuista/
disease /di'ziiz/
ecological /.v.ka'lodjikl/
economic grow th /.iika'nom ik

grou0/
environm enl /en'vairamant/
harm /haim/
heckler . "hekla/
improve /nnpruiv/
luxury item /'lAkfari aitom/
musical /'mjuizikl/
national /'najjanal/
philosophy /fi'lnxnfi/
pollution /pa'luijn/
pointless /'pointbs/
progress (n ) /'prong res/
ridiculous /n dikjubs/
rise (n ) /raiz/
standard of living /'staendod av

lmr)/
technology-- ftek'nolod^i/
threaten /'0 retn/
tradition /tra'dijn/

Issue six
part three
according to /a'kaidir) ta/
allowed lo /a'laod ta/
be disturbed by /bi: di'staibd
bat
claim (v ) /klcim/
complaints /kam'plcints/
facilities /fa'siliti:z/
furthermore /fy:5ama:/
hang around /hictj a'raund/
noise /noiz/
nowhere /' naowea/
recent /'riisant/
recommend /'rekamend/
resident /rezidant/
rubbish /'rAbiJ/
somewhere else /'sAtnwea(r) els/
take drugs /tcik 'diwgz/

Is s u e s e v e n

part o n e
abuse (v ) .Vhi.i:/
aggressor /o'gresa/
amphetamine ;em 1felamm/
ban (v ) /barn/'
bodybuilder /'bndi.bildo/
boik-d boiki
build muscles /bild 'idasIz/
calorie /'kaebri/
cheat (n, v) /iji:t/
coach (v ) /koutJV
cocaine /ka'kem/
r.ompele /ksm'prt/
competitive /k3m 'peti tiv/
confidence /'krmfidans/
cyclist /'saikhst/
discus throwing .'diskns
.Orsoir)/
dose /dous/
drugs /di'Ai]?/
energy /'enad^i/
faint ,'fciiii/
figs /figz/
fortune /'fo:tju:n/
greedy ;;r:;di
hoof /hu:IV
hormone /'haimaun/
housewife /'haoswailV
illegal i li.g],'
in fe rlilily /,infa 1tiliti/
injuries /'ind^ari:?/
man-made /'masn-'meid/
mixture /'mikstja/
nerves /n3:vz/
resemble /ru'zembl/
rhythm /'riftin/
severe /sa'via/
slia m e /Jeim/

stamina /'stiemma/
steroid /'sliaroid/
stimulant /'stimjubnt/
strip (v ) /strip/
survey /'s3:vci/

Is s u e s e v e n
part tw o
blow-dry (v ) /'bbu-,draii'
c a lc h /kaetjv

curly k :i:11
cut /kAt/
feather /'feds/
hairdresser /'hcadresa/
jew el /'d g o s l/
moustache /ma'sta:]'/
pad out /'psed ,aoi/
perm (v ) /p3:ni/
pillow /'pibc/
plait (n ) /plset/
ribbon /'ribsn/
rod /rod/
s L ra lc h (v ) /skraitj/
shave //civ/
stra ig h ten /'streitiv
s tu ff Cv) /stAf/'

style (v) /stall/


trim (v) trim/
Lwist (v) /twist
wig /wi(]/
wrap /raep/

so cia b le /'s a o ja b l/
stup id /'stju ip id /
ugly / Agli/'

Is s u e s e v e n
p a rt th re e
attraction /s'tncktfsn/
b lu r /b b :/
breathtaking 'breBteikii]
delicious /da'hjas/
jets /djets/
queue (n) /kju:/
recover /ri'kAva'
resort /n'zoit/
rich /ritj/
sightseeing /'sail .siiuj/
souvenir .^suiva'ina/'
terrifying (a d j) /'terifaiiij/
theme park /' 0i: in ,pa:k'
Lrip (n) /trip/
upside d ow n / Apsaid d au n /
w arm som ething up /"wa:m
SAinflirj Ap/
w on derfu l !'' wAndafo 1/

Songbook
b outique /b u :'ti:k/
charge /tJa id j'
DITF "di: 'di: 'ti:/
dollar /'d o b /
hoi spot /'h o t 'spot/
paradise /'picradais/
parking lot /'pu:knj lt>t/
paved "peivd/
screen (n) /skri:n/
slam /stem /
swinging (adj) /'swirjig/

I s s u e e ig h t
p a rt o n e
b o d y la n g u a g e

/ 'b n d i

Jaeijgwidj/
b o rro w /'b n r s a i
c o n s e r v a tiv e

/ k 3 i i 's 3 :v o t i v /

c o n tr ib u te

/I c s n 1t n b j u :t /

d is h o n e s t

d i s 1p m a t '

fa c to rs

f :c k :.v

g en ero u s

/ 'd s e n a r a s /

g o o d -lo o k in g
g r o o m in g

/ .g u d - 'l u k n ] /

g :'.i ::m n

h an g y o u r head
h ir e

/' h ie r j y a 'l i e d /

/ 'h a i a /

im m a lu r e

/ 'im a t jo a /

im p r e s s io n s
in te llig e n t

/ u n 'p r e jn z /

/ m 'l e h d ^ a n t /

in te r v ie w e e

/ . i n t s y j u : 'i : /

ir r e s p o n s ib le
k in d ( a d j)
lu c k y

/ l n a 't j'u a .
/ 'a u t i i t .

r e lia b le

/ r i'l a i a b l /

r e s p o n s ib le
sm art

/k a m d /

/ 'U k i /

m a tu re
o u tfit

/ i n 's p n n s i b l /

/ n 1s p m i s i b l /

/ s m a :t /

u nem p loy ed /A n em 'p loid /


unkind An'kam d.
unlucky \:i I \ki
varv /'veari/
vita)
i a .il
tak e iL o r leave il /'te ik it o :'li:v
it/

I s s u e e ig h t
p a rt tw o
brain /brem.
b risk w alk

brisk \va:k/

d e ( a ffe i n a te d /d i:' k aefmcitid/


distressing /dr'stresirj/
dream /dri:tn/
t-xcessive /ek'sesiv/
eyelid /'a ilid /
interpretation /1n,t:-::pt*i' Lt-i[n/
m iss out 011 /m is 'a o l tm/
non-sleeper /nD n-'sli:pa/
on average /on 'avrid^/
optional /'D pjanai/
provided that 'pra'vaid id ,da;t/
rapid eye m ovem ent /'rsepid ai
.m uivm ont/
refreshes /n 'frc fiz /
relaxation /.rilic k s 'e ijii/
revitalize /rii'v a ila la i//
sleep sli:p
sleepiness /'sli:pi:nas/
sleeplessness /'sli:p b sn as/
stress /stres/
tip Cn) /tip/
tiredness /'taiodnos/
toss and turn /'lo sn 'la:n/

I s s u e e ig h t
p a rt th rp p
announcem ent /o'naunsm ant/
bulleLin /'b u litsn /
characteristic /.k ^ ra k ts'ris tik /
d 1s Li ng u 1sf1ing / d i 1surj g w iJiq /
frie n d ly /'frc n d li/
fu n -lo v in g /1I ah I a v itj/
h ard-w o rking /, ha:d- '\V3 :knj/
high-pitched /.hai-'pitj't/
innoeenL /'masant/
m issing /'nnsii]/
offence /'a'fe n s/
polite /pa'lait/
p o w e rfu l /'p a iis fo l/
pupil /'p ju :p l/
i nn away from home /rAn a'w ci
fram haum.
slim b uild /'slim 'bild/
lalkaLive :a:k,Mi\
trace Lhe w hereabouts o f /'tre is
5 a 'wearabauts at'/
w a vy /'w civ i/
w ell-behaved Avel-bi 'heivd/

Is s u e n in e
part o n e
absence / ;cbsans'
aimlessly /'eim bsli'
candidate /'ksndidat/
cheat (n ) /tJi:L-'
coal mine /'kool m ain
confess 'ken'fes,'
dilemma da'lema/
essay /'csai/
exam paper iq /Ltm peipo
experts ekspvts
exploitation ekspbi'tci/n
graduation day gra:dju:'eijn
,dei/
guilt /gilt/
headmaster /hed'moists/
law /lo:/
moral /'moral''
prize (11) /piaiz/
prominent prominanL'
public transport /pAbhk
'tnenspo:L/
resist /ra'ztsl/
reveal /ra'vial/
set out /set 'ar;t/
sit a paper /sit 3 'peipa/
stall /stn:l/
siring /stntj
sLudy (n ) /'stAdi/
temptation /lem'ieijn/
test (v ) /test/
w ithdraw Avifl'dro:/
yield ji:k i'

Is s u e n in e
part two
background / b<ckgraond/
case (rt) /kcrs/
chef /Jcty
ease your conscience(v) i'v.z ja
k on Jans/
illustration ib strcijn /
inherit /rn hent/
inheritance /in'heritans/
invest /m'vest/
lend /lend.
millionaire /'miljanea/
m ultiply /'lnAltiplai/
pretend pritend/
retire /ri'taia/
status /'steitas/
urgency /'axl^ausi/
w isely /'vvaizli/

I s s u e n in e
part three
absent (adj) /'scbsanl/
appointment /a'poinlmant/
attend is 'tend/
cousin /'lcAzn/'
exc use (v ) ic k ' skj u :t.i
play truant ipler 'truant/
remind /n'maind/
term /t3:m/
zoo /zu:/

A sense of achievement
W arm -up
1 W hich of these activities would you like to do?
W h y ? W hich wouldn't you like to do? W h y?

-T H E H A L L
when I

mos

fif le e n I

M ent to a. S e o u l camp-

T h e re M e re lo ls erf g re a t a .iivrtie s b u i ih e re
M as one ihing T M as re a lly s c a re d a b o u t:
clim bing ih e. 'm o J/T he M a JI is a Kind o f rock ih a i p eo p le use. lo
le a rn hoM to clim b. T i is very lo ll- H e M e re a ll
supposed io cJim b lh e M a il b u i T KneM I
c o u Jd n i g e l io lh e io p be/xu.<se T am a fr a id
o f hejghts. 1 M as ash am ed a / d T d id n i M a rti
anyone io KnoM ih a i T M as sc a re d . I

thought

lh e y M ould a J/ lau g h a l me. T p ra c tis e d my


ex cu se: 'T,m n o i s c a re d , you. KnoM. 1 s u ffe r

riding a motorcycle

from v e rtig o .1
The. d a y cam e. I I M as tim e io clim b lh e M allT he

climbing a wall

sum m o s

shining b u t everyo n e M as ve ry

cjiA jei Ih a l morning- J

look, photographs a l ih e

boHom o-f lh e M a li a / d ir ie d io hideA/though lh e y M e re a l! apprehensrve, everyone


in lh e . group M en ! up- Then ih e m om eni cam e.
T i M as my lu rn . T M as so s c a re d ih a i a JI T
co u ld IhinK a b o u t M as my eycuse.- Som eone,
s a id , 'S h a ll T ia K e yo u r c a m e ra ? a n d T
an sM ered , 'T m n o i s c a re d , yo u KnoM- T s u ffe r
-from vertigo- The tru th M as T M as m ore ih a n

giving a talk in English

s a jd , bon 1 M orry, yo u don 1 h ave io d o


anything yo u d o n i M a rti lo do.

going for a dive

R ead in g
had to climb a wall and
answer these questions.
1 W here was the boy?
2 How old was he at the time?
3 W h y was the wall a problem
to him?
4 W hat did the others do
when he refused to climb
the wall?
5 How did he feel when he
finally climbed the wall?

Issue one Part three

M as surprised- Everyone M as sym p athetic

a r d u n d erstan d in g . T M a s n l h a ssle d a / d

2 Read the text by a boy who

12

s c a re d , T M as te r r ifie d T he S e o u l le a d e r

nobody laughedGlossary

My in a b ility M as accep ted -

The n e il d a y , ih e le a d & r a sK e d me i f T

vertigo: a feeling
o f dizziness tnd
sickness from
looking down from
a high place

o lh e rs M atching. Although T M as s lill ve ry

apprehensive:
worried

cam e. doM n b u l T M as regally happy a / d

to hassle: to give
someone difficulty
and trouble

M a rrie d lo ir y ih e M a il on my oMn, M ilh o u i ih e

nervous T a g re e d a n d clim bed sloM ly io ih e


lo p M ilh his help- I

M as s i/ ll shaking Mhen I

re lie v e d too. fo r m e, clim bing ih e M a li M as a


r e a l achievem e/il.

Songbook
adrift /a'drift/

Is s u e e le v e n

down /klann/

accelerate /akselareit/
accused (adj) /a'kju:zd/
bend (n) ;bend-;
brake (v) /breik/
break down /'breik 'daon/
courL /cxif

conceal /kon'siil/
make-believe /"meik-,bali:v/
pretender /pri'tcndo/
is s u e ten
p a ri o n e

accident /'aksidanl/
ambulance /'ambjalans/
damage (n) /'damidj/
disbelief /'disbali:f/
doubt /daol/
electric blanket Zi'lcktrik
i 'bJicrjkit/
i iceberg /'aisbsrg/
involved in /in'vaolvd in/
leap /li:p/
lick /Jxk/
I psychic /'saikik/
i race off /'rcis of/
j rib (n) /rib/
I rush /r.ijy
i sailor 'seila/
spirit /'spirit/
switch off /'switj nf
take up /'tcik Ap/
voyage /vaid,y
wreck /rek/
Is s u e te n
! p a ri two

j alarming /a'lci:mir)/
appliance /a'plaians/
considerate /kan'sidarot/
disagreement /disa'gri:manl/
divided /di'vaidid/
dreadful /'dredfol/
lull blast /ful 'bla:st/
helpful /'helpful/
householder /'hausholda/
i inconsiderate /mkan'sidarat/
mediator /mi:dicta/
settlement /setlmant;
Is s u e te n
part three

admit Acd'mit/
adulthood /'adalthod/
annoy /anni/
contact (n) /'kontakt/
; correspondent /koro'spondaat/
crash /kraj/
crown /kraon/
effective /I'fekuv/
end up /'end Ap/
look after /lok 'ci:fta/
pet-hate /'pct-'heit/
pick up /pik 'Ap/
ruin (v) /'roin/
run into /r\n 'mtu:/
shocked /'Jokt/
slatistics /sto'tistiks/
summarize /'SAinaraiz/

120

Wordlist

part o n e

deliberately /da'librotli/

drive (v) /draiv/


driving test /'dcaiviq test/
egg on /'eg on/
fiercely /'fiasli/
fill in /'fil in/
get through /get 'Oru:/
give up /'giv Ap/
go out w ith /gou 'a o l w i6 /

jury /'djosri/
kerb Zk3:b/
knock down /'nok daun/
lay-by /'lei-bai/
look up /'luk Ap/
lost one's nerve /lu:/ wonz
'n3:v/
overreach /auva'ri:tJY
overtake /govg'teik/
passenger /'picsondja/
prosecutor /prosakju:to/
reckless /'rekbs/
risky /'nski/

run out of /rAn 'aol av/


run over /rAn 'ouva/
show off /'Jau 'of/
slow down /'slau 'daon/
snowboarding /'snauba:dn)/
swerve /sw3iv/
takeoff /'teik 'oft
taunt (n ) /to:nt/
tragedy /'trsedjsdi/
Irial /'trail/
tu rn o ff /'lain 'of/'
urge (v ) /3 id.y
weave (v ) /wiiv/

Is s u e e le v e n
part two
appliances /o'plaiansiz/
approximately /a'prDksamatli/
computer /kam'pjmta/
consumer products /kan'$ju:ma
'prodvkts/
electric bulb /a'lektrik bAlb/
flat-screen flait-skrim/
monitor (v ) /'monita/
program /'praoyram /
satellite /'satolail/
spaceship /spcisjlp/
washing machine / ' w d J i i j
moJ'i:n/

I s s u e e le v e n
part three
approve /o'praiv/
aspect /'icspekt/
crawl /kroil/

have a lie-in /hav a 'lai-m/


roughly /'rAfli/
routines /rui'tr.nz/
trick (n) /trik/
up-to-dale /Ap-ta-'dcit/
Songbook
b rin g so m eo n e round /'brir)
SAmwon ra o n d /
ch ild ren /'tfild ra n /

fuse (n) /tjuiz/


hell /h cl/
k ite k ait/

pack a bag /p ak a 'b a g /


pre-flight /'prii-flait/
raise (v) hew
rocket /'rnkil/
timeless /'taimlas/
touchdown (n) /'tAtfdann/
is s u e tw elve
part o n e
agitated /'aedsitcitid/
apply for /a'plai fa:/
attitude /'aetitjuid/
b e fed up with som ething /bi:
'fed Ap vvifl SAmOir)/
behave /bi'hcw /
blurt out /'bl3it aol,''
coloured /'kAlad/
cops /kops/
discourage /dis'kArid 3/
discrim inate /dis'krim ineit/
discrim ination /diskrimm 'eifn/
eagerly /'iigoli/
firmly /'f3im li/
furious /'fjuariAS/
gather /'gaQa-;
jaw /d3o:/
librarian /lai'brcarian/
library card /' laibrari ka:d/
lower (v) /'b o a /
nervously /'nsivasli/
pleasantly /plezontli/
referee /refa'ri:/
sharply / Jaipli/
shout, /fao t/
sincere /sm'sia/
sn ap (v ) /sn ap /
splutter /'spU ta/
stamp (v) /stam p /
whisper (v) /'wisps/

Is s u e tw elve
part two
delighLed /da'laitid/
do one's bit /du: wonz 'bit/
every now and then /'cvri nao
an '6cn/
fed up (w ith) /fed 'Ap (wjS)/
get into the habil of /get inta 5a
'h ab it av/
go on and on al /gao on an
'on a t /
groan (v) /graun/

hang up (v ) /hat) \\p/


made of money /meid av inAni/
make an effort /meik an 'efat/
moan /maun/
pull a face /pul a feis/
raging (adj) /'reid^ir)/
snack (n ) /snak/
sulk (v ) /sAlk/
sympathetic /,simpa 'Oeti k/

Is s u e tw elve
part three
backfire (v ) /bak'faia/
blame (v ) /bleim/
chem ical /'kemikl/
cracking (v ) /krakiq/
dare (v ) /dea/
designer dress /di'zama dies/
everyday /'cvndci/
gorgeous /'go:d3as/
hammock /'hamak/
liar /iaia/
lie (n, v ) /lai/
pay someone back /pai
.s.vmwon 'bak/
permission /'pamijn/
scream (v ) /skri:m/
shetl (n ) /Jed/
stain (n ) /stein/
tent /tent/
w atch out /' w d i J 'aut/

New Streetwise is a two-part course at intermediate and upperintermediate level.

There are 12 units in each book. Each unit takes the form of an
issue of New Streetwise- a language learning magazine specially
for teenagers.
Key features of New Streetwise Intermediate are:

thought-provoking topics of intrinsic interest to teenagers


grammar in context - revising, extending, and practising the
key structures at this level
consolidation and further practice in Grammar review and
Grammar practice sections
emphasis on vocabulary development and word-building
balance of skills work throughout, including a carefully
structured guided writing syllabus
focus on functional language in Getting Streetwise! sections
skills work on popular songs in the Songbook sections
flexibility for students with differing rates of progress
New Streetwise Intermediate consists of a Students Book
Workbook, Teachers Book and Cassettes.

OXPORD

ISBN 978-0-19-433404-A

U N IV E R S IT Y P R ESS

www.oup.co.uk

94 334044

V o cab u lary
3 Match these words from the text to the pictures,
scared

terrified

relieved

apprehensive

Improve your writing


U

Writing a story

Always start by setting the scene.


Examples
When I was fifteen ...
A few years ago ...
I'll never forget the day when ...

Use the simple past to describe the main


events.
Examples
/went to a Scout camp...
I took photographs...

c Use the past progressive to describe the


background.
Example
The sun was shining ...
d Join your sentences with linking words such as
because, but and although.
Examples
I knew I couldn't get to the top because I am
afraid of heights.
Although they were all nervous, everyone in
the group went up.
The sun was shining but everyone was very
quiet that morning.

e Make sure you describe feelings as well as


events.
Examples
I was scared...
I was surprised...

nervous

P rac tic e
A Complete the sentences with although, but, or
bccausc.
1 I didnt want to go diving________I was afraid
of water.
2 ________I was nervous, I gave a good talk in
English.
3 1climbed up the w a ll,_______ I couldnt come
down.
4 Paula wasnt nervous about the test_______
she studied hard.
5 ________I refused to go in the water, my friends
didnt hassle me.
6 I gave a good talk________I practised it again
and again.
7 I was really tired___
happy at the end of
my dive.
I am a good swimmer. Ive never been
for a dive.

W riting
5 Follow the Im prove your w riting guidelines
and write a description of something you did
that gave you a real sense of achievement. Use
your own experience or pretend you were one
of the people in the pictures in the Warm-up.

S elf c h e c k
6 Read your description again and answer these
questions.
1 Did you use a mixture of tenses?
2 Did you use any linking words?
3 Did you describe your feelings?

Issue one Part three

13

New Streetwise songbook


Lonely

advice,

Glossary

i still believe in

bliss: grc.it

happiness
si ru ing: In me
t m tun]

1 Do you ever feel lonely?


W hen? W h y?

4 Phrases in the song like 'my guiding light' describe the singer's
feelings about the person she loves. Find more phrases similar
to this.

2 Look al the song and try to


predict the missing words.
The first letter has been
given to you. Look at the
different verses for help.

3 Listen and check your


answers.

14

Songbook

5 In pairs think of some similar phrases that suggest how you feel
about a friend or member of your family. They can be serious or
funny, good or bad.
Examples
You are like w ater in Ihe desert.
You are like a spider on my sandwich.

What is the ideal room


of your own?

Graffiti
W arm -up

V o cab u lary

1 Look at these two wall paintings. W hich is

3 Match these words to the

an example of graffiti? W hy?

pictures.
mural graffiti
advertising slogan
signature scribble

B T

liU

R e a c

Its goodtotalk

\M\

2 Read the article and answer these questions.


W hat usually happens to graffiti these days?
W hat do you call the signature of a graffiti artist?
W hat motivates graffiti art?
W hat are the main influences for graffiti art?
Do you think the article is for or against graffiti art?
Give your reasons.

1
2
3
4
5

Glossary
aerosol: spray can
thought-out:

carefully analysed
frustration: a
feeling of anger or
dissatisfaction

People have always drawn and


painted on walls. Prehistoric man
painted on the walls of caves, for
example, and those paintings are
now considered valuable works of
art. If people draw on walls these
days, though, it isn't considered art.
It is called graffiti" and cleaned off
as soon as possible. But for many
young people aerosol art is just as
serious as wall painting was for their
prehistoric ancestors.
Graffiti art takes a number of
forms. It can be an individual mark.
often just the initials of the artist, or
something much larger, like a mural.
Each artist has his or her own 'tag',
or signature, and each piece of
graffiti art is tagged'.

For some artists graffiti is a


reaction to the circumstances of their
lives, while for others it is a more
thought-out artistic expression.
Either way. graffiti is very personal to
the young person that produces it
and it is an expression of his or her
feelings. The motivation behind a
piece of graffiti can be happiness or
sadness, frustration or relief. For this
reason it is an art form that is very
close to the hearts of the young.
Graffiti as a youth culture began in
America but has become popular in
many other countries. Its influences
come from pop culture, especially
music and cartoons. Some of it is
so creative that art galleries have
begun to buy it and the artists have
become famous.

P r o n u n c i a t i o n HI
4 Listen to the words and mark
the stress.
frustrate
frustration
motivate
motivation
communicate communication
Now listen again and repeat.

16

Issue two Part one

Improve your grammar

Simple past and present perfect

a Look at these sentences.


1 Graffiti has appeared on the walls of our town.
2 Graffiti appeared on the walls of our town.
Which example suggests that the appearance
is recent?
i
Which example could you complete with the
expression a few years ago ... ?
b Would you use the simple past or the present
perfect for:
1 something that happened a very short time
ago and the exact time isn't mentioned?
2 something that happened in the past and is
finished?
3 something that started in the past and
continues up to the present?
4 something that happened at a definite time in
the past?
Give an example of each use.

Simple present and present perfect


C Look at these sentences.
1 Graffiti art takes a number of forms ...
2 Graffiti art has taken a number of forms ...
Which example suggests that graffiti art
existed before now?
d Which tense would you use in these
sentences? Why?
1 Graffiti (exist) today.
2 Graffiti (exist) since prehistoric times.
>1

, . -

P r a c tic e
5 Complete these sentences with the correct
form of the verb in brackets.
Examples
I havent finished (not finish) painting the
mural yet.
Last year she sold (sell) some of her graffiti art
to a gallery.

8 I
(not see) the wall since th ey______
(paint) it last month.
9 T h ey
(not clean) the buses and trains in
recent weeks, so they are very dirty now.
10 Last month, the police
(catch) someone
writing graffiti on a wall.
Complete these sentences with the correct
form of the verb in brackets.

Examples
Graffitis influences come (come) from pop
culture.
People have drawn (draw) on walls since
prehistoric times.
1 He
(be) a graffiti artist for about four
years now.
2 He still
(work) as an artist, doesnt he?
3 I ______ (not see) any graffiti art before.
4 I ______ (not know) any graffiti artists who
(not use) aerosols in their work.
5 As far as I know he
(not paint) any
more.
6 Aerosol a r t
(exist) since the 1970s.
7 Graffiti artists usually
(sign) their work,
dont they?

T alking p o in t
7

Is graffiti mindless vandalism or an art form?


W h y? List your reasons and share them with
the class.

L isten in g @
8 Three people talked to N ew Streetw ise about
graffiti. One is a sociologist who is interested
in graffiti, one is a graffiti artist, one is a
member of the public. Listen and complete the
table in your notebooks.

Extract 1
W ho?

Extract

Extract

Cbast,
Graffiti artist

Sex

1 Prehistoric paintings
(appear) in caves
thousands of years ago.
2 G raffiti______ (be) a problem since aerosols
appeared.
3 The artists_______(finish) their mural a
moment ago.
4 Last week, I _______ (go) to the museum to see
an exhibition of graffiti art.
5 They
(not paint) the wall yet.
6 H e _______(become) an artist in 1 990 .
7 T hey______ (cover) a wail with graffiti during
the night.

Age

Now listen again. W h o thinks:


1
2
3
4
5
6
7

graffiti art is great?


graffiti artists are vandals?
graffiti is part of youth culture?
graffiti artists want attention?
we should clean graffiti up?
graffiti art belongs to young people?
graffiti art is a way to express your feelings?

Issue two Part one

17

Fear
W arm -up
1 Look at the pictures and
answer these questions.
1 Have you had experience of
any of these?
2 How did you feel? Did you
enjoy the sensation?
W h y ?/W h y not?
3 W hat kind of things make
you afraid?

Fears and Phobias


Fear is an important protective
instinct. When there is a sign of
danger certain chemicals are
released into the blood. These
produce physical effects that
can help us to overcome danger.
For example, blood is diverted to
the muscles to make them
stronger, sweating increases
to cool the muscles and
faster breathing provides more
oxygen. This is why we can go
'white with fear and feel sweaty
and cold at the same time.
All these symptoms are natural
and healthy when we are faced
with danger. For many people
they can even be exciting and
pleasurable so long as they
can be controlled, which is
why we enjoy fun-fair rides or
horror films. But some people
experience fears for reasons
that are not clear. This is
very common in childhood.
For example, Tom from Ealing
writes, 'I am nine years old and I
have an awful fear of fire. I keep
having nightmares about it.
Alan from Gloucestershire is
scared of being alone in a dark
room:

When l go to bed I close my


curtains and open my door wide
and have all the lights on outside
my room.
Many of these childhood fears,
such as fear of the dark or of
storms, disappear as the child
gets older. For some, though,
the fear turns into a phobia.
Phobias are unreasonable fears
which can be so strong that they
send your mind into panic and
paralyse your body. The most
common phobias are a fear of
heights, closed spaces, spiders,
or flying. But there are endless
uncommon phobias too, like
the fear of running water or
even fear of going to the
hairdresser's.
Most phobias can be treated,
often by discussing them and
learning to be more rational
about what you fear. There are
many people who have phobias
but lead normal lives by facing
what they fear and learning
to overcome it. The important
thing is to do something about
controlling the fear before it
begins to control you.

V o cab u lary
3 Match the words from the text in A to the definitions in B.
h e a d in g

OiD

2 Read the article and find:


1 three physical effects of fear.
2 two examples of childhood
fears.
3 a definition of a phobia.
4 two examples of uncommon
phobias.

18

Issue two Part two

A
instinct
physical
divert
symptoms
nightmare
panic
paralyse
rational

B
sudden fear and confusion
changes in the body that indicate a problem
to make something unable to move
real, something you can touch
sensible or logical
something you know without learning
turn from one course to another, e.g. traffic
frightening dream

| * Improve your grammar


n

5 W ork in pairs. Talk about things your partner


enjoys.

The gerund

Example

a The form of the gerund is the same as the -ing


form.
Example
Faster breathing provides more oxygen.
The gerund is formed from a verb but works
like a noun in the sentence.

What is your favourite pastime?


I enjoy listening to music.

b We can use the gerund:


as the subject of a sentence.
Example
Swimming is good for you.
as the complement of a verb.
Example
Her hobby is painting.
after prepositions.
Example
She's interested in painting.
after certain verbs, e.g. admit, enjoy, etc.
Example
/enjoy listening to rock music.
in compound nouns.
Example
a swimming pool

G e t t i n g S t r e e t w i s e ! fs]
Giving advice
I'm afraid of being
alone in the dark!

6 Use these expressions to give advice to the


person in the picture.

You should...
You ought to ...

Why dont you ...


You could...

Example

You should see a doctor!

c We must use a gerund when a verb is placed


immediately after a preposition.
Examples
I have no objection to seeing you again.
He's good at running.

P rac tice
A Complete the sentences with the correct form
of the words below.
build
play

steal perform
talk listen

travel

7 Listen to the extracts and complete the table.


Problem

Advice

Extract 1

Have- 'jou ever thought of...

Extract 2

Have 'fou ever Ihought of...

Extract 3

Pont f>u thinfc it might...

Extract 4

If 1 were >jou, 1 would...

8 W ork in pairs. Give advice in these situations.

improve

1 I suffer from stage fright - thats when you are


afraid o f _______ in front of people.
2 When the police caught him, the thief
admitted______ the money.
3 _______ in planes can be very frightening for
some people.
things all
a Shes an engineer. Her job is ___
over the world.
5 1enjoy listening to music and
the
guitar.
6 _______ about your fears can be a way of
ending them.
to pop music is a good way o f .
vour English.

I ve failed
my exams

Issue two Part two

19

Page
a

Topic

Grammar

Pop groups

Sim ple past and past progressive

10

Bullies

Used to or would * infinitive

12

A sense of achievement

Part
Is s u e

Is s u e

14

Songbook: Lonely

16

Graffiti

Simple past, simple present,


and present perfect

18

Fear

The gerund

20

My room

22-24

Grammar review Issues 1 and 2; Grammar practice

26

The battle of the sexes

w ill or going to infinitive

28

Ambitions

Future progressive

30

Computer addicts

32

Songbook: Up on the root

34

Superfans

Past perfect

36

Martial arts

Past perfect progressive

38

Crime

40-42

Grammar review Issues 3 and 4; Grammar practice

44

Smoking

Tense changes in reported speech

46

Coping with adults

Reporting questions
Reporting verbs for statements

48

Dear Diary

50

Songbook: Father and son

52

The real you?

Conditionals

54

The price of progress

Conditionals with unless/


as long as/providing that/
provided that

56

Teenage problems

58-62

Grammar review Issues 5 and 6 ; Grammar practice

Function

Expressing sympathy

Giving advice

Responding positively

Seeking and giving opinions

Refusing offers/persuasion

Expressing disagreement

My room
W arm -up
1 Look at the pictures and answer these questions.
1 What do the rooms tell you about the people in them?
2 Would you like to live in the rooms? W h y /W h y not?

R e

\M\

2 Read the extract from Kates


letter about her room and
answer these questions.
1 Which photograph is she
describing?
2 In which paragraph does she
describe:
whal she does in her
room.
the ways she would
change her room.
the things she has in her
room.
the changes she
sometimes makes.
3 W hat lenses does she use?

20

Issue two Part three

I am allou>ed -to do u)ha-t I lilte u>rth my room. I don'-t


have a Icrt o f Apa.ce., bo-t rt is my favoori-te place., s o I
sp en d a lo-t o f -time -tine.ee.. I lis-ten -to -ta p e s and -the
radio an d u)hen my -friend* com e roorvd, I osoally -tak-e
-them s+ raight op -to my room and shot" -the door.
My mo-ther lik.es going roond antiqoe sh o p s, and
som e+im es I go wrth h er and sp en d my m oney on
om am en+ s and -things, which I pot in my room. I'v e go-t
som e china u)hioh I have collec-ted. I am -the yoonges-t in
-the -family s o I also have a lo t o f old -toys.
I som e+imes ge-t bored uM-th my room and u)hen I do I
change i+ roond. I of-ten move -the bed and change -the
pho+ographs on -the u)all. feoy 6 e o rg e sen -t me a
&ir-thday card u>hich I have s-toclc. on -the u)all.
I f I Changed my room nou), I u>oold pot op som e E ternal
p o s+ ers, I ujoold also a s lt my paren-ts fo r a -television
bo+ I don'-t -thint I 'd ge-t one.

V o cab u lary
3 The -ing suffix can be added to verbs to form
nouns that describe common activities.

Examples
read
w rite

Describing a place
a Don't just list the contents of a place. Give
information about how the place reflects your
interests.

reading
w riting

1 Name six activities ending in -ing.


2 Share your ideas with the class.
3 Put the words into categories, e.g. sport,
hobbies, etc.

4 Look at these groups of words. W hich is the


odd one out in each group? W h y?
1
2
3
4

Improve your writing

ornaments/pictures/posters/photographs
bed/wardrobe/curtain/desk
pop/classical /folk/song
collector/artist/singer/music

P ra c tic e
5 Complete the sentences with the simple
present or the present perfect of the verb in
brackets.

Example
M y mother collects (collect) antiques. She has
collected (.collect) them for years.
1 M y uncle gave me a poster for my birthday. I
________(not put) it on the wall yet.
2 I ________(collect) dolls since 1 was three.
3 I often________(move) the furniture round
when I (get) bored.
4 W e ________(not see) a room like this before.
5 M y father________(hate) pop music.
6 If I ________(get) plenty of posters, Ill put them
up.
? Sometimes I ________(go) to antique shops to
look for things for my room.
8 I ________(change) my room about lots of
times.
(have) a bigger bedroom now than
9 I ___
when 1 was young.
10 M y brother_______ (love) decorating his room.
11 I _______ (sleep) in the same room since I was
five.
(paint) my bedroom wall.
12 I _______ just

Organize the description into paragraphs. Each


paragraph should contain information about an
aspect of the place and your relation to it.

W r it i n g
6 Follow the Improve your writing guidelines
and write a description of your room. Make
sure you answer these questions.
Have you got your own room or not?
W hat is your room like? Has it got a lot of
space?
Do you like it? W h y?/W h y not?
Do your friends come to your room?
W h at do you usually do in your room?
W hat things have you got in your room?
Do you ever get bored with your room?
Do you ever change it around? How?
How would you change your room, if you
could?

S elf c h e c k
7 Read your description and give yourself marks
out of ten for:
handwriting
grammar
spelling
interest
punctuation

8 Give your description to another student. Ask


her/him to read it and give you marks out of
ten. Are they the same as the marks you gave
yourself? Discuss any differences with your
partner.

9 Read your partners description again. W hat


additional information would you like about
his/her room?

Issue two Par! three

21

Grammar review

Issues 1 and 2

S im p le p a s t
Form

2 To talk about things that

infinitive + -ed (except for irregular verbs)

happened regularly in the


past.

Uses

Examples

1 To describe a past habit,


or repeated actions in
the past.

I played the guitar every day.

3 To express states in the


past.

2 To relate a completed past


event, with or without a
mention of time.

Last Ju ly I w ent to Rome.

W ould

3 To tell a story.

W hen I w as seventeen the


m ost am azing thing
happen ed to me.

Form

He used to g o to work
by car.
I used to live in France.

would + infinitive

Use

Example

To describe past routines,


habitual actions in the past.

The girls w ould bully her.

Note

P ast p ro g re ssiv e
Form

w as/w ere * -ing

Uses

Examples

1 To suggest that one action


in the past started before
another action in the past,
and probably continued
after it.

He w as w orking in a shop
when h e m et her.

2 To describe temporary
actions or situations in
the past.

It happened w hile I was


living in London.

3 To give background
information in stories.

The sun was shining and


the birds were singing
in the trees.

Positive:
Negative:
Interrogative:

Form

used to + infinitive
didn't use to + infinitive
D id you use to * infinitive

Uses

Examples

1 To express a habit that


no longer continues often in contrast with the
present. ( W ould does not
have this meaning.)

/ used to play basketball;

22

Grammar review

used to.
W ould is only used to talk about past actions. W e do not
use it to talk about past states, with verbs like be, have,
live, etc.

P resen t perfect

U se d to
Form

W ould is often used when relating childhood experience


or recalling memories of the p ast It is not as common as

now Iju st watch.

has/have + past participle

Note
The present perfect links the past and the present.

Uses

Examples

1 Often used with ju st to


describe an action in the
recent past.

(= He came in a few
minutes ago.)

He has ju st com e in.

2 For recent actions in the


past with a present result.
The evidence is in the
present,

G raffiti has appeared on


our walls.

3 For actions which began in


the past and still take place
or are happening now.

H e has lived h ere all


his life.

4 For recent actions when the


time is indefinite. Negatives
and questions may use yet.

Have you seen the film?


No, 1 haven't seen it yet.

5 To relate experience (from


the past up until now). It
is often used with ever
or never.

Have you ever seen a


whale?
No, I v e n ever seen one.

S im p le p r e s e n t
Forms

Positive:
Negative:
Interrogative:

infinitive (+ -s for he/she/it)


do not/does not +infinitive
do/does +infinitive

Uses

Examples

1 To express a present state.


It may be used to express
general truths.

I'm thirsty.
Do you like oranges?
The sun sets in the west.

2 To talk about habits, or


regularly occurring events.

He works in New York


(every day).
I often play basketball.

3 To describe present events.


This is a special use for
commentaries.

'Ronaldo shoots and its


a goal!
We mix the sauce and
p our it into the tin ...'

Grammar practice
A .......................................................................................
1 Write the simple past and past participle of these verbs.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

become
forgive
get
hit
pay
send
shake
sleep
wake
wear

2 Write an appropriate question and two possible answers


using the present perfect.

G erunds
Form

Example

infinitive +-ing (sometimes with a change of


spelling)

Uses

Examples

1 As the subject of a sentence.

Swimming is good for you.

2 As the complement of a
verb.

Her hobby is painting.

3 After prepositions.

Hes good at diving.

I'm fond of singing.


I cant stand listening
to classical music.
avoid, be used to, cant help, I enjoy walking
cant stand, deny, dislike,
Hes used to getting up
dread, enjoy, feel like, finish, early,
forget, hate, keep
(= continue), miss, stop.

4 After certain verbs. Here


are some of the most
common: admit, appreciate,

5 In compound nouns.

A swimming-pool.
A washing-machine.

Notes
The gerund is formed from a verb, but behaves like a noun
in the sentence.
Some verbs, like stop, have a different meaning depending
on whether they are followed by the base form or the
gerund (see Grammar review 7 and 8).
Be used to and used to also have different meanings. W e
use be used to +gerund to mean to be accustomed to
something (see examples above).

Have you cleaned the windows?


Yes, I have.
No, I haven't cleaned them yet.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

paint the door


dust the furniture
wash the car
put the poster up
drink your coffee
do the washing up
tidy your room
finish your homework
learn your vocabulary
buy a new dictionary

B
1

Complete the sentences with the simple past or the past


progressive form of the verb in brackets.

Example
I was studying (study) English when I visited (visit)
England for the first time.
1 Alison_______ (walk) home when someone________
(stop) her.
2 When I got there the sun_______ (shine), but i t ________
(start) to rain soon afterwards.
3 W h o _______ y o u _______ (talk) to when I ________ (see)
you in town?
4 I________(break) my arm while I ________(play) tennis.
5 W h y _______ y o u _______ (speak) to him when he
________(try) to study?
(live) in Germany at the time that I _______
6 I_
(meet) him.
7 I _______ (eat) dinner when my friend
(arrive).
8 1_______ (learn) German while I ______ (work) in
Germany.
(do) when I
9 W h a t _______.you
(phone)
you last night?
Grammar practice

23

2 Complete these sentences with used to or would. In


some examples only used to is possible. In others, either
form can be used.
Exam ples
My mother used to be an actress.
As a boy, he would often play alone.
W e ________paint and make models in primary school.
On Sundays h e _______ get up early and go fishing.
Sh e_______ dislike Darren but she often sees him now.
Tom_______ walk to work, but now he has got a car.
M a ry ________like eating hamburgers, but she can't
stand them now.
6 A few years ago, I _______ smoke about twenty
cigarettes a day.
7 This building is now a museum. I t ________be a school.
8 When she was a little girl she_______ refuse to put on
her shoes.

1
2
3
4
5

3 Complete these sentences with the present perfect or


the simple past form of the verb in brackets.

Example
His family moved (move) here when he was two, so he
has seen (see) many changes since then.
1 Tori Amos's new C D _______ ju s t________ (arrive) in the
shops.
2 I ________(have) this tennis racket for five years. ( dont
want to change it.
3 W h e n _______ y o u _______ (meet) him for the first
time?
4 I ________(know) him since w e _______ (be) at primary
school.
5 The sun _______ (go) down and its dark now.
6 A new dance craze_______ (arrive) from the USA. It's
called The Fly.
7 W h e r e _______ y o u _______ (get) that shirt? I ________
(not see) anything like that before.
I _______ (buy) it ages ago. Do you like it?
8 Help him! H e _______ (fall) into a hole!
4

Rewrite these sentences with the simple present or the


present perfect form of the verb in brackets.

Examples
He (live) here all his life.
He has lived here a ll his life.
He still (cook) his own meals.
He still cooks his own meals.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

She never (teach) before.


She usually (eat) here.
His English (get) better over the past few years.
I (not be) there since 1997.
I (love) pizzas, dont you?
According to his mother, he (not finish) yet.
Her doll (be) broken.

8 Vtv entire famih (be) ill in the past year.

C q w u m praefce

5 Complete the sentences with an appropriate gerund.


Exam ple
Keep ringing the bell. Im sure somebody is at home.
t Im a vegetarian. I hate________meat.
2 Peter denies________graffiti on the walls.
3 Shes afraid o f________her designer trainers because she
might be attacked.
4 I'll never forget________ Disneyland when I was eight.
5 lm thirsty. I feel like________a drink.
6 She really enjoys________to football matches.

C ............................................................................
1 W hat were you like in primary school? Make notes of
the answers to these questions.
1 W hat primary school did you go to?
2 W here did you sit? In the front or at the back?
3 W h o did you sit next to?
4 W hat did vou wear?
5 Did you use to be a good student or were you naughty?
Give examples of some of the things you used to do.
6 W hat sports and games did you play?
7 Did you like primary school? W h y? W h y not?
j

2 Use the notes and your own ideas to write a 50 word


paragraph about your life in primary school.
Exam ple

I used to so to Foxton Primary School. I remember that


I always used to sit at the back ...
3 New Streetwise sometimes has a section called 'My
favourite thing, where readers write about something
they own that is special to them.
My fav o u rite th in g
By
Tim Bailey, 15
My favourite thing is my watch. Its an
old-fashioned watch and its not very
beautiful or expensive but its special
because my grandfather gave it to me
and it reminds me of him. He gave it
to me for my birthday three years
ago and whenever 1 look at it I
remember the fun that 1 used to
have with my grandfather.

Write your own piece for M y favourite thing'. Make sure


you:
introduce what the thing is
explain why you like it and why it is special to you
describe where and how you got it.

The battle of the sexes


Which picture is more
typical of women today?

How old is this boy? What


do you think his ambition is?

Peter thinks he is a computer addict.


What does a computer addict do?

The battle of the sexes


W arm -up
1 Look at the pictures and
answer these questions.
1 W hat is happening?
2 W h o does these jobs in your
home, the men, the women
or are they shared?
3 Has this changed in recent
years or not?

R ead in g @
2 Decide if these statements
about the role of women in
British society are true or
false. Read the article and
check your answers.
1 In 1900 many British women
were seen as the property of
their husbands.
2 British women started to
work in factories during the
First World War.
3 Women kept their jobs when
the men came back from the
war.
4 Feminism grew in the 1960s.
5 Today British men and
women share the top jobs.
6 Today British men and
women have equal
responsibility for the
children.
7 In future, everyone agrees
that men and women will
become more equal.

3 W hat is the position of


women in your country? Are
they liberated? Do they have
top jobs? Do men and
women share responsibility
for their children? Give
reasons for your answers.

W om en in s o ciety
Women are a mistake. They are
silly and not interested in serious
matters'. They are homemakers,
men are wage-earners. Women
are the property of their husbands.
At the start of the 20th century
this kind of prejudice was very
common. Women would learn
to cook, sew, and do the
housework. The only jobs they
could do were to look after other
people's children, clean, cook, or
perhaps teach. .
In Britain, the First World War
(1914-18) marked a great
change for women. For the first
time they worked in offices and
factories to fill the places of men
at war. They were just as good, if
not better, than men at all jobs.
However, when the war was
over the women went back to their
homes. The same thing happened
during the Second World War.
'Womens Lib' did not grow until
the 1960s. As women fought for
equality with men 'feminism' and
'sexism' became part of the
language. Women finally began to
be accepted in traditionally male
areas.
Today many women choose to
work. However, there are not many
women in the top jobs. In some
jobs, they still receive less pay than

26

Issue three Part one

men for the same work and even if


they work they usually have more
responsibility for the children than
the father.
But things are changing. What will
things be like in the future?
Some people argue that men
and women are going to become
more and more equal. They say
that recent advertisements that
show men taking care of
the children and doing the
housework reflect what is
happening in society and they feel
this trend will continue.
Others think that things are not
going to change that much.
For example, many womens
magazines still reinforce the idea
that women's interests are the
home, family, children, cooking,
fashion, beauty and, of course,
men. They also argue women will
be happy to stay at home
just like their mothers and
grandmothers did in the past

Glossary
W om ens Lib: Womens Liberal inn. a
movement which encourages Ihe equality
o f women with men
fem in ism : belief that women should have
equal rights with men
sex ism : belief that one sex (usually women)
is inferior to the other

V o cab u lary

L isten in g @

4 Find words in the article which begin with the


letters in brackets and mean:

When I grow up... was the title of a piece written


by an eight-year-old girl in the New Streetwise
Young Writers competition.

1 person who gets money for the family (w...)


2 something that belongs to someone (p...)
3 unreasonable dislike for a person or group of
people (p...)
4 found very often (c...)
5 to give reasons for a particular opinion (a...)
6 general movement or direction (t...)
7 make stronger (r...)

( Improve your grammar

f .......................................................................

will or going to + infinitive


a Will and going to can both be used for future
predictions. They are quite similar and often we
can use either form.
Examples
Women are going to become more equal.
Women will become more equal.
However, why is it better to use going to in
Sentence 1 and will in Sentence 2?
1 Several women now hold top jobs in industry. Ithink that in the near future men and women
are going to become more equal.
2 I believe that things will change but Im not
sure when.

We can also use will or going to to talk about


our intentions.
1 When do we use will?
2 When do we use going to?

Note
Shall is only used with I and we.
Shall is common in:
question tags after let's: Let's go, shall we?
suggestions: Shall we take a taxi?
requests for instructions: What shall I do with
your letters?

P rac tice
W ill women work after marriage? W ill men stay
at home and look after the children?W ill women
have the top jobs in business andpolitics? What
will the position of women be in your country in
the future?

6 Before you listen, think about the title and list


some of the things you think she will mention.
Exam ples

I will get married.


I am going to go to university.
7 Listen and check your ideas. W hat did she
mention that was different from what you
expected?

8 W hat do you think an eight-year-old boy


would write given the same title?
Exam ple

I will plav football for my country.

T alking p o in t
9 Work in pairs or small groups of the same sex
and discuss your answers to these questions.
1 How old do you Lhink you will be when you get
married?
2 Do you think you will work after you get
married?
3 W ill you expect your partner to work?
4 W ho will do the various jobs in your house?
W h y?
Now share your ideas with the class.

5 Use will or going to to write eight predictions


about the future of women in your country.
Exam ple

I think women will soon be in all the top jobs.

Issue three Part one

27

Ambitions
W arm -up

3 Listen again and answer these questions.


W h y will Tom swim in cold water and sleep
with the windows open in the next few
months?
2 W h y does Tom want to swim the Channel
before his twelfth birthday?
3 Do you think he is worried about the trip or
not? W h y?
1

Improve your grammar


Future progressive will + be + -ing

1 W hat do you think of Toms ambition? Would


you like to try something similar?

L isten in g S
2 Discuss the possible answers to these
questions. Listen and check your answers.
1 How many hours a day will Tom train for?
a 3 b5 c 6
2 Before the swim Tom wants to:
a put on weight.
b lose weight.
3 How many years has he been training for
this swim?
a 4 b5 c 8
4 How many hours will it take him to get across?
a
5 b 10
c 12
5 Thebest
months to swim the channel are:
a January and February.
b August and September,
c October and December.
6 Tom will be covered in fat and sheeps oil to:
a help keep him warm.
b help him move through the water.

28

Issue three Part two

I'll be doing a lot of swimming in the next few


months.
We can use the future progressive to describe
actions which will be in progress in the
immediate or distant future.
Example
Hurry up! The guests will be arriving at any
minute!
It is used for activities that will be in progress
at a specific time in the future.
Example
This time next week they'll be lying on the
beach.

c We can also use it to refer to planned events.


Example
Ill be going to England this summer.

It can be used when something is not planned,


but will happen anyway because it is part of a
normal routine
Example
I'll be seeing Mary at school tomorrow.

P rac tice

G ettin g S tre e tw is e ! S

A Look at Toms diary for tomorrow.

R e s p o n d in g p o sitiv e ly

n r

_i

7 Look at the picture. What do you think Tom

01.00

fJ-reaKfast

01.30

Do rti'f exercise

05.30

P-un to school

and Cathy are Lalking about? Listen and check


your answers. Make sure you understand these
words and expressions before you start.

o lo o

Tafce history test

brochure

f3.00

Teach the juniors to swim

IO.00

Train at the pool

10.00

Dtud'f for m'( maths e*am

beach club

circus school

tricks

W hat will he be doing al the following times?

Example
At 07.00 h e'll be having his breakfast.
1 07.30
2 08.30
3 09.00

4 13.00
5 16.00
6 18.00

5 Complete these sentences in an appropriate


way using the future progressive.

Example
At six oclock this evening 111 be studying.
1
2
3
4
5

This time tomorrow I _______ .


In August my friend_______ .
In ten years time I _______ .
My friend
on Saturday afternoon.
At 7.00 am tomorrow I

T alking p o in t
6 W e asked some New Streetw ise readers the
question: W hat w ill you be doing in fifteen
years time? Here are some of their answers-.
I'll
I'll
I'll
I ll
I ll

be looking for a job.


be studying to be a doctor.
be looking after my children.
be doing a boring job.
be playing football for a top club.

W hat is your view of the future? Is it positive


or negative? W hat do you think you'll be
doing in:
ten years' time?
fifteen years time?
twenty years' time?
Do you have a particular ambition? W hat will
you have to do to achieve your ambition? Are
you prepared to work as hard as Tom Gregory
Lo achieve it? W hy/why not?

8 Listen lo the dialogue again. Which of these


expressions can von hear?
That's nice.
Lucky you!
That's reallv great!
That's great news!
Well done!
W ow! That looks really fantastic.
It's all right for some.

9 Work in pairs. Take turns to choose an


appropriate expression lo respond to each of
these situations. Try and use a positive
intonation.
1 Your partner shows you an expensive birthday
present.
2 Your partner tells vou they have passed an
exam.
3 Your partner tells you they are going on a
special holiday.
4 Your partner tells you they are going to study
medicine at university.

Example
Look! Dad bought me a new computer for my
birthday.
Luckv vou!

Answer the questions individually before


sharing vour ideas with the class.

Issue three Part two

29

Reading

Listening

Writing

Speaking
Discussing pop groups and
why they are popular

An article comparing pop


groups from different periods
An interview with a bullied girl
Friends expressing sympathy
in conversation

Discussing bullying and


how to stop it
A description of a personal
achievement

A personal description of an
achievement

Discussing activities you would


and wouldn't like to do

An article about graffiti as an


art form

Opinions about graffiti

Discussing graffiti, is it an
art form?

An article about fear and phobias

People giving advice

Discussing fears

A description of your room

A persona) description of
a bedroom

An article about the changing


role of women

Discussing bedrooms

A childs predictions about


her future

Discussing the roles of men


and women

An interview with a swimmer


A conversation about a holiday

Discussing ambitions

A personal account of computer


addiction

An article about a teenage craze

An article about a rock concert

An interview with a superfan

An article about a new martial art

An interview about martial arts

Role play and discussion


about fans

Two stories about disastrous


crimes

Discussing games

Stories about crimes

Discussing martial arts and


self-defence
Discussing pictures of a crime

An extract from a book


describing a first cigarette

An interview about the dangers


of smoking

Discussing smoking

A letter to a problem page

Persuading a friend to do
something he doesnt want to do

Discussing problems
with parents

Diary extracts

A real or imaginary diary entry

A questionnaire about the way


we see ourselves
An argument for and against
development
A personal report on the
problems faced by teenagers

Discussing diaries

Discussing the qualities of a


friend
People disagreeing

Discussing progress

A report on the problems faced


by teenagers in your area

Discussing what young people


do in their spare time

Computer addicts
W arm -up

R e a d i n g [si

1 What do you think of these


games? Do you play any of
them? How many hours a
week do you play them?

2 Read the article that Pete sent to New Streetw ise. W hich is the
best summary?
1 Pete is a computer addict. He plays video games so much that he
doesn't have time to exercise or make friends. He is shy because
computer games have made him antisocial. He thinks they can
make people violent too, hut the real problem is that they are too
much fun.
2 Pete is a computer addict. He plays video games so much that he
doesnt have time to exercise or make friends. He is shy but he
doesnt think computer games have made him antisocial. He
doesnt think that games make people violent either, he just
thinks they are too much fun.

3 Complete the article with the words and phrases below.


However (x 2 )

but (x 2 )

A c c o rd in g

to

because (x 3 )

What will you be doing this evening? Will you be playing a


computer game? I will. (1) _______ , I think I would be better off if
I weren't, because of the many dangers it can lead to.
I have been a computer addict since I was ten. I am now fifteen
and I can't get rid of my habit. My father constantly tells me to do
something with my life and stay away from the computer. I try
(2 )________ the games are too addictive. These days I play for
about twenty-five hours a week. Playing video games stops me
from exercising and playing basketball. I have no time for friends.
My schoolwork also suffers (3 )________I always do my homework
as quickly as possible.
an article I read, these games can make you
(4) _
antisocial. Im not sure if that is true. I know that find it difficult to
talk to people but is that because of the games or (5)
have always been shy?
Many of the games are very violent (6)
nobody takes
some experts say
them seriously. They are just fun. (7 )___
research shows that games can make you violent and aggressive.
I find that difficult to believe (8) _______ Ive always been one of
the most gentle boys in my class.
The main problem with games is that they are too much fun. Lots
of young people play them and if they are not careful they can take
over their lives. I hope I get my life back soon.

30

Issue three Part three

Improve your writing


Writing an article

Start by introducing the topic.


Use a question or a surprising fact to attract
the readers attention

Examples
What will you be doing this evening?
Did you know that 96% of game addicts are
male?

Use different paragraphs for each aspect of the


subject. Make sure you end with an overall
comment or remark.

C Where possible give specific examples or refer


to things you have read Here are some useful
expressions
According to on article...
Some experts say...
I've read that... .
I've heard that...
Research shows that...
d Show that you do not agree with something by
using expressions like:
I'm not sure if that's true.
I find it difficult to believe...

5 Children can learn a lot from computer games.


________, parents should control the amounl of
time they spend on them.
6 Girls do not learn as much about computers
_______ they do nol play as many games as
boys.

V o cab u lary
6 Match these words and phrases from the
article to the definitions.
the latest thing

addict

craze

junkie

1 someone who enjoys doing, eating, watching,


etc. something so much that they cannot stop
2 an informal word for someone addicted to
something
3 the most recent and popular fashion
4 something lhal is very fashionable for a very
short time

7 Now answer the questions.


1
2
3
4

W hat is a TV junkie?
W hat is a chocolate addict?
Give an example of a recent craze.
W hat is the latest thing in clothes?

W riting
4 Complete the sentences with the expressions
below
According to
1

2
3
4
5

Research shows that

a recent television programme, boys


who were computer addicts have done well at
university.
_______ computer addicts are the inventors of
tomorrow.
_______ the people who make the games,
violence is part of society.
_______ addiction to games disappears when
kids get older.
_______ some experts, the games improve
computer skills.

5 Complete the sentences with however, because


or but.
1 Knowing about computers can improve your
social life _______ other children ask for help.
2 Computer addicts are sh y________they are not
antisocial.
3 Some games appeared almost twenty years
ago._______ . they are still popular.
4 Games are important for a child's development
________they give a child problems they can
solve.

8 Follow the Im prove your


w riting guidelines and write
an article about a teenage
fashion or craze. W hat do
you think about it? Are kids
addicted to it? W h y? Is it a
good or bad thing? W h y? Do
parents and experts share
your view? W hy/w hy not?

S elf c h e c k
9 Work in pairs. Look at your

\ .

P rac tice

partner's article and answer


the questions.
1 Is the article in paragraphs?
W hat is the purpose of each
paragraph?
2 How could the article be
improved?
Share your ideas.

Issue three Part three

31

New Streetwise songbook


Up on the roof m

Verse 1
When this old world starts getting me down
And all my cares just drift right into space.
I climb way up to the top of the stairs
And people are just too much for me to face,

V erse 3
On the roof is the only place I know
I get away from the hustling crowd
W here you just have to wish to make it so.
And all that rat-race noise down in the street

Verse 2

Verse 4

Let me tell you now when Im feeling tired


and beat,
And there the world below cant bother me,
On the roof its peaceful as can be
I go up where the air is fresh and sweet.

At night the stars put on a show for free


Let's go up on the roof!
And darling you can share it all with me.

1 Look at the picture and these phrases from the song.


W hat do you think the song is about?
drift right into space
tired and beat

hustling crowd
rat race

2 The lines of each verse have been jumbled. Put them


into the correct order.

32

Songbook

3 Listen and check your


answers.

4 W hat kinds of things make


you want to escape from
life for a while? W here do
you go?

I s s u e

Superfans
W arm -up
1 Are you a fan of a sports
team, pop group, or famous
person? W hat do you do to
show you are a fan? Do you
ever do too much?

R o b M

e g g g g ( p j > J y o u !
It was only 5.00 p.m. - two hours before
the doors officially opened and there
were hundreds of young people
outside the concert hall. Their faces
showed their emotions - happiness,

R ead in g g ]

nervousness and love. Some fans


were near to tears.

2 Read the article about pop


fans and find-.
1 the time people began to
wait outside.
2 the number of people at the
concert.
3 the age of many of the fans.
4 the names of two fans who
had seem him before.
5 the name of a fan who
wanted to look like Robbie.
6 the way this fan got his
concert ticket.
7 the reason why the security
guards became worried.
8 the reason why it was hard
to hear anything.

3 Have you ever been to a pop


concert? W hat do you think
of people who scream during
a concert?

'IT

.*

'

\ 'y

Many of the 2,500 people at this


concert were less than fourteen
years old. Some of the older girls
had worked out which gate he would
come through and were trying to
persuade the security guards to let
; them get closer than anyone else.
Caroline and Vicky - both fourteen

Robbie Williams in concert

- had hitch-hiked almost 100


kilometres to get there.

'I think I'll die if I don't see him soon, said Caroline. 'We saw him last year
-in real life - outside Capital Radio.
Hes much more beautiful when you really see him,' said Vicky. Hes not
really fat.
Not all the fans were girls. Martin had come with his friend. He was thirteen
and trying very hard to look like his hero. His mum had queued half the night
for their tickets as a birthday present.
Meanwhile, the news spread that Robbie had arrived a few hours before.
Some very disappointed teenagers went home. Vicky and Caroline decided
to wait outside.
Everyone else went inside.
By 9.00 p.m. a support band had been and gone. Everyone - apart from the
bored-looking security guards - was getting very excited. Suddenly the
stage filled with noise and light. Robbie was on.

Glossary
security guard:
someone who stops
people getting into
places without
permission
support band:
group that plays
before the main
attraction

34

Issue four Part one

Robbie came on in a black, shiny T-shirt, a black leather jacket and leather
trousers. As the night wore on his fans became more and more excited.
Robbie took off his jacket. By this time his T-shirt was soaked and the fans
went mad. The security guards stopped looking bored and began to look
worried. More and more girls lefttheir seats trying to get closer to Robbie.
The screaming got louder and louder and it was difficult to hear the words of
Angels. And then it was over. A quick encore - a rock version of Back for
Good from his Take That days - and Robbie was gone, leaving nothing but
a dark, empty stage.

V o cab u lary

L i s t e n i n g []

4 Find words in the text that begin with the

Listen to a report on superfan Jon Bean.


Choose the correct word or phrase to complete
the sentences.

letters in brackets and mean:

io

1 travelled by getting free rides in other peoples


cars (h...)
2 to wait in line for something (q...)
3 went from person to person (s...)
a sad because they did not succeed (d...)
very wet (s...)
an extra song at the end of a concert (e...)

CO

Improve your grammar


Past perfect
a

Look at these examples.


I had waited for hours...
His mum had queued half the night...
Some of the older girls had worked out which
gate...
Complete the definition.
The form of the past perfect is
+ past

b We use the past perfect to refer to a past


action or event that occurs before another
action in the past.

P rac tice

HARP

1 Jon went to the match b e fo re / a fte r the


wedding.
2 It was Clare's first/se co n d football match.
3 Clare w a s/w a sn t very understanding
4 Jon now goes to matches a lo n e /w ith C lare.
5 Jon has been /h as n ever been married
before.

5 Complete the text with the simple past or past


perfect form of the verbs in brackets.

T alking p o in t

Robbie ( 1) ________(come) on stage at nine.

7 Work in pairs. Take a role (A or B) each.

Most of the audience ( 2 ) ________(arrive) hours

Prepare the interview.

earlier. Many of them ( 3 ) ________(have) no


them ( 5 ) ________(hitch-hike) almost 100

A
You are a New Streetwise reporter. Think of
questions to ask a superfan.

kilometres! Most of the audience (6 ) _______

Exam ples

(be) girls but there ( 7 ) _______ (be) a few boys

What are you a fan of?


Why do you like this band/singer/film etc. ?

tickets but

( 4 ) ________(come)

anyway. Two of

like Martin. Martin (8 ) _______ (receive) his


ticket as a birthday present and he was very
excited to be at the concert. He was lucky.
Many fans could not get in and ( 10) _______
(go) home full of disappointment.

B
Imagine you are a superfan of your favourite
team/singer/film or TV star. Think of some
questions your partner might ask and prepare
some answers.
Exam ples

Why do you like this band/singer/film etc. ?


How often have you seen this band/film etc. ?
8 Act your interview for the class. Vote for the
craziest superfan.

Issue four Part one

35

Martial arts
W arm -up

R e a d i n g [seG

1 Match the names of these


martial arts to the pictures.

3 Read the article about Katawa, a martial art, and decide if

Kendo

Judo

Karate

these statements are true or false.


Andy Thomas fought against the boys that attacked him.
Andy Thomas was hurt in the attack.
Fiona Williams did not want to stop doing Katawa.
Followers of Katawa believe that 'inner force' can protect
them from injury.
It takes a long time to get a black belt in Katawa.
Katawa instructors are not well qualified.
Doctors think Katawa is bad for your health.

The c a s e a g a in s t K a t a w a
Seventeen-year-old Andy Thomas
was attacked by a gang o f boys as
he w alked home from a disco one
night. He had been practising
Katawa for about a year, and he
was sure that his inner force
w ould protect him, so he just
stood there believing his attackers
could not hurt him. He was taken
to hospital, but luckily his injuries
w ere not serious.

Can you name any other


martial arts?

2 Answer these questions.


1 W hat martial arts are
practised in your country?
2 Do you know anyone who
practises a martial art? W hat
is involved? How often do
they have to train and
practise?

3G

Issue four Part two

Mary W illiam s was worried that


her daughter w asnt getting
enough
exercise.
She
was
therefore very happy w hen her
daughter Fiona decided to go to
martial arts classes. The thirteenyear-old had been going to
Katawa classes for less than three
months w hen her mother became
w orried about the bruises on
Fionas stomach and back. Fiona
got them during tests on her inner
force'. Fiona argued that the inner
force had protected her and her
mother had trouble persuading
Fiona to stop doing Katawa.
Katawa w as brought, to Britain by
Leonard Ching. Its main technique
is an inner force. K ataw as
follow ers claim it protects the
body from any blow or attack and
prevents it from suffering any pain
or injury. W hen w e suggested that
Katawa can damage your health,
an instructor claim ed he could
cure any injuries through mental

healing. Follow ers o f Katawa can


progress very rapidly. O ne person
we met had been doing Katawa
for less than a year and he already
had a black bell. Some instructors
are only tw elve or thirteen years
old! This is because the only
qualification you need to become
an instructor is a black belt!
You progress in Katawa by doing
inner force tests'. W e saw
dem onstrations o f these. They
included breaking bricks on a
mans stomach. The tests were
impressive to look at but doctors
are w orried about the risks of
long-term injury to hands, wrists
and internal organs.
Despite all this, w e met people
devoted to Ching and prepared to
defend Katawa. Ching him self has
less faith than his follow ers.
Follow ing a police investigation
into complaints, Ching has already
left Britain.

Glossary
inn er force: pow er that comes from
within the body
mental healing: make someone better
by using the mind
im pressive: have a strong positive effect
defend: say. write or do something to
support someone o r something

V o cab u lary

G e t t i n g S t r e e t w i s e ! DU]

A Match these verbs from the text to the


definitions.

Seeking and giving opinions

protect

prevent

attack

damage

cure

1 try to hurt someone by using force


2 to spoil or harm something
3 make an injury, illness, etc. disappear
4 to keep someone safe from injury, damage or
loss
5 to stop (something) happening or someone
doing something

5 Complete the sentences with the correct form


of the verbs above.
1 She is learning martial arts to ________herself
from attack.
2 Smoking can _______ your health.
3 A dog_______ and bit my brother.
4 This medicine w ill_______ your cold.
5 Her parents tried to ________her from going
out after midnight.

Improve your grammar


Past perfect progressive

had + been + -ing


We use the past perfect progressive to refer to an
action in the past that was in progress before a
second event in the past.
Example
He had been practising Katawa for about a year.
Ibefore he was attacked)
k

P r a c tic e
6

Complete these sentences with the past perfect


progressive form of the verb in brackets.

7 Listen to this conversation between a New


Streeftvise reporter, Mrs Williams, whose
daughter was injured through doing Katawa,
and Dennis Hall of the Martial Arts Society.
Tick the expressions they use to seek opinions.
W hat do you think?
Do you agree?
W h ats your view?
W h y do you think that?
Is it true th a t...?
W hat are your feelings about that?
Dont you think ...?

8 Now listen again and tick the expressions they


use to give their opinions.
I think...
I would like to see...
W e believe ...
Im afraid...
In my opinion ...
That may be true, b u t...
As far as Im concerned ...
I still think ...

T alking p o in t
9 Work in small groups. Use the expressions you
have just learnt to find out what the others
think about these questions.
1 W hat would you do if you were threatened in
the street?
2 W hat are the benefits of self-defence classes?
3 Do you think normal martial arts classes can
do any harm?
4 Should young children be allowed to practise
martial arts?

1 He became an instructor after he


_______ (learn) Katawa for less than a year.
2 She was hot because she________(practise) for
hours.
3 The girl was very tired because she
________(work) very hard.
4 H e _______ (not feel) very well so his mother
took him to see a doctor.
5 The dog was breathless because it
(run).
6 I was injured after I ________(do) Karate for
about a year.
7 W e were tired because w e ________(dance) for
hours.
8 I went to England after I _______ (study)
English for three months.

Issue four Part two

37

Crime
W arm -up

V o cab u lary

1 Look at the piclures. W lial do you ihink is

4 W ork in pairs. How many of these words do


you know?

happening?

burgle
murder
kidnapppr
rob
steal
robbery

kidnap
mugger
theft
murderer
burglar
mug

robber
murder
kidnapping
thief
mugging
burglary

5 Copy the table and put the words in the


correct column.

Verb

The person
who does it

The crime

ste-al

thie-f

tb&ft

R ead in g
2 These stories are from a book called Crim inal
Records. Read the texts quickly. Match the
pictures above to the texts.

HOPELESS H OLD-UPS
O

Two old ladies were walking

in a Hamburg cemetery when a

Everything was going smoothly as

Raymond Buries tried to rob a Paris

thief grabbed their suitcase. He

bank. He pointed a gun at the cashier

ran away, unaware that he had

and told him to hand over the money.

stolen a dead cat! Later, the ladies

Buries scooped 4,000 into a canvas

explained that at the time of

bag and zipped it up. Then he backed

the

incident

they

the

way

bury their

to

were

on

to the door ordering everyone to

pet.

freeze. To his surprise no one took any

They were convinced that the

notice - the staff and customers all

authorities would not let them,

jumped on him and pinned him to the

and they had decided to bury it

floor. It was at this point that Buries

after dark.

realized that he had put his gun in the


bag along with the money.

3 Read the texts again and answer these


questions.
1 Do you think the first thief was surprised when
he opened the suitcase? W h y /W h y not?
2 W h y was Buries arrested so easily?

38

Issue four Part three

6 Complete these sentences with a word from


the table.

1 A _______ is a person w ho steals, especially

secretly and without violence.


2 A _______ is person who enters a building
illegally, especially by force, in order to steal.
3 A _______ is a person who has taken someone
away by force and is demanding money from
her/his family, employers or government.
4 A _______ is a
person who steals money or
property from a bank, shop, train, etc. Often
sh e/h e uses force.
5 A _______ is aperson who attacks and robs
someone violently, usually in the street.
6 A _______ is aperson who deliberately and
unlawfully kills another human being.

( Improve your writing

(8 )

(step) through the door, everybody

(9)

(be) about to act, when another

Writing a story
a Various past tense forms are used.

thief ( 10)

The past progressive is used to set the scene.


Example
Two old ladies were walking in a cemetery.
The simple past is used for the main events in
the story.
Example
Later, the women explained ...
The past perfect is used to show that an event
occurred before another event in the past
Example
He realized that he had zipped up his gun in
the bag.

( 12)

(disappear) before anybody

(13)

(move).

( 11)

(run) out of a doorwav and


(snatch) the box. The lone thief

W riting
8

W ork in pairs. Look at these pictures. They


illustrate three more of the stories in Criminal
Records. Put the three stories in order and
decide how to tell them using past tense forms,
before writing the stories individually

The use of words like when, then, after and


later helps to make the sequence of events
clear.

C When and while are used when one action


happens at the same time as another or when
an action occurs during a longer one.
Example
When/While they were walking in the cemetery,
a thief stole their bag.
when is also used when one action follows
another.
Example
When she pressed the button, the lift stopped.
d After is often followed by a perfect tense.
Examples
I'll see him after you've finished.
I saw him after he had finished.

P ra c tic e
7 Complete this true story with the appropriate
past tense form of the verbs in brackets.

Crime busters
In July 1985, four West London criminals
( 1 ) _______ (make) plans to rob the manager
of a laundry as he ( 2 ) _______ (leave) the bank
with a box full of staff wages. However,
someone ( 3 ) ________(tell) the police before
the robbery and the police ( 4 ) ________(make)
plans to catch the thieves.
The day of the robbery ( 5 ) ________(come).
The laundry manager ( 6) ________(collect) an
empty box while the police and the robbers
( 7 ) _______ (wait) outside the bank. As he

S elf c h e c k
9 Work in pairs. Look at your partners stories.
Is the sequence of events clear? How could it
be improved? Share your ideas.

Issue four Part three

39

Page

Topic

G ram m ar

64

Winning at all costs

The passive

66

Hair

Have something done (causative form)

~3

68

Fun places

70

Songbook: Big yello w taxi

72

First impressions

Comparisons

74

Sweet dreams

Verbs with -ing or to * infinitive


with a change of meaning

76

Missing

78-80

Grammar review Issues 7 and 8: Grammar practice

82

A moral dilemma

Would/should/might (have)
Second and third conditionals

84

Values

Should/ought to * have
past participle

86

Excuses

88

Songbook: The great pretender

90

Psychic pets

Must/may/might/could/can (/
couldn't * have - past participle

"2

92

Neighbours

Relative pronouns
Defining and non-defining
relative clauses

"3

94

Letters to the editor

96-98

Grammar review Issues 9 and 10; Grammar practice

100

Taking risks

Phrasal verbs

102

The future

Future perfect

104

A day in the life o f...

106

Songbook: Rocket man

108

Discrimination

Say, tell, and ask

110

Parents!

Discourse links although/though/


even though/even if/in spite of/
despite

112

Truth and lies

114-116

Grammar review Issues 11 and 12; Grammar practice

117-120

Wordlist

Function

Complaints and apologies

Encouraging expressions

Requests

Seeking information

Reacting to something new

Persuasion

Grammar review
Issues 3 and 4

F u t u r e w i t h will
Form

will * infinitive
Short forms: HI (= I will)
I w ont (= I will not)

Uses

Examples

1 To predict future events.

I think Brazil w ill win


the next W orld Cup.
W omen will becom e
m ore equal.

2 After verbs and expressions


like b e afraid, b e /fe e l sure,

I h op e fllg e t the job .


I'm sure s h e ll pass.

2 Going to usually refers to the near future.


Will can refer either to the near or distant future.
3 We use will to talk about what we think or believe will
happen. W e may have no evidence.

Example
1 think p eo p le will becom e happier in the future.
W e use going to talk about something in the future
which we can see will happen as a result of something
in the present.

Example

His brakes have failed! H es going to crash!

believe, doubt, expect, h op e


and think, to talk about our
hopes and expectations
about the future.

F u tu re p ro g re s s iv e
Form

F u t u r e w i t h going to
Form

present progressive of go +to + infinitive

Uses
1 To express the speaker's
intention to do something.
2 To make future predictions
where the speaker has
evidence that something
will happen. It can be used
without time expressions
but the use of going to
suggests the action is
expected to happen in the
near future.

Examples
I m goin g to m eet Tom.
W hat are you goin g to do
w hen you grow up?
Look af those black c/ouds.
It s going to rain.

Going t o o r will?

will + b e + -ing

U ses
1 To express an action which
starts before a definite
future time and probably
continues after it.

Examples
This tim e next m onth I'll
b e travelling to France.

2 To talk about future events


or actions that are already
decided.

I'll b e w orking in my
fath ers shop thin summer.

3 To talk about something


that is not planned, but will
happed because it is part of
a routine.

HI b e seeing Mary
tom orrow a t school.

P ast perfect
Form

had + past participle


Short forms: 'd (= had)
hadnt (= had not)

Uses

Examples
A/an lived in London when

will + infinitive implies intention only. Often the action


is decided at the moment o f speaking.

t To refer back to an earlier


past action or event when
we are already talking
about the past. O ften we
use links like when, after,
as soon a s ...

Examples
'What do you want to drink?'
'Ill have apple ju ice, p lea se.'

2 The past perfect is the


past equivalent of the
present perfect.

1 Going to implies an intention and a plan.


Example

I m goin g to take an exam next w eek.

I first m et him. His fam ily


had m oved there two y ears
before.
W e went to b ed as soon as
our visitors had left.
(Present) Joan is w orried

becau se she has never


taken an oral exam before.
(Past) Joan was w orried

becau se she had never


taken an ora} exam before.
40

Grammar review

P ast p erfect p ro g re ssiv e


Form

Example
He put the model on the water.(3)
A man built a model of the Titanic.( 1 )
He look it to a lake.(2 )
The model sank.(4 )
A fter the man had built a model o f the Titanic, he took
it to a lake.
A fter he had put it on the water, it sank.

had been * -ing

Note
The past perfect progressive is the past form of the present
perfect progressive.
Uses

Examples

1 To talk about something


that was in progress up to
the past time we are
thinking about.

She was very tired. She


had been practising karate
all day

2 To show that an action


was frequently repeated,
before a past time we are
thinking about.

He had been annoying her


for months.

P ast perfect or
p ast p erfect p ro g re ssiv e ?
t When I got home, I discovered she had painted Lhe door.
Here, the painting was definitely finished.

2 When I got home, I discovered she had been painting the

door.

1 He ran away.
The thief grabbed a handbag.
He opened it and found it was empty.
He reached a safe place.
2 He stood up and found he was in the police station.
A robber dug a tunnel under a bank.
He came up through the floor.
He decided to steal some money.
3 He found he was in a different prison.
The lorry took him out of prison.
A prisoner hid in a lorry.
He opened the door.

B ..........................................................................................
1 Complete the sentences using w ill or going to and the
verb in brackets.

Here, she may not have finished the job, and/or the paint
was still wet.

Examples
W h y are you standing here?
Tm going to buy (buy) some tickets for the match.
'Oh no! Ive forgotten to post my letter!'
"Dont worry - I II post (post) it for you.'

Grammar practice
A ..........................................................................................
1 Complete the sentences with an appropriate form of
going to and a verb from the list.
study visit stop clean wear travel cook use
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

Next summer, I
my uncle in Sydney.
The skys clearing. I think i t ______ raining.
W h a t ______y o u _______ to the party?
Its my mothers birthday so w e
the dinner.
M y cousin
to be a doctor.
H o w ______ they_______ to America? By boat?
I
my dads car because its dirty.
Hes
aerosols to paint a mural on the school wall.

2 Decide on the order in which these things happened.


Then write two sentences using after and the past

1 Good morning, young man. Welcome to Woodford


High School. I
(be) with you in a minute.
2 Look! Those children
(fall) off their bikes.
3 My father has decided that w e
(visit) Sarah in
New York next summer.
4 W hat
the w o rld
(be) like in two hundred
years time?
5 'How are you getting home?
I ______ (take) the number 57 bus as usual.
I ______ (come) with you. It stops near my house.
6 'How do you work this computer?
Its easy. I
(show) you.'
7 That child doesn't look very well. Helooks as if he
(be) sick.

2 Complete the dialogue with the simple past or past


perfect form of the verb in brackets.
A W here did you go last night?

B I

(go) to a charity film show.

(be) it good?

Yes, except the film ______ (start) before

I _____

(arrive).

perfect.

Grammar practice

41

5 Choose the more appropriate form, past perfect or past

A W h y?
B Well, i t

(take) me an hour to get there on the

bus. By the time I

(get) there all the stars

(go) in, so I _______(not get) any autographs.


I

(be) very disappointed. How about y o u ?_____

you
A No! I
I

(enjoy) your evening?


(spend) the evening doing my homework.
(not finish) when my sister

(come)

home from her party at midnight. Its not fair!


3

Complete the sentences with the future progressive


form of the verb in brackets.
Example
The train will be arriving (arrive) soon.

1 Don't call her tonight: she


(study) for her exam.
2 W hen
you
(move) house?
3 I
(see) her tomorrow. Do you want me to take
anything?
4 I
(not visit) her again in the near future.
5 W hy
you
(work) all day on Sunday?
6 He
(take) his exam some time next week.
7 This time next week I
(lie) on a beach.
8 I
(write) to his teacher.

perfect progressive, then rewrite the sentences.


1 I had been waiting/had waited for five hours when he
telephoned.
2 When I got there he had been planting/had planted two
hundred trees.
3 The kitchen was a mess because the boys had been
cooking/had cooked.
4 Sally had been practising/had practised karate for two
years when she was attacked.
5 The streets were very wet because it had been
raining/had rained.
6 The boys had been doing/had done their homework by
the time I arrived.

C ............................................................................
1 W hat will life be like fifty years from now?
W ill children have to go lo school, or will they be taught
by computer? W ill people still use cars?
Write about fifty words on your personal predictions
for the future.

2 Look at the pictures and complete the story. Make sure


that you use the past perfect, past progressive and
simple past tenses.

4 W rite a sentence about each situation using the past


perfect progressive.
Example
When mum went upstairs to my room it was full of
smoke, (we/smoke)

We had been smoking.


1 I got home from school with my face full of bruises.
(I/play/rugby with my friends)
2 Tom likes reading in bed, and yesterday he fell asleep in
class. (He/read/bed/till late)
3 W hen the teacher asked Mary a question she couldnt
answer. (She/not/listen)
4 Alex was very red when he got home from the beach.
(He/sleep/in the sun)
Now write your own sentences to explain what had
been happening in each situation.
5 When I walked in the room I saw Grandpa asleep in his
chair. The television was still on.
6 The boys were sitting by the pool. They looked wet.
7 The girls in the team looked very tired when they came
home from the match.
8 The people at the bus-stop looked very happy when the
bus finally came.

42

Grammar practice

Jean Norman was an unemployed teenager. It was summer.


The sun was shining and everyone was having a good time
except for Jean because she had no money Then...

What are these posters for?


How do they make you feel?

-----------------------------I________________

. shams about th<

"

KISSING A SMOKER IS LIKE SNOGGING ANASHTRAY

Smoking
W arm -up

R ead in g

Smoking kills, but a lot of young


people still start smoking before
they are sixteen.

2 Read this extract from the book Diary of a teenage health freak.

1 W h y do you think young


people smoke? Share your
ideas with the class and
make a list on the board.

W h at reasons does it give for young people smoking? Are they


different from your ideas in the Warm-up?

3 Read the text again and answer these questions.


1
2
3
4

W h at are the disadvantages of smoking according to the text?


W h y doesn't Ann stop smoking now?
W hen is a cigarette helpful to Dave?
W h at did the writer's classmates find funny?

My first fa g nearly kills me


I w as just going hom e after school, w hen I
saw som e of m y classm ates sm oking. Before
I could open m y m outh, they cornered m e,
blow ing sm oke in m y face an d chanting:
'It kills 50,000 people a year.'
'It d o esn't only dam age y o u r ow n health, but
the health of those aro u n d you.'
'Each cigarette knocks five m in u te s off
y o u r life/
'It's just like kissing an ashtray.'
I co u ld n 't see why, if they knew all this,
they still sm oked, but they w ere h ap p y to
talk about why.
A nn said th at she started w hen she w as
thirteen. H er older sister w as going o u t w ith
a heavy smoker. O ne night their parents
w ere out and her sister a n d boyfriend h ad
said jokingly, 'W ould you like a cigarette?'.
She'd said OK, because she d id n 't w a n t to
look stupid. Sm oking m ade her feel dizzy
an d h u rt the back of h er throat, b u t she
carried on to im press h er sister and h er boy
friend. N ow she bought her fags from the
co m er shop, o r got them from her friends.
She d id n 't think there w as any point in her
giving up, as h er m um an d d a d sm oked and
her health w as still in dan g er because she
w as breathing in their sm oke anyway. She
also said she th o u g h t sm oking m ade her
look sexy.

Glossary
fag: cigarette
(informal)
impress: make
someone feel
admiration and
respect

44

Issue five Part one

D ave said h e enjoyed sm oking a n d


tho u g h t it m ade him look big and hard. He
started sm oking w hen he an d his cousin
b o u g h t som e cigarettes a n d tried them dow n
by the river. A t first he only sm oked at
parties an d discos. Later he found a cigarette
helped after argum ents w ith his m um .
A t the end they insisted on m e having one,
so th at I knew w hat I w as m issing. They
suggested that there w as som ething w rong
w ith m e if I d id n 't sm oke. I h ad a puff, w hich
d id n 't feel too bad, th o u g h it m ade m e w an t
to cough. I took tw o or three really d eep
breaths. I started coughing, my eyes w atered
an d I nearly fainted. W hen I began to look as
if I w as about to throw up, m y classm ates,
w ho tho u g h t it w as very funny, left.
O n the w ay hom e I stopped to b u y som e
chew ing-gum to cover u p the smell. G ot
hom e, cleaned m y teeth and held m y breath
w hen m um kissed me goodnight.

V o cab u lary

P ra c tic e

A Match four of these expressions to the


definitions.

6 Report what Peter's classmates chanted at him.

feel dizzy
throw up
faint

Example

cough
make your eyes water
hurt the back of your throat

1 send the food in your stomach through your


mouth; get sick
2 send air through vour throat with a sudden
loud noise
3 to lose consciousness
4 feel as if everything is spinning round and you
might fall
Now give examples of other things that cause
these physical effects.

Example
Turning round and round makes you feel dizzy.
5 Choose the correct phrase to complete the
sentences.

'It kills 50,000 people a year.


They said that it killed 50,000 people a year.

7 Look at this reported conversation. Underline


all the examples of reported speech. Rewrite
the conversation in direct speech.
Pete said that he was w aiting to see Titanic. Angie
said that she had seen it twice. She said that she
thought Leonardo Di Caprio was gorgeous. Pete
said that he didn't like Leonardo Di Caprio. He said
that he had only come to see Kate W inslett. Angie
told him that she was sure he would enjoy the film.

L isten in g S
8 W ork in pairs. Read this statement and discuss
the questions.
I know smoking's dangerous but I'm only
harm ing myself.

1 A heavy smoker sm okes a lo t/d oesn t sm oke


m uch.
2 A corner shop is a sm all lo c a l shop/a larg e
superm arket.
3 I had a puff means he sm oked a w hole
cig a re tte /trie d a cig arette.
a Hold your breath' means stop breath ing /
b reathe deeply.

Do you think the person is being reasonable?


W here is smoking banned in your country?
W h y?
Now listen to the interview and decide if the
statements are true or false. Make sure you
understand these words and expressions
before you listen.

mprove your grammar

nicotine lung cancer


cigarette butt

t
Tense
changes in reported speech
These are the main tense changes that take
place from direct to reported speech.

Direct speech

R eported speech

'I don't smoke,'


he said.
Hes smoking,
she said.
'I have never smoked,
he explained.
'Shes been waiting
for ages, she said.

He said that he
didn't smoke.
She said that he
was smoking.
He explained that he
had never smoked.
She said that she
had been waiting
for ages.
She said that she
had bought the
cigarettes.
He said that he would
be in London on
Monday.

She said, I bought


the cigarettes.
He said, 'I will be in
London on Monday.

Some expressions of time and place change


from direct to reported speech. See page 58.

pregnant

ashtray

Cherie Piper is two years old.


Her parents gave her cigarettes.
Her mum didnt smoke when she was pregnant.
Dr Adams does not believe that you can be a
nicotine addict at birth.
5 Cigarette smoke causes lung cancer but only
in smokers.
6 Non-smokers can take in almost a cigarette
a day.

1
2
3
4

T alking p o in t
9 W ork in small groups. Discuss these questions.
1 Do you think adults encourage young people to
smoke? If so, how?
2 Do you think we should discourage young
people from smoking? If so, how would you
do it?
Share your conclusions with the class.

Issue five Part one

45

Coping with adults


W arm -up
1 Make a list of three of the
problems you have most
frequently w ith your
parents. Share your list with
the class. W hich problem is
the most common?

R ead in g @
2 Jane has written lo Advice
Special about a problem she
has with her parents. Read
Janes letter and the
comments from Advice
Special to find:
1 the age that Jane started to
have problems.
2 the reason she dyed her hair
blonde.
3 what Janes parents wanted
lo know before she went out.
4 what Jane was worried about
during the party.
5 what Jane did when she
decided to break all her
parents rules.
6 the reason she took a taxi lo
her sisters house.
7 a piece of advice for
someone like Jane.

Advice

Special
Dear Advice Special.
The problems wiili my parents started when I was sixteen. I wanted
a Saturday job but my parents ordered me to stay at home and study
for my exams. Whenever I pointed out that all my friends had
Saturday jobs, they always replied. W e dont care what they do. its
you were worried about. This made me so angry that I did whatever
I could to provoke them. I dyed my hair white blonde and covered my
face in make-up before I went to school. Of course, this didn't help.
It was a rule that in the evening I was only allowed out once
during the week and on Saturday till 10 p.m. Every time I went out.
my parents asked me who I was going out with and where we were
going. It never crossed my mind that they were probably just worried
about me.
Once I asked to go to a party on a Saturday night. They agreed,
but on condition that Dad came to pick me up at 10 p.m. I argued and
argued about it but in the end I had to agree. I knew I was going to
be really embarrassed when my father came to pick me up. so I spent
the whole party worrying. I didnt speak to my parents for three days
after that. My mother tried to explain how they both felt, but I didnt
want to listen. It was then that I decided to break all their rules. So
instead of coming home at 10 p.m.. I would arrive back aL 11.30 p.m. and
then refuse to tell them where I had been. I hoped they would decide
I was old enough to look after myself, and leave me alone. However,
the arguments just got worse and worse, and finally, one Saturday

P ro n u n ciatio n @

night I didnt come home till 2 a.m. My father wanted to know why I
was so late. I refused to tell him. W e had a big argument which ended

Intonation

with me getting a taxi to my sister's house. W hat went wrong?

lane

Look at this dialogue. W ork


with a partner and decide
how to read il aloud.
A
B
A
B

Im going to the disco.


W h o are you going with?
My friend Pete.
W ell, don't be late!

Now listen to the version on


the tape, and compare your
own. Was it the same or
different? Now repeat the
dialogue.

46

Issue five Part two

Jan e tried to solve her problem in the wrong w ay. Instead o f tryin g
to show her parents th at she was m ore adult by reasoning w ith
them, she chose to ignore a ll th e ir rules. This ju st m ade her parents
very strict. If you are having problem s w ith your parents, try
talking things over w ith them. Tell them w hat you think but be
prepared to listen to them as w ell! Rem em ber that yo u r parents
love you and they only w ant w h ats best fo r you.

V o cab u lary

P rac tic e

4 Fmd words and expressions in the text that


begin with the letters in brackets and mean:

5 Change the following into reported speech.

1 to make someone angry by doing something


they don't like (p...)
2 to colour something by putting it in a liquid
(d...)
3 feel ashamed (e...)
4 talking to someone and discussing something
in a sensible way (r...)
5 pav no attention to (i...)
6 not allowing people to break rules (s...)

Improve your grammar


Reported questions
a The most common verbs for reporting
questions are ask, want to know and, more
formally, inquire. We report yes/no questions
with if or whether, and wh- questions with
question words.
Examples
Direct speech
Reported speech
Can I go?'
I asked if I could go..
Why are you so late?'
He wanted to know
why I was so late.

Reporting verbs for statements

The most common reporting verbs for


statements are say and tell.
Example
Direct speech
Reported speech
'I collect badges.
He said that he
collected badges.
He told me that he
collected badges.
We often use other verbs when we want to give
a more exact idea of why or how someone said
something, especially for reporting commands
and imperatives (see page 59).
Examples
Direct speech
Reported speech
'Stay at home and study My parents ordered
for your exams!
me to stay at home
and study for my
exams.
You must give us your
They insisted I gave
friends telephone
them my friends
number.
telephone number.

Exam ple
Do you like pizza? Pete asked me...
Pete asked me if I liked pizza.
1 Have you done your homework? Mum asked
me...
2 'W here have you been? My father wanted to
know...
3 W hat marks did you get in the test? Mum and
dad asked us...
4 'W h at time w ill you be home? Petes mother
asked...
5 Is M ary ill?' The teacher inquired...
6 How much pocket money do you get? My
friend asked me...
7 'W here have you been? Dad wanted to know...
8 Areyou studying? Dad often asks me...

G e t t i n g S t r e e t w i s e ! Esi
Refusing o f fe rs/ p e r su a sio n
6 Look at the picture. W hat
do you think the people
are saying?

7 Listen to the tape and tick


the expressions that Pete
used to refuse an offer.
No, thanks.
No, thanks, not really.
Id rather not.
Id prefer not to ...
I dont feel like ...
I really don't want a ...
I'm not in the mood for ...
Now listen again and write down some of the
expressions that Darren and Sandra used to
persuade Pete.
8 Imagine that you are Pete. W rite a version of
the dialogue with a different ending, where
you manage to avoid the ride.
9 W ork in pairs. W rite a conversation in which
you try to persuade someone to do something
they do not want to. For example, persuade
them to go to a disco when their parents do not
want them to stay out late. Practise reading the
dialogue, and act it out for the class.

Issue five Part two

47

Dear Diary
W arm -up
1 A diary is a journal or record

of events. W ork in small


groups, and answ er these
questions.
1 Do you keep a diary?
W h y /W h y not?
2 W h a t would be the
advantages and
disadvantages of keeping a
diary in English? Share your
ideas w ith the class.

R ead in g
2 Read th e diary extracts.
W hich extract is by:
1 a girl w ho had a boyfriend
called Sam?
2 som eone w ho is fifteen?
3 som eone who lives w ith his
m other and sister?
j 4 som eone w ho's got an exam?

Wednesday, 2.6 Ju re, 1030 pm.

Things l will never forget about today are:


I threw a spoon a t my mother's left leg while she was talking
about Mr Mayo.
I read in my History o f th e World book th a t beards were
frowned upon in Paris m the fourteenth century because it was
fe lt they made men lock like wolves.
I heard my sister Penelope crying m herroom.

: 3 Read th e extracts aeain and


I

find:

1 exam ples of different ways


of w riting the date,
j 2 examples w here the w riter
has left out the w ords I' and
I
'We'.
3 exam ples w h ere th e w riter
:
has left out a verb.

I t is my fifteenth birthday, and I decided to beginwriting my


firs t, extremely personal, diary.

11.17 pjnr>.
Upset a t throwing th e spoon a t my mothers leg. I very much
need to talk to someone, to be completely honest. Two months
ago my mother rented axr cellar to a man called Charlie Mayo,
who walks with a limp. Immediately a fte r th a t she s ta rte d
wearirg a lot of make-up for th e first time since almost six
years ago uhen my fath er moved cu t ...

March \Mh
tAarie and T had a re a lly produniive morning siudyincj -for my
French e'ta.m- A i I p m- I had io cjo io lu/ich uJiih AuM 8erihaNice, fo o d , bu.i T hale, i i i<uhe.fl she. says, 'T be.i a ll -the. boys a re
c.razy a&ouj you.. WeM io ih e bouJ/ifij al!e.y a iie r !uf)ch and saw
Sam uJiih his new y ir/frie s d - So angry T dropped a b a ll on his
io o i! Hen! io ih e io i/e i and

4 Improve your writing

5 Here are som e extracts from diaries. Complete


the diary entries w ith the prepositions below.
In some cases you can use m ore than one
preposition.

W riting a diary
a

Diaries are personal documents. Often they are


written in the first person (/...). Sometimes we
delete the subject.
Example
Went to the bowling alley.

for about
during

We sometimes use abbreviations as well.


Example
Saw C. today. She makes me so angry!

C We can report what people say, using direct or


reported speech.
d To make diaries interesting, we need to make
sure that we use a range of adjectives.
of events is clear. The use of expressions like
while, before, after, until, etc. helps us to do
this.

The correct use of prepositions of time also


helps to make a diary entry clear.
Example
Haven't seen A. since last week.

Look at lhe situations in the


pictures. How do you think
the people felt in these situations?
These adjectives may help.
upset
excited
jealous

uncertain
suspicious
worried

Have you ever been in a similar


situation? W hen? W hal happened?
How did you feel at the tim e?
How do you feel about it now ?
Make notes and share y our ideas
w ith the class.

4 Choose the correct time expression, then


rewrite the sentences.

Example

1 I fell off my bicycle w h ile/u n til I was riding to


school.
2 They waited u n til/w hen we had arrived
b e fo r e /u n til they began.
3 As soon a s /W h ile I walked into the room I
knew she was his sister.
4 W h en /W h ile he left school he went to
university.
5 He came in a s /b e fo r e 1was having my dinner.
6 I knew him w h en /u n til I was learning French.

on

W riting

P rac tice

I decided not to go to see her u n til/w h en she


apologized.
I decided not to go to see her until she
apologized.

since

Now com pare your answ ers w ith a partner. If


you have different answ ers, decide if both are
correct. Discuss how the m eaning is changed
by different answers.

e We also need to make sure that the sequence

Until (= up to the time when)


I was in school until seven last night.

after at

1 Saw Alice today. I hadnt seen h e r ______


Tuesday.
2 Im going lo B russels______ Tuesday.
3 Nobody telephoned m e _______ the whole
weekend. W h a ts happened to all my friends?
4 Took my dog for a w a lk ._______ th at l w ent to
see John.
5 The Post Office is still on strike. I havent had
any le tte rs _______ weeks.
6 I le ft
ten oclock.
7 I stayed at hom e all a fte rn o o n .________ lhe
evening w e w enl out.
8 Uncle Sam c a m e _______ lunch.

Sometimes we even leave out verbs.


Example
Angry with Mum. (= I was angry with Mum.)

in

7 Follow the Im prove yo ur w riting


guidelines and w rite a diary entry
for a real or im aginary day in your
life. Plan your entry and make sure
that you describe your feelings.

S elf c h e c k
8

Exchange diary entries w ith a


partner. Discuss these questions.

1 Did your p artner use any adjectives?


Are there any you can add?
2 Can you replace any of the adjectives
w ith m ore interesting ones?

Issue five Part three

49

Reading

Listening

An article about drugs in sport

An interview about housewives


and athletes

An article about the history


of hair

People complaining

A letter to a pen friend

Speaking

Writing

Discussing drugs in sport


and society

An account of a real or imaginary


family trip

Discussing funfair rides

An article about judging people


by their appearance

People talking about trying


to get into a disco

Discussing personal appearance

An article about sleeplessness

A conversation about dreams

Discussing dreams

A description of a teenager

Two notices about missing


children

Discussing runaways

A personal account of a moral


dilemma

A report on working children

Discussing moral dilemmas

An article about rich people


who dont want money

People asking for things

Discussing what they would


do with an inheritance

Letters offering excuses

Notes to your teacher offering


excuses

Two stories about psychic pets

An article about neighbours

Angry neighbours telling


their story
People asking for information

Letters to a magazine

A newspaper article about


an accident

Discussing psychic power

Discussing neighbours

A letter to a magazine or
newspaper

Discussing pet hates

An interview with a snowboarder

Discussing risky activities

A report about products of


the future
People reacting to something new

Discussing a house of the


future

A personal account of a
teenager's day

A description of a day in
the life of a classmate

An extract from a book about


racial discrimination

Girls talking about age and


sex discrimination

Discussing discrimination

An article about parents

A conversation between a mother


and a teenager

Discussing teenager/parent
relationships

Two stories about lies that


backfired

A real or imaginary story


about a lie

Discussing situations where


we might lie

New Streetwise songbook


Father and son m

Father ( Chorus)
(1)
to make a change,
Just relax, take it easy,
Youre still young, thats your fault,
Theres so much you have to know.
Find a girl, ( 2) _______ ,
If you want you can marry.
Look at me, (3 )_______ .
I was once like you are now, and (4 )_______
To be calm when youve found something
going on.
But take your time, think a lot,
W hy, think of everything youve got.
For you w ill still be here tomorrow, but your
dreams may not.

1 This song is a conversation between a father


and his son. Look at these phrases from the
song. W hich phrases do you think are said bv
the father and which by the son? W h y?
settle down
How can I try to explain
Its not time
I know that its not easy
i'm old but I'm happy
I was ordered lo listen
I know that I have Lo go away
keeping all the things I knew inside

50

Songbook

Son
(5 )_______ , when I do he turns away again.
Its always been the same, same old story,
From the moment I could talk ( 6) _______ .
Now theres a w ay and l know that I have to
go away
\ know i have to go.

Chorus
Son
All the times that I cried, (7 )_______ ,
Its hard, but its harder to ignore it
If they were right, Id agree, but it's them you
know not me
Now theres a way and (8) _______
1know I have to go.

2 Fill the gaps in the song with the phrases.


3 Listen and check your answers.
4 Answer these questions individually before
sharing your answers with the class.
1 W hat do you think the son wants to do? W hat
does his father want him to do?
2 W ho do you think is right?
3 Have you ever had a conversation like this with
an adult?

he real you?

lirror?
How often do you look in a mirror?
Do you like what you see?

t?

I
Is the price of progress too high?

What are the main problems for


teenagers in your town?

The real you?


R ead in g

2 Pul ihe questions in the questionnaire into these categories:

1 Read this New Streetw ise


questionnaire and complete
it individually.

1 Questions about your personality.


2 Questions about your physical appearance.
3 Questions about your relationships w ith other people.
W hich questions did you find most difficult to answer? W h y?

Arc you

being you?

There are times when each and every one of us


looks in the mirror and wishes that somebody
completely different was staring back. But what
about the rest of the time? Do our quiz and find
out if youre happy being you!

W h a ts y o u r s c o r e ?
1
2
3

Glossary
re fle c tio n : image
o f something seen
in a mirror, glass or
water

b rillia n t: very
clever

one of the crowd:

If someone criticizes you, do you


usually:
a feel very sorry for yourself?
b listen to what theyre saying
before you reply?
c start defending yourself?
which parts of you would you
change if you had a chance?
a nose
g tummy
b mouth
h bottom
i legs
c eyes
d ears
j height
k chest/bust
e teeth
1 feet
f skin

When you are with a group of


people, how would you describe
yourself?
a The leader of the pack?
b One of the crowd?
c The odd one out?
If you were feeling depressed,
would you: .
a talk to someone about it?
b go and take some exercise?
c sit around and feel miserable?

A .

If a member of the opposite sex


asked you out, would you be:
a surprised, but pleased and
flattered?
b Not surprised at all? After all,
you are the best looking
person in the school!
c absolutely amazed that they
should choose you?
What quality do you look for in a
best friend?
a A sense of humour?
b Someone you can tell your
troubles to?
c Someone who thinks you are
brilliant?

part o f the group

52

Issue six Part one

4
5

c 10
a 0
b 5
Score one point for every letter
you didnt tick.
c 0
a 5
b 10
a 5
b 0
c 10
b 5
c 0
a 10
a 5
b 10
c 0

0-20:
Come on, you cant be that bad ... no
one is! You have a very low opinion
of yourself and, if you dont change
soon, youll spend your whole life
feeling unhappy and envious of your
friends instead of having a laugh and
enjoying being with them. Take
another look in that mirror and smile!
You and everything around you will
look better immediately!

2 1 -4 0 :
Youre realistic about yourself and
realize that you cant be the centre

of attention the whole time. That


makes you a very good friend to have
around. Dont worry about your
appearance. Nobodys perfect!!
41-62:

You are self-confident and have a high


regard for yourself. You also like to be
at the centre of things and have lots of
friends. Be careful about becoming
too big-headed though. If you do,
youll regret it!

V o cab u lary

P ra c tic e

4 Complete the sentences with the correct form


of the verbs in brackets: simple present, simple
past, w ill/w on't, w ould(nt).

Complete the definitions with the words and


expressions below.
feel depressed flattered
envious criticize
biy-headed have a sense of humour
the centre of attention

1 If you a re _______ , you are pleased and made to


feel good.
2 If vou_______ someone, you point out the
things that are wrong with them.
3 If yo u _____ , you are able to laugh at things.
-t If you are_____ , you attract everyone's
interest and are very popular.
5 If y o u _____ , you are sad and without
enthusiasm.
6 If y o u a re _____, you think you are very clever
and know everything.
7 If vou a re _____ , you want something that
belongs to another person.

Improve your grammar


Conditionals
a

Look at these three constructions with if.


If+ a present tense +a present tense (General
conditional)
Example
If someone criticizes me, I usually feel very
sorry for myself.
/f + simple present + future with will {'II)
(1st conditional)
Example
If you do, you'll regret it.
If + simple past +would (d) (2nd conditional)
Example
If I were depressed, I would talk about it.

1 If I ________(see) Michael, Ill tell him about the


party.
2 W hich part of your body would you change, if
yo u ________(have) a chance?
3 If someone_______ (shout) at you, do you cry?
4 W hat
yo u ________(do) if you have no
homework this weekend?
5 If y o u ________(be) the president of your
country, what would you do?
6 He alw ays_______ (get) nervous when he talks
to girls.
7 Id see him more often, if h e________(not be)
so big-headed.
8 If I were you, I _______ (speak) to him now.

T alk in g p o in t
5 W hat do you look for in a good friend? Choose
the two most important qualities. Here are
some ideas to help you.
I look for someone:
with a sense of humour.
with an attractive appearance.
with the same hobbies/interests as me.
who is a similar age.
who w ill help when Im in trouble.
who won't say bad things about me.
who likes the things I like.
who has the same taste in clothes/music.

Which ol these constructions do we use if we


think:
1 something is likely to happen?
2 something is unlikely to happen or is
impossible?
3 something is usually true?

C Complete these sentences about you.


If I
(become) a top model, I _______
(make) a lot of money.
If I _______ (study) harder, l ________(do)
better in my exams.
Which constructions did you use? Why?

6 W ork in small groups. Discuss your ideas.


Agree on the three most im portant qualities.

Issue six Part one

53

The price of progress


W arm -up

RISING STANDARDS

1 Is the quality of life getting


better or worse in your
country? W h y?

The

co sts

of

gro w th

and

d evelop m en t are alread y too high


and the future is bleak. Unless w e
do som ething, the w orld will be
im p ossib le

I think the quality of life is


going up. Look at all the new
shopping centres'

to

live

in.

Traffic

threatens to choke all o u r cities


and air pollution threatens the air
that w e breathe. If w e carry on
digging up and cuttin g dow n our
planet, w e are going to die. We
need to re-think ou r w hole w ay of
life and live in small com m unities
w hich only p rod u ce the food and
g o o d s th ey n eed. W h y should
m an, w h o is just an anim al, have
the right to d estro y the w h ole
planet?
1 W h at are tw o exam p les of
the high costs of econ om ic
grow th ?
H ow does the w riter think w e
sho u ld

I think the quality of life is


going down. W e can hardly
breathe because of all the cars
on the road.

'reth in k o u r w h ole

w ay of life'?

Development is essential. Unless


there is growth and development,
the standard of living cannot rise.
It is ridiculous to expect people
with a high standard of living to
suddenly stop buying luxury
items and driving cars. No one
wants environmental disaster, but
equally no one wants to go back to
the Dark Ages. Providing that
development is controlled, it can
do no harm. Without economic
growth we would still be living in
mud huts. We are making progress
on issues such as pollution and
there are more and more national
parks to protect plants and
wildlife. Providing that we work
within the system, we will win.
What will happen if there isn't
growth and development?
What does the writer mean by
'goingback to the Dark Ages'?
What are two examples of
progress?

V o cab u lary
2 Read both sides of the
argument about economic
growth and development
and answer the questions.

54

Issue six Part two

3 Find words and expressions in the articles that begin w ith the
letters in brackets and mean:
1
2
3
4
5
6

bad, not hopeful (b...)


seem likely to do something unpleasant (t...)
groups of people living together (c...)
very silly, foolish (r...)
expensive and enjoyable things that you dont really need (l... i...)
hurt or damage (h...)

A The suffix al means o f or concerning, and


can be added to nouns to form adjectives.
Example

environm ent (n ) - environm ental (a d j)


W hen a w ord ends in -y there may be a
spelling change.
Exam ple

ecology (n ) - ecological (a d j)
Form new w ords which end with the -a/ suffix,
history
education
biology
econom y
music
developm ent
tradition
philosophy
nation
technology

Improve your grammar

If

C onditionals with unless

Unless +positive - if + negative

Example
Unless you stop soon ... (= If you don't stop
soon ...)
C onditionals with a s long aslprovidin g

th at/p rov id ed th at
as long as
providing that >
provided that
*

(= on condition that)

3 Life in cities w ill gel worse a s lo n g a s /u n le s s


more and more people come lo live in already
crowded ureas.
4 P ro v id e d th a t/U n le s s we do something the
situation w ill improve.
5 As lo n g a s /U n le s s w e try. things w ill not
improve.
6 P ro v id in g th a t/U n le s s we stop people
buying cars, the traffic will get worse.
7 W e w ill continue building more hotels
u n le s s /a s lo n g a s the tourists keep coming.
8 Nobody w ill do anything about the
environment unfess/p io v id e d lh a t people
complain.

G e t t i n g S t r e e t w i s e ! [si
Expressing d isa g re e m e n t
6 Look at these expressions. They can all be used
to express disagreement. W hich ones do you
think would be considered impolite? W hich
ones do you think are lhe most polite?
Rubbish!
I dont think thats really true.
Nonsense!
Its not true!
Im not sure that 1agree w ith that.
You must be joking!

7 Listen and match the speakers to the extracts.

Examples
You can ride my bicycle as long as you ride it
carefully.
Providing IthatI she studies hard, she should pass.

Extract
Extract
Extract
Extract

All these expressions are more emphatic than if.


They mean if, but only if ... .

Listen again and decide which of the


expressions were inappropriate. W hat could
vou say instead? How would vou make the
intonation as polite as possible?

1
2
3
4

Politician and heckler


Boy and girlfriend
Teacher and boy
Mother and child

Glossary
hcckler: someone
who shouts in
di<3^recn)ont nl a
public speaker

P rac tice
5 Choose the correct w ord or expression and
rew rite the sentences.
Exam ple

The traffic situation will improve


u n le s s / p ro v id e d th a t w e build an
underground train system.
The traffic situation w ill improve provided lhat
we build an underground train system.

1 P ro v id in g /U n le s s we look after the


environm ent, the world could end.
2 I think the governm ent will win the next
election p ro v id in g /u n le s s the econom y gels
worse.

T alking p o in t
8 W ork in small groups. Discuss these
statements. W hich do you agree/disagree
w ith? W h y?
1 Economic growth is a good thing.
2 The world is a better place because of growth
and development.
3 The motor car was a terrible invention.
4 Inventions, such as the computer, have made
the world a better place.
5 Small communities are better than big cities.

Issue six Part two

55

Teenage problems
W arm -up
1 W hat do young people in
your area do in their free
time? Do they:
go to the cinema?
meet friends at fast food
I csldUldll'Lb?
go to concerts?
hang around street corners
because they have nothing
to do?
do a lot of sport?
stay at home and watch

TV?
Do young people have
enough to do? W hy/w hy
not?

R ead in g
A New Streetw ise reader was
asked lo write a report on the
problems for young people in
her village.

2 Read the report quickly and


put the headings in the gaps.
The teenagers view
Facilities for young people
The residents' view
Introduction
Conclusion

3 Read the report again and


answer these questions.
1 W hat is I he purpose of the
report?
2 W hat is the problem for the
young people?
3 W hat is the problem for the
people in the houses near the
football field?
4 W hat is the report writer's
recommendation?

56

Issue six Part three

Report on the problems of


young people in Whitton
not taking drugs. Furthermore, a lot
of the rubbish is left by people who
This report looks at the problems of
come and watch football. They
young people in Whitton in order to
meet outside because they have
suggest a solution. In recent weeks
nowhere else to go.
young people have been meeting
at night in the football field in front o ______________________
of the primary school. This has led
It is a fact that teenagers in Whitton
to lots of complaints from local
have nowhere to go in the evening.
residents. I spoke to the teenagers
There are no cinemas or cafes in
and some local residents in order
the village. They are not allowed in
to write this report.
the pubs and the last bus to
and from the nearest town is at
seven o'clock at night. Unless their
According to the residents they
parents drive them, the teenagers
have been disturbed by the sound
cannot go out in the evening.
of loud music, people talking and
the noise from motorcycles.
They claimed that some of the
In conclusion, there is no doubt
teenagers were taking drugs. They
there is a problem because of the
were also unhappy because of
poor facilities. However, the
the rubbish the teenagers were
problem will not go away. If the
leaving on the field. They want the
teenagers are stopped from
teenagers to stop using the field.
meeting on the field, they will
go somewhere else. I would
recommend allowing the teenagers
The teenagers felt that the problem
to start a club in the school hall.
was not as serious as the residents
This will mean less noise for
claimed. They agreed that they
everyone.
made a little noise but they were

o ______________________

0______________

0______________

0______________

Improve your writing


r ' ..................................................................

Writing a report

Start your report with a clear factual heading.


Example
Report on pollution in Caracas

b Start with an introduction. Here are some


useful expressions:
The aim of this report...
The purpose of this report ...
This report looks a t...
C Say how you got the information.
Examples
I visited ...
I went to ...
I spoke to ...
d Use reported speech and expressions like
according to to report what people said.
Examples
They said that there was a problem with traffic.
According to residents there is a problem with
traffic.

5 Here are some m ore possible solutions. Use the


expressions * -ing to make recom m endations.
E xam ple
Stop the teenagers from going out after ten
o'clock.'
I would recom m end stopping lhe teenagers
from going out after ten o'clock.

1 'Start an evening bus service.'


I would s u g g e s t_______.
2 O pen a judo club.'
I would re c o m m en d _______.
3 Allow teenagers to go to pubs.
I would s u g g e s t_______.
4 O rganize a youth club.
I would re co m m en d _________
5 'Start a gam es evening in the school.
I would s u g g e s t________ .

e Divide the report into sections and use


headings for each one.

Make sure that you have a conclusion and


include some recommendations. Here are
some useful expressions:
In conclusion, ...
To sum up, ...
I would recommend ...
ing ...
I would suggest... -ing ...

W riting

P rac tice
4

Complete Ihe sentences with the appropriate


verb from the list below.
deny

agree

suggest

complain

Example
W e dont take drugs.'
She denied that they took drugs.
1 Its true. W e make a lot of noise.
T h ey_______ that they made a lot of noise.
2 'The residents should start a club for young
people.'
H e ________that the residents start a club for
young people.
3 The teenagers make a lot of noise.'
A resident________that the teenagers made a
lot of noise.
4 W e don't leave rubbish on the field.
The teenagers_______ that they leave rubbish
on the field.

6 Follow the Im prove your w riting guidelines


and w rite a report on the problem s of young
people in your area. Make sure you suggest
solutions to the problem.

S elf c h e c k
7 W ork in small groups. Read the reports w ritten
by the other students. In each report find:
som ething you agree with.
som ething you don't agree w ith.
som ething the w riter could improve.
Discuss your ideas.

Issue six Part three

57

Grammar review
Issues 5 and 6

R ep o rted s p e e c h
There are two ways of reporting what somebody says either with direct or reported speech.
In direct speech we repeat the exact words.
Example
He said, 'I d o n t sm oke.'

In reported speech we give the exact meaning without


necessarily using the speaker's exact words.
Example
H e said (th a t) he didn't smoke.

Changes in expressions of time and place


These may change in the shift from direct to reported
speech. Here are some common changes.
Direct speech
today
yesterday
the day before yesterdaytomorrow
the day after tomorrow next week, year, etc.
last week, year, etc,
a year, a week ago

Reported speech with tense changes


Direct speech

Reported speech

Sim ple p resen t

Simple p a s t

I dont like oranges,


he said.

He said that he didn't like


oranges.

Present progressive

Past progressive

'Hes working, she said.

She said he was working.

Present p erfect

Past perfect

I have never smoked,


he explained.

He explained that he had


never smoked.

Present p erfec t
progressive

Past p erfec t
progressive

She has been waiting


for a long time,
she said.

She said that she had been


waiting for a long time.

Sim ple p ast

Past p erfec t

She said, 'I did it.

She said that she had done it.

Will

Would

He said, 'I'll do it.

He said that he would do it.

There are exceptions:


1 If the verb in direct speech is in the past, we often leave it
in the past in reported speech, unless we want to
emphasize the fact that one event happened before
another.
Example
'Smoking killed 30,000 p eople in 1990,' he said.

(direct speech)
He said th at sm oking killed 30,000 peo p le in 1990.

(reported speech)
2 We do not usually change a simple present tense if the
statement is always true.
Example
S m oking kills, he said, (direct speech)
H e said th at sm oking kills, (reported speech)
68

Grammar review

this/these
here

Reported speech
that day
the day before
two days before
the next day/the following day
in two days time
the following week, year, etc.
the previous week, year, etc.
a year before/the previous
week
that/those
there

Reported speech w ith no tense changes


When reported speech is introduced by a verb in the
present, we report the direct speech with no change of
tense. Sometimes we choose to report speech in the
present.
Uses

Examples

1 To report a conversation
that is still going on,
e.g. what someone is
saying on the phone.

H e says h e s at the
station.

2 W hen reading a letter,


to report what it says.

Tony says th a t h e likes


Australia.

3 W hen reading instructions


and reporting them.

The instructions tell us to


cu t th e p a p e r in half.

4 W hen reporting something


that a person says
all the time.

Tom says th a t he'll n ever


g e t m arried.

Reported commands
We usually report commands with tell, ask, order, or beg.
The verb we choose depends on how we view the original
command.
Examples
'D ont play, h e r m other said to her.
H er m other told h er not to play.
'Please sit d o w n ,' the bank m anager said to her.
The bank m anager asked h e r to sit down.
Please let m e sleep!' h e said to them.
H e begged them to let him sleep.

Srported questions

F irst c o n d i t i o n a l

The most common verbs for reporting questions are ask,


mant to know and inquire.
H e report yes/no questions with if or whether.

Form

Example
Do you like oranges?' he asked me.
He asked me if I liked oranges.
When reporting wh- questions we use question words.

if * simple presenl * w ill - infinitive

Use

Examples

To talk about a situation lhat


we think w ill probably
happen in the future, but
which depends on something
else happening first.

If Ihe weather's good. I'll


go to the beach.
If they give vou the money,
what w ill vou do?

Example

Notes

"Whv do vou like oranges?' he asked me.


He wanted to know w hy I liked oranges.

The //"clause in all conditionals can appear in the second


part of the sentence. In this case, no comma is used.

Notice that in a reported question the word order is the


same as in a statement, and we do not use lhe auxiliary
rerb do.

Example

Other reporting verbs


The most common reporting verbs are say and tell (see also
the Grammar review tor Issues 11 and 12). Often, however,
* e use other verbs that give a clearer idea of why someone
said something.

Example
My mother ordered me lo do mv homework. I explained
That I didn't have any She replied that my exams were next
week so I should study even if I had no homework.

W ell miss you if you leave.


W e can use shall insLead of w ill with I and we in the main
clause. However, w ill is more usual.

Example
If I pass mv exams. I shall go to university.
W e can also use modal verbs like can, may, elc. instead of
w ill in the main clause.

Example
If we have enough money, we mav go lo the States next
year.

Some of the most common verbs are:


advise someone (not) to do something
agree to do something/with someone about
something/that...
answer th a t...
beg someone lo do something ...
complain lhal .../to someone about something
deny that .../doing something
explain (to someone) that ...
insist on someone doing something/that someone (should)
do something
invite someone to do something
offer to do something
point out lhal ...
refuse lo do something
suggest lhat someone (should) do something/doing
something
thank someone for doing something
warn someone (not) to do something/against doing
something

G en eral co n d itio n al
Form

if * a present tense +a present tense

Use

Examples

To talk about general truths,


and automatic or habitual
results.

If you heal ice. it turns


lo water.
If somebody criticizes you,
do you get upset?

S e c o n d co n d itio n al
Form

i f +simple past +would +infinitive

Uses

Examples

1 To talk about unreal or


hypothetical present or
future situations.

If I had a lot o f money, I


would buy my parenls a
new house. (Bui I donl
have a lot of money.)

2 To talk about presenl or


future situations that are
noi likely.

If I won an Olym pic gold


medal, I would be very
happy

Notes
W e often use were instead of was after If I ... or If
he/she/it.... especially in a more formal style.

Example
If I weren 't busy, I would go.
W e can use the modal verbs might or could instead of
would in the main clause.

Examples
I could do this exercise if vou gave me Ihe answer key!
If he were in trouble, I might help him.

Grammar review

59

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F irst o r s e c o n d c o n d i t i o n a l ?

Grammar practice

The choice between the first and second conditional


depends on our view as to how likely or possible
something is.

A .......................................................................................

Examples

1 Rewrite these statem ents in reported speech.

If it rains, w e ll stay al home. (Rain is a real possibility.)


If it rained, we would stay at home. (Rain is not likely. It
does not usually rain.)

C o n d i t i o n a l s w i t h o u t if
Unless
Unless * posilive = if +negative

Example
Unless you give it to m e... (= If you dont give it to me ...)

Notes
There is a difference in meaning between these sentences:
1 Don't call me if you need help.
2 D ont call me unless you need help.
In i the speaker wont help even if the other person really
needs help.
In 2 the speaker w ill help, but the use of unless suggests
lhat she does not want anv calls which are unnecessary.

A s/so lo n g a s / p r o v id e d (t h a t )/ p r o v i d in g ( t h a t )
These phrases can be used lo introduce conditionals. They
mean on condition th a t... or if. but only i f ....

Examples
You can stay and listen as long as you are quiet.
Providing that she works hard, she w ill probably pass the
exam.

E xam ple
Im sorry bu t I can't com e to the party,' John said.
John said (th at) he was sorrv but he couldn 't come to
the party.

1 He often said. I never sm oke.


2 Ive lost my English book, John told his teacher.
3 'W ere going to Paris next w eek, they said.
4 She said, 'I w ent to London yesterday.'
5 I will give him my book, he said.
6 'W eve been w aiting for a long tim e, the w om an said.
7 'I'm telephoning from the US, Peter said.
8 Helen told me, l dont like oranges.'
9 I've never seen anything like this before, lhe professor
said.
10 The teacher told us, W ater boils at 100 degrees
centigrade.
2 Com plete lhe sentences w ith w ill/w on't +infinitive, or

the sim ple present form of the verb in brackets.


E xam ple
If I see (se e ) her, I won't tell (not lell) her.
1 W e _______ (b e ) late ifw e ________ (not leave) now.
2 W h a t _______ y o u _______ (sa y ) if y o u ________ (m e e t)
her?
3 S h e _______ (b e ) in trouble w ith her father if she
_______(fail) h er exams.
4 If v o u _______( g o ) ,_______ y o u ________(giv e) this
to her?
5 H e _______(g o ) out if the w e a th e r________ (b e ) nice.
6 if h e _______ (n o t give) me my money, I _______ (tell)
the teacher.
7 H e _______(noi help) you if y o u ________ (n o t help) him.
8 If y o u _______ (e a t) a lot, y o u _______ (p u t o n ) w eight.
9 T h e y _______ (n o t w in ) the cham pionship if they
_______(lo se) on Sunday.
10 W h a t _______ y o u _______ (d o ) if s h e _______
(n o t arrive)?
3 C om plete the sentences w ith would +infinitive, or the

past sim ple form of the verb in brackets.


E xam ple
W hat would you do (d o ), if you /ound (fin d ) 5 0 0 in
lhe street?
1 If I _______ (se e ) him again, I _______ (n o t kn o w ) who
he was.
2 If y o u _______ (h av e) a car, w hat c a r _______ you
_______ (ch o o se)?

60

Grammar practice

3 They________(live) in a house like Lhat if they


(have) the money.
'* W hic h ch a rily_______y o u ________ (give) money to if
vou _
(become) rich?
(not be) so sillv.
(like) him better if he _
S I ___
(beg) me.
(not help) him if h e ___
I ___
yo u _______ (help) the poor if you
* How
_______ (have) the time?
(be) vou.
S I ________(not speak) lo him if I
5 W hich book
vou ______ (take) if you
(go) to a desert island?
vo u ________(see) her again if she
(say)
she was sorrv?

4 I think its true,' Graham said.


Graham agreed______________
'Lets go to the park. she said.
She suggested_______________
W h y is the world round?' asked the little girl.
The little girl w anted________________________
'I'm not going,' he said.
He refused
8 Have you been lo New York?' the boy asked.
The boy inquired
9 'Smoking is bad foryou,' the teacher told us.
The teacher explained
10 I dont want to go, she said.
She answered__________
Report these conversations from the point of view of
Jane or Pete. Try lo avoid using savor tell.

1 Rewrite each of these sentences in reported speech.


Start with the words given, and make any additions you
need.

Example
Pete
Petes Dad
Pete
Petes Dad

E xam ple
'W h y do you like oranges?
She asked me why I liked oranges.
Dont play here.'
She to ld _________________________
I'm leaving now.'
She said ________
Is this book yours?
She inquired
'W h al lime is il?
She wanted to kn o w __
'Be quiet and sit down.'
The teacher ordered___
'Do you smoke?'
She asked
People smoke too many cigarettes.
My mum says
'Have you finished your homework vet?'
M y mum wanted to know
'W ill vou go to the meeting if he does?'
He inquired
10 I'm sorry. I cant do this problem.
He sa id ________________________
2 Complete each of these sentences so that it means the
same as the sentence before it.

Example
W h y dont we go lo the disco? she asked.

She suggested Lhat we should go to the disco.


1 "Be careful. her mother said.
Her mother warned
________________
Paul, Ive bought a new pair of trainers, M ary said.
M ary to ld ________________________________________
Ill help you, my friend said.
M y friend offered________________________________

Can I go the cinema?


W ho are you going w ith?
I'm going w ith John.
All right then.

I asked mv father if I could go to the cinema. He wanted


to know who I was going with so I replied that I ivas
going with John. Dad agreed.
1

Jane
Can I get a Saturday job?
Jane's mum I don't think its a good idea.
Jane
But all my friends have Saturday jobs!
Jan e s mum W e don't care what they do, its you
we re worried about.
Its not fair!
Don't argue. Jusl slay at home and study.

Jane
Jane's dad
2

Petes mum W here have you been?


Pete
At theplayground.
Petes mum Have you been smoking?
Pete
No!
Petes mum I thought I smeltsmoke. Dont start
smoking. Its reallv bad for vou.
4 Complete the sentences using an appropriate form of
the verbs in brackets: simple present, simple past, will,

won't, would(n't).
Example
Unless you come with me, I wont go (go).
1 W h a l_______ y o u ________ (do) if you found a lot of
money?
2 I
(help) you providing you help me.
3 W ed have more time to enjoy ourselves if we
________(not have) so much homework.
4 If someone________(smile) at you, do you smile back?

Grammar practice

61

5 W hat would you do if someone________ (give) you a


snake as a birthday presenl?
6 I ________(play) football if I could.
7 If I ________(be) rich, Id share my money with you!
8 Would it help if people________ (send) the books to me?
9 S h e _______ (shout) al you unless you are naughty.
10 Unless we stop vising cars, pollution_______ (become)
worse.
5 Complete each of these sentences so lhat il means the
same as the sentence before it.

what you would do


if your sisters clothes
caught fire.

what you would do


if you found a fire in
Ihe kitchen.

Exam ple
If he doesnt leave now, he w ill be late for lhe film.
Unless he leaves now, he w ill be late for the film.
1 Unless you study hard, you wont pass your exams.
I f ____________________
2 If you dont do something now, it w ill be too late.
Unless_______________________________________________
3 There wont be any bread left if you don't go to the shop
now.
Unless_______________________________________________
4 You can use my camera if you are careful with it.
A.s long a s ____________________________________________
5 They won't go to the match unless we go with them.
I f _________
6 If people stop moving to Ihe cities, lhe traffic problem
w ill get better.
Providing____________________________________________
7 Ill tell the teacher if you don't return my trainers.
Unless_______________________________________________
8 W e'll see you at the party unless we hear from you.
If
_
9 If you dont get there early, you wont see him.
Unless______________________________________
10 If you stick to your diet, you w ill lose weight.
Providing__________________________________

1 How much do you know about safety in the house?


Describe-.
whal you would do
if a pan caught fire.

what you would do


if you burnt your arm.

62

Grammar practice

Compare your answers with the other students.


2 Now turn your answers into a safely questionnaire.
Exam ple
If a pan caught fire, would you
a ) pour w ater on it?
b ) cover it w ith a dry cloth?
c ) cover it w ith a wet cloth?
Show your questionnaire to the class, then vote for lhe
best one(s). Use lhe questionnaire(s) with your own
class and another class, and compare the results. W hich
class knows more about safety?
3 W ho is the person you adm ire m ost? W ould you like to

meet her/him ?
1 W rite down five questions you would like to ask if
you did.
2 Now write a report of your imaginary conversation.
Exam ple
W hen I met M artin Luther king, I asked him w hy he
hated violence. He answered that he hated violence
because...

I s s u e

Winning at all costs


Why is winning so important
in sport these days?

W inning at all costs


W arm -up

R ead in g g ]
2

Read the text and fill the gaps with these


expressions.
looking for new ways of cheating
make them winners
high price for winning
extra energy
more aggressive

Many kinds of drugs are used by


athletes competing in sports ail
over the world. Some are used to
build muscles or to give the
athlete 1__________ . Others kill
the pain of injuries or calm nerves.
Many are illegal and dangerous.
Taking substances to improve
sports performance is not new.
Athletes in ancient Egypt drank
a special mixture with boiled
donkey hoof to 2__________ . The
winner of the 200 metres at the
Olympic Games of 6 6 8 b c in
ancient Greece used a special diet
of figs.

W hen Ben Johnson won the


Olympic 100 metres final and
broke the world record he was
on Lop of the world. Days later
he was banned from
international athletics and he
was stripped of his medal
because a drugs test was
positive.
1 W ork in small groups. W h y
do you think sports people
take drugs? Discuss these
ideas:
They follow the advice of
their coaches.
They want to cheat.
They w ant to improve and
do better.
They are greedy: sport is big
business, and success
guarantees fame and fortune.
They want to do well for
their country or team.
They do not know' how
dangerous drugs can be.
Can you think of any other
reasons?

64

Issue seven Part one

What kinds of drugs are used by


some people in sport?
Anabolic steroids resemble male
hormones. Anabolic' means 'to
build up' - in this case to build
up muscles. Body-builders use
anabolic steroids in order to look
good in competitions.

Stimulants make you feel full


of energy and confidence,
but they can also make you
feel Z___________ They are
officially banned in sport, but
amphetamines have been abused
by cyclists, who need lots of
stamina, and cocaine has been
used by basketballers and
footballers to make them more
competitive.
Because of the health risks and
the regular tests, some athletes
are 4__________ . These include
natural substances (such as
growth hormone) that have the
same effect as man-made drugs,
and taking extra blood a few days
before competition.
All of these things can cause
severe health problems including
liver cancer, heart disease,
infertility, and even death. And yet
athletes still abuse their bodies.
Some of them will be paying a
very 5__________ .

Read the text again. W hat drugs might be


taken by people in these sports? W h y?

1 American football
2 discus throwing
3 swimming

Glossary
hoof: the loot of a
horse or donkey
hormone:
substance in the
body that
influences growth
and development

cabu.ary
Find words or expressions in the Warm-up and

L i s t e n i n g [s]
7

W ho do you think uses more energy, a busy


housewife or an Olympic athlete? Give reasons
for your answers.

Look at these statem ents and decide if they are


true or false. Listen and check your answers.

Reading that begin with the letters in brackets


and mean:

1 forbidden (b...)
2 something that is against the law (i...)
3 d ru that increases our energy and activity
(s...)
4 not used properly (a...)
5 inability lo have children (i...)

P ro n u n ciatio n @
Word s tr e s s
5 Mark the stress on these nouns and adjectives.
competition
addiction
aggression

competitive
addictive
aggressive

competitor
addict
aggressor

Listen and check your answers.


Listen again and repeat.

Improve your grammar

The passive
a

Look through the Warm-up and Reading again.


Find as many different examples of the passive
as you can.
Example
He was banned - simple past passive

b How do we form the passive voice?


C When do we use the passive voice?
-

P rac tice
6

Complete these sentences with the correcl


form of the verb in brackets. Some of them
may be active, others passive.

1 'Did you go to the doctor?


Yes, h e
(give) me aspirin, an d
(tell)
me to rest.
2 Stim ulants
(ban) bv official sports
authorities.
3 Ben Johnson
(test) for drugs after he
(w in ) his medal.
4 For centuries people
(take) substances to
help them win at sport.
5 He
(die) of a heart attack after h e_____
(finish) the race. Stim ulants
(find) in his
blood.
6 Some of the drugs w h ich
(take) by
athletes
(use) in hospitals.

1 Housew ork is hard work.


2 An hour of ironing uses more energy' than ten
m inutes of top class swimming.
3 Housewives burn up about 1 ,500 calories a day.
4 Houswives burn m ore calories than office
workers.
5 300 m etres of sw im m ing uses 85 calories.
6 Heavy and slow exercise is a good w ay of
burning fat.

9 Listen again. Com plete the sum m ary of the


interview w ith the correct form of the verbs
below.
test

prove

have

use

do

take

Housew ork really is hard work. This


___________by scientists who m ade a special
machine lo ___________ how much energy

___________ by housewives. It proved that a


housewife uses as much energy as an Olympic
athlete. However, housew ives___________
bodies like athletes because t h e y __________
a different kind of exercise. They also
___________frequent rests and eat snacks.
Issue seven Part one

65

Hair
R ead in g

V o cab u lary

1 Read the article quickly and find:

2 Match the words to lhe

1
2
3
4
5
6
7

the soldiers who had their hair curled.


when women had very long hair.
the name of a man who turned his hair into a wig.
when women wore large wigs.
some of the things women put in their wigs.
why eighteenth-century women had a stick to scratch with.
the name of a woman who wore her hair over her eyes.

}v e r thousands of years, some very


odd things have been done to hair.
Here are some of them.
2,000 years ago Persian soldiers had
their hair curled. The curls were made
by twisting the hair round hot rods.
Their thick beards and moustaches
were curled too.
In about 1150, women grew their hair as
long as they could. They spent hours
having their hair done in plaits. They
wrapped the plaits in ribbons and put the
ends into metal cases.
In the later seventeenth century, men and
women wore wigs. Wigs could be made
from animal hair, someone elses hair, or
even ones own hairl Samuel Pepys, the
famous diary writer, had his hair cut off
and made Into a wig. By 1780, womens wigs had become
enormous. They were padded out with pillows, decorated with
feathers, ribbons and jewels. It took so long to have the wigs
styled that they were worn for a month, and women had a
scratching stick to use when they itched beneath the wig.
In the 1940s, a blonde film star called
Veronica Lake started a craze. Women
began wearing long hair hanging over one
eye. This caused trouble in factories
where thousands of women'were working
for the first time. Women would catch their
hair in the machines. Some had their hair
pulled out, and some were even killed.

66

Issue seven Part two

pictures.
perm cut dye
blow-dry trim

1 Improve your grammar


Have something done (causative form)
a What is tine difference in meaning between
these sentences?

1 I cut my hair.
2 / had my hair cut.
3 I have Cut my hair.

G ettin g S tre e tw ise ! S


C o m p la in ts an d a p o lo g ie s
Look at these expressions. W hich are
com plaints? W hich are apologies? Listen to the
conversations and tick the ones you hear.
Im afraid Ive got a co m p la in t...
Oh dear! Im terribly sorry about t h a t ...
I don't know w hat to say ...
It's just no t good enough ...
Ive got a problem w ith my ...
Look! Im sorry to trouble you bu t 1w onder i f ...
Oh! I'm ever so sorry!
W ould you please ...
Sorry!
Excuse me! I bought this last w eek and ...

When do we use hove something done?

P rac tice
3 Complete the sentences with an appropriate
form of have something done.
Example
When I was a child I often_______(my
hair/curl).

7 Listen again and com plete the table in your


notebook.

W hen 1w as a child 1often h ad m y hair curled.

1 One man grew his moustache to 2.60 metres.


He never_______ (it/trim).
2 For centuries, in many countries, criminals
______ (hair/shave off).
3 ______ (their hair/cut) is a pleasure for most
people.
4 When she is older she_______ (her
hair/perm).
5 The ancient kings and queens of Egypt______
(a false beard/attach) to their chins to make
them feel important.
6 Even today, some young people_______ (their
hair/dye) in strange colours.
A Look at Exercise 2 again. Make sentences
about the pictures.
Example
a She's h ad h e r h air dyed.

P ro n u n ciatio n @
S e n te n c e s tre s s
5

Listen and repeat.

1 straightened.

his hair straightened.


Hes had his hair straightened.
2 done.
had my hair done.
Ive had my hair done.

People

Problem

Place

Extract 1

computer makes a
funny noise

Extract 2
Extract 3

brother and sister

Extract 4

Listen again. W hich of the speakers sound


aggressive? How could they sound m ore
polite?

9 W ork in pairs. Decide w h at you should say in


each of th e situations below.
1 You have bought an expensive new W alkman,
it works, bu t the sound is very poor. You
decide to take it back to the shop.
2 You are staying w ith an English family for
three w eeks. You like th e family very much.
At th e end of the first week, th e w eather
changes and it is very cold. There is no
heating in your room and you are not used to
th e w eather. You decide to speak to them
about your problem .
A ct out one of your dialogues for the class.

!
I

Issue seven Pari two

Fun places
W arm -up
1 W hich of these things
appeals to you m ost? W hy?

A theme park

Pear Carlos,
0 )_______________ . We had a great time- last weekend. It was my
friend Andrew's birthday and we went on a trip to Alton Towers. Alton
Towers is a great theme Park. It's only about fifty kilometres from
home so we were there in less than an hour and arrived before it
opened. After having a delicious breakfast to warm us up, we went on
as many rides as we could.

A w ater park

R e a d i n g [s i
2 Read Jaynes letter to her pen
friend. Fill the gaps w ith
these sentences.
Have you ever been to a
them e park
It took A ndrew alm ost an
hour to recover
The first thing w e did w as to
join th e queue for Nemesis
Thanks for your last letter
A ndrew and I w ere sorry to
go hom e
W e w ere hungry and
decided it w as tim e for lunch

3 W h a t are th e fun places for


celebrating birthdays and
o ther events in your country?

68

Issue seven Part three

(2)_______________ . This is the best ride in the park. It is so


popular that you often have to wait for 45 minutes to get on. The
entrance. to the ride is the mouth of a big spider. It is terrifying
because there is nothing between you and the ground. It was all a blur
after the ride had started. I felt dizzy at the end of it. before
recovering, we hadjoined the queue for another brilliant ride. This
time we got really wet as we were moved upside down towards bigjets
of water.
We had a good time until Andrew decided tojoin a queue for a ride
called The &lack Hole. After getting to the front of the queue, he
discovered that the ride was in total darkness. Andrew is afraid of the
dark but he was too embarrassed to go back. He was petrified during
the ride and was sick after getting off. (?)
______ .
(4) _______________ . After having a hamburger we decided to
spend some time on the gentler rides. It was nice weather, so we had a
lovely time walking round the grounds.
(5) _______________ . It was a great day with some breathtaking
rides, although I'm sure Andrew would prefer to forget the experience
of The &lack Hole.
(U )_______________ ? What are they like in your part of the world?
Yours,
Tayne

( Improve your writing

5 Rewrite each of these sentences, beginning


with after or before + -ing.
Exam ple
W e ate lunch and then we went home.

Writing an account of a trip


a Make sure you include:
an introductory paragraph which states where
you went and how you got there.
a description of some of the places you went
to and what you did there.
a concluding paragraph that sums up your
view of the trip.

When one action is followed by another one,


we can express the first action with
before/after +-ing.
Example
After having a hamburger.

c Passive constructions can be used when the


person(s) doing the action are not important.
Example
We were moved upside down...

After eating lunch, we went home.


1 I went to school and then I went to my music
lesson.
2 Peter played basketball with his friends after
he had finished his homework.
3 I didn't go sightseeing until I had bought a
new camera.
4 W e were taken on a sightseeing trip after we
had arrived in London.
5 W e went on Nemesis, then we went in The
Black Hole.
6 W e met Jenny and then we went to the
cinema.
7 W e didnt have breakfast until we got there.
8 l ate a hamburger, then 1 ate a delicious pizza.

V o cab u lary
P rac tic e

Look at the adjectives in the table. Choose a


suitable adjective to complete the sentences.

4 Make all the changes and additions necessary


to produce sentences which form a complete
letter.

food
delicious

attractive

scenery

people

buildings

breathtaking
traditional

rich

1
2
3
4

Sean Connery is a v e ry _______ man.


The pizza was quite_______ .
The new library is quite______ .
The view of the mountains w a s ____

7 Use the adjectives to w rite five sentences about


D e a r Mar<j,
\
We b eM olid aij/n ear Al+on Tourer*-

We n a v e /g re a -f -Kn\e!

Ye^erda^ u^ / 3 0 + oM e *no^do-e.
in Tarr\u)0<~tVv

1 + b e / o r o p e '* onU-j indoor


r e s o r t uJrfn re a l *nou>.
We s p e n d /-m e morning -m e r e .
WH-er having loocn/u)eM sirr/soo'/enir

shop cohere 1 bo^/T-shirr.

1 -1- be/wjondecful p la ce .

&

S e e ujoo u )h en /g e+ b a c t .

Yoors,

a place near your home.


Exam ple

The rides at Alton Towers are breathtaking.

W riting
8 Follow the Improve your writing guidelines
and w rite an account of a real or imaginary
family trip.

Self c h e c k
9 Look at your account. Did you use any
examples of before/after * ing? Can you find
any more places where you could use this form
to improve your account?

Issue seven Part three

69

otreetwise
r >

I V V

Pop groups

Bullies

W hat kind of things


do bullies d o ?

W hat is the m ost difficult


thing you have d o n e ?

New Streetwise songboo


B ig y e l l o w t a x i is

They paved paradise


And put up a (1 )_______ ,
W ith a pink hotel, a (2)
And a swinging hot spot.

Chorus
,

Chorus
Dont it always seem to go
That you dont know what you've got
Till it's gone?
They paved (3 ) _______
And put in a parking lot.

Glossary

They took all the trees


And put them in a (4 ) _______ ,
And they charged all the people
A (5 ) ________and a half just to see them.

DDT: a chemical to
kill insects
paved: covcrcd
with stone (like a
road or pavement)

1 Look at these words and phrases from the


song. W hat do you think the song is about?
paradise
tree museum
the birds and the bees
farmer

dollar
parking lot
boutique
yellow taxi

2 Fill the gaps in the song w ith the words above.


3

70

Listen and check your answers.

Songbook

Hey, M r (6) _______


Put away that DDT now.
Give me
Spots on my apples
But leave me (7 )_______
Please!
Chorus
Late last night 1heard the screen door slam
And a big (8 ) ________took away my old man

Chorus

4 W hat does the singer mean by tree museun


W h y does she use the word museum?
5 Look at these lines from the song.

Don t it alwavs seem to go


That you don't know what vouve got
Till its gone?
W hat do you think she is talking about?
Is there anything in your country that is in
danger of going like this?

I ]
^

First impressions
J3 W

B 8 K ...

IF V 7

treetwis

W hat are the first things you


notice ab ou t a p e rs o n ?

a si
I

Kr

II
yt
rs

55

H ow w ould you d escrib e


the girl in this p ictu re?

L \W' xpt
I mi.' \ i nXMin n|

Did you slee p w ell last


nig h t? W hy/W hy no t?

1 Imagine you are a bank


manager. Would you give
this man a job? W hy/w hy
not?

3 Look at the adjectives in column A. Decide if


they are positive or negative. Use a dictionary
to help you.

sociable
intelligent
nervous
good-looking
irresponsible
kind
lucky
mature

ugly
calm
stupid
responsible
unkind
immature
shy
unlucky

4 Match the adjectives in column A to their


opposites in column B.

Ju d g in g b y a p p e a ra n c e s
Paul Smith is 25. He left university two years ago. He has been to
twenty-five interviews and hasnt found a job. However, he wont
change his appearance to try and get work. This is the way I look.
You can take it or leave it. People should look at my qualifications,
not my hair, he says.

2 Read the article and find:


1 the number of years Paul has
been unemployed.
2 two things that create a good
impression with many
employers.
3 what Americans think of tall
people.
4 what Americans think of
physically attractive people.
5 the reason why attractive
people do not always get the
best jobs.
6 three things that make you
look nervous.
7 where you should look at an
interviewer in England.

Unfortunately for Paul, first impressions are vital. For many


employers, neat and tidy hair and smart clothes are as important as
qualifications. An interview may last half an hour or more, but the
decision to hire or not is usually taken in the first four minutes,
sometimes even before the interviewee has spoken.
So what factors contribute to that vital first impression? It varies a lot
according to our culture. For example, in the United States tall
people are considered more reliable and serious in business.
Physically attractive people are thought of as warmer, kinder, more
sociable and even more intelligent although they are not always as
lucky as we think - some people think they are irresponsible and
immature so they dont give them the best jobs.
We cant do much about our height or how good-looking we are but
we can control our body language. For example, if you hang your
head and play with your hair or hold your hand over your mouth you
may seem nervous or dishonest.
It is also important to look in the right place. In Britain and America,
it is appropriate to look the interviewer more or less in the eyes.
Unfortunately, people from some cultures can find this quite difficult
because they do not look directly at strangers.

72

Issue eight Part one

Improve your grammar


Comparisons
a There are three degrees of comparison for
adjectives.
A djective

Com parative

Superlative

short
lucky
mature

shorter
luckier
more mature
less mature
more intelligent

shortest
luckiest
most mature
least mature
most

intelligent
intelligent

6 In America th e___
people get the best
jobs, (tall)
7 If you want to borrow money to use the phone
dress well. People a re
to people who
are well dressed, (generous)
\M\
6

least
less intelligent
intelligent
1 When do we use the comparative and
superlative forms?
2 What is the rule for forming the comparative
and superlative?
3 What is the comparative and superlative of
good and bad?

A rts is a fashionable new disco. New


Streetw ise sent three people to try to get in.
Look at the pictures and decide who is:
the most attractive.
the best dressed.
the most conservative.
W ho do you think got into the disco? Give
reasons for vour answers.

as ... as/not as ... as/not so ... as

Used with an adjective as ... as means that two


people or things are the same.
Example
good grooming and well-cut clothes are as
important as qualifications
Not as ... as/not so ... as means the two
people or things are not the same.
Example
not as lucky as we think

P rac tice
5 Complete these sentences with an appropriate
comparative or superlative form of the
adjectives in brackets.

Examples
W earing glasses makes people think you are
more intelligent, (intelligent)
Some people believe attractive people are not
as responsible/less responsible, (responsible)
1 Womens faces are, on average, one fifth
_______ than mens faces, (small)
2 in an interview you look________if you play
with your hair, (nervous)
3 Women a re ________at looking at people they
are talking to than men. (good)
4 A man with an attractive face is seen as
_______ an d_______ . (warm, kind)
5 Many women think their appearance is _______
than it is. Many men, however, think their
appearance is ________than it is. (bad, good)

Darren

Charlotte
7 Listen and complete the table.
Allowed in?

Reason

Kathy
Darren
Charlotte

T alking p o in t
8

Have you ever had problems getting into


somewhere or doing something because of
your appearance? Share your experiences with
the class.

Issue eight Part one

73

Sweet dreams
W arm -up

r^i
1 W ork in pairs. How well does your partner
sleep? Ask and answer these questions.

2 Read the article and decide if these statements


are true or false. Give reasons for your
answers.

1 How many hours do you sleep a night:


less than eight?
nine-twelve?
2 Do you sleep in the afternoon? W hen? W h y?
3 Do you ever have trouble sleeping? W hen?
W h y?
4 Do you sleep with a light on? W hen? W h y?
5 Do you remember your dreams? Talk about a
dream you remember.

We all experience sleeplessness at some time.


There are many causes - pain, noise, hunger,
excessive tiredness, stress and worry. When it
happens it is very distressing. Here are some tips
for non-sleepers.
The part of your body which needs most sleep is
your brain. Everything from your neck down can
do without it, provided that it gets regular rest
and food. Even your brain, on average, only needs
six hours' sleep a night, but this does vary from
person to person.
There appear to be two main kinds of sleep 'vital' or 'deep' sleep, and 'optional' or REM' sleep
(REM = rapid eye movement, because your eyes
move rapidly backwards and forwards behind your
closed eyelids). The first kind of sleep refreshes
your brain, and the second is when you dream.
Short sleepers are able to miss out on optional'
sleep but not on 'vital' sleep.

74

Issue eight Part two

1 People need more than six hours of sleep


every night.
2 Dreaming occurs during deep sleep.
3 Our eyes are open during rapid eye movement
sleep.
4 Sleep is vital to our brain.
5 Hot milk helps us to sleep.
6 Sleep can be difficult if we eat too much.

Feelings of 'sleepiness' tell us whether we are


getting enough sleep or not. If you are having
problems, here are some things you can do:
T r y to go to bed at a regular time and
remember to set an alarm so that you don't get
anxious about waking up on time.
@ Try taking a brisk walk or doing some
relaxation exercises in the hour or so before
going to bed.

Stop eating heavy meals or drinking coffee


(unless decaffeinated) just before going to bed.

@ Try drinking a warm milk drink.


If you can't get to sleep, don't tossand turn,
get up and go and do something in another

Improve your grammar

Verbs with -ing or to + infinitive with a


change of meaning
a Remember/not forget + to +infinitive =we
remember that we have to do something.
Example
I remembered to switch off the light before I
went to sleep.
Remember/not forget +-ing =remember
something that happened in the past.
Example
I remember dreaming about the beach in my
village.

Try +to +infinitive = to make an attempt, to do


your best to succeed.
Example
I tried to sleep on the train but it was very
uncomfortable.
Try +-ing = to do an experiment, to do
something as a test to see if it will succeed.
Example
Try doing some relaxation exercises to see if
they can help you sleep.

C Stop +to + infinitive =stop in order to do


something.
Example
The old man stopped to sleep by the side of
the road.
Stop +-ing = finish or no longer continue.
Example
I stopped sleeping with the light on when I was
seven.
d Look through Tips for non-sleepers again, and
find examples.

P rac tice
3 Look at Jake's list. He has ticked the things that
lie rem em bered to do yesterday. W rite three
sentences.

4 List three things you rem em ber about last New


Years Eve.

5 Use trv * -ing to give three pieces of advice to


som eone who has trouble staying aw ake
during lessons.
Exam ple

Trv drinking coffee in the mornings.


6

On my w ay home from school I slopped to


W rite two m ore sentences using stop to.
W rite tw o things th at you have slopped doing
since you w ere a child.

G ettin g S tre e tw ise ! @


Encouraging e x p re s sio n s
7 Listen to two young people talking aboul
dream s. Make a note of the expressions used to
encourage the other speaker lo say more.
Now listen and decide w here you could use the
following expressions in the conversation you
have just heard.
Really?
W hat dream ?
How terrible!
Did you?
W hat happened next?

P ro n u n c ia tio n H]
Intonation of question t a g s
W hen the intonation on a question tag falls ^ ,
we expect the answ er to be yes. W hen the
intonation rises
we are not sure of the answ er
and the question tag w orks like a genuine
question.
8

Exam ple

He rem em bered to p h o ne Bill.


TViings \o do
phone &iU /

Com plete this sentence.

Listen to these extracts from the conversation.


W hich one has a falling intonation?
W hich one has a rising intonation?

1 You often have nightm ares, d o n t you?


2 You don't happen to have a book on dream
interpretation, do you?

write lo

tolled m>( holiday photos /


mend

bi^c-le /

bu'j new
taKe the dog for a vtalfc /

T alking p o in t
9 W ork in groups. Tell the group aboul a dream
you have had. Encourage people to talk using
the expressions you have learned.

Issue eight Part two

75

1\
A / l 1
I V 11

Wa r m - u p

R ead ir

1 W ork in pairs. Look at the pictures and decide


which person you think has run away from
home. Give reasons. Share your answer with
the class.

2 A missing pupils' news bulletin is sent every

[H]

fortnight to the schools in a particular area.


Read this edition and answer these questions.
1 W hat information is contained in the
announcements?
2 W hat information is missing? W hat else woul<
you like to know about Dean and Lisa?

The police are anxious to


trace the whereabouts of a
pupil

who

missing

has

from

been

Liverpool

since 20th June. The boys


name is Dean Palmer, but
he may also use the names
Darren

Page

Pointer.

He

or
is

Daryl

fourteen

years old. He has fair hair and is 1.50m tall. He


wears glasses, and has a finger missing from his
left hand. He was last seen wearing jeans, a brown
leather jacket and black trainers.

L is a M o ra n I
Lisa Moran is fifteen years
old

now.

wanted

Her
for

father

is

criminal

offence and she left the


country with him two years
ago. Police believe that she
may have returned. She is
of medium height and slim
build. She is usually welldressed. She used to have long wavy red hair and
green eyes. If she is at your school, or has ever been
admitted into the school, please telephone the
Liverpool police immediately.

76

Issue eight Part three

5 Look at the table again.

Improve your writing

Match these adjectives to


their opposites in the table.

Describing a person

gentle outgoing
fun-loving

The way we describe a person depends on why we are describing


her/him.
a When we are producing a description for an official purpose, such as
for a police report, we need to include a lot of factual information
about the person such as her/his age, height, weight, etc.

Notice how the information in the news bulletin is structured. We


move from general information (age, height, build) to more specific
information such as distinguishing physical characteristics, clothes, etc.

C In a letter or essay we may want to include an impression of the


person and what she/he is like. In addition to describing the person
physically, we may show what they are like by:
using adjectives which describe a person's personality, such as shy,
nervous, talkative, friendly, etc.
giving an impression of how she/he behaved.
Example
My uncle used to wave his hands when he was talking.
adding adjectives like loud, soft, high-pitched, powerful, etc. to
her/his physical description.
Example
He had a soft, gentle voice and a powerful body.

quiet

W rite the opposites for the


remaining adjectives.
6

Choose six adjectives that


describe your partner. See if
your partner agrees with
your choice.

W r it i n g
7 Read this description of
Dean Palmer. Do you think it
was w ritten by a teacher or a
friend?

Peon was always a very quiet boy. I remember that


he was quite small with fa ir hair. He always sat at
the back of the class and rarely caused any
trouble. Ife ll he was always somewhere else and he

P ractice

used to get aggresssive when I asked him questions

3 How do you behave in school? Do you behave differently out of

so I left him alone. Although he was fourteen, he

school? Make two copies of the table. W rite at the top of the
first: In school I a m ... W rite at the top of the other: Out of

looked much younger and I think that helped him

school I a m ...

appear more innocent than he was. I can't


alw ays

usually

som etim es

never

polite
well-behaved
friendly
talkative
quiet
kind
aggressive
shy
serious
hard-working
Complete the table by putting ticks in the appropriate columns.

4 W ork in pairs. Tell your partner how you are different in school
from out of school.

Examples

In school Im usually more polite than I am at home.


I'm not as talkative in school as I am with my friends.

remember much else except that he used to keep


his hands in his pockets to hide his missing finger.
^

0-

tr-

8 Follow the Improve your

writing guidelines and w rite


a description of Lisa Moran.
Imagine you are her teacher
or her best friend. Make sure
you use adjectives that
describe Lisas personality.

Self c h e c k
9 Look at your description and
answer these questions.
1 How many adjectives did
you use?
2 Did the adjectives describe
Lisas personality as well as
her physical appearance?
3 Can you think of any
alternatives to the adjectives
you chose?

Issue eight Part three

77

Grammar review
Issues 7 and 8
The p assiv e
The appropriate tense of be (e.g. is, was, i.s' being,
have been, etc.) +past participle.

Form
Tense

Active

Passive

simple present
present progressive
simple past
past progressive
present perfecL
past perfect
future with will
going to

clean
is cleaning
cleaned
was cleaning
has cleaned
had cleaned
w ill clean
going to clean

is cleaned
is being cleaned
was cleaned
was being cleaned
has been cleaned
had been cleaned
w ill be cleaned
going to be cleaned

Uses

Examples

1 W h e n w e do not know
w ho or what does

M y car w as stolen last


night.

something.
2 W here the doer of
the action is not important,

3 The use of by +the


passive gives special
emphasis to the doer.

C om parative a n d su p erlativ e
of a d j e c t i v e s
One- and two-syllable adjectives
W e add -er to the adjective for comparatives and -est for
superlatives.

Adjective

Comparative

Superlative

small
wide
narrow
clever
funny
silly

smaller
wider
narrower
cleverer
funnier
sillier

smallest
widest
narrowest
cleverest
funniest
silliesL

Note
Two-syllable adjectives ending in -y change the -y to -/and
add -er or-est.

Adjectives of three or more syllables

He was given an injection


after the nice.
The school was cleaned
last night.

Adjective

Comparative

Superlative

The temple was built by


the Romans.

beautiful
interesting

more beautiful
more interesting

mosL beauLiful
most interesting

These use more in the comparative and most in the


superlative.

Note
Some two-syllable adjectives take either -er/-est or

H a v e som ething done


( c a u s a t i v e form )
have +object +past participle

Form
Use

Example

To Lalk about something


we ask another person to
do for us.

Im having my hair done.

more/most.
Example
polite - politer/more polite - politest/most polite
Many other two-syllable adjectives take more and most.

Example
recent - more recent - most recent
Irregular comparatives and superlatives

Notes

AdjecLive

Comparative

Superlative

W e can use get as an alternative for have.

good
bad
far
old

better
worse
farther/further
older/elder

best
worst
farthest/furthest
oldest/eldest

Example

I got my hair permed.


have +object +past participle sometimes refers to an
unpleasant event or action that we experience.
Example

I had my car stolen.

78

Grammar review

es
the comparative form we oflen use than.

Grammar practice

mple
r hair is longer than yours.
1th lhe superlative form we can use in ... or o f...

mples
s the toughest policem an in the force.

The most interesting o f the facial features is the nose.

C o n s t r u c t i o n s with
co m p arativ es
us - adjective +as
Use
To say lhat two people,
things, etc. are Ihe same
in some way.

Exam ple
John is as fit as I am.

Note
.After not we can use a s ... as or so ... us, to show two
things, people, etc. are not the same.

Examples
John is not as fit as I am.
It isn't so hot as it was yesterday.

V erb s with -ing or to +


infinitive with a c h a n g e of
m eaning
After remember, (no t) forget, try, and stop we can use -ing
or to +infinitive w ith a change of meaning.
Verb + -ing
' 1 I remember seeing him.
(= I remember somelhing
Lhat happened in Lhe
past.) Seeing is the earlier
action.

V erb * to + in fin itiv e


I remembered to see him.
(= I remembered lhat 1
had lo do something.)
Remember is lhe earlier
action.

2 I w ill never forget seeing


him. (= I w ill always
remember seeing him.)

H e didnt forget to see


her. (= He remembered,
so he went to see her.)

3 W h y don't you try drinking


m ilk before going to bed?
(Do an experiment Lo see
if it. works.)

I m trying to pass my
exams. (= I'm making an
attempt to do my best.)

4 I stopped biting m y nails


when I was six. (= I no
longer bite my nails.)

I stopped to see him on


m y w ay to school.
(= 1 interrupted my
journey to school in
order to go and see him .)

A ..........................................................................................
1 Complete each of these sentences so that it means the
same as lhe sentence printed before it.
Exam ple
Someone stole the books.
The books were, stolen.
1 Sylvester Stallone presented the prizes.
The prizes___________________________________________
2 Someone put graffiti on the wall Iasi night.
G raffiti______________________________________________
3 The Ode to Jo y was composed by Beethoven.
Beethoven ___________________________________________
4 Someone has repaired the broken windows.
The broken w indow s_________________________________
5 Jane has been invited to a party.
Someone____________________________________________
6 W ho was this book written by?
W h o _______________________
7 The money had already been found by a dog.
A dog_______________________________________________
8 My father asked them.
They________________________________________________
9 How did they tell you?
H o w ________________________________________________
10 Yon can play basketball in the street.
Basketball___________________________________________
2 Answer the questions as in Lhe example. Remember to
use an appropriate tense.
Exam ple
Did Jim wash his own car?
No, he had it washed.
1 Did Ann dye her hair herself?
No, __________________________________________________
2 Did M arys mother make the cake herself?
No.
_____________________________________________
3 Are they going to build their own villa?
N o,__________________________________________________
4 Did your Dad Lake Lhat family photograph?
No, w e _______________________________________________
5 Does Sarah do her own hair?
N o,__________________________________________________
6 Do you clean your own windows?
No, w e _______________________________________________
7 Did you repair the tyre on your bike?
No, 1____________________

Grammar practice

79

Pop groups
W arm -up
1 W h at do you know about these pop groups?

R ead in g @
2 W hich pop group do you
think started as a result of
this advert - Ihe Beatles or
the Spice Girls?

+W A N T E D

Glossary
stre e tw ise : able to
manage or succeed
in difficult
situations

R.U. 18-23 with the ability


to sing/dance?
R.U. streetwise, outgoing,
ambitious and dedicated?

ou tgoing: friendly
and happy

1 T W O B R I T I S H G R O U P S ^ ---------In 1961, Brian Epstein was helping in his father's record shop in Liverpool when
a teenager came in and asked for a record by a local band. Epstein didn't have
it but the teenager seemed so excited that he decided to look for the group.
They were called the Beatles and were playing in a Liverpool club called The
Cavern when he found them. He was so impressed with their music that he
became their manager.
The Beatles developed their sound by playing together for years. John Lennon
started his own band in 1957 while he was studying Art at college and Paul
McCartney went to hear them play. Paul was 15 and still in school. He joined the
group a few days later and brought George Harrison who was in the same

d ed icated : able to
give a lot o f time
and effort

Read the article quickly to


check your answer.

school. The last member, Ringo Starr, joined in 1962 and they played together
until the end of the sixties.
Over thirty years later the Spice Girls became the first really popular all-female

Read the article again and


answer these questions.

1 W ho was the Beaties' first


manager?
2 W hat was John Lennon
doing when he formed his
group?
3 W hen did Paul McCartney
join John Lennons group?
4 How long did the Spice Girls
spend learning to sing and
dance?
5 WhaL was the Spice Girls
first hit?
6 W hat is the difference
between how the Beatles
and the Spice Girls created
their sound?

Issue one Part one

group. They started in a very different way from the Beatles. Early in 1994, a pop
manager called Chris Herbert decided to create a new band. He put an advert
in a magazine and interviewed 400 girls in London. He chose Emma, Mel C, Mel
B, Geri and Victoria. The girls spent two years together in a house learning to
sing and dance. After weeks of hype their first single,

Wannabe, went to number one in 1996. Their success


was the result of clever marketing and a sound created
in the studio.

Glossary

Will groups in the future be like the Spice Girls or the

hype: publicity that


exaggerates how
good something is

Beatles? Record companies spend a huge amount of


money promoting bands and making videos to buy
success. Because of this they try to create groups they
think young people will like and often bring together
boys and girls who look good but have no musical
experience. This may be why so many of today's groups
look and sound the same.

sin g le: a record or


C D that has one
main popular song
nu m ber one: the
most successful
record o r CD at a
particular time

B
t

Complete these sentences w ith an appropriate, passive


form of Ihe verb in brackets.

Example
Fnergy use was Lasted (test) by a machine called the K2.

3
4
5
6
7

She isnl ________she looks, (old)


In my country, football is ________basketball, (popular)
M ary is _______ her brothers and sisters, (quiet)
1think its ________restaurant in Lovvn. (bad)
W hich of the comics is
? Bugs Bunny or Mickey
Mouse? (funny)
8 From here, I think Edinburgh is ________Glasgow, (far)

1 In Africa, a lol of farm w o rk________(do) by women.

2 A s p irin

(take.) to reduce body tem perature.

3 The school________(decorate) last week.


4 In recent years a lot of elephants________(k ill) in
southern Africa.
5 This W alkm an________(make) in Japan, isn't it.?
6 As children w e _______ (take) lo the zoo every summer.
7 Sm oking_______ (not allow ) on buses or trains.
8 W e made so much noise that w e ________(ask) Lo
be quiet.
2 Complete these sentences using an appropriate passive
form of the verbs in the list.
paint

clean

ban

wear

make

give

take

rob

1 Ben Johnson________from athletics for two years in


1988.
2 trainers_______ by boys and girls.
3 The m ural_______ by a teenage artist.
4 The winners of next years com petition________some
very good prizes.
5 The classrooms_______ every day.
6 The studenLs_______ on a school trip last monLh.
7 Have you heard? The bank_______ .
8 W ig s ______ from human hair for many years now.
3 Complete Ihese senlences with an appropriate form of
have +object +past participle.

Example
I have, had m y hair cut (my hair/c.ul). Do you like it?
1 W hen I was younger I ________(m y hair/perm).
2 I h ale_______ (m y teelh/clean) by the dentist.
3 In Lhe old days y o u _______ (blood samples/lake) by a
barber.
4 I ________(never/my ears/test). Have you?
5 T h ey_______ (their house/decorate) al Ihe moment.
6 I _______ (m y bike/repair) tomorrow.
7 You should________(your eyes/lest) regularly
8 S h e ________(her car/steal) again, poor girl.
4. Complete these sentences with an appropriate
comparative or superlative form of Lhe adjecLives in
brackets. Make any additions you need.

Examples
M aria is the oldest of the four children, (old)
Is Andrew taller than/as tall as John? (tail)
1 W ho is _______ member of your family? (intelligent)
2 Is Paris_______ New York? (cheap)

80

Grammar practice

5 Complete the sentences with an appropriate form of th<


verb in brackets: -ingor lo * infinitive.

Examples
Slop playing (play) immediately and come in!
I saw him at the newsagent when I stopped to buy
(buy) a newspaper.
1 1 cant sleep aL night.
T r y _______ (drink) less coffee.
2 1 remember ____ (w ) to Disneyland when 1was a
child.
3 Im afraid I forgot______ (see) her before she left.
4 1 trie d ________(pass) my exams but Tm afraid I failed.
5 He always remembers_______ (sw itch) Lhe lighLs off
when he leaves a room.
Do you?
6 They stopped_(go) to music lessons two years
ago.
7 Do you remember_______ (give) it to them?
8 Ive trie d ________(do) relaxation exercises, but they
donl help.

c
1 W rite ten general knowledge questions and answers,
vising verbs from the list. LJse each at least once.
compose

discover

invent

paint

sing

w rite

Example
When was basketball invented?
Now work in pairs. See if your partner can answer your
questions.

2 In many towns and cities the traditional corner shop is


competing against large supermarkets. W hich do you
and your family prefer? W h y? Think aboul these
questions:
W hich
W hich
W hich
W h ith
W hich
W hich

is more convenienl?
sells a w ider range of goods?
is cheaper?
is cleaner?
is open longer?
is more fun to go to?

3 W rite a short report of about sixty words, saying where


you prefer to go shopping and why.

Example
W e like going to the supermarket. The prices are
cheaper and it is more convenient because w c go there
by c a r...

A moral dilemma

Values

Why would a rich man


dress like this?

What would you do?

Do you think it is a good


excuse? What would you say if
you were the teacher?

A moral dilemma
W arm -up

R ead in g

1 W ork in pairs. Discuss this


dilemma.

2 Read this article about what a man who used to be the

You find an important exam


paper before the exam. W hat
would you do? Would you
tell anyone? Would you keep
the paper to yourself?
Discuss your answers with
the class.

headmaster of a very famous English school did in a similar


situation. Decide if these statements are true or false.
John Rae went to his head teachers desk to look for the essay
question.
He saw the question on a piece of paper.
He told his headmaster that he had seen the Essay question.
He won the competition.
He still feels guilty about it.

Why I became a schoolboy cheat

John Rae. ex-headmaster.Westminster School


When New Streetwise asked
me to confess an incident
that I had never told anyone
about before, I immediately
thought about the story of
the English Essay Prize.

By the time the headmaster returned, I was looking


out of the window. We must have talked about this
and that, the arrangements for the Graduation Day
perhaps. He was a nice man. He might have left the
piece of paper in that prominent position to test me,
knowing how keen I was to win the essay prize. But
that wasn't his style.

I should have told the


headmaster at the time. After
all, I was someone he
trusted, but I didn'l tell him.
He had gone out of the study for some reason and in
his absence I moved aimlessly to see what was on his
desk. In the middle of the desk was a small piece of
paper on which were written the words 'English
Essay Prize Examination: History is a String of
Biographies'.
A moral person would have looked away as soon as
he saw the heading. I did not. The subject of the
English Essay Prize was a secret but I could not resist
reading it.
Glossary

it was wrong, but it was the son of temptation almost


everyone would have yielded to.

aim lessly: without


a particular purpose

I should have told him then. It would have been easy


to say. 'Headmaster, I am afraid I saw the title for the
English Kssay Prize on your desk. I didn't mean to,
but I will withdraw my name at once, of course.'
The opportunity passed and did not return. We sat
the three-hour paper the following morning. With the
advantage of knowing the title in advance, I won. 1
like to think I would have won anyway, but that is
not the point. I didn'l set out to cheat, but it was
cheating nevertheless.
That was when I was eighteen, thirty-eight years ago.
The fact lhat the details are so clear suggests that the
feeling of guilt has kept the memory fresh. I have
never told anyone about it - until now.

3 Read the article again and answer these questions.


1 I should have told the headmaster at the time. Do you agree
with this conclusion?
2 Do you think it would have been easy to tell the headmaster?
W h y/W h y not?

82

Issue nine Part one

V o cab u lary

4 Find words in the text that begin with the


letters in brackets and mean:
1
2
3
4
5

admit that one has done something wrong (c...)


gave in to something (y...)
easily seen, obvious (p...)
decide that you w ill no longer take part (w ...)
unhappiness caused by Lhe feeling of having
done something wrong (g...)

Peter w as very angry w hen a boy kicked him at


a football match. Peters friends stopped him
from hitting the boy.

5 Jenny could not do the last question in her


maths exam. She wanted to copy the answer
from her friend, but her friend wouldnt let her.

T alk in g p o in t
6

A nsw er these questions individually.

Have you ever:

1 Improve your grammar


Would/should/might + infinitive or have +
past participle

a What is the difference in meaning between


these pairs of sentences?
1 It would be easy to tell him.
It would have been easy to tell him.
2 /should tell the headmaster.
I should have told the headmaster.

1 been on public transport w ithout a ticket?


2 kept the m oney w hen som eone gives you the
w rong change?
3 borrow ed som ething and forgotten to give
it back?
4 cheated in an exam?
5 done anything else that w as w rong?
Now m ake notes about som ething that you did
th at w as wrong. Use these headings.
W hat did you do?
W hy did you act in that w ay?
W ould you like to have done som ething
different?

Second and third conditionals

b What is the difference in meaning between


these sentences?
1 If I had won the lottery, I would have gone to
the Bahamas.
2 if l won the lottery, I would go to the Bahamas.

When do we use a third conditional


construction?

P rac tice
Sometimes, when we are faced with a dilemma,
we do the wrong thing. Luckily, other people may
save us from our actions.

5 Make sentences about these situations using


the third conditional.

E xam ple
Sam was about to take some money from his
friends wallet when the teacher came in.
If the teacher hadnt come in, Sam would have
stolen the money.
1 Alice is eleven. She was alone in the house. She
took one of her fathers cigarettes. At that
moment, her mother came home.
2 Alex didnt do his homework. He decided to lie
to his teacher but she forgot to ask for it.
3 David thought he had lost the camera lhat his
parents had bought him. He was so upset that
he decided to tell them it had been stolen. His
mother found the camera later that day.

W ork in pairs. Discuss your answers.

L i s t e n i n g l^l
7 W ork in small groups. Look at the
photographs and describe the
children. How old are they? W hat
are they doing? Do they look
happy? W h y /W h y not?
8

Listen to a New Streetw ise report


about children at w ork and decide if
these statem ents are true or false.

1 Some children in England earn 30


a week delivering new spapers.
2 In the nineteenth century most
children went to work.
3 Children did not do dangerous jobs.
4 In the UK you cant work at all until
you are 16.
5 Children cant work for more than
two hours on a school day.
6 Children no longer work long hours.

9 Do you think children should work?

Issue nine Part one

83

Values
W arm -up

R e a d i n g [s i
2 Read the text and decide if
these statements are true or
false.

1 Imagine you have inherited a lot of money. W hat would you do


with the money? Would you spend it? W hat on? W h y? Or would
you use it to help people? W ho? W h y?

1 John Gurner inherited a lot


of money 14 years ago.
2 He was very pleased.
3 He gave all of it away.
4 John is a member of a group
of rich people.
5 The group aims to help
millionaires invest their
money.
6 Johns brother is very, very
rich.
7 The w riter believes that John
should have given all his
money away.

THE TROUBLE WITH MONEY


John Gurner lives in New York. He
inherited a million dollars when he
was 22. It was his share of a family
business started by his great-greatgreat grandfather in 1865. John was
far from happy. His college friends
were looking for their first jobs, and
he could retire. He did not believe
that anyone should be rich but he
suddenly had a lot of money. John
decided to pretend to be like
everyone else and continued to live
a simple life. He didn't tell any of his
friends and eased his conscience by
giving $100,000 of his money to a
political party in South Africa. Today
he is 36, he wears cheap shoes and
clothes and can only afford a small
car, but he is much happier.
John is a member of a group called
Impact. The group is a club that helps
rich people to think about their values
and their lives. The members do not
want to waste their money like the
young millionaire who bought a

Glossary
ease his
conscience: make
what he received
/eel /ess wrong

84

Issue nine Part two

they give money to by giving some


of their time as well.
Interestingly, John's brother received
the same inheritance. He went out
and multiplied his money and is
now seriously rich. That is the
normal American way.
So who is right? John or his brother?
What should young people who
inherit money do? Should John have
given all his money away rather than
part of it? Perhaps, he ought to have
helped the poor in New York rather
than a political party in Africa? Who
should he help now?
restaurant because they didn't have a
free table and then gave it to the chef
after he had eaten. They want to use
their money to help society in the
most useful way.
Impact teaches its members how to
give money wisely and its members
are encouraged to help the groups

The answer depends on our values.


These are a product of our
background, education, culture and
personality and there is no easy
answer. John's case is, however, a
good illustration of the fact that
money doesn't necessarily bring
happiness.

V o cab u lary
3

Find words in the article that begin with the


letters in brackets and mean:

1 to receive property, money, etc. from someone


who has died (i...)
2 leave your jo b and stop working (r...)
3 cook in a restaurant (c...)
4 increased greatly (m ...)
5 your type of family and social class (b...)

* Improve your grammar

using the phone. She never told him about her


calls to Australia.
4 Pete decided to enter a w riting competition.
His parents helped him and he won. The prize
was a place on a course for journalists.
5 Patrick ran away from home once when he was
twelve. After that, his mother used to open his
letters and search his room when he was out.

G e t t i n g S t r e e t w i s e ! fei
R e q u e s ts
6

Should/ought to + have + past participle


a

Should/ought to + have + past participle are


used to express an unfulfilled obligation or a
sensible action that was neglected.
Examples
He should have mended the car.
He ought to have given them some money. -

In the negative form, they express a wrong or


foolish action in the past.

Example
She shouldnt/ought not to have opened the
letter It wasnt hers.

P ra c tic e
4 W rite sentences with should have/ought to
have + past participle.

Example
John didnt give his money lo the poor.

John should have given his m oney to th e poor.


1 John didnt invest his money.
2 John didnt tell his friends.
3 John didnt buy any new clothes.
5

Make sentences with sh o u ld (n 't) or ought to *


have + past participle for each of these
situations.

Example
Sam inherited some money from his aunt. He
spent it all on cars and clothes.

H e sh ould have invested som e o f the m oney


1 Paulas parents both smoked. They told Paula
not to, but she didn't listen. She is now a heavy
smoker.
2 Charlotte is sixteen. Her parents never let her
go out after 9 p.m. Last week she ran away
from home.
3 Alices cousin went to live in Australia. Alice
used to telephone her cousin every week until
her father got his bill. He stopped everyone

Look at these expressions. W hat do they have


in common?
Can you give me ...?
Im terribly sorry to bother you but I wonder if
you could lend me ...?
You havent g o t h a v e you?
Could I please have ...?
Would you mind giving me ...?
W hich expression is the most polite? W hich
would you use:
to ask your father for something?
to ask a stranger for something?
to ask a friend for something?

7 Listen to different people asking their father, a


stranger and a friend for something. Complete
the table for each situation.

What they want

The expression used

Extract 1 Dad
Extract 2 S tranger
Extract 3 A friend

8 The w ay we ask someone for things depends


on many factors, including how well we know
the person, the age and status of the person we
are asking, and the urgency of the request.
Decide on an appropriate request for each of
these situations.
1 You are on holiday. You want a stranger to use
your camera to take a photograph of you and a
friend.
2 You want to go to a party. It is on the other side
of town and you are late. Ask your father for
the money to take a taxi.
3 You are in class and you find that you have
forgotten your pencil case. Ask a friend for a
pencil and an eraser.
4 You are in class and you want to use a
dictionary that belongs to your teacher.

Issue nine Part two

85

Excuses
R ead in g
1 Read the notes and answer these questions.
1 W ho do you think these notes were addressed to?
2 W h o were they written by?
3 Are there any that were especially silly? W hich ones?
W hat do you think the writers should have said?
6mily was off one day last week as she
played truant and I kept her off for the
rest of the week as I was frightened she
would do it again.

Gtra.ha.rn hasn't been a J

school beJULLcse. he h a s rii


f e Jt lik e going. T h a n k you..

Veronica was absent with permission


because her sister bad a baby. Please
tbank the headmaster very much.

to/rv us absent M^s-terdaij

a * I -t-ocfc-

-to -tVe z-oo -to Vfc cousins.

2 Read the letters and answ er these questions.


1 Are these expressions excuses or requests?
I wonder if...
I would be grateful i f ...

2 W h at do the expressions as and because


introduce?
3 Sally would have been at her swim m ing
lesson ...

Did Sally go sw im m ing or not? W hy does the


w riter use the third conditional?

14 H ills R oad
K esw ick

Cum bria
17 M ay 1999
D ear Sir,
/ w onder if-M ary could be excused from
ga m es today as sh e is not feeling very well.

Yours faithfully
Paul W hite

57

Thames C o U ri

G u ild -fo rd
S u rre y G U I 3 F G

(A Sand'f Lane
Leicester
Leics L&3 4TF

/S A/>r,/ /???
J>e<Xr M r StrO n ^ e,

Mh February \W

I Am so rry th a t Jam es w as ab sen t from


school y e s te rd a y

This w as b ecau se he

h aud
d a
o c to rs appointm
ent.
a d
aociui
^r ,
I am a-fra/d he Mi// be aw ay a t th e sam e
tim e next w eek a n d I w onder i f he co u ld
be e x cu se d then
T h an k

86

you in ad van ce,

Dear Mr 6ireen,
'Sail'f would have been at her swimming lesson
-festerda'j if she hadn't hurt her shoulder again. I
would be grateful if ^ou would e*cuse her from
swimming for the rest of the term.
Man'f thanks.

io U rs sin ce re ly,

Yours sincere^,

M ary Sim pson

Alice Wright

Issue nine Part three

( Improve your writing


Writing an excuse
a

We can use as and because to introduce


reasons. We usually use because when we
think that the reader/listener doesn't already
know the reason.
Example
I went to the doctor because I had hurt my
foot.
As (or since) can be used at the start of a
sentence when the reason is already known to
the reader/listener.
Example
As you want to go home, Ill phone a taxi.
We can usually use because in place of as or
since but we cannot always replace because
with as or since.

We sometimes use the third conditional to


offer explanations or make excuses.
Examples
Sally would have been at her swimming lesson
if she hadn't hurt her shoulder.
I would have passed the test if I hadnt been
feeling ill.

Make up an excuse or explanation for each of


these situations using the third conditional.

1 You dropped a very expensive ornament


because your hands were wet.
2 You didnt go swimming because you werent
very well.
3 You forgot to do something important because
your friend didnt remind you.
4 You didn't go to the party because you had an
exam the next day.
5 You didnt help your friend with his homework
because you didn't understand it.

W riting
5 You want to be excused from your homework
for part of next week. W rite a note to your
teacher saying why. Follow the Im prove your
w riting guidelines to help you.
6

Imagine you were absent from school last


week. W rite a note giving a really silly reason
for your absence.

c We often use expressions like t'm afraid and Im


sorry to introduce an excuse.
d Here are some polite request forms:
/wonder if (you could)...
I would be grateful if ...
Could you please...

P ra c tic e
3 Combine the sentences using the conjunctions
in brackets.
Exam ple
I went to bed. 1 was tired, (because)
I went to bed because I was tired.
1 I didnt go to school. 1was ill. (because)
2 I won't come. You didnt buy my ticket, (as)
3 She is not allowed to go out late. She is very
young, (as)
4 She forgot to do her hom ework. She didn't

S elf c h e c k
7 W ork in small groups. Read your notes to each
o th er and answ er the questions.
1 Did y our p artn e r use the third conditional?
2 Did your p artn e r use any polite request forms?
3 W hat changes could you make to improve your
p artn e rs notes?
Decide on the best note in each catagory.

w rite it dow n, (b ecau se)


5 She went home early. She wasn't well, (since)

Issue nine Part three

87

New Streetwise songbook


The great pretender is

Chorus

Too real is this ( 6) _________of make-believe,


Too real when I feel what my (7 )_________ cant

Oh yes, I'm the great pretender.

Pretending Im doing so ( 1 )

conceal.

M y need is such
I pretend too (2 ) ________
Im lonely but no one can tell.

Oh yes, I'm the great pretender,


Just (8) ________ and gay like a (9 )_________
1 (1 0 )________ to be what Im not you see,
I'm ( 1 1 ) _______ my heart like a crown,
Pretending that youre still around.
Too real when I feel what my heart cant
conceal...

Oh yes, I'm the (3 )________ pretender,


Adrift in a (4 )_________of my own,
I play the (5 )_________but to my real shame
Youve left me to dream all alone.

Chorus

2 Look at the song. Try to fill the gaps with the

1 Look at this entry from a dictionary.

words from the list.


pretend /pri'tend!v To appear to do or be
something, in order to trick or deceive
someone

'

Paul's not really asleep. He's just pretending.


The children are pretending to be downs.

game
heart

well clown great much


feeling laughing wearing

world
seem

3 Listen and check your answers.


4 W hat is the singer pretending? W h y?

5 Do you think film and pop stars have to


W hen do people pretend? Do you ever pretend
to be something you are not?

88

Songbook

pretend more than ordinary people? W hy/w hy


not?

I s s u e

rm

I IF v V

treetwise
Do you believe that
so m e people and anim als
can s e e into th e fu tu re ?

Neighbours

What do you expect from


a good n eig h b o u r?

Letters to the editor


Why do p eo p le write letters to n ew sp a p ers and m a g a z in e s?
What kinds of things do they usually write a b o u t?

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V ocabulary

P ractice

4 Malch these verbs from the article lo Ihe

6 Complete I he sentences with an appropriate


past tense form of Ihe verb in brackets.

definitions.
join
1
2
3
4
5

promote

create

spend

interview

to give publicity lo something


lo make something new
to become a member of a group
lo pass time
a meeting where you ask someone about their
life and opinions

Exam ple
Epslein was working (work) in a record shop
when he heard o/"(hear of) the Beatles.

(rain) when Paul and John


(m eel) for the first time.
John Lennon________(not live) with his parents
when he started his band.
Pau l________(join) a group when he was
fifteen.
I
(watch) television when I
(hear) the news of John Lennons death.
Em m a_______ (work) as an actress when she
(see) Ihe advert to join a girl group.
Tmma_______ (star!) to dance when she was
three.
Em m a_______ (go) to a famous theatre school
when she was a teenager.
The Spice G irls________(w rite) Mama (I love

G e ri_______ (leave) the Spice Girls in 1998.

2
3

5 Complete the sentences vvilh an appropriate


verb from the list above.
1 The reporter___
the Spice Girls about
I heir lives.
2 The Spice Girls _
Wannabe on TV and
radio.
3 The Beatles_______two months in Hamburg.
4 Ringo was the last to
i h e group.
5 Epstein did not
Ihe Beatles. He
managed them.

( Improve your grammar

4
5
6
7

vou).

Simple past and past progressive

Talking p o in t

7 Answer as many of these questions as possible.

Look at the examples below and write:


three examples of the past progressive

two examples of the simple past used for a


completed event in the past

two examples of the simple past used for a


past habit.

It was snowing heavily at the time.


Epstein spoke to the Beatles while they were
waiting to appear
The Spice Girls lived in the same house for two
years.
Paul played the guitar and piano.
The Beatles were playing in The Cavern when
Epstein saw them for the first time.

1 W h al is your favourite group? W h v?


2 W hal are the names of Ihe people in the
group?
3 W here art' they from?
4 W hal did ihev do before they became famous?
5 W hen and where did Ihev meet?

8 Share vour answers with the class. W hich is


the most popular group? W h y?

Which example(s) of the past progressive:

1 suggests that an action in the past started


before another action in the past, and probably
continued after it?

gives background information about the


weather, etc.?

Issue one Part one

Psychic pets
W arm -up
1 Look at the pictures. They illustrate parts of
two stories about psychic pets. W hat do you
think happens in the stories?

L i s t e n i n g [sG
2 Listen to the stories and see if you guessed
right.
3
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
4

Improve your grammar


must/may/might/could/can t/couldn t +
have + past participle

Listen again and decide if these statements are


true or false.

We use these constructions when we are


speculating or guessing about events in the past.

M ary and her dog were in an accident.


Mary broke her ribs.
Her dog wasnt hurt.
The hospital was sixteen kilometres away.
M ary and her dog went to the hospital in an
ambulance.
Felicity sometimes slept with an electric
blanket.
Her cat Cuddles usually slept with her.
Cuddles woke her by licking her legs.
W hen she woke the blanket was on fire.

Do you have an explanation for each of these


stories?

C We use can't/couldnt +have +past participle


when we believe that something did not
happen.

We use must +have + past participle when we


believe that something definitely happened in
the past.

Example
He must have known where we were going.

We use could/might/may +have +past


participle when we believe it was possible that
something happened in the past, but we are
not sure.

Example
Rover may have followed the ambulance.

Example
Cuddles couldn't have known there was a
problem with the blanket.

90

Issue ten Part one

P rac tice

T alk in g p o in t

5 Complete the second sentence so that it has a

8 W ork in groups. Read about a famous 'psychic'

similar meaning to the first. Use the word


given and up to five other words.

case. Use m ust/m ay/m ight/couldnt +have*


infinitive to talk about the case.

Exam ple
It is possible that Rover followed the
ambulance.
may
Rover m ay have follow ed the ambulance.

Exam ple
Robinson couldn 't have known about the
Titanic.

1 It is certain that Rover loved his owner,


must
Rover________his owner.
2 Its not possible that Felicity slept through the
smell of the burning.

couldnt
Felicity________the smell of the burning.
3 it is possible that Cuddles decided to go to
Felicitys bed because it was a cold night,
m igh t
Cuddles_______ to Felicitys bed because it
was a cold night.
4 It is possible that the smell woke Cuddles
before it woke Felicity.
m ight
The sm ell________it woke Felicity.
5 It is almost certain that Felicity gave Cuddles a
reward.
m ust
Felicity_______ a reward.

P ro n u n ciatio n
S e n te n c e s t r e s s
6

Listen to these sentences.

1 She said he must have known where we were


going.
2 She said her dog was psychic.
By stressing said the speaker indicates doubt
and disbelief.
7 Listen to these examples. W hich ones show
greater doubt and disbelief?
1 People said she might have been psychic.
2 People said she might have been psychic.
3 Felicity said that she believed that pets could
see into the future.
4 Felicity said lhat she believed that pets could
see into the future.

Morgan Robinson was an American sailor and


waiter. He wrote a book called The W reck o f the
Titan in 1898. It is a story of a British ship that hit
an iceberg on its first voyage. This is exactly what
happened to the Titanic fourteen years later and
the details of Robinsons story are very similar to
the real events. Robinson claims he had spirit
guides for his writing. Was he guided by spirits or
just mad?

9 Do you believe in psychic power? Complete


the table before discussing the questions in
groups.
Do you believe...
Yes

No

1 that everything has a


scientific explanation?
2 in ghosts?

3 some people can see into the future?

4 there are some things we can't explain?

Listen again and repeat.

Issue ten Part one

91

Neighbours
W arm -up
1 W ork in small groups. Ask
and answer these questions.

m.

A survey has just been


published which show s that
British people hate their
neighbours. The results are
alarming. 80% of the people
who took part in the survey feel
that their neighbours are
inconsiderate. 25% d o n t talk to
the people who live next door
and 10% d o n t even know their
nam es. In fact, one million
householders in Britain would
like to move because of the
people that live next door.

1 Do you know the names of


the people who live next
door to you?
2 W hat do you and your family
think of your neighbours?
Are they friendly/unfriendly,
helpful/unhelpful,
considerate/inconsiderate?
3 Do any of these bother your
family:
doors banging next door?
people arguing loudly?
loud music from next door
or outside?
4 Are vour neighbours typical
or not?

1 _______ Many of the com plaints about noise cam e from people
who live in flats and divided houses. These often have thin walls
which ca n t stop the noise from m odern stereos or household
appliances.

R e a d i n g [s]

The other major problems are arguments about car parking


spaces, and old people com plaining about the young. 2 _______
In one case, people who live in the sam e house havent talked to
each other for fifteen years. 3 ________In one of the worst cases, a
man shot a neighbour because he kept parking in his space.

2 Read the text. Fill the gaps

4________ However, the survey showed that 90% of neighbours

with the sentences below.


Sometimes the
disagreements end
in violence.
This service is available in
more and more towns.
W hen neighbours become
friends they often help
each other.
Some disagreements last
for a long time.
The biggest problem is
noise.

3 Do you have better


neighbours than the British
or not? Give reasons for your
answers.
92

Issue ten Part two

never shared a meal, 80% had never had a drink together and 20%
had never even spoken.
One solution to problem s with neighbours is to talk about them
with a professional m ediator and, if necessary, to sign a written
agreem ent. 5_______

V o cab u lary
4 Find words in the text that begin with the letters in brackets
and mean:
1
2
3
4
5

frightening and worrying (a...)


dont think about other peoples feelings (i...)
pieces of household equipment (a...)
big and important (m ...)
people who try to settle disagreements (m ...)

Relative pronouns who, which and that

Match a statement from column A with a


relative clause from column B. Use who, which,
that or whose to form a single sentence.

E xam ple

Improve your grammar


Who, which and that are relative pronouns.
Find examples in the text.
1 When do you use who?
2 When do you use which?
3 When do you use that?

Defining and non-defining relative


clauses

Look at these examples.


1 He is the man who lives next door. (Defining)
2 My cousin Jim, who lives next door, is a
policeman. (Non-defining)
Which one gives us extra, but not absolutely
necessary information?
Which one uses commas? Why?
Note
We can leave out who, that or which when they
refer to the objects in defining relative clauses.
Example
I prefer people l can talk to.

Relative pronoun whose


Ive got a neighbour whose son is a lawyer.
= I've got a neighbour. His son is a lawyer.
We use whose in relative clauses (in place of his,
her, their, etc.) to indicate possession.
Do not confuse whose with whos (= who is or
who has).

P rac tice
5 Do these sentences contain defining or non
defining relative clauses?
1 Most of my neighbours are people who like a
quiet life.
2 I met Mr Jones, who had just moved in next
door.
3 The man next door, who is really strange, has
just won the lottery.
4 M y neighbour never returned the book that he
borrowed.

This is the dog that bit my neighbour.


B
wife works in the cafe?
lives next door is Welsh,
they gave me.
bit my neighbour,
come from America?

1 This is the dog


2 The woman
3 Have you met our
neighbours
4 This is the present
5 Is he the man

Now write five sentences about the kind of


people you would prefer not to have as
neighbours.

Examples
I would prefer not to have neighbours I
couldn t talk to.
I would hate to have neighbours who were
noisy.

L isten in g

IS

7 Mrs Butler and Mrs Cane are neighbours who


are having serious problems. Listen. W hich of
these problems do they mention?
kids playing on the stairs
kids playing the drums
arguments about parking
noise late at night

loud music
a noisy motorbike
a barking dog
people fighting

8 Imagine that you are a mediator who has been


called in to negotiate a settlement. W ork in
small groups and decide what you would say to
the two parties. Share your answers with the
class and vote on the best solution.

G e t t i n g S t r e e t w i s e ! [se3
Seeking information
9

Listen to some people meeting for the first


time. Complete the table in your notebook.

G reetin g

Extract i

Excuse me! I'd like to

Extract 2

Hi! What's

Extract 3

Morning! Nice

Q u e stio n (s )

Which part
When

Excuse we

Extract 4

And
Have vou

W hich speakers are most polite? W h y?

Issue ten Part two

93

?
?

Letters to the editor


W arm -up

R ead in g

1 W hat a re y o u r pel hates (th e things that annoy

3 One place w here we can express our feelings

you m ost)?
noisy m otorbikes?
football on television?
hom ew ork?
people who call you nam es?
car alarm s?
people w ith mobile phones?

about our pet likes and dislikes is the letters


page of a new spaper or magazine. Read the
letters sent to N ew S treetw ise and answ er the
questions.

2 Make a list of the three things w hich annoy


you m ost and share them in small groups. Try
and explain exactly why you dislike them .

GRAFFITI

DAMAGE

People have always drawn and


painted on walls. Prehistoric man
painted on the walls of caves, for
example, and those paintings are
J - -I..

expre
very

This is one article you shouldnt have published


and personally I think you should do another
article on the damage done by graffiti.

Issue ten Part three

W E ARE ALL A D UL T S

more

According to you. the young people who paint


graffiti on the walls are 'artists. As far as I am
concerned, graffiti is a serious social problem. It
ruins the appearance of our towns and cities and
cleaning it up costs a lot of money. I think articles
like the one which appeared in your magazine will
only encourage these vandals to do more damage.

94

3 Do you agree w ith the correspondents?


W h y/W h y not?

their

I was shocked when I read the article on graffiti in


New Streetwise Issue 2.

Rachel Aziz. i6 . M anchester

1 W hat is the central them e of each


contribution?
2 W hich do you think is the m ost effective
contribution? W hy?

Some politicians have argued that


adulthood should begin at the age of
sixteen. However. I dont think that age
should tell you if you are an adult or not.
It is how you act that is important,
because some eighteen-year-olds behave
like fourteen-year-olds and some fourteenyear-olds act like eighteen-year-olds.
I think you should be allowed to get
married and vote at sixteen, although
personally. I wouldn't use those rights until
I was older.
Alan Hansen. 15. London

<Improve your writing

5 Put the parts of the letter into the best order.

A letter to the editor


You might want to write to a magazine or
newspaper for a variety of reasons - to give your
opinion, to ask for advice, to share ideas with
others, or just to see your name in print. Here are
some rules for an effective letter to the editor.
Choose a subject that you feel strongly about.
Avoid repetition.
Emphasize one main point.
Make a statement about what you want done.

Look at
do not seem to nave r
Seven
t eif they
y have
m e lolong
n s Vvau.
t o

g S to g work
__________ __

I think people should be allowed to dress in


the w ay they want and be judged on what
they are rather than what they wear.

a Start by summarizing some of the main


arguments against your point of view.

good job,

d 00d clfte s to get a

Now state your personal opinion clearly, and


give reasons or facts to support your opinion.

C End by stating your ivnal conclusions.


d These expressions can all be used to introduce
ideas from an outside source. They can be used
to support your argument or to introduce the
other side of the argument.
According to ...
Statistics show ...
Some people argue th at...
Many people think...
It is said th at...
The following expressions can all be used to
introduce personal opinions.
Personally, I think...
As far as I am concerned ...
In my opinion ...
I agree/disagree (with/that)...
The way I see it, ...

We are told again and again that for some


employers good grooming and well-cut
clothes are likely to be as important as
qualifications.

a n d c o n ta c ts a r e

The w ay 1 see >*. <'


,
more important when you
w o rk .

In Issue 8 you argued that firs t:


are vital.
vital
7

Because of thia
young peopleJ Q -

J e

refuse to dress properly.

P ra c tic e
4 Complete the text with the phrases below.
I disagree w ith
As far as 1am concerned
Some people argue

( 1).

Statistics show
According to

looking for

that
Use

W r it i n g
6 Follow the im prove your w riting guidelines.
Choose one of the topics in New Streetwise
and w rite a letter in which you make a strong
argument for or against the topic.

that people should be free to

smoke even though it's bad for their health.

S elf c h e c k

(2) _______ these people the right to smoke is

7 W ork in groups. Read the articles. Decide

more important than the right to have clean

which one has the best argument and why.

air. W ell, (3 )________that. (4 )_______ that


hundreds of people are killed every year
because they breathe other peoples cigarette
smoke. ( 5 ) ________that is a good enough
reason to ban all cigarettes.

Issue ten Part three

95

Grammar review
Issues 9 and 10
Third c o n d i t i o n a l
Form

if* past perfect * would +have * past participle


Short form: d (= had/would)

U ses

E xam ples

1 To talk about an event


lhat did not happen
because of the condi I ion
in the if clause. As a result,
Ihe third conditional is
often used for excuses.

If J had had the chance,


f would have told him.
(- 1 didn't have the chance,
so 1 didn't fell him, and
its too late now.)
/ would have, come if 1
hadnt been so busy.

2 To talk about a condition


lhat is unreal because it did
not and could -not happen.

If I had lived in the


eighteenth century, 1
would have worn a wig.

N o te
The if clause can appear in the second part of the sentence.
No comma is used.

Must/may/might/could/cant/
couldnt + have +

p a s t p a r tic ip l e
These constructions are all used when we are speculating
about events in the past.

Uses

Examples

1 must * have * past participle


is used to talk about
something that we believe
definitely happened, or was
true, in the past.

The dog that appeared in


the hospital must have
been psychic.

2 could/m ay/m ight +have*


past participle are used
when we believe it was
possible that something
happened in the past, but
we are not sure.

The photograph o f the


monster could have been
a fake.
The woman may have been
woken by the sm ell o f
smoke.
The. film might even have
been run through the
camera tw ice.

3 can't/couldnt +have * past


participle are used when
we believe that something
definitely did not happen.

The meeting cant have


finished - there are still
several people there.
The trick couldnt have
been faked because lots o f
people saw il.

Example
I wouldnt have come if I d known.

S e c o n d o r third c o n d i t i o n a l ?
*

The second conditional is used to talk about a


hypothetical present or future situation, or an unreal
situation in present or future time.
The third conditional is used to talk about unreal or
impossible situations in the past.

Notes

Should/ought to + have +

W hen the main verb is in ihe past, might, and not may,
should be used.

p a s t p a r t ic i p l e

E xam ple

U ses

E x am p les

He thought that it m ight have been faked.

1 To talk about an ar.lion in


the past that was desirable
or necessary but did not
occur.

I should have told him at


the time, but I didnt.
I ought to have told him at
Ihe time, but I didnt.

Cant * have* past participle suggests that we are talking


aboul an action or event in the past that affects something
we are doing or looking at in the present.

2 The negative expresses a


wrong or foolish action.

She shouldn't have stolen


the money.

N ote
Ought not to have is not used very often. The negative form
shouldnt have is more common.

96

Grammar review

Couldnt * have * past participle refers only to the past.

Who/which/that
Use
E xam ples
To introduce defining relat ive I spoke to Lhe woman who
clauses. In defining relative
lives next door.
clauses w e learn w hich w om an, Did you see the man that
man, car, etc. th e speaker is
cam e this morning?
talking about.

The car which was parked


outside belongs to my
neighbour.

N ote
We use who for people.
We use which for things.
We use that for people and things.
L eaving o u t w ho, w h ic h , thaL
Who, which and that can be the subject or object of a
defining relative clause.
E x am p les

Whose in d e f in in g a n d
n o n - d e f i n i n g re la tiv e c l a u s e s
Whose can be used as a relative pronoun.
Use

E xam ple

To talk about possession.


It replaces his, her, their,
etc.

Ive got an American


neighbour whose holiday
home was burgled. (= I've got
an Am erican neighbour. His
holiday hom e was burgled.)

N o te
Do not confuse the relative pronoun whose w ith whos.

Grammar practice

Suzanna is the girl who gave me the ring.


Here, who is th e subject. Suzanna gave m e the ring.

Suzanna is the girl who we saw last week.


Here, who is the object. W e saw Suzanna.

A
1 Complete Lhe sentences with an appropriate form of the
verb in brackets.

W hen who, (hat or which are objects, w e often leave


them out.

Exam ple
If 1 had had (have) Lhe time, i'd have gone to see them.
I wouldn't have gone (not go) Lo Switzerland if I had
known that it was so expensive.

E x am p les

Suzanna is the girl we met last week.


That man is the neighbour I invited to lunch.
We cannoL leave out who, which or Lhat w hen they are
subjects.

Who a n d which in
n o n - d e f in in g r e la tiv e c l a u s e s
Use
To introduce non-defining
relative clauses. N on-defining
relative clauses give us extra,
but not absolutely necessary,
information.

E xam ple

Kates sister, who is


twenty-one. lives next door
to me. (W e know we are
talking aboul Kates sister.
The age is additional
inform ation.)

N otes
Non-defining relative clauses are m ore com m on in formal
w riting than in speech.
The non-defining relative clause is separated from the rest
of the sentence by commas.
W e do not use th e relative pronoun Lhat in non-defining
relative clauses.
We cannot leave out who or which in non-defining relative
clauses.

1 I wouldnt have looked at the questions if th ey_______


(not be) on Lhe desk.
2 I _______ (buy) you a present if I had known that it was
your birthday.
3 I
. (not leave) so early if my father hadn't made
me.
4 W h a t_______ yo u ________ (do) if you had been him?
5 I wouldnt have helped him if y o u _______ (not ask) me.
6 Do you think h e___
(h e lp ) you if you hadnt know n
him?

2 Rewrite these sentences using the verb in brackets.


Exam ples
Perhaps his car broke down, (might)
H is car m ight have broken down.
Perhaps it belongs to him. (may)
It m ay belong to him.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

Perhaps it was a ghost, (might)


Perhaps it is a spaceship, (m ay)
Perhaps they are going tomorrow, (might)
Perhaps she didnt see them, (may)
Perhaps it w ill rain on Sunday, (might)
Perhaps it rained last night, (might)
Perhaps he has left already, (may)
Perhaps he forgot to give it to him. (might)

Grammar practice

97

3 Rewrite these sentences, using a relative clause, to


include the extra information in brackets. The relative
clause may come in Ihe middle or at the end of the
sentence. Do not forget to include the appropriate
commas.

Examples
Sarahs mother is very busy. (She is a doctor.)
Surah 's mother; who is a doctor, is very busy.

7 The classroom looks very dark because we painted


it blue.
8 Suzanne fell asleep in class today. She went to bed
very laLe.
9 A boy found a wallet on the streeL. He kept it.
10 He left home late, and he missed the train.

Example

She gave me a chocolate. (I ate it immediately.)


She gave me a chocolate, which I ate immediately.
1 M y unde gave me a computer for my birthday. (He is
very rich.)

2 My au n t took me to Bondi beach. (It is near Sydney.)


3 His girlfriend hates wearing make-up. (She is thirteen.)
4 Our class Leacher always smiles a lot. (She is very nice.)
5 Chinese is the most spoken language in the world.
(Chinese has over 700,000,000 speakers.)
6 That jacket is made in England. (I wore it for the disco.)

B .........................................................................
1 Say what would or wouldn't have happened in these
situations.
Exam ple

Alan left his cam era on a cafe fable. It w as stolen.


If Alan hadn't left his camera on a cafe table, it wouldn't
have been stolen.
1 The exam was important. He tried to cheaL.

2 Lisa did n t put her concert ticket in a safe place. She lost
it.
3 Andrew left his sunglasses on the floor. Janet stepped
on them.
4 Jill worked very hard. She passed all her exams.
5 M ark didnt get sunburnt at the beach. He wore a hat
and T-shirt.
6 1 picked up her book by mistake. 1L didnt have her
name on it.
7 M y team lost the mutch. Our best player didn't play.

8 She w as late for school. Her alarm clock didnt work.

2 W rite a sentence about each of these situations, using


should(n t) or ought to - have +past participle. More
than one answer might be possible.
Exam ple

Yesterday w as a school day. M aria w en t to Lhe cinema.


She should have gone to school.
She shouldn't have gone to the cinema.
1 I failed my exams. I didn't work very hard.
2 Helen went to the disco. She didnt tell her parents.
3 Alex almost drowned. He had a large meal before he
went swimming.
4 I was very thirsty I didn't take anyLhing to drink.
5 Alice is not going Lo Lhe maLch. There are no Lickets left.

6 Angela w as very upset because w e forgot to invite her


to lhe party.
98

Grammar practice

MaLch Lhe sLatements in the columns Lo make sentences.


l a
John Sew a bright light in the s ty which m ay have been
a spaceship.

1 John saw a bright


light in Lhe sky
2 W hen I goL there the
house was dark
3 The man who I saw
in Lhe car park
4 l he people who are
buried here
5 I Lhink he must have
bought a new bicycle
6 There were so many
people there
7 He wouldnt have
gone alone
8 I saw Lwo dogs

a) which may have been a


spaceship.
b) may have been Peter's
father.
c) which might have been
my neighbour's.
d) that someone must
have seen the robbery.
e) so he must have gone
with her.
f) because Lhe one he has
looks very new.
g) may have lived five
hundred years ago.
h) so they must have gone ouL.

Join Lhe two sentences using whose.

Example
I have a good friend. His father is a policeman.
/ have a good friend whose father is a policeman.
1 Thais Mary. Her sister was taken ill at school.
2 Isn't he Lhe one? His brother is a pop star.
3 WhaL was the name of the girl? Her bicycle was stolen.
4 1went on holiday with a friend. His uncle is an English
teacher.
5 Thats the boy. His brother Leaches me karate.
6 W h o is that man? His car is oul side.
7 This is Mrs Brown. You meL her daughter.
8 Arent you the boy? Your parents were born in Australia.
9 1 met two tourists. Their car had been stolen.
10 Thats my unde. His cat won first prize in a
competition.

C ..........................................................................................
Electricity motor vehicles and the aeroplane are recent
inventions. There may be people in your family who
remember life without Lhese. Imagine what life would have
been like before Lheir invention, and write a I least five
sentences for each.

Examples
W e wouldn't have been able lo listen to cassettes.
I would have had to read by candlelight

I s s u e

p i IFVV

btreetwise

How would you describe


the girl in this picture?