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AE2303-Aerodynamics II

UNIT I

 ONE DIMENSIONAL COMPRESSIBLE FLOW 10 Energy, Momentum, continuity and state equations, velocity of

sound, adiabatic steady state flow equations, Flow through convergent- divergent passage, Performance under various back pressures.

1. Define compressibility.

(May/June 2013)

Answer: Compressibility of a fluid is, basically, a measure of the change in
density that will be produced in the fluid by a specified change in pressure.
Also, Compressibility is the fractional change in volume of the fluid element
per unit change in pressure.
By definition, compressibility can be written as:
= 1
Where
is the specific volume
=
;
is the change in specific
volume;
is the change in pressure.

2. What is isentropic compressibility? (Nov/Dec 2009) Answer: If no heat is added to the fluid element or taken away from the fluid element and if friction is ignored, compression of the fluid element takes place isentropically and the isentropic compressibility can be written as:

= 1

3. What do you mean by over expanded nozzle and what is their effect? (May/June 2013) Answer: When a flow takes place inside the convergent-divergent nozzle the flow attains the pressure at the exit of the nozzle. The nozzle is said to be overexpanded , when the pressure at the nozzle exit (P e ) is less than the backpressure (atmospheric pressure) i.e < . Decrease in nozzle exit

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pressure beyond

oblique shock and hence the amount of pressure rise.

this over expanded condition, decreases the

strength of

4.

What are the m ass, compressible gas f lows?

momentum and energy conservation eq uations for (Nov / Dec 2012)

Contin uity equation (Mass conservation):

Momentum equati on:

Energy equation:

5. State the phenome non of choking in a nozzle. (May/June 2013, 2009)

nozzle is at a valu e of P e = 0.528 P 0 , The Mach number reaches th e maximum

value of 1 at the

increase the value of Mach number beyond 1 at the throat. Conse quently, the mass flow rate re mains constant at the throat. This situation wh en the flow

throat. Further reduction of the back pres sure cannot

the back pressure at the exit of the convergent divergent

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goes sonic at the throat and the mass flow remains constant no matter how the back pressure is reduced is called ‘choked flow’. This process is called choking.

6. Differentiate perfect gas from real gases. (Nov/ Dec 2010) Answer: A gas is a collection of molecules which are in random motion. Due to the electronic structure of the particles, a force field pervades the space around them. The force field due to one molecule reaches out and interacts with the force field due to another molecule. These forces take the form of weak attractive force at large distances. At temperatures and pressures characteristic of many compressible flows, the molecules are spaced widely apart. Hence, in most engineering applications, these intermolecular forces can be neglected. They are called as ‘perfect gases’.

=
or
=
=

However, at very cold temperatures and high pressures, the molecules are more closely packed. Here, the effect of intermolecular forces become important and the above equation is no longer valid. The gases in which these intermolecular forces are important and therefore cannot be neglected are called as ‘real gases’.

7. Why do you need a converging diverging nozzle to accelerate the flow from subsonic to supersonic speed? (Nov/ Dec 2010), (May/June 2009) Answer: From the area-velocity relation,

=( 1)

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For subsonic flow, . 0 < 1 the area-velocity relation shows than an increase in velocity is obtained when there is a decrease in area and a decrease in velocity is obtained with an increase in area. For sonic flow, M = 1, the area-velocity shows that the area required for attaining sonic flow should be a minimum. For Supersonic flow, M > 1, the area velocity relation shows that for an increase in velocity an increase in area is required and vice versa. Hence, from the above results, in order to expand a flow from a stagnation condition to supersonic speeds, we first need to accelerate the subsonic flow by passing through a convergent duct, achieving a sonic flow at the minimum area of the convergent duct, called as the throat. Further, to accelerate the sonic flow to supersonic speeds, we need a divergent duct since for a supersonic flow; an increase in area gives an increase in velocity.

8. Distinguish between thermally perfect gas and calorically perfect gas.
(Nov/Dec 2009)
Answer: A gas is said to be thermally perfect when its internal energy (u)
and enthalpy are functions of temperature alone i.e = ( ), = ( ).
And also C p and C v are functions of temperature, their difference is a constant
with
reference to temperature. i.e. = ( ) ( ). Also =
(
)
A gas is said to be calorically perfect when both C p and C v are
constants and are independent of temperature, i.e
=
(
) ;
=
( );
=
(
)

9. What do you mean by perfect gas?

(Nov/ Dec 2008)

i. A perfect gas must be both thermally and calorically perfect.

ii. A perfect gas must satisfy both thermal equation of state, =

and caloric equations of state, = , =

iii. A calorically perfect gas must be thermally perfect and a thermally perfect gas need not be calorically perfect.

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10. Write internal energy equation for one dimensional high speed flow in

general partial differential form.

Answer: The internal energy equation for 1dimensional high speed flow can be written as:

(April/May 2008)

where e is the internal energy in the flow.

11. What are the properties of flow medium that determine the velocity of sound

wave in the medium?

Answer: The equation for the velocity of sound can be written as

=

(April/May 2008)

Where a is the speed of sound; is a specific heat constant; R= specific gas constant; T=static temperature

Hence, the speed of sound in a calorically perfect gas is a function of temperature only. For a calorically perfect gas the ratio of and specific gas R does not change with temperature.

12. State the importance of Rayleigh supersonic pitot formula. (Nov/Dec 2009, 2013) (or) Why Rayleigh correction formula is required for pitot-static tube in

(May/June 2009)

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When the pitot tube is inserted into a supersonic flow, a shock wave is formed ahead of the Pitot tube as shown in fig. The mouth of the Pitot tube is a stagnation region. Hence, a streamline moving along line cde is brought to rest at point e. However, due to the presence of the shock wave, the streamline cde passes the normal portion of the shock wave. As a result, the pressure at point e is not the total pressure of the freestream, but the total pressure behind a normal shock wave, P 02 . Hence, Rayleigh Pitot tube formula is necessary for measurement of velocity in a supersonic flow.

13. Write down the compressible Bernoulli’s equation for isentropic flows? (Nov/ Dec 2008) Answer: The energy equation for an adiabatic process is given by

+
= =
--------------------- (1)
+
=
=
---------------- (2)
+
=
------------------------- (3)

and when the gas is perfect, it becomes

Equation (2), when combined with the state equation, it becomes

The equation (3) is the form of the energy equation commonly used in gas dynamics. And this is popularly known as compressible Bernoulli’s equation for isentropic flows.

14. What is under-expanding nozzle flow? Answer: When the back pressure is reduced further below the pressure at which supersonic isentropic flow takes place throughout the nozzle, the flow inside the nozzle is said to be an under-expanded nozzle flow since the exit pressure is higher than the back pressure and hence, the flow is capable of additional expansion after leaving the nozzle. This expansion takes place across expansion shock waves attached to the exit as shown in figure.

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15. Explain Mach num ber spectrum.

be classified in terms of Mach number as:

 Subsonic flow – M < 1 at every point in the flow, streamlines are smooth, disturbances c an propagate upstream. Transonic flow – 0.8 < M < 1.2 – Flow has pockets of supers onic flow in certain region s of flow terminated by a shock wave. Both supersonic flo w regimes exist in transonic flow. subsonic & Supersonic flo w – M > 1 at every point in the flow. Characte rized by the

presence of

discontinuousl y

shock waves across which flow propert ies change

Hypersonic flo w Strength of the shock wave is higher, it m oves closer to the body le ading to higher temperatures in between the sh ock and the

effects and

body. When

chemically rea cting effects begin to dominate the flow Hype rsonic flow.

M is sufficiently large, such that viscous

16. What is the physic al meaning of Mach number? Answer: Conside r a fluid element moving along a streamline.

The kinetic

and internal energi es per unit mass are V 2 /2 and e respectively. Th eir ratio is:

The squar e of the Mach number is the ratio of kineti c energy to

a gas flow. Mach number is a measure of the directed

internal energy of

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AE2303-Aerodynamics II

motion

molecules.

of

the

gas

compared

with

PART-B

the

random

thermal

motion

of

the

1. An ideal gas flows through a duct under isentropic conditions. Show that the area has to increase for increase in velocity when the local mach number is

greater than one (M>1)

(May/June 2013)

(or)

Derive the area-mach number relation and explain why convergent-divergent

nozzle is needed for supersonic flow.

(May/June 2013)

Answer: Consider the differential mass conservation equation

Expanding this equation we get,

, we get
+

dividing both the sides by

+ =0 (1)

To obtain the relation between velocity and area we need to replace the

term from the above equation. We know differential form or momentum

equation as,

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 Using the above equation, Eq. (1) can be written as, Many conclusions can be drawn from this equation.

1. For positive dA, du will be positive for M>1. Hence for supersonic flows,

velocity of the flow increases with increase in area or divergent portion acts

as the nozzle.

Similarly, for convergent portion acts as the diffuser for supersonic flows.

2. For negative dA, du will be positive for M<1. Hence for subsonic flows,

velocity of the flow increases with decrease in area or convergent portion acts

as the nozzle.

Similarly, for divergent portion acts as the diffuser for supersonic flows.

3. We can always achieve supersonic flow using a convergent-divergent duct

having subsonic flow at the entry. In such a case, for M=1, we get dA=0, means Mach one will be achieved at the minimum cross section of the duct. Therefore the minimum cross-section where sonic conditions are achieved in the convergent divergent duct, is called as throat.

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(or)

Answer: Refer Page No: 626 to 629 - Fundamentals of Aerodynamics, John D Anderson, Fourth edition.

2. Derive the relation relating area ratio and Mach number for an isentropic flow through a varying duct. Answer: Let us consider the varying area duct as shown in Fig.1. Areas at different stations are mentioned in the same figure. The minimum cross- sectional area of this duct is called as throat if local Mach number of the same cross-section is 1. We can find out the area of throat under this constraint for known inlet or outlet area of the duct. We know that mass flow rate at the throat is,

Where,

Fig. 1 Flow through convergent divergent duct.

are geometric and flow properties at the throat.

For the steady flow, mass flow rate at any cross-section having geometric and flow properties as ρ, A, u will be equal to the mass flow rate of the throat.

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AE 2303-Aerodynamics II

Hence,

But we know that

Hence

the

area

relation

can

be

wri

----------------

Hence, If

we

know Mach number M at any cross

 tten as, -----(1) section and

corresponding are a A then we can calculate the area of the throat for the duct.

any cross-

section upstream

or downstream of the throat is not dependant o n the nature

From this express ion it is also clear that the Mach number at

of variation of cro ss-sectional area of the duct in the stream wise d irection.

3.

Derive

(May/June 2013)

a

relatio n

for

compressibility

correction

to

dynami c

pressure.

Answer: Refer pa ge no: 82 to 83 - E.Rathakrishnan, Gas dyna mics, Third edition

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4. Derive compressible Bernoulli’s equation. (May/June 2013)

Answer: Refer page no:47 to 49 - E.Rathakrishnan, Gas dynamics, Third edition

5. Air in a high-pressure tank P 0 is suddenly accelerated through a nozzle to maximum possible velocity. What will be the error in the maximum velocity calculated by assuming this flow as incompressible? (May/June 2013)

6. A supersonic wind tunnel is to de designed for a test section Mach number of M=3 and a test section size of 0.2m x 0.2 m in cross section. If the stagnation pressure is 20 bar and the stagnation temperature is 310K, calculate the mass flow rate and the area of the first throat. (May/June 2013)

7. Air Flows through a convergent nozzle under a stagnation pressure of 3 bar and a stagnation temperature of 400 K. The nozzle has an exit area of 0.1m. Find the mass flow rate when the exit pressure is 100kPa. (May/June 2013)

8. Analyse the performance characteristics of a convergent-divergent nozzle for different inlet and outlet conditions. (Nov/Dec 2012)

9. Derive the one dimensional adiabatic steady state energy equation and deduce

the isentropic relations for a perfect gas.

(Nov/Dec 2010)

(or)

Derive all the isentropic relations for a one dimensional compressible gas

flows.

(Nov/Dec 2012)

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interested to pred ict the flow properties at the stagnation cond itions. Let's imagine that a flui d flow is decelerated from its exhisting state is entropically to zero velocity w hich is termed as the stagnation condition as sh own in Fig. below. All the pr operties of the flow at stagnation condition a re called as stagnation proper ties. Similarly if we decelerate the superso nic flow or accelerate the sub sonic flow isentropically so that the fluid par rticles reach sonic velocity, th en flow properties are called as star propertie s. Both the stagnation propert ies and star properties are the reference prop erties of the flow and are const ant in the fluid domain if the flow is isentropic . Let's apply

Here we are

said to be stagnant when its velocity is zero.

the 1D energy co nservation principle to derive the relation initia lly between stagnation and stat ic properties.

Fig. I sentropic stagnation of a moving fluid particle

Consider that

the fluid particle is isentropically brought to ze ro as shown

in above figure. W e know that 1D form of energy conversion equa ation is

2 stands for

final decelerated stat e of fluid. Since, V2=0, lets represent T 2 = T 0 is above equation. Then,

Here subscript 1 stan ds for initial state of the fluid and subscript

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The above equation is obtained by dividing the equation by

 Here su bsrcipt 0 represents the stagnation condition. Its evident from this equ ation that the stagnation temperature to static temperature ratio is depen dent on Mach number & specific heat ratio. The Mach number in th is expression is the Mach number of the commencemen t of isentropic deceleration. flow before

Since t he process is isentropic and we already know th e isentropic

relations, we

and the same f or density also.

can find out stagnation pressure to static press ure relation

From the expr ession for stagnation pressure to static pressur e, it can be seen that the stagn ation pressure and static pressure are almost eq ual if Mach number is zero. H owever for the incompressible flows with M ach number less than 0.3, it c an be evaluated that the difference between sta tic pressure

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and stagnation pressure is equal to the dynamic pressure. But this isn't the case for compressible flows.

(or)

Answer: Refer Pages 527 to 529 - Fundamentals of Aerodynamics, John D Anderson, Fourth edition. / Refer notes

10. Air flow is discharged to atmosphere at sea level through a sonic nozzle. If

the air storage at the reservoir is 40 x 10 5 N/m 2 , determine the pressure, temperature and density at the exit of the nozzle. Assume that the reservoir air

is at sea level temperature.

(Nov/Dec 2010)

11. Explain why a converging diverging configuration is required for the acceleration of flow from subsonic to supersonic conditions (8) (2007, 2012) Answer: From the area-velocity relation,

=( 1)

For subsonic flow, . 0 < 1 the area-velocity relation shows than an increase in velocity is obtained when there is a decrease in area and a decrease in velocity is obtained with an increase in area. For sonic flow, M = 1, the area-velocity shows that the area required for attaining sonic flow should be a minimum. For Supersonic flow, M > 1, the area velocity relation shows that for an increase in velocity an increase in area is required and vice versa. Hence, from the above results, in order to expand a flow from a stagnation condition to supersonic speeds, we first need to accelerate the subsonic flow by passing through a convergent duct, achieving a sonic flow at the minimum area of the convergent duct, called as the throat. Further, to accelerate the sonic flow to supersonic speeds, we need a divergent duct since for a supersonic flow; an increase in area gives an increase in velocity.

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(or)

Answer: Refer Page No: 626 to 628 - Fundamentals of Aerodynamics,

John D Anderson, Fourth edition / Refer notes

12. Explain what is choking in a C-D nozzle and show that the expression for

=
(8)

choked mass flow rate for an isentropic flow of duct through a duct is

(2008, 2010, and 2012)

(or)

Air flows through a duct under steady isentropic flow conditions. Derive an

expression for the mass flow rate in terms of stagnation pressure and

temperature and local Mach number. (May/June 2013)

We have seen in Fig. below that mass flow rate of the nozzle remains

unaltered after flow gets chocked. This chocked mass flow rate can be calculated

as,

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But we know that,

Hence

However,

Hence

(1)

From this expression it is clear that for a convergent divergent nozzle, for given throat area, choked mass flow rate remains constant for the fixed reservoir (P 0 and T 0 ) conditions. Therefore choked mass flow rate can be increased by increasing the reservoir pressure P 0 or decreasing reservoir temperature T 0 .

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If we substitute for air γ=1.4, we get

(or)

.
=

13. Sketch the pressure variation along the centreline of a converging diverging nozzle for optimum expansion. What is the influence of back pressure on this

variation?

(2009)

For optimum expansion, the pressure at the exit of the nozzle equals the back pressure, say P b6 . This is shown in Figure 1.

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Figure 2: Pressure variation in C-D nozzle with varying back pressures For values of back pressure, P b = P b3 = 0.528 P 0 , the Mach number reaches a value of 1 at the throat. The flow is completely subsonic throughout the nozzle, except at the throat where a Mach number of 1 is obtained. For Back pressure greater than 0.528 P 0 , the flow is entirely subsonic throughout the nozzle with a maximum velocity attained at the throat. Therefore, for subsonic flow, ‘n’ number of isentropic solutions are possible throughout the nozzle. When the back pressure is decreased above 0.528 P 0, say P b4 , a normal shock wave forms inside the nozzle. This normal shock wave moves towards the exit of the nozzle when back pressure is further reduced to some value of back pressure, say P b5. The location of the normal shock wave is governed by the condition that the pressure rise across the normal shock wave plus the pressure rise due to the expansion of subsonic flow behind the shock wave through the divergent portion of the duct be just

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right enough to equal the the exit pressure at the nozzle to the back pressure. When the back pressure is in between P b5 and P b6 , oblique shock waves are formed since the exit pressure has expanded below the back pressure and it needs to be compressed across an oblique shock wave so as to increase the exit pressure such that it matches with the back pressure. When this situation exists inside the nozzle, it is known as ‘overexpanded’. When the back pressure is below P b6, say P b7 , the exit pressure is higher than the back pressure. Hence, the exit pressure is capable of additional expansion in order to match the exit pressure to the back pressure. This takes place through expansion waves. The higher pressure at the exit of the nozzle is therefore expanded through the expansion waves to a lower pressure.

14. Obtain an expression for the speed of sound and show that the speed of sound is proportional o the square root of the absolute temperature of air. (10) (2012, 2009) Answer: Consider an acoustic wave moving in a stationary fluid with speed ‘a’. Properties of fluid change due in the presence of the acoustic wave. These property variations can be predicted using 1D conservation equations. For simplicity we can assume the acoustic wave to be stationary and the fluid to be passing across the wave with velocity ‘a’. Consider the control volume shown in Fig. For understanding, central hatched portion can be exaggerated as the acoustic wave. Let P, ρ and a be the pressure, density and velocity ahead the acoustic wave respectively. Acoustic wave being a small amplitude disturbance, induces small change properties while fluid passing across it. Hence the properties behind the acoustic wave are P+dP, in ρ+dρ and a+da pressure, density and velocity respectively. Application of mass conservation and momentum conservation equations between inlet and exit stations of control volume, we get,

=

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AE 2303-Aerodynamics II

+
=

Here u=a ( vel ocity of the wave)

ρa=(ρ+ dρ)(a

ρ

ρ

+ da)----- mass conservation equation

ρ + dρ)(a + da)

ρ

ρ

ρ

ρ

ρ

P + ρa

From mass equation ρ

2

= (P + dP)+(ρ

2

----- momentum conservation

ρ

ρ

ρ

ρ

ρ

ρ

ρ ρ

ρ

ρ

ρ

ρ

ρ

equation

even smaller.

ρ

ρ since both are small quantities. Hence their prod

ρ = 0 and

ρ

ρ

uct will be

From momentum equ ations we get,

p + ρa 2 = (p + dp)+(ρ

ρ ρ

ρ ρ

ρ

ρ + dρ)(a 2 + 2ada + da 2 )

neglecting da 2

p + ρa 2 = (p + dp)+(ρ

p

ρ ρ

ρ

ρ + dρ)(a 2 + 2ada)

ρ ρ

+ ρa

ρ

ρ

2

= (p + dp)+(ρ

ρ

ρ

ρ

ρ

ρ

ρ

ρ

p

+ ρa

ρ

ρ

2

= (p + dp)+(ρ

ρ

ρa 2 + 2aρda + a 2 dρ)

ρ

ρ

ρ

ρ

0 = dp + 2aρda + a 2

ρ

ρ

ρ

ρ

Incorporating Eq. (5.4 ) in above equation, we get,

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5.5

of sound.

We can express the s ame in terms of bulk modulus or compressibili ty using the

definition of the comp

This is the g eneral formula for acoustic speed or speed

ressibility (τ).

τ

τ

However,

changes in propertie s across sound wave are small and we ha ve also not

considered any dissip ative effect like viscous effects, therefore we c an treat the

compressibility as the isentropic one. This proves that acoustic wave is isentropic

(adiabatic reversible) in nature. Both the formulas derived for acoust ic speed are

valid for any state of matter. But if we consider gas then we can furt her simplify

the expression as belo w.

Now this

τ

τ

τ

can

be isothermal

.

Since the flow is adiab atic

Therefore,

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(or) Answer: Pages 522 5 to 525 - Fundamentals of Aerodynami cs, John D Anderson, Fourth edition. / Refer notes.

15. Air flows isentrop ically through a convergent divergent nozzle

of inlet area

12 cm 2 at a rate of 0.7 Kg / s. The conditions at the inlet and exit o f the nozzle

are 8 Kg / m 3 an d 400 K and 4 Kg / m 3 and 300 K respective ly. Find the cross sectional are a, pressure and Mach number at the nozzle exit (10) (2008) Answer: Refer sc an copy notes

16. Air at 300K and

10 5 N / m 2 enters a diffuser with a velocity of 4 m / s. The

diffuser is to be de signed to reduce the velocity of the air to 60 m/ s. The mass

 flow rate throug h the diffuser is 13.6 Kg/s. Assuming the flow to be isentropic, determ ine the (1) inlet diameter, (2) outlet diameter, (3) Rise in static temperature (8) (2008) Answer: Refer cla ss notes 17. A storage cham ber of a compressor is maintained at 1.8 atmospheres absolute and 20 D eg Centigrade. If the surrounding pressure is 1 atmosphere, calculate the velo city with which air flow takes place from the chamber to

outside through a unit area hole. Also, calculate the mass flow p er unit area.

(2010)

Assume air as a pe rfect gas. (8)

Answer: Refer sc an copy notes

18. A weak pressure the pressure rise behind the wave

wave travels through a tube into air at 1 atm a nd 32 o C. If across the wave is 0.04 kPa, determine the ve locity of air

(2008)

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UNIT II

NORMAL, OBLIQUE SHOCKS

12

Prandtl equation and Rankine Hugonoit relation, Normal shock equations, Pitot static tube, corrections for subsonic and supersonic flows, Oblique shocks and corresponding equations, Hodograph and pressure turning angle, shock polar, flow past wedges and concave corners, strong, weak and detached shocks.

1. Distinguish between weak shocks and strong shocks? (Nov/ Dec 2012) Answer: Strong shock waves correspond to a greater wave angle, β whereas weaker shock waves correspond to a weaker wave angle, β From oblique shock solution,

When β increases,

increases and correspondingly from the

equation below, the pressure ratio across the shock wave increases.

Since, strength of a shock wave is the measure of the pressure ratio; increase in pressure ratio corresponds to a stronger shock. For lesser wave angle, β, a decrease in pressure ratio implies a weaker shock.

2. What is meant by zone of silence and zone of action in supersonic flow? (May/June 2013) Answer:

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For a superso nic flow, a line drawn tangent to the famil y of circles (denoted by sound w aves) is the Mach wave and the correspondin g angle the

Mach angle.

The disturbances are

felt only only within this disturbance envelope / Mach line.

Mach line makes wit h the direction of motion of the beeper is the

This is the zone of ac tion. Outside this Mach line is the Zone of sile nce since no disturbance is felt in t his region due to the supersonic motion of the be eeper.

3.

Why can a norm al shock take place only in supersonic flow?

2013)

(May/June

cylinder placed in a flow as shown in fig. We know from

the kinetic theory that the flow consists of a large number of flui d molecules

in unit volume an d the transport of mass, momentum and energy takes place

Consider a

through the motio n of these molecules. Also the molecules carry

<

the signals

about the presence of the cylinder around the flow field at a speed equal to the

speed of sound.

molecules far upst ream of the cylinder get the information about t the presence of the body throug h the signals which travels with speed and t herefore the molecules orient t hemselves in order to flow around the cylinder. But wh en the incoming stream is supersonic, the mole ecules travel faster than signals and there is no possibility that they will be info rmed of the presence of the b ody, before they reach the cylinder. Also t he reflected signals from the fa ce of the cylinder tend to coalesce a short dista nce ahead of the body. Their c oalescence forms a thin compression front c alled shock

and the

When the incoming stream is subsonic,

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wave as shown in fig. This is the reason why a normal shock is formed only in supersonic flow.

4. How are the normal shock relations and oblique shock relations connected?
(Nov/Dec 2012)
=
;
= sin( )
Where subscripts 1 and 2 refer to the conditions ahead of and behind the
oblique shock; β is the shock angle and θ is the flow defelection angle.

5. What is the importance of Hugoniot relation? (May/June 2013,2008) Answer:

i. Hugoniot relation relates only thermodynamic quantities across the shock.

ii. Also we have made no assumptions about the gas while deriving the relation, so it is the general relation that holds for a perfect gas, chemically reacting gas, real gas, etc.

iii. In addition, from Hugoniot equation , the change in internal energy equals the mean pressure across the shock times the change in specific volume.

6. Why Mach number behind a normal shock cannot be supersonic? Obtain the

limiting value of it.

From this relation,

=

(May/June 2013)

, it implies that the velocity changes

across a normal shock must be from supersonic to subsonic or vice versa. But later it was shown that only the changes takes place only from supersonic to subsonic. Hence the Mach number behind the normal shock is always subsonic.

=
1+ 1
2
1
2

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From t he above equation, it shows that or a perfect ga s, the Mach

number behind
the shock is a function of only the mach num ber ahead of
the shock.
=1
= 1 it means weak normal shock wa ve, i.e Mach
wave.
>1
< 1 it means that Mach number behind
the normal
shock is subsonic.
(
) ;
= 1.4;
= 0.378

7. What is the relati onship between mach angle and Mach number ? (Nov/Dec

2012)

For a su personic flow, the angle between the Mach l ine and the

ach angle μ,

direction of motio
n of the body (flow direction) is called the M
given by
= sin 1
Where M is free st ream Mach number.

μ

μ

8. Define characteri stic Mach number and give its maximum va lue for air.

(Nov/Dec 2010, 2 009, 2008)

Answer: If the v elocity of a fluid element is speeded up / slow ed down to

sonic velocity adi abatically, the temperature it would have at su ch condition

27

is T * . The corresp onding value of speed of sound is a * and the co rresponding

value of Mach nu mber is the Characteristic Mach number, M * .

=

Ms.S.Ilakkiya Assistant Professor

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<1
<1
=1
=1
>1
>1
+1
1

For air, M * = 2.45, when M

AE 2303-Aerodynamics II

9. Define shock stre ngth and express it in terms of Mach number f or a normal

shock.

(or) How is the stren gth of a shock wave determined in a super sonic flow? (April/May 2008) Answer: Since t here is a sudden rise in static pressure acros s the shock

static pressure can be considered as a fact or that can

represent the stren gth of a shock. Greater this static pressure rise, stronger the

shock and vice ver sa. The strength of th e shock, i.e., the static pressure rise across the n ormal shock can be written as:

(Nov/D ec 2012)

wave, this rise in

=
( +1)
1

2+( 1)

10. What is meant by Mach reflection? Answer:

(Nov/Dec 20 10, 2008)

If
>

for M 2 , a regular reflection is not possi ble. Instead,

a normal shock i s formed at the upper wall to allow the str eamlines to continue parallel t o the wall. Away from the wall, this normal sh ock transits

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into a curved sh ock which intersects the incident shock wit h a curved

reflected shock p ropagating downstream. This shock pattern is ‘Mach Reflection’ .

labelled as

11. What is a Mach w ave?

(Nov /Dec 2008)

Answer: The lin es at which the pressure difference is conce ntrated and which generate th e cones are called Mach waves or Mach line s. Therefore

Mach waves may be defined as weak pressure waves across wh ich there is only an infinitesim al change in flow properties.

12. What are oblique

an oblique

waves. The sh ock waves which are at an angle or oblique to t he incoming

freestream flow ar e known as oblique shock waves. Oblique shoc k waves are

shock wave over a concave corner / Rules for reflection of shock

shock waves? How are they formed? Illustrate

formed when the s upersonic flow is turned into itself.

is deflected

upwards through a n angle . Consequently, the flow streamlines a re deflected

Consider

the figure above. At point A, the surface

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upwards towards t he main bulk of the flow above the surface. Th is change in

flow direction ta kes place across an oblique shock wave. A ll the flow

streamlines experi ence the same deflection angle at the shock . Hence, the

the wall

flow downstream

downstream of po int A. Across the shock wave, the Mach numbe r decreases,

and the pressure, t emperature and density increases.

of

the

shock also follows the

direction

of

13. With a suitable s ketch illustrate the propagation of waves fro om a sound

 source moving at a speed of sound. (2) Answer:

14. What are expansio n waves? How are they formed? Or what are

the rules for

reflection of expan sion waves

from itself, an exp ansion wave is formed. The surface is deflected downwards

through an angle θ.

a flow with supersonic mach number i.e. M> 1 is turned

θ

θ

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The flow streamlines are deflected downwards away from the main bulk of flow above the surface. This change in flow direction takes place across an expansion wave, centred at point A. Away from the surface, the expansion wave fans out. The flow streamlines are smoothly curved through the expansion fan until they are all parallel to the wall behind point A. All flow properties through an expansion wave change smoothly and continuously. Across an expansion wave, the Mach number increases, the pressure, temperature and density increases.

15. Define normal shocks and oblique shocks. Answer: If the shock wave is normal / perpendicular to the upstream incoming flow, it is known as a normal shock wave. Normal shock waves occur inside nozzles and also in the normal part of the bow shock wave.

A shock wave that is oblique or formed at an angle to the flow is known as an oblique shock wave.

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16. Why Prandtl’s relation for normal shock cannot be used for subsonic flows?

From Prandtl’s relation,

which shows that

This states that the flow ahead of a normal shock wave is supersonic. Hence, Prandtl’s relation cannot be applied for a subsonic flow.

17. What is a hodograph? Answer: A hodograph is a curve forming the locus of the tips of the velocity vectors in the plane behind a shock. In addition to an analytical solution of the problem of determining the flow parameters behind an oblique shock, the flow properties behind a oblique shock can be determined by using graphical method based on the concept of a hodograph.

18. Bring out the difference between flow over a wedge and cone Answer:

 S.NO WEDGE CONE 1. Two dimensional flow Three dimensional flow 2. Stream lines are straight and parallel to wedge surface Stream lines are curved 3 No such relieving effect exist Addition of third dimension

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 here. provides the flow with an extra space to move th rough, hence relieving some of t he obstruction set up by the presenc e of the body. This is called thre e dimensional relieving effect. Shock w ave on the wedge is Shock wave on the c one is weaker 4 stronger because of relieving effect For M=2 for semi c one angle 20º 5 For M=2 for semi wedge angle creates a β=90º-53 º=37º oblique 20º create s a β β β=53º oblique shock shock Pressure P 2 behind the shock is Pressure P 2 behind th e shock is not 6 same as t hat on wedge surface same as that on surfa ce of cone.

PART-B

1. Show that the stre ngth of a normal shock in a perfect gas depe nds only on

Mach number ahe ad of the shock.

(Nov /Dec 2012)

wave using 1D co nservation equations and know properties ahea d the shock.

We can n derive the expression for the properties behin d the shock

This

e quation

gives

the

density

ratio

which

is

(1)

function

of

freestream Ma ch number and the specific heat ratio. We can find out the

velocity ratio f rom this density ratio as,

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the expression for static pressure ratio. For s implicity of

derivation, in itially representation of dynamic pressure is ne cessary and

Let's derive

can be expre ssed as follows

From definiti on of Mach number

=

We know the

p 1 + ρ 1 u 1 2 = p

Replacing th e dynamic pressure from either side and rearran ging we get

1D momentum conservation equation as

2 + ρ ρ 2 u 2

ρ

2

ρ

ρ

The above eq uation can be written as

=1+ 2 +1 ( 1)

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This equation gives the strength of the shock or static pressure rise which is again function of free stream Mach number and the specific heat ratio.

(or)

Answer: Pages 64 to 68 - John D. Anderson, Jr., Modern compressible flow, Second edition, Mc Graw-Hill Publishing company (or) Refer notes

2. Derive Prandtl’s relation. Answer: It had already been discussed that the subsonic flow is pre-warned and supersonic flow is not. The reason behind this fact is that, any small amplitude disturbance travels with acoustic speed, however speed of fluid particle is more than the speed of sound in case of supersonic flows. Therefore the message of presence of the obstacle cannot propagate upstream. Hence a messenger gets developed in front of the obstacle to warn the flow in order to avoid its direct collision with the obstacle. This messenger is called as shock. In the presence of normal shock, fluid velocity decreases to the extent where flow Mach number behind the shock attains value below one. Due to this subsonic speed attainment of the flow, it becomes aware about the presence of the obstacle well in advance in the narrow space between shock and obstacle. Herewith we will deal for computation of flow properties behind the normal shock.

In the presence of a general obstacle the shock pattern is shown here in Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Shock pattern for a blunt or bluff obstacle

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The shock for the s tagnation streamline can be considered as n ormal to it. Therefore we can us e the earlier derived 1D flow relations alo ng with the assumptions of flow s teady, adiabatic and inviscid flow. Consider a s mall control volume around norm al shock for application of these relations b etween two stations of the control volume, mainly, inlet and outlet as shown in Fi g. 1.

the reference star properties of the flow in th e process to

calculate the flow pr operties behind the normal shock from the

conditions. We can ta ke the advantage of using stared temperature si nce the flow is adiabatic in nature. Imagine that flow is adiabatically brought to M ach number one on either sides of the shock independently. In this case, we shou ld get same stared temperature o n either sides of shock. We can also sho w that total temperature is also sa me on either side. The explicit formulation us sing the star temperature and conce rned acoustic speed before the normal shock is,

known inlet

Lets us examine

Applying same strateg y at the outlet we get,

However, we can writ e static enthalpy in terms of acoustic speed as,

Therefore, the energy equation at the inlet becomes,

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Similarly for the outle t station we have

Let's obtain the expre ssion for velocity using mass and momentum

replace the acustic spe ed term from equations (1) and (2).

(1)

(2)

equations to

From 1D mass and mo omentum conservation equations we have

ρ

p 1 + ρ 1 u 1 2 = p 2 + ρ 2 u 2

ρ

ρ 1 u 1 2 u 2

ρ

ρ

ρ

ρ

ρ

ρ

Therefore,

2

Using equation 1 and 2, above equation transforms to

Rearranging the terms of above equation, we get

Further re arrangemen ts gives

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Necessary rearrangem ent for the above equation is as given,

(3)

This ex pression shows that, M 1 *2 and M 2 *2 are recipro cal of each

relation for

normal shock wh ich can be used to prove that Mach numb er becomes subsonic behind th e normal shock

other for a norma l shock. This equation is called as Prandtl’s

3. Derive Rayleigh s upersonic Pitot formula. Why is Rayleigh’s co rrection for total pressure requ ired in supersonic flows? (8) (2010, 2009, 2007)

w Mach number is one of the important parameter for subsonic

the functions

of local Mach num ber (M). The pressure measurements are one of the common

and supersonic flow s. All the flow parameters and their variations are

 practices to deter mine the Mach number. In subsonic flow, the simultaneous measurement of s tatic and stagnation pressures using a Prandtl Pitot

Static tube are mad e in a similar way as shown in Fig.1. Subsequently, t he isentropic

relation is used to d etermine the flow Mach number.

( 1)

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Fig. 1: Prandtl Pi tot static probe for simultaneous measurement .

The char acteristic feature of a supersonic flow is the fo rmation of a

shock wave. So,

to a detached bo w shock (Fig. 7.6.5). Due to this shock wav e at certain distance from th e measurement location, the stagnation pres sure located indicated by the probe will be much higher than the stagnation pressure of

the introduction of a Pitot probe into the flow s tream, leads

the free stream. F or the stagnation stream lines, the curved shoc k is normal

to the free stream

and the measured value represents the stagnat ion pressure

downstream of t he normal shock

. While conducting exp eriment, the

of

static pressure

measured simulta neously by any of the methods, discussed in Fig . 7.6.2.

the free stream (upstream of the sho ck) is also

Fig. 2: Detached sho ck ahead of the measuring pressure probe in a supersonic flow.

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the static pressure measurement must be done f ar upstream

of the shock so th at its influence on the measurement will be min imized. The

Mach number r elation connecting the static and stagnati on pressure

measurements is expressed by Rayleigh-Pitot formula for superso onic flows.

However,

(7.6.7)

The dynami c pressure

obtained from static pressure a nd the Mach

number is then gi ven by the following expression.

Thus,

the

M ach

number

calculation

through

static

(7.6.8)

and

stagnation

measurements giv es complete information of a supersonic flow fie ld.

(or)

Answer: Funda mentals of Aerodynamics, John D Anders on, Fourth

edition. (Or) Refe r class notes.

 4. A Pitot tube is ins erted into an airflow of Mach where the static pressure is 1 atm. Calculate the total pressure measured by the tube and the loss of total

pressure experienc ed (10) (2010)

 5. Derive a relation between flow turning angle, shock angle and freestream Mach number for oblique shock waves. (2010)

Consid er the flow taking place along a wedge as sh own in Fig.

all which is

1. Let θ be the we

θ

θ

dge angle and β be the shock angle with the w

β

β

parallel to the appr oaching free stream.

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Fig. 1. An

oblique shock for a supersonic flow over the w edge.

As we have a lready proved that shock exists only for super sonic flows,

consider a supers onic flow of Mach number M 1 approaching th e wedge. In

s the wedge

angle. Let us solv e the mass, momentum and energy equations f or this flow.

Consider the con trol volume as shown in Fig. 1. In this spe cial control

faces of the

control volume a re parallel to the streamline hence these fac es will not

contribute to the

volume, inlet and

the presence of th

e shock, flow deflects by an angle θ which i

θ

θ

outlet are parallel to the shock. Other two

mass, momentum and energy fluxes. Let u be the velocity

normal to the sho ck and w be the velocity parallel to the shoc k. Graphical

demonstration of these velocities is given in Fig. 1. Station 1 co rresponds to

inlet or pre shock

shock conditions.

conditions while station 2 corresponds to ou tlet or post

Mass conservation in integral form

Lets assume the fl ow to be steady, hence,

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Hence,

(ρu) 2 = (ρu) 1 or ρ 1 u 1 = ρ 2 u 2

This is the mass conservation equation for oblique shock conditions expressed in terms of velocities normal to the shock. Now consider the momentum conservation equation for the same flow. Since momentum is the vector equation, we have to consider, two equations, viz, normal and parallel to the shock. Lets initially consider the momentum equation in integral form for inviscid flow.

Now consider the momentum equation in the direction parallel to the shock wave. Since there is no pressure difference in this direction, the right hand side will be zero. Hence,

but using mass conservation we can re-write it as, (w) pre = (w) post or w 1 = w 2 This expression clearly suggests that velocity parallel to the shock remains conserved. Now consider the momentum equation normal to the shock.

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(p + ρu 2 ) post = (p + ρu 2 ) post or

p 1 + ρ 1 u 1 2 = p 2 + ρ 2 u 2

2

We can clearly see that the momentum equation looks exactly same as that for the normal shock relations. Here u is the velocity normal to the shock. Therefore only velocity component normal to the shock wave is responsible for the change in momentum since momentum and velocity tangential to shock are conserved. We have already derived the mass and momentum conservation equations for the oblique shock conditions. Consider the integral form of energy equation for inviscid compressible flow.

For steady flow, this equation changes to,

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But,

Hence the energy equation can be written as,

Hence,

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Energy equation is also similar as that of energy equation for normal shock. Here 'u' is the velocity normal to the shock. From mass, momentum and energy equations, it is clear that, only velocity normal to

the shock, is responsibile for change in all the properties. Hence we can still use all the equation of static and total property ratios derived for normal shock relations by changing the freestream Mach number to Mach

number normal

If freestream or upstream Mach number and the shock angle are known, then we can calculate the Mach number normal to the shock as,

to

the

shock.

Prandtl's relation for the oblique shock is,

This relation suggests that, for oblique shock, normal Mach number before or upstream to the shock is supersonic and hence normal Mach number after or downstream to the shock is subsonic. The static property ratios for oblique shock are,

Total property ratios can be re-written in the same way. We can as well calculate the Mach number behind the shock as,

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19.2 θ-β-M relatio

It has been a lready observed that the Mach number normal to the shock is

responsible for all the property variations for given shock angle.

be easily calculated from the upstream or fre estream Mach

number for given wedge or deflection angle. Consider the same c ontrol volume

shown in Fig.1. R elation between velocities and angles before

shocks are,

shock angle can

However this

θ

θ

β

β

n

and after the

But we know that,

w 1 = w 2

Hence,

But

ρ

Therefore,

ρ 1 u 1 = ρ 2 u 2 hence,

ρ

ρ

ρ

Before the shock

After the shock

From density ratio we have

From

the

exp ression

of

upstream

Mach

number,

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This is the expression between upstream Mach number, shock angle and wedge angle. In most general case, we need to know the shock angle for given Mach number and wedge angle. Following figure provides the information about the same (Fig. 2). In this figure, each curve corresponds to various possible shock angles for a given Mach number and flow deflection angle.

(or)

Fig. 2 θ -β-M relation

Answer: Page 107 - John D. Anderson, Jr., Modern compressible flow, Second edition, Mc Graw-Hill Publishing company (or) Refer class notes

6. Consider a Mach 2.5 supersonic flow over a compression corner with a deflection angle of 14 o . Calculate the increase in shock strength if the

deflection angle is doubled to 28 o and give your comments on the shock wave

characteristics. (8)

(2010)

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 7. Air at Mach 2 passes over two compression corners of angles 70 and θ, as shown in Fig. Determine the value of θ upto which the second shock will remain attached. (16) (2008) Answer: Refer class notes 8. Explain the concept of Prandtl-Meyer expansion around a convex corner and represent it in Hodograph plane (8) (2010) Answer: Pages 130 to 35 - John D. Anderson, Jr., Modern compressible flow, Second edition, Mc Graw-Hill Publishing Company (or) Refer class notes. 9. A supersonic flow at M 1 = 1.58 and P 1 = 1atm expands around a sharp corner. If the pressure downstream of the corner is 0.1306 atm, calculate the deflection angle of the corner. (8) (2010) Answer: Refer class notes 10. An oblique shock is making 30 o angle with flow direction at the exit plane of

a Mach 2.4 Laval nozzle. Determine the percentage increase in stagnation

pressure necessary to eliminate the shocks and maintain supersonic flow at

the nozzle exit. (8)

(2012)

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11. A supersonic stream of air at Mach 3 and 1 atm passes through a sudden

convex and

Determine the Mach number and the pressure of the flow downstream of the

then a sudden concave corner of turning angle 15 o each.

concave corner. (8)

(2012)

12. What is the physical mechanism of generation of waves in subsonic and supersonic flow. Explain with the help of diagrams. Answer: Refer Page 562 - Fundamentals of Aerodynamics, John D Anderson, Fourth edition.

13. Describe the physical method of visualizing the propagation of disturbances in a subsonic flow and supersonic flow. What is a Mach wave and Mach angle? Answer: Refer Pages 563 to 564 - Fundamentals of Aerodynamics, John D Anderson, Fourth edition.

14. Derive Prandtl relation for a normal shock in a perfect gas. (May/June 2013) Answer: Refer class notes

15. Air at P 1 =0.3 bar, T 1 =350K and M 1 =1.5to be expanded isentropically to 0.13 bar. Determine (1) the flow deflection angle, (2) find Mach number and (3) the temperature of air after expansion. (May/June 2013) Answer: Refer scan copy notes

16. For an oblique shock wave bring out proper relationships between the flows parameters in front of the shock and behind the shock. Answer: Refer class notes

17. Derive Prandtl- Meyers Expansion waves for a flow over a convex corner. Answer: We have already seen that compression of supersonic flow takes while passing through the shock. In other words, when the supersonic flow turns into itself then it undergoes the compression through a shock. Exactly opposite situation can be encountered when the supersonic flow turns out of

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itself where, expansion of the supersonic flow takes place. This expansion unlike compression takes place smoothly through infinite expansion waves hence called as expansion fan. This expansion fan is comprised of infinite number of expansion waves or Mach waves where every wave is responsible for infinitesimal amount of deflection dθ. A typical expansion fan in the supersonic flow is shown in Fig. 1.where supersonic flow turns outward by an angle θ.

Fig.1 Expansion of supersonic flow

For better understanding of expansion of supersonic flow, consider that p 1 , T 1 and M 1 be the properties of flow before expansion or upstream of the expansion fan and p 2 , T 2 and M 2 be the properties of the flow after expansion or downstream of the expansion fan due to outward deflection by an angle θ. For the know upstream flow properties and deflection angle it should be possible for us to calculate the downstream flow properties. Since the expansion is the continuous and smooth process carried out via infinite Mach waves, lets consider one such wave across upstream of which velocity is V and Mach number is M. Angle made by this Mach wave with the upstream velocity vector is μ. Lets consider dV be the change in velocity brought by the Mach wave by turning through an angle dθ. Hence V+dV is downstream velocity and M+dM is the downstream Mach number. If we construct the velocity triangle as shown in Fig. .2 then we can use the sin law for triangle as,

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Fig.2 Velocity triangle across a typical Mach wave during supersonic expansion

But we know that

and

.1

Hence we can re-write Eq. (1) as,

.2

We can approximate as sin dθ ≈ dθ and cos dθ ≈ 1, Therefore Eq. (2) can be simplified as,

.3

since dθ tan μ < 1, lets recall the expansion for x<1,

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Neglecting higher order term, we can express Eq. (3) as,

But we know that

and hence Hence above equation becomes,

Prandtl Meyer Function We can see that since for positive value of dθ, we get positive dV which leads to expansion. This formula is also valid for small angles for compression where we get negetive dV. If we integrate this formula for the toal expansion angle then we can get the downstream Mach number.

4

Before integrating we can express the integrant in Mach number,

V=Ma ln V = ln M + ln a

5

We can express here the second term on right hand side in terms of Mach number using the isentropic relations as,

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6

Using Eq. (5) and (6) we can re-write Eq. (4) as,

Integration of right hand side is as,

Here, v is called as the Prandtl-Meyer function.

θ = v(M 2 ) - v(M 1 )

7

Therefore upstream Mach number (M 1 ) we can calculate the upstream Prandtl-Meyer function. Hence for known flow deflection angle and upstream Mach number we can get the downstream Prandtl-Meyer function and hence the downstream Mach number. Process of expansion of supersonic flow is an isentropic process. However, while passing through the expansion fan, pressure, temperature and density of the flow decreases while Mach number and velocity increases for the supersonic flow. Moreover, all the total properties remain constant. We can calculate the total pressure, temperature and density upstream of the expansion using isentropic relations for the known flow Mach number. From the calculated downstream Mach number, we can calculate all the static flow properties from known stagnation or total properties.

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UNIT III

EXPANSION WAVES, RAYLEIGH AND FANNO FLOW

10

Flow past convex corners, Expansion hodograph, Reflection and interaction of shocks and expansion, waves. Method of Characteristics Two dimensional supersonic nozzle contours. Rayleigh and Fanno Flow.

1. What is meant by shock polar? (May/ June 2013) Answer: Consider a supersonic flow moving with velocity V 1 . Now, the flow is being deflected up by a concave corner of deflection angle say θ. Hence, an attached oblique shock wave is formed at the concave corner. If the deflection angle, θ is being carried through all possible values for which there is an oblique shock solution; θ < θ max , then, the locus of all possible velocities behind the shock is defined as the Shock polar.

2. Differentiate between like refection and unlike refection.

(May/ June 2013)

Answer: An incident shock gets reflected as a shock from a solid boundary. This kind of refection is called like reflection. On the other hand, an incident shock gets reflected as an expansion fan and the expansion fan gets reflected as compression waves from a free boundary. This kind of refection is called unlike refection.

3. What is slip stream flow?

(Nov/Dec 2012)

the wall is known as a slipstream.

The streamline which separates the downstream flow direction and

Across this line there is a jump in the

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temperature, density

component being zero ).

and

tangential

component

of

the

veloci ty

(normal

4. State the limiting valu es of shock wave angle in a supersonic flow f or zero flow

 deflection. (No v/Dec 2010) (or)

what are the limiting v alues of shock angle for the oblique shock?

to the body), the limit

For the oblique shock wave (i.e., for the shock to rem ain attached

β tends to μ,

n β tends to

β

ing values of shock angle are < β < 90

β

β

o.

When β

μ

μ

the shock wave becom

90 o , the shock wave b ecomes a normal shock wave.

es a weak wave known as a Mach wave. Whe

β

β

5. With a neat sketch il lustrate prandtl-mayer expansion around a con vex corner.

(May/June 2009)

6. Distinguish between

Mach lines and compression waves.

(Nov /Dec 2009)

MACH LINES

COMPRESSION WA VES

1. They are very w eak pressure

waves

1. They are stronger as com pared to

Mach lines.

2. There is no flow deflection

2. Flow is deflected toward s the

wave

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 3. Very small changes in flow 3. There is a marked change in flow properties. properties 4. Flow across Mach line is 4. Flow is non-isentropic. isentropic.

7. Bring out any two important differences between shock waves and expansion

waves in a supersonic flow? Answer:

(April/May 2008)

 SHOCK WAVES EXPANSION WAVES 1. Expansion waves (or fans) occurs 1. Shock waves usually occurs when a when a supersonic flow is turned away supersonic flow is turned into itself from itself. 2. Downstream of the flow is always 2. Downstream of the flow may be subsonic supersonic or subsonic 2. The maximum and minimum values 3. The maximum turning of the flow of shock correspond to those for normal shock (β=90º) and Mach wave(μ) corresponds to the situation where the pressure goes to zero. This corresponds to θ=130.5º

8. What is Rayleigh flow / Rayleigh curve? Answer: Rayleigh flow is one-dimensional flow with heat addition. The Mollier diagram (i.e., Enthalpy Vs Entropy) for one-dimensional heat addition process is given by the Rayleigh curve. If the upstream conditions are given by point 1 on the curve, then, the particular Rayleigh curve through point 1 is the locus of all possible states in region 2.

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9. What are characteristic lines? Answer: Particular lines in the xy coordinate where the flow variables P, ρ, T, v, etc, are continuous, but along which the derivatives,

are indeterminate and across which the derivatives may in fact be discontinuous are called as characteristic lines.

10. What are Non simple and simple regions?

Answer: The expansion region in the nozzle covered with both left running and right running characteristics is a non simple region. In this region, the characteristic lines are curved.

The region which is covered by waves of only one family because the other family is cancelled at the wall is called as simple region.

11. What is Expansion hodograph? Answer: Consider an expansion wave with a given upstream velocity V 1 . Along the x-y coordinate, the velocity components ahead of and behind the expansion wave can be defined as V x1, V y1 , V x2 , V y2 . If e plot now these velocities on a graph with V X and V Y as the axis, this graph of velocity components across the expansion wave is call the Expansion hodograph.

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PART-B

1. Explain the procedure to obtain supersonic nozzle contour for a given Mach number of 2 using Method of characteristics. Also draw neat sketches for continuous and centred expansion supersonic nozzles. (8) (2010, 2012)

Answer: Pages 325 to 329 - John D. Anderson, Jr., Modern compressible flow, Second edition, Mc Graw-Hill Publishing company (or) Refer class notes

2. An incident shock wave of wave angle 35 o impinges on a straight wall. If the

Upstream flow properties are M = 3, P = 1 atm, and T = 300 K, calculate the Reflected shock wave angle with respect to the wall and the flow properties M,P,

T downstream of the reflected shock wave

3. Show that the local Mach number is unity at the point of maximum entropy on the Rayleigh line. (8) (2012)

Answer: Pages 83 to 84 - John D. Anderson, Jr., Modern compressible flow, Second edition, Mc Graw-Hill Publishing company (or) Refer class notes.

4. Derive the Rankine-Hugoniot relation for a shock. Can this relation be applied for

a chemically reacting gas? If yes how? If not why? (8) (2012, 2009)

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5. What do you understand by weak oblique shock? Plot the waves over a

a

symmetrical diamond wedge supersonic flow.

of angle

θ

kept at

zero angle

of attack

in

Answer: Pages 146 to 148 - E.Rathakrishnan, Gas dynamics, Third edition.

6. For the double wedge shown in the figure below, calculate the flow Mach

numbers and the slipstream. (16)

(2008, 2012)

7. A two dimensional wedge shown in figure moves through the atmosphere at sea level at zero angle of attack with a freestream Mach number of 3. Calculate C L and C D using shock expansion theory (16) (2008)

at which temperature
=

(2013)

8. For the Rayleigh flow, show that the mach number

is maximum. Further find the value of

for γ=1.4

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AE 2303-Aerodynamics II

Answer: Consid er the control volume as shown in Fig. below for 1D flow

with heat addition. T he fluid flow of this kind is called as Rayleigh

station 1 is represe ntative station before heat addition while s tation 2 is

representative station constant cross-section

expected in the directi on of the flow due to addition of heat.

after heat addition. This control volume is n ecessarily a pipe hence variation is the inviscid flow p roperties is

flow. Here

Fig. Typical Co ntrol volume for 1D flow with heat addition.

Assume the fl ow to be in viscid and steady between these t wo stations. Therefore the mass an d momentum conservation equations remain un altered from the normal shock cas e but energy equation will have a term corre sponding to external heat addition . Hence the 1D conservation equations for flo w with heat addition are as follow s.

Here ‘q’ is amount of heat added per unit mass. Hence,

However, we know th at

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AE 2303-Aerodynamics II

q = ho 2 - ho 1 = cp(To 2 - To 1 )

This equation suggests that change in total temperature takes place due to

Lets represent the ratios of static and total properties in terms of upstream

(station 1) and downst ream (station 2) Mach number and specific hea t ratio. Let’s

consider the momentu m equation,

Also from ideal gas as sumption

But ρ 1 u 1 = ρ 2 u 2

ρ

ρ

ρ

ρ

,

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AE 2303-Aerodynamics II

Therefore,

Hence from the above relations we get,

Therefore,

For ratio of total prop erties,

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AE 2303-Aerodynamics II

Similarly

From these two ratios we can find out
as

We have represented all the ratios in terms of upstream and downstre am Mach numbers. If we consid er a particular case where heat addition leads to downstream Mach nu mber equal to one or post heat addition Mach nu mber is unity, then equations c an be written as,

Since M 2 = 1 & p 2 = p * & p 1 = p & M 1 = M . Here flow properties afte r heat addition are the stared quantities due to unity of the local Mach numb er. Hence

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AE 2303-Aerodynamics II

these quantities are of very much of importance since can be used as r eference quantities.

Similarly

If we substitut e
and
=
∞ ∞
=
1+
∞ =
1+

We get

shown below.

=

in the equation

1 which is maximum as seen from the Ray leigh curve

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AE2303-Aerodynamics II

9. Explain with sketches and plots

 1) Shock waves and Mach waves 2) Strong and weak shock waves

(2013)

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AE2303-Aerodynamics II

UNIT IV

DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS OF MOTION FOR STEADY COMPRESSIBLE FLOWS

Small perturbation potential theory, solutions for supersonic flows, Mach waves and Mach angles, Prandtl-Glauert affine transformation relations for subsonic flows, Linearised two dimensional supersonic flow theory, Lift, drag pitching moment and center of pressure of supersonic profiles.

7

1. Write down the Prandtl- Glauert similarity rule for pressure coefficient and

explain it.

(or) Write down Prandtl-Glauert rule for subsonic flow for small disturbances (small

(May/ June 2010)

perturbations) and explain its meaning. Answer:

(May/ June 2013)

The above equation is known as Prandtl-Glauret rule. It is a similarity rule which relates incompressible flow over a given two-dimensional profile to subsonic compressible flow over the same profile. In the above equation where

C p = coefficient of pressure in subsonic compressible flow

C po = coefficient of pressure in incompressible flow

M = Free stream Mach number

In similar way the lift & moment coefficient can be written as

2. What is perturbation potential?

(Nov/Dec 2008)

Answer: Consider the 2D, irrotational, isentropic flow over the airfoil. The airfoil is placed in a uniform flow with velocity V oriented in the x-direction. At an arbitrary point P in the flow field, the velocity is V with x & y components

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AE2303-Aerodynamics II

given by u & v respectively. The x-component of velocity u will be sum of free stream & increment of velocity in x-direction similarly the y-component of velocity will be sum of free stream & increment of velocity in y-direction.

3.

What is Prandtl- Glauert compressibility correction? (April/May 2008) Answer: Instead of deriving entirely new equations for compressible flows, we can also slightly change existing equations for incompressible flows, such that they approximate compressible flows. Such adjustments are called compressibility corrections. The first compressibility correction is the Prandtl- Glauert correction. It stated that the pressure coefficient (C p ) in a compressible flow can be derived from the pressure coefficient C p0 in an incompressible flow,

=

according to

= 1
=
1

The lift coefficient (C l ) and moment coefficient (C m ) for compressible flow can be derived similarly, using

Where C lo = coefficient of lift in incompressible flow

C mo = coefficient of moment in incompressible flow

M = Free stream Mach number

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4. What are Riemann invariants? ( Nov/Dec 2010) Answer: Riemann invariants are mathematical transformations made on a

system of quasi-linear first order partial differential equations to make them more easily solvable. Riemann invariants are constant along the characteristic curves of

These are

the partial differential equations where they obtain the name invariant. variables that propagate along 'characteristic' lines.

PART-B

1. A two-dimensional wing profile shown in figure is placed in stream of Mach

 number 2.5 at an incidence of 2 o . Using linearized theory, calculate C L and C D . (16) (2008, 2012)

2. Based on small perturbation theory, derive the linearized velocity potential

equation for compressible flows (10)

(2008, 2012)

Answer: Pages 663 to 665 - Fundamentals of Aerodynamics, John D Anderson, Fourth edition,

(or)

Pages 198 to 200 - E.Rathakrishnan Gas dynamics, Third edition, Or Refer notes.

3. State the assumptions and limitations made in the small-perturbation potential theory and show that The linearized pressure coefficient is a function of the perturbation velocity in the Main flow direction only. (2010, 2009)

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AE2303-Aerodynamics II

C P = -

.

Answer: Pages 666 to 667 - Fundamentals of Aerodynamics, John D Anderson, Fourth edition, Page 208, E.Rathakrishnan, Gas dynamics, Third edition , or Refer class notes.

 4. Describe the Prandtl-Glauert affine transformation for subsonic flow over airfoils and highlight its significance (2010, 2009, 2012) Answer: Pages 213 to 217 - E .Rathakrishnan, Gas dynamics, Third edition, or refer class notes 5. A flat plate of 1m x 0.2 m size is kept in an airstream of velocity 100kmph at an angle of attack of 5 o . Calculate the lift using supersonic linear theory. Assume that the static pressure and temperature of the freestream air are 2 x 10 5 N/m 2 and 288 K respectively. (8) (2010, 2009) Answer: Refer class notes 6. Derive expressions for lift and drag coefficients of a diamond airfoil using linear theory (2009) Answer: Refer E. Rathakrishnan, Gas dynamics, Third edition. 7. Using small perturbation assumption, derive the linearized velocity potential equation for compressible flows past over an airfoil and find out the pressure coefficient. What are the boundary conditions imposed to solved the problem numerically? Answer: Refer class notes 8. What are the salient features of the linearized supersonic flow theory? Explain the theory with necessary sketches. How is lift coefficient of a flat plate making an angle of attack to a supersonic flow calculated using the theory. Answer: Refer class notes

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9. Write short notes on:

i. Fanno and Rayleigh flows

ii. Area rule

iii. Supercritical aerofoils

iv. Attached and detached shocks.

10. Consider an infinitely thin flat plate at a 5º angle of

Mach .6

freestream. Calculate the lift and drag coefficients using shock expansion

theory.(2013)

attack in a

11. Consider a subsonic flow with an upstearm Mach number of M . This flow

moves over a wavy wall with a contour given by = cos( ), where y w is the

ordinate of the wall, h is the amplitude and l is the wavelength. Assume that h is small. Using small perturbation theory, derive an equation for the velocity potential and the surface pressure coefficient. Answer: Refer Page no 329 - Fundamentals of Aerodynamics, John D Anderson, Fourth edition.

12. Write short notes on Prandtl-Glauert affine transformation Answer: Refer class notes

(2012, 2010)

13. Derive suitable expressions for lift and drag coefficients of a flat plate airfoil at

small angles of attack using linearized supersonic flow theory. Answer: Refer class notes

(2012)

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UNIT V

TRANSONIC FLOW OVER WING

6

Lower and upper cr itical Mach numbers, Lift and drag diverg ence, shock

thickness,

induced separation,

camber and aspect ra tio of wings, Transonic area rule.

Characteristics

of

swept

wings,

Effects

of

 1. Define critical Mach ical number for an aerofoil and explain its s ignificance? (May/June 2013, 2010 ) Answer: The crit Mach number (M cr ) of an aircraft is the lowest Mach number at which the a irflow over some point of the aircraft reaches the speed of sound. For all aircraft in flight, the airflow around the aircraft is not exactly the same as

the airspeed of the airc raft due to the airflow speeding up and slowing do own to travel

around the aircraft stru cture. At the Critical Mach number, local airflow i n some areas

near the airframe reac hes the speed of sound, even though the aircr aft itself has

airspeed lower than Ma ch 1.0. This creates a weak shock wave.

2. Why sweep back appl ied to wings at high speeds? Or what is the nee d for sweep

back in supersonic ve hicles?

(May/June 20 13, 2008)

 (or) what is the need for s wept wing for a high speed air plane. (May/ June 2009) (or)