Sie sind auf Seite 1von 12

Grace OKeeffe

20152465
Written Report

Personal philosophy

Philosophy is a theory or attitude that acts as a guiding principle for behavior (Oxford
University Press, 2016). Thus, ones teaching method, as well as their teaching persona will
be guided by their own philosophy. I consider esteem and safety needs as well as inclusivity
to be paramount in Health and Physical Education. My beliefs on how Physical Education
should be taught are based around my philosophy that strives towards ensuring all students
feel supported, included, encouraged and safe while simultaneously building their self esteem
and developing the person as whole in aspects of physical, mental, social and emotional
health. This is the personal philosophy that this essay will refer to and examine the extent to
which it is met through the implementation of different curriculum models.

The definition of Health and Physical Education has evolved over time. Health and Physical
Education as defined in 1998 stated it to provide students with an understanding of health
issues and the skills needed to confidently participate in sport and recreational activities. This
understanding and development of skills was considered to enable students to make decisions
about health and physical activity that were responsible and promoted their own and others
health and well-being (Curriculum Framework W.A, 1998). Later defined in 2013, the second
half of the previous definition was stated first. It was considered that Health and Physical
Education teaches students how to enhance their own and others health, safety, wellbeing and
physical activity participation in a variety of changing contexts. It also considered that it
offers students an experiential curriculum that is contemporary, relevant, challenging,
enjoyable and physically active (Australian Curriculum: Health and Physical Education,
2013). Physical education has been previously seen as sport (Curriculum Framework W.A,

Grace OKeeffe

20152465

1998). The definition evolved to consider Health and Physical Education as more than sport,
as an opportunity for students to be physically active rather than an avenue that develops
skills for participation in sport and recreational activities (Australian Curriculum: Health and
Physical Education, 2013; Curriculum Framework W.A, 1998).

There has been much debate in regards to the relationship between Physical Education and
sport and the role that each plays. Elizabeth Murdoch identified five relationships between
Physical Education and Sport. The latter definition appears to move towards a theory that
acknowledges them as separate entities. Versus Theory states that the relationship between
Physical Education and Sport is separate. Substitution Theory states that Physical Education
is Sport and Sport is Physical Education. This theory appears to be prevalent in the earlier
definition. Murdochs other theories on the relationship between Physical Education and
Sport are reinforcement, sequence and integrated. Reinforcement considers that there is a
symbolic relationship between the two and each has a role to play in the other. Sequence
relationship suggests that Physical Education is there to prepare students for sport
(Murdoch,1990). Murdochs theory of an integrated relationship between Physical Education
and Sport and possibly the most plausible considers that no one agency can completely
address childrens needs (Murdoch, 1990). Children are complex and unique, they require a
range of opportunities, experiences to optimally develop.

Within the profession, no consensus appears to be reached on what the most appropriate
curriculum model is to achieve the Health & Physical Education Outcomes. However, a
dominant curriculum model has been identified in schools that is scheduled around sport
seasons and school carnivals (Locke, 1992). It should be noted that the listed curriculum

Grace OKeeffe

20152465

models are not prescriptions that should be precisely replicated, they are models that act as a
possible example. Implementation of a curriculum model should be determined by most
importantly the students and available equipment and facilities (Grima, 2016).

Six main curriculum models have been identified by Siedentop: Developmental Physical
Education, Adventure Education, Physical Activity, Fitness and Wellness Education,
Integrated Physical Education, Games for Understanding and Sport Education (Siedentop &
Tannehill, 2000) This essay will focus on the curriculum model of Sport Education/ Sport
Education in Physical Education Program (SEPEP). Sport Education was created with the
purpose to provide students with an experience that was authentic, in-depth and educationally
rich (Siedentop & Tannehill, 2000). Sport Education has six key features: seasons, affiliation,
formal competition, culminating event, record keeping and festivity. SEPEP provides students
with the skills and desire to take charge of their own sporting experiences by learning key
elements that make sport important within our culture such as rules, rituals, traditions, skills
and strategies. Implementation of SEPEP is also developed with the intent to move isolated
skill practice through drills outside of the curriculum and into a logical sequence that is
progressive and provide a realistic game like situation for students to organize and learn their
own sports experience (Siedentop & Tannehill, 2000).

Like other models, SEPEP is not straight forward solution to the goals of Health and Physical
Education, it is just a model which can be ulitised and develop and adapted within HPE.
SEPEP does not look to replace Health and Physical Education. However, an effective
teacher should use SEPEP to its greatest potential through reading the context of the class and
adapting uniquely to the separate contexts. SEPEP was created with the objective for

Grace OKeeffe

20152465

children to be educated to the fullest extent and in turn develop competent, literate and
enthusiastic sports people. It was also developed by Daryl Siedentop in response to the
argument that sport within P.E classes was without context as P.E teachers were said to be
isolating sports skills and instructing students to play games without meaning.

Like a ones philosophy influences their teaching and the method in which they teach.
Siedentop development of SEPEP as a model was based on his thoughts that grounded his
beliefs and thus the acted as a foundation for the development of SEPEP. Siedentop believed
that rituals, values and traditions were crucial elements that add to the value of sport and give
it meaning, yet were not taught or experienced in P.E. This lead Siedentop to strive towards a
model that provided students with a more authentic learning experience in HPE.

At the core of SEPEP model is a student centered approach that provides students with an
authentic experience (Siedentop & Tannehill, 2000). SEPEP has six key characteristics that
are carefully thought out to add value to the model and enhance the experience all students
have. Each characteristic provides a different experience and addresses a different purpose.
The characteristics intend to work together to provide students with an opportunity that
develops students to the fullest. Seasons are created with the concept of mirroring the
demands of the real world, for this reasons seasons often run over a term or semester to
portray the period of season. Culminating event adds authenticity to the experience that
SEPEP provides for students. This event is an opportunity for students to celebrate the
progress that all students have achieve through the season. A culminating event is an
opportunity to build self esteem in students and includes all students. It also recognizes the
various roles and responsibilities that students have participated in as members of the team.
This aligns with the philosophy that this essay explores, as all students are included and their

Grace OKeeffe

20152465

achievements and their roles and responsibilities are acknowledged, it is a valuable


opportunity to build self esteem within students. As with affiliation, students are members of
the same team to promote co-operative learning and co-operation skills as well as interpersonal and social skills. Affiliation gives all children a sense of membership and belonging,
important elements to building self esteem. Festivity enhances the development of a team,
through the use of uniforms, team names, logos and team notice boards to increase solidarity
within the team. This also adds to the enjoyment, an element SEPEP considers vital. Record
keeping is a role that is played by students to monitor and track the various aspects of
performance throughout the season as well as again giving individual students a
responsibility. Like all elements of SEPEP, formal competition aims to be a structured
experience with inclusion and cooperative learning at the forefront of designing the
competition while facilitating and celebrating learning (Grima, 2016)

These six key characteristics have a largely influential role on the level of participation,
student roles as well as inclusion and equity. SEPEP was developed by Siedentop with the
intent for children to be educated to the fullest extent and in turn develop competent, literate
and enthusiastic sports people. SEPEP provides students with an authentic experience that
looks to include all students through the carefully constructed six characteristics that
individually enhance the ability for all students to be included to positively influence
participation.

An effective teacher has been coined as an active teacher (Brophy & Good as cited in
Grima, 2016). Characteristics of active teachers include keeping students engaged, on task
and motivated as well as planning and implementing a curriculum that is meaningful and
appropriate. An active teacher is crucial in positively influencing participation, inclusion and

Grace OKeeffe

20152465

equity and is an important element to the implementation of whatever curriculum model is


chosen.

Many schools choose to incorporate SEPEP into the academic year at some stage during
Physical Education classes. Prendiville Catholic College is a prime example of this, SEPEP is
integral to Physical Education classes at Prendiville from year seven and throughout lower
high school up until year 10. SEPEP succinctly aligns with the values, mission and purpose of
Prendiville Catholc College. Prendiville claims that their curriculum is driven by a
contemporary pedagogy delivered in a 21st century learning environment that creates lifelong
independent learners with the ability to think critically (Prendiville Catholic College, 2016).
This relates to SEPEP as it considers a key element in the implementation of SEPEP by
taking into account the available resources and the changing context. SEPEP makes students
accountable for their own experience as well as requiring students to work together,
developing inter and interdependent selves.

On an observation on the 8th of August, combined boy and girl year ten classes, were
completing their fifth lesson of SEPEP yet the first lesson where the responsibility was put
(or attempted to be) solely on the students. Lessons had been logically sequenced up until this
point to prepare students for the SEPEP season. In first lesson, students brainstormed possible
sports that they would wish to focus the SEPEP season on. This process ensures students are
accountable for the SEPEP season from the get go. As year ten students, who have been
gradually exposed to SEPEP and the different levels from year seven it is their responsibility
to decide on a sport and follow through. In the first lesson, the teacher also explained the
roles within SEPEP, especially the importance of the Sports board role. Students nominated
themselves to be apart of the sports board. The second lesson was also used to narrowing

Grace OKeeffe

20152465

down the sport choices from the suggestions made by all students and then all students vote
for their chosen sport. During this lesson, students also voted for representatives of Sports
board who previously nominated in the first lesson. Dodge ball was decided on and sports
board was finalized, with a committee of six students. The following next two lessons were
scratch matches to organize the teams. All students were required to rate their own skills by
giving themselves a number from 1 to 3, 1 being weaker and 3 being a stronger player.
Teachers then assigned students into one of five teams, to balance strengths in each team. The
rest of the roles were the allocated such as captains. Students were also informed when they
would be on duty team and the expectations that were involved such as umpiring.

The fifth lesson of SEPEP or the first lesson for the season, still required coaxing and
motivating by the teachers for students to assume their roles. Students still appeared to be
unaware of the parameters of their role and not yet confident within their roles. It appears that
despite the aim to place the responsibility of the students as it is their final year of SEPEP.
Students were still finding their feet and required assistance from teachers in all aspects of
organization such as setting up and packing up the court, referring, sitting students in teams,
assigning roles to duty teams. Dodge ball was appeared to create issues, in that students were
inactive and left out for a sufficient amount of time. This observation does not align with the
personal philosophy that inclusivity is an important aspect to P.E, for all students to feel
included and thus possibly SEPEP was not effective in optimizing inclusion and levels of
participation. Although, in this observation it appears to be an issue of the chosen sport and
not SEPEP as a model. However, the accountability that is placed on students through SEPEP
allows for an important lesson in choosing wisely and thus mentally develops and grows
students as a person. Eventually, the teachers allowed students to change sports as interest
quickly diminished in dodge ball.

Grace OKeeffe

20152465

Compared to an observation of the year eight netball class at Prendiville, many differences
were apparent. Boy and girl classes were also combined for this SEPEP season as they are
throughout all SEPEP classes. A key difference between the year eight and ten class, is the
levels of motivation and enthusiasm. This observation shows that it is evident how largely
influential this can be to the running of a lesson and the effectiveness of the implementation
of SEPEP. The teachers intended to assist to a much greater extent with the year eight class
and were not expecting to transfer the responsibility to primarily the students. However,
students appeared more confident within their roles. Teachers provided students with a run
sheet and discussed programs, teams, fixtures and organization before commencing the class.
The teachers formally introduced the lesson prior to handing over the sports board, in which
representatives had previously been told what to say in the brief to sports board before the
introduction to the whole class. Although, students were assistance within their roles they
required less motivating to complete their tasks once they were aware of what needed to be
done. Students were eager to play.

The observations at Prendiville provided a valuable insight to the understanding of SEPEP as


a model and the implementation of it. Motivation and other individual aspects of the
individual students appeared to be largely influential in the effectiveness of the
implementation of SEPEP. Although, year ten students are older than year eights and have
had more exposure to SEPEP, their motivation levels lack and thus students execute their
roles to a much lesser extent. Supporting that sutdents and classes should be assessed on an
individual basis. Despite accountability being a valuable aspect to SEPEP, it appeared to have
detrimental to the implementation of SEPEP in the year ten class when they poorly choose
dodge ball causing teachers to eventually have to change the sport. This desire for students to

Grace OKeeffe

20152465

be accountable retracted from other beneficial aspects of SEPEP as their season was cut short.
If teachers, stepped in sooner to exclude dodge ball from the options, students may have had
a better opportunity to at least complete and run a whole season with the same sport. This
supports that the degree of implementation should be individually assessed in regards to the
class and students. It should not be assumed that more responsibility is placed on students
simply as they get older. In saying this, SEPEP still served one of its many purposes in the
year ten class through the negative decision of the sport dodge ball as students learnt a
valuable lesson to choose wisely.

The teachers at Prendiville considered SEPEP beneficial in exposing valuable aspects to


reports such social skills and how they work together, outside of skill-related execution.
SEPEP provides a foundation to develop social support and cooperation skills, however the
emphasis on the game means less avenues for advanced skill-based drills to develop their
skills. This observation supports that SEPEP cannot and should not replace or substitute HPE
completely. SEPEP was created with the objective for children to be educated to the fullest
extent and in turn develop competent, literate and enthusiastic sports people. Motivation and
enthusiasm levels can be considered to be intrinsic (Lai, 2011). The observation suggests that
some motivation cannot be taught and it is in fact intrinsic to individuals and without
extrinsic motivation, levels of motivation are low when there is no intrinsic either (Lai, 2011).

Murdochs theory of an integrated relationship between Physical Education and Sport


considers that no one agency can completely address childrens needs and can be related to
curriculum models as well (Murdoch, 1990). No one agency or model can completely address
childrens needs and SEPEP is also not a magical answer. SEPEP is a model that can be

Grace OKeeffe

20152465

utilized, adapted and developed within Health and Physical Education. However, the
implementation should be dependent on the class and students as well as available equipment
and facilities. SEPEP, like all models, has flaws and issues of participation can arise if
appropriate sport is not chosen and other possible factors may influence this. An active
teacher should aim to develop a meaningful and appropriate curriculum model that engages
and motivates students. The effectiveness of a model is highly dependent on the individuality
of a class and an awareness that what works for one group of students may not work for
another. To deliberately align with the personal philosophy that values inclusion,
encouragement, safe environment and developing the person as a whole in aspects of
physical, mental, social and emotional health, models should be implemented to
accommodate a given class to ensure optimized growth and participation. No single agency
can completely address childrens needs (Murdoch, 1990). Ultimately, a blended approach of
curriculum models which is guided by ones value system, philosophy and passion for
addressing the needs of a given class in a relevant and purposeful way will provide the best
outcome.

References:

Grace OKeeffe

20152465

Australian Curriculum Assessment and Reporting Authority (2014) Australian Curriculum:


Health and Physical Education: Foundation to Year 10. Retrieved 19th of Aug, 2016,
from http://www.australiancurriculum.edu.au/healthandphysicaleducation/Rationale

Grima, K. (2016). HPE2204 Physical Performance Laboratory four. Week One Lecture
Notes. Unpublished work. Fremantle: The University of Notre Dame Australia.
Retrieved from https://learnit.nd.edu.au/webapps/portal/execute/tabs/tabAction?
tab_tab_group_id=_1_1

Grima, K. (2016). HPE2204 Physical Performance Laboratory four. Week Two Lecture
Notes. Unpublished work. Fremantle: The University of Notre Dame Australia.
Retrieved from https://learnit.nd.edu.au/webapps/portal/execute/tabs/tabAction?
tab_tab_group_id=_1_1

Lai, E.R. (2011). Motivation: A literature review. Pearson. Retrieved from


http://images.pearsonassessments.com/images/tmrs/Motivation_Review_final.pdf

Locke, L.F. (1992). Changing secondary school physical education. Quest 44(3), 361-372.

Murdoch, E.B. (1990) Physical education and sport: The interface. In: Armstrong N (ed.)
New Directions in Physical Education. Champaign: Human Kinetics, 6378.

Oxford University Press. (2016). Definition of philosophy in English. Retrieved from


https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/philosophy

Grace OKeeffe

20152465

Siedentop, D. & Deborah, T. (2000). Developing teaching skills in physical education (4th ed.)
Mayfield Pub. Co