Jeppiaar Engineering College
AE2303Aerodynamics II
UNIT I
ONE DIMENSIONAL COMPRESSIBLE FLOW 
10 

Energy, 
Momentum, 
continuity 
and 
state 
equations, 
velocity 
of 
sound, adiabatic steady state flow equations, Flow through convergent divergent passage, Performance under various back pressures.
1. Define compressibility.
(May/June 2013)
2. What is isentropic compressibility? (Nov/Dec 2009) Answer: If no heat is added to the fluid element or taken away from the fluid element and if friction is ignored, compression of the fluid element takes place isentropically and the isentropic compressibility can be written as:
= ^{1}
3. What do you mean by over expanded nozzle and what is their effect? (May/June 2013) Answer: When a flow takes place inside the convergentdivergent nozzle the flow attains the pressure at the exit of the nozzle. The nozzle is said to be overexpanded , when the pressure at the nozzle exit (P _{e} ) is less than the backpressure (atmospheric pressure) i.e < . Decrease in nozzle exit
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Ms.S.Ilakkiya Assistant Professor
Jeppiaar Engineering College
AE 2303Aerodynamics II
pressure beyond
oblique shock and hence the amount of pressure rise.
this over expanded condition, decreases the
strength of
4.
What are the m ass, compressible gas f lows?
momentum and energy conservation eq uations for (Nov / Dec 2012)
Answer:
Contin uity equation (Mass conservation):
Momentum equati on:
Energy equation:
5. State the phenome non of choking in a nozzle. (May/June 2013, 2009)
Answer: When
nozzle is at a valu e of P _{e} = 0.528 P _{0} , The Mach number reaches th e maximum
value of 1 at the
increase the value of Mach number beyond 1 at the throat. Conse quently, the mass flow rate re mains constant at the throat. This situation wh en the flow
throat. Further reduction of the back pres sure cannot
the back pressure at the exit of the convergent – divergent
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Jeppiaar Engineering College
AE2303Aerodynamics II
goes sonic at the throat and the mass flow remains constant no matter how the back pressure is reduced is called ‘choked flow’. This process is called choking.
6. Differentiate perfect gas from real gases. (Nov/ Dec 2010) Answer: A gas is a collection of molecules which are in random motion. Due to the electronic structure of the particles, a force field pervades the space around them. The force field due to one molecule reaches out and interacts with the force field due to another molecule. These forces take the form of weak attractive force at large distances. At temperatures and pressures characteristic of many compressible flows, the molecules are spaced widely apart. Hence, in most engineering applications, these intermolecular forces can be neglected. They are called as ‘perfect gases’.
However, at very cold temperatures and high pressures, the molecules are more closely packed. Here, the effect of intermolecular forces become important and the above equation is no longer valid. The gases in which these intermolecular forces are important and therefore cannot be neglected are called as ‘real gases’.
7. Why do you need a converging diverging nozzle to accelerate the flow from subsonic to supersonic speed? (Nov/ Dec 2010), (May/June 2009) Answer: From the areavelocity relation,
=( 1)
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Jeppiaar Engineering College
AE2303Aerodynamics II
For subsonic flow, . 0 < 1 the areavelocity relation shows than an increase in velocity is obtained when there is a decrease in area and a decrease in velocity is obtained with an increase in area. For sonic flow, M = 1, the areavelocity shows that the area required for attaining sonic flow should be a minimum. For Supersonic flow, M > 1, the area velocity relation shows that for an increase in velocity an increase in area is required and vice versa. Hence, from the above results, in order to expand a flow from a stagnation condition to supersonic speeds, we first need to accelerate the subsonic flow by passing through a convergent duct, achieving a sonic flow at the minimum area of the convergent duct, called as the throat. Further, to accelerate the sonic flow to supersonic speeds, we need a divergent duct since for a supersonic flow; an increase in area gives an increase in velocity.
9. What do you mean by perfect gas?
(Nov/ Dec 2008)
Answer:
i. A perfect gas must be both thermally and calorically perfect.
ii. A perfect gas must satisfy both thermal equation of state, =
and caloric equations of state, = , =
iii. A calorically perfect gas must be thermally perfect and a thermally perfect gas need not be calorically perfect.
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Jeppiaar Engineering College
AE2303Aerodynamics II
10. Write internal energy equation for one dimensional high speed flow in
general partial differential form.
Answer: The internal energy equation for 1dimensional high speed flow can be written as:
(April/May 2008)
where e is the internal energy in the flow.
11. What are the properties of flow medium that determine the velocity of sound
wave in the medium?
Answer: The equation for the velocity of sound can be written as
(April/May 2008)
Where a is the speed of sound; is a specific heat constant; R= specific gas constant; T=static temperature
Hence, the speed of sound in a calorically perfect gas is a function of temperature only. For a calorically perfect gas the ratio of and specific gas R does not change with temperature.
12. State the importance of Rayleigh supersonic pitot formula. (Nov/Dec 2009, 2013) (or) Why Rayleigh correction formula is required for pitotstatic tube in
supersonic flows? Answer:
(May/June 2009)
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Jeppiaar Engineering College
AE2303Aerodynamics II
When the pitot tube is inserted into a supersonic flow, a shock wave is formed ahead of the Pitot tube as shown in fig. The mouth of the Pitot tube is a stagnation region. Hence, a streamline moving along line cde is brought to rest at point e. However, due to the presence of the shock wave, the streamline cde passes the normal portion of the shock wave. As a result, the pressure at point e is not the total pressure of the freestream, but the total pressure behind a normal shock wave, P _{0}_{2} . Hence, Rayleigh Pitot tube formula is necessary for measurement of velocity in a supersonic flow.
13. Write down the compressible Bernoulli’s equation for isentropic flows? (Nov/ Dec 2008) Answer: The energy equation for an adiabatic process is given by
and when the gas is perfect, it becomes
Equation (2), when combined with the state equation, it becomes
The equation (3) is the form of the energy equation commonly used in gas dynamics. And this is popularly known as compressible Bernoulli’s equation for isentropic flows.
14. What is underexpanding nozzle flow? Answer: When the back pressure is reduced further below the pressure at which supersonic isentropic flow takes place throughout the nozzle, the flow inside the nozzle is said to be an underexpanded nozzle flow since the exit pressure is higher than the back pressure and hence, the flow is capable of additional expansion after leaving the nozzle. This expansion takes place across expansion shock waves attached to the exit as shown in figure.
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Jeppiaar Engineering College
AE 2303Aerodynamics II
15. Explain Mach num ber spectrum.
Answer: Flow can
be classified in terms of Mach number as:

Subsonic flow – M < 1 at every point in the flow, streamlines are smooth, disturbances c an propagate upstream. 


Transonic flow – 0.8 < M < 1.2 – Flow has pockets of supers onic flow in 

certain region s of flow terminated by a shock wave. Both supersonic flo w regimes exist in transonic flow. 
subsonic & 


Supersonic flo w – M > 1 at every point in the flow. Characte rized by the 
presence of
discontinuousl y
shock waves across which flow propert ies change
Hypersonic flo w – Strength of the shock wave is higher, it m oves closer to the body le ading to higher temperatures in between the sh ock and the
effects and
body. When
chemically rea cting effects begin to dominate the flow – Hype rsonic flow.
M _{∞} is sufficiently large, such that viscous
∞
∞
16. What is the physic al meaning of Mach number? Answer: Conside r a fluid element moving along a streamline.
The kinetic
and internal energi es per unit mass are V ^{2} /2 and e respectively. Th eir ratio is:
The squar e of the Mach number is the ratio of kineti c energy to
a gas flow. Mach number is a measure of the directed
internal energy of
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Ms.S.Ilakkiya Assistant Professor
Jeppiaar Engineering College
AE2303Aerodynamics II
motion
molecules.
of
the
gas
compared
with
PARTB
the
random
thermal
motion
of
the
1. An ideal gas flows through a duct under isentropic conditions. Show that the area has to increase for increase in velocity when the local mach number is
greater than one (M>1)
(May/June 2013)
(or)
Derive the areamach number relation and explain why convergentdivergent
nozzle is needed for supersonic flow.
(May/June 2013)
Answer: Consider the differential mass conservation equation
Expanding this equation we get,
dividing both the sides by
+ =0 (1)
To obtain the relation between velocity and area we need to replace the
term from the above equation. We know differential form or momentum
equation as,
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Ms.S.Ilakkiya Assistant Professor
Jeppiaar Engineering College
AE2303Aerodynamics II
Using 
the 
above 
equation, 
Eq. 
(1) 
can 
be 
written 
as, 


Many conclusions can be 
drawn 
from 
this 
equation. 
1. For positive dA, du will be positive for M>1. Hence for supersonic flows,
velocity of the flow increases with increase in area or divergent portion acts
as the nozzle.
Similarly, for convergent portion acts as the diffuser for supersonic flows.
2. For negative dA, du will be positive for M<1. Hence for subsonic flows,
velocity of the flow increases with decrease in area or convergent portion acts
as the nozzle.
Similarly, for divergent portion acts as the diffuser for supersonic flows.
3. We can always achieve supersonic flow using a convergentdivergent duct
having subsonic flow at the entry. In such a case, for M=1, we get dA=0, means Mach one will be achieved at the minimum cross section of the duct. Therefore the minimum crosssection where sonic conditions are achieved in the convergent divergent duct, is called as throat.
9
Ms.S.Ilakkiya Assistant Professor
Jeppiaar Engineering College
AE2303Aerodynamics II
(or)
Answer: Refer Page No: 626 to 629  Fundamentals of Aerodynamics, John D Anderson, Fourth edition.
2. Derive the relation relating area ratio and Mach number for an isentropic flow through a varying duct. Answer: Let us consider the varying area duct as shown in Fig.1. Areas at different stations are mentioned in the same figure. The minimum cross sectional area of this duct is called as throat if local Mach number of the same crosssection is 1. We can find out the area of throat under this constraint for known inlet or outlet area of the duct. We know that mass flow rate at the throat is,
Where,
Fig. 1 Flow through convergent divergent duct.
^{} are geometric and flow properties at the throat.
For the steady flow, mass flow rate at any crosssection having geometric and flow properties as ρ, A, u will be equal to the mass flow rate of the throat.
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Jeppiaar Engineering College
AE 2303Aerodynamics II
Hence,
But we know that
Hence
the
area
relation
can
be
wri

Hence, If
we
know Mach number M at any cross
tten 
as, 
(1) 

section and 
corresponding are a A then we can calculate the area of the throat for the duct.
any cross
section upstream
or downstream of the throat is not dependant o n the nature
From this express ion it is also clear that the Mach number at
of variation of cro sssectional area of the duct in the stream wise d irection.
3.
Derive
(May/June 2013)
a
relatio n
for
compressibility
correction
to
dynami c
pressure.
Answer: Refer pa ge no: 82 to 83  E.Rathakrishnan, Gas dyna mics, Third edition
11
Ms.S.Ilakkiya Assistant Professor
Jeppiaar Engineering College
AE2303Aerodynamics II
4. Derive compressible Bernoulli’s equation. (May/June 2013)
Answer: Refer page no:47 to 49  E.Rathakrishnan, Gas dynamics, Third edition
5. Air in a highpressure tank P _{0} is suddenly accelerated through a nozzle to maximum possible velocity. What will be the error in the maximum velocity calculated by assuming this flow as incompressible? (May/June 2013)
Answer: Refer class notes
6. A supersonic wind tunnel is to de designed for a test section Mach number of M=3 and a test section size of 0.2m x 0.2 m in cross section. If the stagnation pressure is 20 bar and the stagnation temperature is 310K, calculate the mass flow rate and the area of the first throat. (May/June 2013)
Answer: Refer class notes
7. Air Flows through a convergent nozzle under a stagnation pressure of 3 bar and a stagnation temperature of 400 K. The nozzle has an exit area of 0.1m. Find the mass flow rate when the exit pressure is 100kPa. (May/June 2013)
Answer: Refer class notes
8. Analyse the performance characteristics of a convergentdivergent nozzle for different inlet and outlet conditions. (Nov/Dec 2012)
Answer: Refer class notes
9. Derive the one dimensional adiabatic steady state energy equation and deduce
the isentropic relations for a perfect gas.
(Nov/Dec 2010)
(or)
Derive all the isentropic relations for a one dimensional compressible gas
flows.
(Nov/Dec 2012)
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Ms.S.Ilakkiya Assistant Professor
Jeppiaar Engineering College
AE 2303Aerodynamics II
Answer: Flow is
interested to pred ict the flow properties at the stagnation cond itions. Let's imagine that a flui d flow is decelerated from its exhisting state is entropically to zero velocity w hich is termed as the stagnation condition as sh own in Fig. below. All the pr operties of the flow at stagnation condition a re called as stagnation proper ties. Similarly if we decelerate the superso nic flow or accelerate the sub sonic flow isentropically so that the fluid par rticles reach sonic velocity, th en flow properties are called as star propertie s. Both the stagnation propert ies and star properties are the reference prop erties of the flow and are const ant in the fluid domain if the flow is isentropic . Let's apply
Here we are
said to be stagnant when its velocity is zero.
the 1D energy co nservation principle to derive the relation initia lly between stagnation and stat ic properties.
Fig. I sentropic stagnation of a moving fluid particle
Consider that
the fluid particle is isentropically brought to ze ro as shown
in above figure. W e know that 1D form of energy conversion equa ation is
2 stands for
final decelerated stat e of fluid. Since, V2=0, lets represent T _{2} = T _{0} is above equation. Then,
Here subscript 1 stan ds for initial state of the fluid and subscript
13
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Jeppiaar Engineering College
AE 2303Aerodynamics II
The above equation is obtained by dividing the equation by
Here su bsrcipt 0 represents the stagnation condition. 
Its evident 
from this equ ation that the stagnation temperature to static 
temperature 
ratio is depen dent on Mach number & specific heat ratio. 
The Mach 
number in th is expression is the Mach number of the commencemen t of isentropic deceleration. 
flow before 
Since t he process is isentropic and we already know th e isentropic
relations, we
and the same f or density also.
can find out stagnation pressure to static press ure relation
From the expr ession for stagnation pressure to static pressur e, it can be seen that the stagn ation pressure and static pressure are almost eq ual if Mach number is zero. H owever for the incompressible flows with M ach number less than 0.3, it c an be evaluated that the difference between sta tic pressure
14
Ms.S.Ilakkiya Assistant Professor
Jeppiaar Engineering College
AE2303Aerodynamics II
and stagnation pressure is equal to the dynamic pressure. But this isn't the case for compressible flows.
(or)
Answer: Refer Pages 527 to 529  Fundamentals of Aerodynamics, John D Anderson, Fourth edition. / Refer notes
10. Air flow is discharged to atmosphere at sea level through a sonic nozzle. If
the air storage at the reservoir is 40 x 10 ^{5} N/m ^{2} , determine the pressure, temperature and density at the exit of the nozzle. Assume that the reservoir air
is at sea level temperature.
(Nov/Dec 2010)
Answer: Refer class notes
11. Explain why a converging diverging configuration is required for the acceleration of flow from subsonic to supersonic conditions (8) (2007, 2012) Answer: From the areavelocity relation,
=( 1)
For subsonic flow, . 0 < 1 the areavelocity relation shows than an increase in velocity is obtained when there is a decrease in area and a decrease in velocity is obtained with an increase in area. For sonic flow, M = 1, the areavelocity shows that the area required for attaining sonic flow should be a minimum. For Supersonic flow, M > 1, the area velocity relation shows that for an increase in velocity an increase in area is required and vice versa. Hence, from the above results, in order to expand a flow from a stagnation condition to supersonic speeds, we first need to accelerate the subsonic flow by passing through a convergent duct, achieving a sonic flow at the minimum area of the convergent duct, called as the throat. Further, to accelerate the sonic flow to supersonic speeds, we need a divergent duct since for a supersonic flow; an increase in area gives an increase in velocity.
15
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Jeppiaar Engineering College
AE2303Aerodynamics II
(or)
Answer: Refer Page No: 626 to 628  Fundamentals of Aerodynamics,
John D Anderson, Fourth edition / Refer notes
12. Explain what is choking in a CD nozzle and show that the expression for
choked mass flow rate for an isentropic flow of duct through a duct is
(2008, 2010, and 2012)
(or)
Air flows through a duct under steady isentropic flow conditions. Derive an
expression for the mass flow rate in terms of stagnation pressure and
temperature and local Mach number. (May/June 2013)
We have seen in Fig. below that mass flow rate of the nozzle remains
unaltered after flow gets chocked. This chocked mass flow rate can be calculated
as,
Answer:
16
Ms.S.Ilakkiya Assistant Professor
Jeppiaar Engineering College
AE2303Aerodynamics II
But we know that,
Hence
However,
Hence
(1)
From this expression it is clear that for a convergent divergent nozzle, for given throat area, choked mass flow rate remains constant for the fixed reservoir (P _{0} and T _{0} ) conditions. Therefore choked mass flow rate can be increased by increasing the reservoir pressure P _{0} or decreasing reservoir temperature T _{0} .
17
Ms.S.Ilakkiya Assistant Professor
Jeppiaar Engineering College
AE2303Aerodynamics II
If we substitute for air γ=1.4, we get
(or)
Answer: Refer class notes
13. Sketch the pressure variation along the centreline of a converging diverging nozzle for optimum expansion. What is the influence of back pressure on this
variation?
(2009)
For optimum expansion, the pressure at the exit of the nozzle equals the back pressure, say P _{b}_{6} . This is shown in Figure 1.
18
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Jeppiaar Engineering College
AE2303Aerodynamics II
Figure 2: Pressure variation in CD nozzle with varying back pressures For values of back pressure, P _{b} = P _{b}_{3} = 0.528 P _{0} , the Mach number reaches a value of 1 at the throat. The flow is completely subsonic throughout the nozzle, except at the throat where a Mach number of 1 is obtained. For Back pressure greater than 0.528 P _{0} , the flow is entirely subsonic throughout the nozzle with a maximum velocity attained at the throat. Therefore, for subsonic flow, ‘n’ number of isentropic solutions are possible throughout the nozzle. When the back pressure is decreased above 0.528 P _{0}_{,} say P _{b}_{4} , a normal shock wave forms inside the nozzle. This normal shock wave moves towards the exit of the nozzle when back pressure is further reduced to some value of back pressure, say P _{b}_{5}_{.} The location of the normal shock wave is governed by the condition that the pressure rise across the normal shock wave plus the pressure rise due to the expansion of subsonic flow behind the shock wave through the divergent portion of the duct be just
19
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Jeppiaar Engineering College
AE2303Aerodynamics II
right enough to equal the the exit pressure at the nozzle to the back pressure. When the back pressure is in between P _{b}_{5} and P _{b}_{6} , oblique shock waves are formed since the exit pressure has expanded below the back pressure and it needs to be compressed across an oblique shock wave so as to increase the exit pressure such that it matches with the back pressure. When this situation exists inside the nozzle, it is known as ‘overexpanded’. When the back pressure is below P _{b}_{6}_{,} say P _{b}_{7} , the exit pressure is higher than the back pressure. Hence, the exit pressure is capable of additional expansion in order to match the exit pressure to the back pressure. This takes place through expansion waves. The higher pressure at the exit of the nozzle is therefore expanded through the expansion waves to a lower pressure.
14. Obtain an expression for the speed of sound and show that the speed of sound is proportional o the square root of the absolute temperature of air. (10) (2012, 2009) Answer: Consider an acoustic wave moving in a stationary fluid with speed ‘a’. Properties of fluid change due in the presence of the acoustic wave. These property variations can be predicted using 1D conservation equations. For simplicity we can assume the acoustic wave to be stationary and the fluid to be passing across the wave with velocity ‘a’. Consider the control volume shown in Fig. For understanding, central hatched portion can be exaggerated as the acoustic wave. Let P, ρ and a be the pressure, density and velocity ahead the acoustic wave respectively. Acoustic wave being a small amplitude disturbance, induces small change properties while fluid passing across it. Hence the properties behind the acoustic wave are P+dP, in ρ+dρ and a+da pressure, density and velocity respectively. Application of mass conservation and momentum conservation equations between inlet and exit stations of control volume, we get,
20
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Jeppiaar Engineering College
AE 2303Aerodynamics II
Here u=a ( vel ocity of the wave)
ρa=(ρ+ dρ)(a
ρ
ρ
+ da) mass conservation equation
ρ + dρ)(a + da)
ρ
ρ
ρ
ρ
ρ
P + ρa
From mass equation ρ
2
= (P + dP)+(ρ
2
 momentum conservation
ρ
ρ
ρ
ρ
ρ
ρ
ρ ρ
ρ
ρa = ρa + ρda + adρ + dadρ
ρ
ρ
ρ
ρ
equation
We will neglect dadρ ρ
even smaller.
Therefore ρda + adρ
ρ
ρ since both are small quantities. Hence their prod
ρ = 0 and
ρ
ρ
uct will be
From momentum equ ations we get,
p + ρa ^{2} = (p + dp)+(ρ
ρ ρ
ρ ρ
ρ
ρ + dρ)(a ^{2} + 2ada + da ^{2} )
neglecting da ^{2}
p + ρa ^{2} = (p + dp)+(ρ
p
ρ ρ
ρ
ρ + dρ)(a ^{2} + 2ada)
ρ ρ
+ ρa
ρ
ρ
2
= (p + dp)+(ρ
ρ
ρa ^{2} + 2aρda + a ^{2} dρ + 2adadρ)
ρ
ρ
ρ
ρ
ρ
ρ
neglecting 2adads,
p
+ ρa
ρ
ρ
2
= (p + dp)+(ρ
ρ
ρa ^{2} + 2aρda + a ^{2} dρ)
ρ
ρ
ρ
ρ
0 = dp + 2aρda + a ^{2} dρ
ρ
ρ
ρ
ρ
Incorporating Eq. (5.4 ) in above equation, we get,
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Jeppiaar Engineering College
AE 2303Aerodynamics II
5.5
of sound.
We can express the s ame in terms of bulk modulus or compressibili ty using the
definition of the comp
This is the g eneral formula for acoustic speed or speed
ressibility (τ).
τ
τ
However,
changes in propertie s across sound wave are small and we ha ve also not
considered any dissip ative effect like viscous effects, therefore we c an treat the
compressibility as the isentropic one. This proves that acoustic wave is isentropic
(adiabatic reversible) in nature. Both the formulas derived for acoust ic speed are
valid for any state of matter. But if we consider gas then we can furt her simplify
the expression as belo w.
Now this
τ
τ
τ
can
be isothermal
or adiabatic compressibility
.
Since the flow is adiab atic
Therefore,
22
Ms.S.Ilakkiya Assistant Professor
Jeppiaar Engineering College
AE 2303Aerodynamics II
(or) Answer: Pages 522 5 to 525  Fundamentals of Aerodynami cs, John D Anderson, Fourth edition. / Refer notes.
15. Air flows isentrop ically through a convergent divergent nozzle
of inlet area
12 cm ^{2} at a rate of 0.7 Kg / s. The conditions at the inlet and exit o f the nozzle
are 8 Kg / m ^{3} an d 400 K and 4 Kg / m ^{3} and 300 K respective ly. Find the cross sectional are a, pressure and Mach number at the nozzle exit (10) (2008) Answer: Refer sc an copy notes
16. Air at 300K and
10 ^{5} N / m ^{2} enters a diffuser with a velocity of 4 m / s. The
diffuser is to be de signed to reduce the velocity of the air to 60 m/ s. The mass
flow rate throug h the diffuser is 13.6 Kg/s. Assuming the 
flow to be 

isentropic, determ ine the (1) inlet diameter, (2) outlet diameter, 
(3) Rise in 

static temperature 
(8) 
(2008) 
Answer: Refer cla ss notes 

17. A storage cham ber of a compressor is maintained at 1.8 
atmospheres 

absolute and 20 D eg Centigrade. If the surrounding pressure is 1 
atmosphere, 

calculate the velo city with which air flow takes place from the 
chamber to 
outside through a unit area hole. Also, calculate the mass flow p er unit area.
(2010)
Assume air as a pe rfect gas. (8)
Answer: Refer sc an copy notes
18. A weak pressure the pressure rise behind the wave
wave travels through a tube into air at 1 atm a nd 32 ^{o} C. If across the wave is 0.04 kPa, determine the ve locity of air
(2008)
Answer: Refer cla ss notes
23
Ms.S.Ilakkiya Assistant Professor
Jeppiaar Engineering College
AE2303Aerodynamics II
UNIT II
NORMAL, OBLIQUE SHOCKS
12
Prandtl equation and Rankine – Hugonoit relation, Normal shock equations, Pitot static tube, corrections for subsonic and supersonic flows, Oblique shocks and corresponding equations, Hodograph and pressure turning angle, shock polar, flow past wedges and concave corners, strong, weak and detached shocks.
1. Distinguish between weak shocks and strong shocks? (Nov/ Dec 2012) Answer: Strong shock waves correspond to a greater wave angle, β whereas weaker shock waves correspond to a weaker wave angle, β From oblique shock solution,
When β increases,
increases and correspondingly from the
equation below, the pressure ratio across the shock wave increases.
Since, strength of a shock wave is the measure of the pressure ratio; increase in pressure ratio corresponds to a stronger shock. For lesser wave angle, β, a decrease in pressure ratio implies a weaker shock.
2. What is meant by zone of silence and zone of action in supersonic flow? (May/June 2013) Answer:
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Ms.S.Ilakkiya Assistant Professor
Jeppiaar Engineering College
AE 2303Aerodynamics II
For a superso nic flow, a line drawn tangent to the famil y of circles (denoted by sound w aves) is the Mach wave and the correspondin g angle the
Mach angle.
The disturbances are
felt only only within this disturbance envelope / Mach line.
Mach line makes wit h the direction of motion of the beeper is the
This is the zone of ac tion. Outside this Mach line is the Zone of sile nce since no disturbance is felt in t his region due to the supersonic motion of the be eeper.
3.
Why can a norm al shock take place only in supersonic flow?
2013)
Answer:
(May/June
cylinder placed in a flow as shown in fig. We know from
the kinetic theory that the flow consists of a large number of flui d molecules
in unit volume an d the transport of mass, momentum and energy takes place
Consider a
through the motio n of these molecules. Also the molecules carry
_{∞}
_{∞}
_{∞}
<
the signals
about the presence of the cylinder around the flow field at a speed equal to the
speed of sound.
molecules far upst ream of the cylinder get the information about t the presence of the body throug h the signals which travels with speed _{∞} and t herefore the molecules orient t hemselves in order to flow around the cylinder. But wh en the incoming stream is supersonic, the mole ecules travel faster than signals and there is no possibility that they will be info rmed of the presence of the b ody, before they reach the cylinder. Also t he reflected signals from the fa ce of the cylinder tend to coalesce a short dista nce ahead of the body. Their c oalescence forms a thin compression front c alled shock
and the
When the incoming stream is subsonic,
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Ms.S.Ilakkiya Assistant Professor
Jeppiaar Engineering College
AE2303Aerodynamics II
wave as shown in fig. This is the reason why a normal shock is formed only in supersonic flow.
5. What is the importance of Hugoniot relation? (May/June 2013,2008) Answer:
i. Hugoniot relation relates only thermodynamic quantities across the shock.
ii. Also we have made no assumptions about the gas while deriving the relation, so it is the general relation that holds for a perfect gas, chemically reacting gas, real gas, etc.
iii. In addition, from Hugoniot equation , the change in internal energy equals the mean pressure across the shock times the change in specific volume.
6. Why Mach number behind a normal shock cannot be supersonic? Obtain the
limiting value of it.
Answer:
From this relation,
(May/June 2013)
_{} , it implies that the velocity changes
across a normal shock must be from supersonic to subsonic or vice versa. But later it was shown that only the changes takes place only from supersonic to subsonic. Hence the Mach number behind the normal shock is always subsonic.
26
Ms.S.Ilakkiya Assistant Professor
Jeppiaar Engineering College
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From t he above equation, it shows that or a perfect ga s, the Mach
7. What is the relati onship between mach angle and Mach number ? (Nov/Dec
2012)
Answer:
For a su personic flow, the angle between the Mach l ine and the
ach angle μ,
μ
μ
8. Define characteri stic Mach number and give its maximum va lue for air.
(Nov/Dec 2010, 2 009, 2008)
Answer: If the v elocity of a fluid element is speeded up / slow ed down to
sonic velocity adi abatically, the temperature it would have at su ch condition
27
is T ^{*} . The corresp onding value of speed of sound is a ^{*} and the co rresponding
value of Mach nu mber is the Characteristic Mach number, M ^{*} .
^{} ^{=}
Ms.S.Ilakkiya Assistant Professor
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∞
∞
∞
→
For air, M ^{*} = 2.45, when M →
→
AE 2303Aerodynamics II
9. Define shock stre ngth and express it in terms of Mach number f or a normal
shock.
(or) How is the stren gth of a shock wave determined in a super sonic flow? (April/May 2008) Answer: Since t here is a sudden rise in static pressure acros s the shock
static pressure can be considered as a fact or that can
represent the stren gth of a shock. Greater this static pressure rise, stronger the
shock and vice ver sa. The strength of th e shock, i.e., the static pressure rise across the n ormal shock can be written as:
(Nov/D ec 2012)
wave, this rise in
2+( 1)
10. What is meant by Mach reflection? Answer:
(Nov/Dec 20 10, 2008)
for M _{2} , a regular reflection is not possi ble. Instead,
a normal shock i s formed at the upper wall to allow the str eamlines to continue parallel t o the wall. Away from the wall, this normal sh ock transits
28
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into a curved sh ock which intersects the incident shock wit h a curved
reflected shock p ropagating downstream. This shock pattern is ‘Mach Reflection’ .
labelled as
11. What is a Mach w ave?
(Nov /Dec 2008)
Answer: The lin es at which the pressure difference is conce ntrated and which generate th e cones are called Mach waves or Mach line s. Therefore
Mach waves may be defined as weak pressure waves across wh ich there is only an infinitesim al change in flow properties.
12. What are oblique
an oblique
waves. The sh ock waves which are at an angle or oblique to t he incoming
freestream flow ar e known as oblique shock waves. Oblique shoc k waves are
Answer:
shock wave over a concave corner / Rules for reflection of shock
shock waves? How are they formed? Illustrate
formed when the s upersonic flow is turned into itself.
is deflected
upwards through a n angle . Consequently, the flow streamlines a re deflected
Consider
the figure above. At point A, the surface
29
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upwards towards t he main bulk of the flow above the surface. Th is change in
flow direction ta kes place across an oblique shock wave. A ll the flow
streamlines experi ence the same deflection angle at the shock . Hence, the
the wall
flow downstream
downstream of po int A. Across the shock wave, the Mach numbe r decreases,
and the pressure, t emperature and density increases.
of
the
shock also follows the
direction
of
13. With a suitable s ketch illustrate the propagation of waves fro om a sound
source moving at 
a speed of sound. 
(2) 
Answer: 
14. What are expansio n waves? How are they formed? Or what are
the rules for
reflection of expan sion waves
Answer: When
from itself, an exp ansion wave is formed. The surface is deflected downwards
through an angle θ.
a flow with supersonic mach number i.e. M> 1 is turned
θ
θ
30
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The flow streamlines are deflected downwards away from the main bulk of flow above the surface. This change in flow direction takes place across an expansion wave, centred at point A. Away from the surface, the expansion wave fans out. The flow streamlines are smoothly curved through the expansion fan until they are all parallel to the wall behind point A. All flow properties through an expansion wave change smoothly and continuously. Across an expansion wave, the Mach number increases, the pressure, temperature and density increases.
15. Define normal shocks and oblique shocks. Answer: If the shock wave is normal / perpendicular to the upstream incoming flow, it is known as a normal shock wave. Normal shock waves occur inside nozzles and also in the normal part of the bow shock wave.
A shock wave that is oblique or formed at an angle to the flow is known as an oblique shock wave.
31
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16. Why Prandtl’s relation for normal shock cannot be used for subsonic flows?
Answer:
From Prandtl’s relation,
which shows that
This states that the flow ahead of a normal shock wave is supersonic. Hence, Prandtl’s relation cannot be applied for a subsonic flow.
17. What is a hodograph? Answer: A hodograph is a curve forming the locus of the tips of the velocity vectors in the plane behind a shock. In addition to an analytical solution of the problem of determining the flow parameters behind an oblique shock, the flow properties behind a oblique shock can be determined by using graphical method based on the concept of a hodograph.
18. Bring out the difference between flow over a wedge and cone Answer:
S.NO 
WEDGE 
CONE 

1. 
Two dimensional flow 
Three dimensional flow 

2. 
Stream lines are straight and parallel to wedge surface 
Stream lines are curved 

3 
No 
such 
relieving 
effect 
exist 
Addition 
of 
third 
dimension 
32
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here. 
provides the flow 
with an extra 

space to move th rough, hence 

relieving some of t he obstruction 

set up by the presenc e of the body. 

This is called thre e dimensional 

relieving effect. 

Shock w ave 
on 
the 
wedge 
is 
Shock wave on the c one is weaker 

4 
stronger 
because of relieving effect 

For M=2 for semi c one angle 20º 

5 
For M=2 for semi wedge angle 
creates a 
β=90º53 
º=37º oblique 

20º create _{s} _{a} β β _{β}_{=}_{5}_{3}_{º} oblique shock 
shock 

Pressure P _{2} behind the shock is 
Pressure P _{2} behind th e shock is not 

6 
same as t hat on wedge surface 
same as that on surfa ce of cone. 
PARTB
1. Show that the stre ngth of a normal shock in a perfect gas depe nds only on
Mach number ahe ad of the shock.
(Nov /Dec 2012)
Answer:
wave using 1D co nservation equations and know properties ahea d the shock.
We can n derive the expression for the properties behin d the shock
This
e quation
gives
the
density
ratio
which
is
(1)
function
of
freestream Ma ch number and the specific heat ratio. We can find out the
velocity ratio f rom this density ratio as,
33
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the expression for static pressure ratio. For s implicity of
derivation, in itially representation of dynamic pressure is ne cessary and
Let's derive
can be expre ssed as follows
=
We know the
p _{1} + ρ _{1} u _{1} ^{2} = p
Replacing th e dynamic pressure from either side and rearran ging we get
1D momentum conservation equation as
2 + ρ ρ 2 u 2
ρ
2
ρ
ρ
The above eq uation can be written as
^{} =1+ ^{2} _{+}_{1} ( 1)
34
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This equation gives the strength of the shock or static pressure rise which is again function of free stream Mach number and the specific heat ratio.
(or)
Answer: Pages 64 to 68  John D. Anderson, Jr., Modern compressible flow, Second edition, Mc GrawHill Publishing company (or) Refer notes
2. Derive Prandtl’s relation. Answer: It had already been discussed that the subsonic flow is prewarned and supersonic flow is not. The reason behind this fact is that, any small amplitude disturbance travels with acoustic speed, however speed of fluid particle is more than the speed of sound in case of supersonic flows. Therefore the message of presence of the obstacle cannot propagate upstream. Hence a messenger gets developed in front of the obstacle to warn the flow in order to avoid its direct collision with the obstacle. This messenger is called as shock. In the presence of normal shock, fluid velocity decreases to the extent where flow Mach number behind the shock attains value below one. Due to this subsonic speed attainment of the flow, it becomes aware about the presence of the obstacle well in advance in the narrow space between shock and obstacle. Herewith we will deal for computation of flow properties behind the normal shock.
In the presence of a general obstacle the shock pattern is shown here in Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Shock pattern for a blunt or bluff obstacle
35
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The shock for the s tagnation streamline can be considered as n ormal to it. Therefore we can us e the earlier derived 1D flow relations alo ng with the assumptions of flow s teady, adiabatic and inviscid flow. Consider a s mall control volume around norm al shock for application of these relations b etween two stations of the control volume, mainly, inlet and outlet as shown in Fi g. 1.
the reference star properties of the flow in th e process to
calculate the flow pr operties behind the normal shock from the
conditions. We can ta ke the advantage of using stared temperature si nce the flow is adiabatic in nature. Imagine that flow is adiabatically brought to M ach number one on either sides of the shock independently. In this case, we shou ld get same stared temperature o n either sides of shock. We can also sho w that total temperature is also sa me on either side. The explicit formulation us sing the star temperature and conce rned acoustic speed before the normal shock is,
known inlet
Lets us examine
Applying same strateg y at the outlet we get,
However, we can writ e static enthalpy in terms of acoustic speed as,
Therefore, the energy equation at the inlet becomes,
36
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Similarly for the outle t station we have
Let's obtain the expre ssion for velocity using mass and momentum
replace the acustic spe ed term from equations (1) and (2).
(1)
(2)
equations to
From 1D mass and mo omentum conservation equations we have
ρ
p _{1} + ρ _{1} u _{1} ^{2} = p _{2} + ρ _{2} u _{2}
ρ
ρ _{1} u _{1} =ρ _{2} u _{2}
ρ
ρ
ρ
ρ
ρ
ρ
Therefore,
2
Using equation 1 and 2, above equation transforms to
Rearranging the terms of above equation, we get
Further re arrangemen ts gives
37
Ms.S.Ilakkiya Assistant Professor
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Necessary rearrangem ent for the above equation is as given,
(3)
This ex pression shows that, M _{1} ^{*}^{2} and M _{2} ^{*}^{2} are recipro cal of each
relation for
normal shock wh ich can be used to prove that Mach numb er becomes subsonic behind th e normal shock
other for a norma l shock. This equation is called as Prandtl’s
3. Derive Rayleigh s upersonic Pitot formula. Why is Rayleigh’s co rrection for total pressure requ ired in supersonic flows? (8) (2010, 2009, 2007)
w Mach number is one of the important parameter for subsonic
the functions
of local Mach num ber (M). The pressure measurements are one of the common
Answer: The flo
and supersonic flow s. All the flow parameters and their variations are
practices to deter mine the Mach number. In subsonic flow, the 
simultaneous 

measurement of s tatic and stagnation pressures using a 
Prandtl Pitot 
Static tube are mad e in a similar way as shown in Fig.1. Subsequently, t he isentropic
relation is used to d etermine the flow Mach number.
( 1)
38
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Fig. 1: Prandtl Pi tot static probe for simultaneous measurement .
The char acteristic feature of a supersonic flow is the fo rmation of a
shock wave. So,
to a detached bo w shock (Fig. 7.6.5). Due to this shock wav e at certain distance from th e measurement location, the stagnation pres sure located indicated by the probe will be much higher than the stagnation pressure of
the introduction of a Pitot probe into the flow s tream, leads
the free stream. F or the stagnation stream lines, the curved shoc k is normal
to the free stream
and the measured value represents the stagnat ion pressure
downstream of t he normal shock
. While conducting exp eriment, the
of
static pressure
measured simulta neously by any of the methods, discussed in Fig . 7.6.2.
the free stream (upstream of the sho ck) is also
Fig. 2: Detached sho ck ahead of the measuring pressure probe in a supersonic flow.
39
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the static pressure measurement must be done f ar upstream
of the shock so th at its influence on the measurement will be min imized. The
Mach number r elation connecting the static and stagnati on pressure
measurements is expressed by RayleighPitot formula for superso onic flows.
However,
(7.6.7)
The dynami c pressure
obtained from static pressure a nd the Mach
number is then gi ven by the following expression.
Thus,
the
M ach
number
calculation
through
static
(7.6.8)
and
stagnation
measurements giv es complete information of a supersonic flow fie ld.
(or)
Answer: Funda mentals of Aerodynamics, John D Anders on, Fourth
edition. (Or) Refe r class notes.
4. A Pitot tube is ins erted into an airflow of Mach where the static 
pressure is 1 

atm. Calculate the 
total pressure measured by the tube and the 
loss of total 
pressure experienc ed (10) (2010)
Answer: Refer cla ss notes
5. Derive a relation 
between flow turning angle, shock angle and 
freestream 
Mach number for oblique shock waves. 
(2010) 
Answer:
Consid er the flow taking place along a wedge as sh own in Fig.
all which is
1. Let θ be the we
θ
θ
dge angle and β be the shock angle with the w
β
β
parallel to the appr oaching free stream.
40
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Fig. 1. An
oblique shock for a supersonic flow over the w edge.
As we have a lready proved that shock exists only for super sonic flows,
consider a supers onic flow of Mach number M _{1} approaching th e wedge. In
s the wedge
angle. Let us solv e the mass, momentum and energy equations f or this flow.
Consider the con trol volume as shown in Fig. 1. In this spe cial control
faces of the
control volume a re parallel to the streamline hence these fac es will not
contribute to the
volume, inlet and
the presence of th
e shock, flow deflects by an angle θ which i
θ
θ
outlet are parallel to the shock. Other two
mass, momentum and energy fluxes. Let u be the velocity
normal to the sho ck and w be the velocity parallel to the shoc k. Graphical
demonstration of these velocities is given in Fig. 1. Station 1 co rresponds to
inlet or pre shock
shock conditions.
conditions while station 2 corresponds to ou tlet or post
Mass conservation in integral form
Lets assume the fl ow to be steady, hence,
41
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Hence,
(ρu) _{2} = (ρu) _{1} or ρ _{1} u _{1} = ρ _{2} u _{2}
This is the mass conservation equation for oblique shock conditions expressed in terms of velocities normal to the shock. Now consider the momentum conservation equation for the same flow. Since momentum is the vector equation, we have to consider, two equations, viz, normal and parallel to the shock. Lets initially consider the momentum equation in integral form for inviscid flow.
For steady flow,this equation becomes,
Now consider the momentum equation in the direction parallel to the shock wave. Since there is no pressure difference in this direction, the right hand side will be zero. Hence,
but using mass conservation we can rewrite it as, (w) _{p}_{r}_{e} = (w) _{p}_{o}_{s}_{t} or w _{1} = w _{2} This expression clearly suggests that velocity parallel to the shock remains conserved. Now consider the momentum equation normal to the shock.
42
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(p + ρu ^{2} ) _{p}_{o}_{s}_{t} = (p + ρu ^{2} ) _{p}_{o}_{s}_{t} or
p _{1} + ρ _{1} u _{1} ^{2} = p _{2} + ρ _{2} u _{2}
2
We can clearly see that the momentum equation looks exactly same as that for the normal shock relations. Here u is the velocity normal to the shock. Therefore only velocity component normal to the shock wave is responsible for the change in momentum since momentum and velocity tangential to shock are conserved. We have already derived the mass and momentum conservation equations for the oblique shock conditions. Consider the integral form of energy equation for inviscid compressible flow.
For steady flow, this equation changes to,
43
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But,
Hence the energy equation can be written as,
Hence,
44
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Energy equation is also similar as that of energy equation for normal shock. Here 'u' is the velocity normal to the shock. From mass, momentum and energy equations, it is clear that, only velocity normal to
the shock, is responsibile for change in all the properties. Hence we can still use all the equation of static and total property ratios derived for normal shock relations by changing the freestream Mach number to Mach
number normal
If freestream or upstream Mach number and the shock angle are known, then we can calculate the Mach number normal to the shock as,
to
the
shock.
Prandtl's relation for the oblique shock is,
This relation suggests that, for oblique shock, normal Mach number before or upstream to the shock is supersonic and hence normal Mach number after or downstream to the shock is subsonic. The static property ratios for oblique shock are,
Total property ratios can be rewritten in the same way. We can as well calculate the Mach number behind the shock as,
45
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19.2 θβM relatio
It has been a lready observed that the Mach number normal to the shock is
responsible for all the property variations for given shock angle.
be easily calculated from the upstream or fre estream Mach
number for given wedge or deflection angle. Consider the same c ontrol volume
shown in Fig.1. R elation between velocities and angles before
shocks are,
shock angle can
However this
θ
θ
β
β
n
and after the
But we know that,
w _{1} = w _{2}
Hence,
But
ρ
Therefore,
ρ _{1} u _{1} = ρ _{2} u _{2} hence,
ρ
ρ
ρ
Before the shock
After the shock
From density ratio we have
From
the
exp ression
of
upstream
Mach
number,
46
Ms.S.Ilakkiya Assistant Professor
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This is the expression between upstream Mach number, shock angle and wedge angle. In most general case, we need to know the shock angle for given Mach number and wedge angle. Following figure provides the information about the same (Fig. 2). In this figure, each curve corresponds to various possible shock angles for a given Mach number and flow deflection angle.
(or)
Fig. 2 θ βM relation
Answer: Page 107  John D. Anderson, Jr., Modern compressible flow, Second edition, Mc GrawHill Publishing company (or) Refer class notes
6. Consider a Mach 2.5 supersonic flow over a compression corner with a deflection angle of 14 ^{o} . Calculate the increase in shock strength if the
deflection angle is doubled to 28 ^{o} and give your comments on the shock wave
characteristics. (8)
Answer: Refer scan copy notes
(2010)
47
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7. 
Air at Mach 2 passes over two compression corners of angles 70 and θ, as shown in Fig. Determine the value of θ upto which the second shock will 

remain attached. (16) 
(2008) 



Answer: Refer class notes 

8. 
Explain the concept of PrandtlMeyer expansion around a convex corner and represent it in Hodograph plane (8) (2010) 

Answer: Pages 130 to 35  John D. Anderson, Jr., Modern compressible flow, Second edition, Mc GrawHill Publishing Company (or) Refer class notes. 

9. 
A supersonic flow at M _{1} = 1.58 and P _{1} = 1atm expands around a sharp corner. 

If the pressure downstream of the corner is 0.1306 atm, calculate the 

deflection angle of the corner. (8) 
(2010) 

Answer: Refer class notes 

10. 
An oblique shock is making 30 ^{o} angle with flow direction at the exit plane of 
a Mach 2.4 Laval nozzle. Determine the percentage increase in stagnation
pressure necessary to eliminate the shocks and maintain supersonic flow at
the nozzle exit. (8)
(2012)
Answer: Refer class notes
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11. A supersonic stream of air at Mach 3 and 1 atm passes through a sudden
convex and
Determine the Mach number and the pressure of the flow downstream of the
then a sudden concave corner of turning angle 15 ^{o} each.
concave corner. (8)
Answer: Refer scan copy notes
(2012)
12. What is the physical mechanism of generation of waves in subsonic and supersonic flow. Explain with the help of diagrams. Answer: Refer Page 562  Fundamentals of Aerodynamics, John D Anderson, Fourth edition.
13. Describe the physical method of visualizing the propagation of disturbances in a subsonic flow and supersonic flow. What is a Mach wave and Mach angle? Answer: Refer Pages 563 to 564  Fundamentals of Aerodynamics, John D Anderson, Fourth edition.
14. Derive Prandtl relation for a normal shock in a perfect gas. (May/June 2013) Answer: Refer class notes
15. Air at P _{1} =0.3 bar, T _{1} =350K and M _{1} =1.5to be expanded isentropically to 0.13 bar. Determine (1) the flow deflection angle, (2) find Mach number and (3) the temperature of air after expansion. (May/June 2013) Answer: Refer scan copy notes
16. For an oblique shock wave bring out proper relationships between the flows parameters in front of the shock and behind the shock. Answer: Refer class notes
17. Derive Prandtl Meyers Expansion waves for a flow over a convex corner. Answer: We have already seen that compression of supersonic flow takes while passing through the shock. In other words, when the supersonic flow turns into itself then it undergoes the compression through a shock. Exactly opposite situation can be encountered when the supersonic flow turns out of
49
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itself where, expansion of the supersonic flow takes place. This expansion unlike compression takes place smoothly through infinite expansion waves hence called as expansion fan. This expansion fan is comprised of infinite number of expansion waves or Mach waves where every wave is responsible for infinitesimal amount of deflection dθ. A typical expansion fan in the supersonic flow is shown in Fig. 1.where supersonic flow turns outward by an angle θ.
Fig.1 Expansion of supersonic flow
For better understanding of expansion of supersonic flow, consider that p _{1} , T _{1} and M _{1} be the properties of flow before expansion or upstream of the expansion fan and p _{2} , T _{2} and M _{2} be the properties of the flow after expansion or downstream of the expansion fan due to outward deflection by an angle θ. For the know upstream flow properties and deflection angle it should be possible for us to calculate the downstream flow properties. Since the expansion is the continuous and smooth process carried out via infinite Mach waves, lets consider one such wave across upstream of which velocity is V and Mach number is M. Angle made by this Mach wave with the upstream velocity vector is μ. Lets consider dV be the change in velocity brought by the Mach wave by turning through an angle dθ. Hence V+dV is downstream velocity and M+dM is the downstream Mach number. If we construct the velocity triangle as shown in Fig. .2 then we can use the sin law for triangle as,
50
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Fig.2 Velocity triangle across a typical Mach wave during supersonic expansion
But we know that
and
.1
Hence we can rewrite Eq. (1) as,
.2
We can approximate as sin dθ ≈ dθ and cos dθ ≈ 1, Therefore Eq. (2) can be simplified as,
.3
since dθ tan μ < 1, lets recall the expansion for x<1,
51
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Neglecting higher order term, we can express Eq. (3) as,
But we know that
and hence Hence above equation becomes,
Prandtl Meyer Function We can see that since for positive value of dθ, we get positive dV which leads to expansion. This formula is also valid for small angles for compression where we get negetive dV. If we integrate this formula for the toal expansion angle then we can get the downstream Mach number.
4
Before integrating we can express the integrant in Mach number,
V=Ma ln V = ln M + ln a
5
We can express here the second term on right hand side in terms of Mach number using the isentropic relations as,
52
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6
Using Eq. (5) and (6) we can rewrite Eq. (4) as,
Integration of right hand side is as,
Here, v is called as the PrandtlMeyer function.
θ = v(M _{2} )  v(M _{1} )
7
Therefore upstream Mach number (M _{1} ) we can calculate the upstream PrandtlMeyer function. Hence for known flow deflection angle and upstream Mach number we can get the downstream PrandtlMeyer function and hence the downstream Mach number. Process of expansion of supersonic flow is an isentropic process. However, while passing through the expansion fan, pressure, temperature and density of the flow decreases while Mach number and velocity increases for the supersonic flow. Moreover, all the total properties remain constant. We can calculate the total pressure, temperature and density upstream of the expansion using isentropic relations for the known flow Mach number. From the calculated downstream Mach number, we can calculate all the static flow properties from known stagnation or total properties.
53
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UNIT III
EXPANSION WAVES, RAYLEIGH AND FANNO FLOW
10
Flow past convex corners, Expansion hodograph, Reflection and interaction of shocks and expansion, waves. Method of Characteristics Two dimensional supersonic nozzle contours. Rayleigh and Fanno Flow.
1. What is meant by shock polar? (May/ June 2013) Answer: Consider a supersonic flow moving with velocity V _{1} . Now, the flow is being deflected up by a concave corner of deflection angle say θ. Hence, an attached oblique shock wave is formed at the concave corner. If the deflection angle, θ is being carried through all possible values for which there is an oblique shock solution; θ < θ _{m}_{a}_{x} , then, the locus of all possible velocities behind the shock is defined as the Shock polar.
2. Differentiate between like refection and unlike refection.
(May/ June 2013)
Answer: An incident shock gets reflected as a shock from a solid boundary. This kind of refection is called like reflection. On the other hand, an incident shock gets reflected as an expansion fan and the expansion fan gets reflected as compression waves from a free boundary. This kind of refection is called unlike refection.
3. What is slip stream flow?
(Nov/Dec 2012)
Answer:
the wall is known as a slipstream.
The streamline which separates the downstream flow direction and
Across this line there is a jump in the
54
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temperature, density
component being zero ).
and
tangential
component
of
the
veloci ty
(normal
4. State the limiting valu es of shock wave angle in a supersonic flow f or zero flow
deflection. 
(No v/Dec 2010) 
(or) 
what are the limiting v alues of shock angle for the oblique shock?
Answer:
to the body), the limit
For the oblique shock wave (i.e., for the shock to rem ain attached
β tends to μ,
n β tends to
β
ing values of shock angle are < β < 90
β
β
o.
When β
μ
μ
the shock wave becom
90 ^{o} , the shock wave b ecomes a normal shock wave.
es a weak wave known as a Mach wave. Whe
β
β
5. With a neat sketch il lustrate prandtlmayer expansion around a con vex corner.
(May/June 2009)
Answer:
6. Distinguish between
Mach lines and compression waves.
(Nov /Dec 2009)
Answer:
MACH LINES
COMPRESSION WA VES
1. They are very w eak pressure
waves
1. They are stronger as com pared to
Mach lines.
2. There is no flow deflection
2. Flow is deflected toward s the
wave
55
Ms.S.Ilakkiya Assistant Professor
Jeppiaar Engineering College
AE2303Aerodynamics II
3. 
Very small changes in flow 
3. 
There is a marked change in flow 
properties. 
properties 

4. 
Flow across Mach line is 
4. 
Flow is nonisentropic. 
isentropic. 
7. Bring out any two important differences between shock waves and expansion
waves in a supersonic flow? Answer:
(April/May 2008)
SHOCK WAVES 
EXPANSION WAVES 

1. 
Expansion waves (or fans) occurs 

1. 
Shock waves usually occurs when a 
when a supersonic flow is turned away 

supersonic flow is turned into itself 
from itself. 

2. 
Downstream of the flow is always 
2. 
Downstream of the flow may be 
subsonic 
supersonic or subsonic 

2. 
The maximum and minimum values 
3. 
The maximum turning of the flow 
of shock correspond to those for normal shock (β=90º) and Mach wave(μ) 
corresponds to the situation where the pressure goes to zero. This corresponds 

to θ=130.5º 
8. What is Rayleigh flow / Rayleigh curve? Answer: Rayleigh flow is onedimensional flow with heat addition. The Mollier diagram (i.e., Enthalpy Vs Entropy) for onedimensional heat addition process is given by the Rayleigh curve. If the upstream conditions are given by point 1 on the curve, then, the particular Rayleigh curve through point 1 is the locus of all possible states in region 2.
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Ms.S.Ilakkiya Assistant Professor
Jeppiaar Engineering College
AE2303Aerodynamics II
9. What are characteristic lines? Answer: Particular lines in the xy coordinate where the flow variables P, ρ, T, v, etc, are continuous, but along which the derivatives,
are indeterminate and across which the derivatives may in fact be discontinuous are called as characteristic lines.
10. What are Non simple and simple regions?
Answer: The expansion region in the nozzle covered with both left running and right running characteristics is a non simple region. In this region, the characteristic lines are curved.
The region which is covered by waves of only one family because the other family is cancelled at the wall is called as simple region.
11. What is Expansion hodograph? Answer: Consider an expansion wave with a given upstream velocity V _{1} . Along the xy coordinate, the velocity components ahead of and behind the expansion wave can be defined as V _{x}_{1}_{,} V _{y}_{1} , V _{x}_{2} , V _{y}_{2} . If e plot now these velocities on a graph with V _{X} and V _{Y} as the axis, this graph of velocity components across the expansion wave is call the Expansion hodograph.
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Ms.S.Ilakkiya Assistant Professor
Jeppiaar Engineering College
AE2303Aerodynamics II
PARTB
1. Explain the procedure to obtain supersonic nozzle contour for a given Mach number of 2 using Method of characteristics. Also draw neat sketches for continuous and centred expansion supersonic nozzles. (8) (2010, 2012)
Answer: Pages 325 to 329  John D. Anderson, Jr., Modern compressible flow, Second edition, Mc GrawHill Publishing company (or) Refer class notes
2. An incident shock wave of wave angle 35 ^{o} impinges on a straight wall. If the
Upstream flow properties are M = 3, P = 1 atm, and T = 300 K, calculate the Reflected shock wave angle with respect to the wall and the flow properties M,P,
T downstream of the reflected shock wave
Answer: Refer scan copy notes
3. Show that the local Mach number is unity at the point of maximum entropy on the Rayleigh line. (8) (2012)
Answer: Pages 83 to 84  John D. Anderson, Jr., Modern compressible flow, Second edition, Mc GrawHill Publishing company (or) Refer class notes.
4. Derive the RankineHugoniot relation for a shock. Can this relation be applied for
a chemically reacting gas? If yes how? If not why? (8) (2012, 2009)
Answer: Refer class notes
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Ms.S.Ilakkiya Assistant Professor
Jeppiaar Engineering College
AE2303Aerodynamics II
5. What do you understand by weak oblique shock? Plot the waves over a
a
symmetrical diamond wedge supersonic flow.
of angle
θ
kept at
zero angle
of attack
in
Answer: Pages 146 to 148  E.Rathakrishnan, Gas dynamics, Third edition.
6. For the double wedge shown in the figure below, calculate the flow Mach
numbers and the slipstream. (16)
(2008, 2012)
Answer: Refer scan copy notes
7. A two dimensional wedge shown in figure moves through the atmosphere at sea level at zero angle of attack with a freestream Mach number of 3. Calculate C _{L} and C _{D} using shock – expansion theory (16) (2008)
Answer: Refer scan copy notes
(2013)
8. For the Rayleigh flow, show that the mach number
is maximum. Further find the value of
for γ=1.4
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Ms.S.Ilakkiya Assistant Professor
Jeppiaar Engineering College
AE 2303Aerodynamics II
Answer: Consid er the control volume as shown in Fig. below for 1D flow
with heat addition. T he fluid flow of this kind is called as Rayleigh
station 1 is represe ntative station before heat addition while s tation 2 is
representative station constant crosssection
expected in the directi on of the flow due to addition of heat.
after heat addition. This control volume is n ecessarily a pipe hence variation is the inviscid flow p roperties is
flow. Here
Fig. Typical Co ntrol volume for 1D flow with heat addition.
Assume the fl ow to be in viscid and steady between these t wo stations. Therefore the mass an d momentum conservation equations remain un altered from the normal shock cas e but energy equation will have a term corre sponding to external heat addition . Hence the 1D conservation equations for flo w with heat addition are as follow s.
Here ‘q’ is amount of heat added per unit mass. Hence,
However, we know th at
60
Ms.S.Ilakkiya Assistant Professor
Jeppiaar Engineering College
AE 2303Aerodynamics II
q = ho _{2}  ho _{1} = cp(To _{2}  To _{1} )
This equation suggests that change in total temperature takes place due to
heat addition between two stations.
Lets represent the ratios of static and total properties in terms of upstream
(station 1) and downst ream (station 2) Mach number and specific hea t ratio. Let’s
consider the momentu m equation,
Also from ideal gas as sumption
But ρ _{1} u _{1} = ρ _{2} u _{2}
ρ
ρ
ρ
ρ
,
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Ms.S.Ilakkiya Assistant Professor
Jeppiaar Engineering College
AE 2303Aerodynamics II
Therefore,
Hence from the above relations we get,
Therefore,
For ratio of total prop erties,
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Ms.S.Ilakkiya Assistant Professor
Jeppiaar Engineering College
AE 2303Aerodynamics II
Similarly
We have represented all the ratios in terms of upstream and downstre am Mach numbers. If we consid er a particular case where heat addition leads to downstream Mach nu mber equal to one or post heat addition Mach nu mber is unity, then equations c an be written as,
Since M _{2} = 1 & p _{2} = p ^{*} & p _{1} = p _{∞} & M _{1} = M _{∞} . Here flow properties afte r heat addition are the stared quantities due to unity of the local Mach numb er. Hence
∞
∞
∞
∞
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Ms.S.Ilakkiya Assistant Professor
Jeppiaar Engineering College
AE 2303Aerodynamics II
these quantities are of very much of importance since can be used as r eference quantities.
Similarly
We get
shown below.
in the equation
1 which is maximum as seen from the Ray leigh curve
64
Ms.S.Ilakkiya Assistant Professor
Jeppiaar Engineering College
AE2303Aerodynamics II
9. Explain with sketches and plots
1) 
Shock waves and Mach waves 
2) 
Strong and weak shock waves 
Answer: Refer class notes
(2013)
65
Ms.S.Ilakkiya Assistant Professor
Jeppiaar Engineering College
AE2303Aerodynamics II
UNIT IV
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS OF MOTION FOR STEADY COMPRESSIBLE FLOWS
Small perturbation potential theory, solutions for supersonic flows, Mach waves and Mach angles, PrandtlGlauert affine transformation relations for subsonic flows, Linearised two dimensional supersonic flow theory, Lift, drag pitching moment and center of pressure of supersonic profiles.
7
1. Write down the Prandtl Glauert similarity rule for pressure coefficient and
explain it.
(or) Write down PrandtlGlauert rule for subsonic flow for small disturbances (small
(May/ June 2010)
perturbations) and explain its meaning. Answer:
(May/ June 2013)
The above equation is known as PrandtlGlauret rule. It is a similarity rule which relates incompressible flow over a given twodimensional profile to subsonic compressible flow over the same profile. In the above equation where
C _{p} = coefficient of pressure in subsonic compressible flow
C _{p}_{o} = coefficient of pressure in incompressible flow
M _{∞} = Free stream Mach number
In similar way the lift & moment coefficient can be written as
2. What is perturbation potential?
(Nov/Dec 2008)
Answer: Consider the 2D, irrotational, isentropic flow over the airfoil. The airfoil is placed in a uniform flow with velocity V _{∞} oriented in the xdirection. At an arbitrary point P in the flow field, the velocity is V with x & y components
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Ms.S.Ilakkiya Assistant Professor
Jeppiaar Engineering College
AE2303Aerodynamics II
given by u & v respectively. The xcomponent of velocity u will be sum of free stream & increment of velocity in xdirection similarly the ycomponent of velocity will be sum of free stream & increment of velocity in ydirection.
3.
What is Prandtl Glauert compressibility correction? (April/May 2008) Answer: Instead of deriving entirely new equations for compressible flows, we can also slightly change existing equations for incompressible flows, such that they approximate compressible flows. Such adjustments are called compressibility corrections. The first compressibility correction is the Prandtl Glauert correction. It stated that the pressure coefficient (C _{p} ) in a compressible flow can be derived from the pressure coefficient C _{p}_{0} in an incompressible flow,
according to
The lift coefficient (C _{l} ) and moment coefficient (C _{m} ) for compressible flow can be derived similarly, using
Where C _{l}_{o} = coefficient of lift in incompressible flow
C _{m}_{o} = coefficient of moment in incompressible flow
M _{∞} = Free stream Mach number
67
Ms.S.Ilakkiya Assistant Professor
Jeppiaar Engineering College
AE2303Aerodynamics II
4. What are Riemann invariants? ( Nov/Dec 2010) Answer: Riemann invariants are mathematical transformations made on a
system of quasilinear first order partial differential equations to make them more easily solvable. Riemann invariants are constant along the characteristic curves of
These are
the partial differential equations where they obtain the name invariant. variables that propagate along 'characteristic' lines.
PARTB
1. A twodimensional wing profile shown in figure is placed in stream of Mach
number 
2.5 at an incidence of 2 ^{o} . Using linearized theory, calculate C _{L} and C _{D} . 
(16) 
(2008, 2012) 
Answer: Refer scan copy notes
2. Based on small perturbation theory, derive the linearized velocity potential
equation for compressible flows (10)
(2008, 2012)
Answer: Pages 663 to 665  Fundamentals of Aerodynamics, John D Anderson, Fourth edition,
(or)
Pages 198 to 200  E.Rathakrishnan Gas dynamics, Third edition, Or Refer notes.
3. State the assumptions and limitations made in the smallperturbation potential theory and show that The linearized pressure coefficient is a function of the perturbation velocity in the Main flow direction only. (2010, 2009)
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Ms.S.Ilakkiya Assistant Professor
Jeppiaar Engineering College
AE2303Aerodynamics II
C _{P} = 
Answer: Pages 666 to 667  Fundamentals of Aerodynamics, John D Anderson, Fourth edition, Page 208, E.Rathakrishnan, Gas dynamics, Third edition , or Refer class notes.
4. 
Describe the PrandtlGlauert affine transformation for subsonic flow over airfoils and highlight its significance (2010, 2009, 2012) 

Answer: Pages 213 to 217  E .Rathakrishnan, Gas dynamics, Third edition, or refer class notes 

5. 
A flat plate of 1m x 0.2 m size is kept in an airstream of velocity 100kmph at an 

angle of attack of 5 ^{o} . Calculate the lift using supersonic linear theory. Assume 

that 
the static pressure and temperature of the freestream air are 2 x 10 ^{5} N/m ^{2} 

and 288 K respectively. (8) (2010, 2009) 

Answer: Refer class notes 

6. 
Derive expressions for lift and drag coefficients of a diamond airfoil using linear theory (2009) 

Answer: Refer E. Rathakrishnan, Gas dynamics, Third edition. 

7. 
Using small perturbation assumption, derive the linearized velocity potential equation for compressible flows past over an airfoil and find out the pressure coefficient. What are the boundary conditions imposed to solved the problem numerically? Answer: Refer class notes 

8. 
What are the salient features of the linearized supersonic flow theory? Explain the theory with necessary sketches. How is lift coefficient of a flat plate making an angle of attack to a supersonic flow calculated using the theory. Answer: Refer class notes 
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Ms.S.Ilakkiya Assistant Professor
Jeppiaar Engineering College
AE2303Aerodynamics II
9. Write short notes on:
i. Fanno and Rayleigh flows
ii. Area rule
iii. Supercritical aerofoils
iv. Attached and detached shocks.
Answer: Refer class notes
10. Consider an infinitely thin flat plate at a 5º angle of
Mach .6
freestream. Calculate the lift and drag coefficients using shock expansion
theory.(2013)
Answer: Refer scan copy notes
attack in a
11. Consider a subsonic flow with an upstearm Mach number of M _{∞} . This flow
moves over a wavy wall with a contour given by = cos( ), where y _{w} is the
ordinate of the wall, h is the amplitude and l is the wavelength. Assume that h is small. Using small perturbation theory, derive an equation for the velocity potential and the surface pressure coefficient. Answer: Refer Page no 329  Fundamentals of Aerodynamics, John D Anderson, Fourth edition.
12. Write short notes on PrandtlGlauert affine transformation Answer: Refer class notes
(2012, 2010)
13. Derive suitable expressions for lift and drag coefficients of a flat plate airfoil at
small angles of attack using linearized supersonic flow theory. Answer: Refer class notes
(2012)
70
Ms.S.Ilakkiya Assistant Professor
Jeppiaar Engineering College
AE 2303Aerodynamics II
UNIT V
TRANSONIC FLOW OVER WING
6
Lower and upper cr itical Mach numbers, Lift and drag diverg ence, shock
thickness,
induced separation,
camber and aspect ra tio of wings, Transonic area rule.
Characteristics
of
swept
wings,
Effects
of
1. Define critical Mach ical 
number for an aerofoil and explain its s ignificance? 

(May/June 2013, 2010 ) Answer: The crit 
Mach 
number 
(M _{c}_{r} ) of 
an aircraft is 
the 
lowest Mach 
number at which the a irflow over some point of the aircraft reaches 
the speed of 

sound. For all aircraft in flight, the airflow around the aircraft is not exactly 
the same as 
the airspeed of the airc raft due to the airflow speeding up and slowing do own to travel
around the aircraft stru cture. At the Critical Mach number, local airflow i n some areas
near the airframe reac hes the speed of sound, even though the aircr aft itself has
airspeed lower than Ma ch 1.0. This creates a weak shock wave.
2. Why sweep back appl ied to wings at high speeds? Or what is the nee d for sweep
back in supersonic ve hicles?
(May/June 20 13, 2008)
(or) what is the need for s wept wing for a high speed air plane. 
(May/ June 2009) 
(or) 
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