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SANTIAGO CALATRAVA L.L.C.

OUTSTANDING PROJECTS (2001-2010)


BRIDGES

THREE SIGNATURE BRIDGES- REGGIO EMILIA ITALY


SAMUEL BECKETT BRIDGE DUBLIN - IRELAND
SERRERIA BRIDGE VALENCIA - SPAIN
WOODALL RODGERS BRIDGE-DALLAS USA
VENICE FOOTBRIDGE-ITALY
JERUSALEM BRIDGE -ISRAEL

SKYSCRAPERS

TURNING TORSO. MALM. SUECIA


CHICAGO SPIRE USA

LARGE ROOFS AND SINGULAR BUILDINGS

OAKA OLYMPIC STADIUM AND VELODROME ROOFS ATHENS 2004


WTC- PATH STATION. NEW YORK. USA
CITY OF ARTS AND SCIENCE VALENCIA ESPAA
HIGH SPEED TRAIN STATION. REGGIO EMILIA. ITALY
HIGH SPEED TRAIN STATION. LISBON. PORTUGAL

SANTIAGO CALATRAVA L.L.C.


OUTSTANDING PROJECTS (2001-2010) by
MARIORANDOCAMPOS
MScConstructionEngineering

GAUTEMO
MScStructuralEngineering

PROFESSIONALEXPERIENCE:
Morethan20yearsasstructuralengineerandmanager

PROFESSIONALEXPERIENCE:
7yearsasstructuralengineer

From2001toMarch2010:SANTIAGOCALATRAVALLC (Valencia)
Director of the Civil and Structural Engineering Department at the
Valenciaoffice.

From2003to2007:NTNU (Trondheim),AadnesenAS(Oslo),
Polytec.Univ.ofPanama (Pan.City),Price&MyersLLP
(London)

Selectedprojects:
WorldTradeCenterTransportationHub(NewYork)
Oriente Station. Initial project and renovation for high speed trains
(Lisbon)
OlympicSportComplexforAthens2004:OlympicStadiumRoof(304m
span),VelodromeRoof,Agora,NationsWallandMainEntreances.
TurningTorsohighrisebuilding(192mhigh)(Malm)
City of Arts and Science: Opera House, Science Museum, Umbrculo,
goraandSerreraBridge(Valencia)
CableStayedBridgeWoodallRodgers(400mlength,200mspan)
SamuelBeckettBridge(95mcantilever)(Dublin)
ThethreeBridgesofReggioEmilia(220mspan)(Italy)
HighSpeedTrainStationofReggioEmilia(Italy)

SelectedProjects:
WhitechapelArtGallery(Price&MyersLLP,London)
GjerseBridge(AadnesenAS,stfold)
rumfjelletPedestrianBridge(AadnesenAS,stfold)
From2007to2009:SANTIAGOCALATRAVALLC (Valencia)

From March 2010: SEED WORKSHOP LTD (Simbiosis y Equilibrio entre


EcologiayDiseoS.L.) www.seedworkshop.com
FounderandJointDirector

SelectedProjects:
SamuelBeckettBridge(95mcantilever)(Dublin)
VollanPedestrianBridge(Hedmark)
NebyPedestrianBridge(Hedmark)
BarcodeProject(Multiconsult)(Oslo)

SelectedProjects:
SamuelBeckettBridge(95mcantilever)(Dublin)
WorldTradeCenterTransportationHub(NewYork)
From2009:GAUTEMOAS www.gautemo.no

THREESIGNATUREBRIDGES.REGGIOEMILIA
SUMMARY

ThethreebridgesinReggioEmiliaaresingular
steelstructuresdesignedbySantiagoCalatrava
to improve vehicular access and to provide an
impressivenewentrancefromthenorth.
These infrastructures are important links
between the busy motorway A1, which links
Milan to Bologna, passing the city of Reggio
Emilia. The three bridges have played an
importantroleintheurbanregenerationofthe
cityandwereinauguratedinOctober2007
The main structure is the central bridge than
spans the motorway and the adjacent railway.
There are also twin bridges across two
roundaboutsnexttothemainbridge.
. This work has obtained the 2009 European
Steel Design Award given by the European
ConventionforConstructionalSteelwork(ECCS)
at the international congress in Barcelona..
.

THREESIGNATUREBRIDGES.REGGIOEMILIA
LOCATION

CENTRALTIEDARCHBRIDGE.MAINDATA
Client: T.A.V. SpA , Comune Reggio Emilia
General Contractor: Rodano Consortile Scarl
Steel Subcontractor: Cimolai S.p.A.
Project Value: 18 Million euros
Total Steel S355 Tonnage: 4000 Tons
Total Concrete Volume poured: 11000m3
Height arch over deck 45m , Main Span 220 m

CENTRALBRIDGE.STRUCTURALDESCRIPTION
StructuralLayout:
Theprimarymemberinthestructuralschemeisthecentralarch(typeBowString with220mspan
and45mhigh)subjecttodirectcompression.
Thecentralbridgeisasinglespanstructurewithoneendfully fixedinthelongitudinaldirection.The
otherendhasalongitudinallyslidingsupportwithashockabsorber.
Thedeckisatrapezoidalsinglecellclosedboxgirderfromwhichcantileverribsspringevery3.5mto
configureanoverall27mwidedeck.
.

220m

CENTRALBRIDGE.STRUCTURALDESCRIPTION.CENTRALARCH

Themainarchistheprimarymemberinthestructuralschemesubjecttodirect compression.Many
calculationsweredevelopedinordertostudythebucklingbehaviorduetotheslendernessofthearch,
including2ndordernonlinearbucklinganalysisthatwasundertakenonatwostagebasis.Atfirststagea
destabilizingloadwasappliedtothemodeltoinvokeanimperfectionatthecrownofthearchof270mm
withinthegeometry.Atsecondstageanonlinearbucklinganalysiswascarriedoutusingthedeformed
shapefromStage1asthestartingpointfortheanalysis.
Inthistypeofstructurethecablesrestraintheinplanebucklingofthearchviathehungdeckwiththe
outofplanebuckling normallymorerestrictive(seefigure).

CENTRALBRIDGE.ARCHSECTIONS
The arch consists of two 4 sided
trapezoidal boxes with 1.02m
distance between them. Both
boxes
are
intermittently
connected which contributes
significantly to the behavior of
the arch for lateral buckling. The
inner face of each box is a truss
andnotstandardplate..
the arch is easy for inspection
and maintenance during the
service life of the bridge. The
plate thicknesses of the arch
rangebetween30mmand65mm.

CENTRALBRIDGE.STRUCTURALDESCRIPTION.CENTRALARCH

Thespringingofthearchisone
ofthemoreparticularpartsof
thebridgeasthebigoculus
capturestheattentionofthe
users.Thispartplaysan
importantroleinthestructural
schemebecauseistheelement
whichcarriesalltheforcesfrom
thearchtothedeck.The
springingismainlyaboxmadeof
thickplateswithinternal
stiffeners inordertoavoidthe
localbucklingofthewebs.

CENTRALBRIDGE.STRUCTURALDESCRIPTION.DECK

Thedeckisthetie ofthestructural
schemeandassuchisthemember
whichissubjectedmainlyunder
tensionefforts.
Thedeckworksalsolikeabeam
supportedelasticallybyeachpairof
cablesbecauseitisthememberof
thebridgethatsupportsdirectlythe
liveloads.
Thedeckisatrapezoidalsinglecellclosedbox
girder fromwhichcantileverribsspringevery
3.5mtoconfigureanoverall27mwidedeck
(includinglateralparapets).Theboxgirderis
madeofplatesof3060mmthickness.The
runningsurfaceforthevehiclesisasteel
orthotropicdeckmadeofa14mmplatewith
openlongitudinalstiffenersof20mm

CENTRALBRIDGE.STRUCTURALDESCRIPTION.CABLES

The50pairsof44mm
diametercables ofthemain
bridgearelockedcoilwith
thefixedanchoragewithin
thearchandtheactive
anchorageinthecentralbox
girder.Inthiswaythe
torsional rigidityofthe
structureispredominantly
controlledbythetorsional
stiffnessofthecentralbox
girder.

CENTRALBRIDGE.STRUCTURALDESCRIPTION

SUPPORTCONDITIONS
Thecentralbridge,asatiedarch,isasingle
spanstructurewithonesupportfullyfixed
inthelongitudinaldirection.Theotherend
hasalongitudinallyslidingsupportwitha
3500kNshockabsorber(LockUpDevice or
LUD)providedinordertoallowthelow
velocitydisplacementsprimarilyfrom
temperatureandtorestrainthelongitudinal
directionfortheseismicevent.Inthisway
thehorizontalforcesfromtheseismic
actionaredistributedatbothabutments.
Thereare4potbearingsattheabutments.
Theabutmentsaremadeofreinforced
concrete andtheycarrythereactionsfrom
thebridgetothegroundby36unitsof1.5m
diameterspilesateachabutment.

STEELFABRICATION

CENTRAL BRIDGE. ERECTION. LAUNCHING

Thestructurewaserectedtakinginto
accountthatthetrafficflowingalongthe
motorwaybelowshouldbemaintained
duringtheerection.
Thecontractorproposedtolaunchfrom
onesidethedeckwithlargesegments
ofthearchonit.

CENTRAL BRIDGE. ERECTION.LIFTING ARCH SEGMENTS

.Thesegmentsofthearchwereliftbymeansofthree
temporarytowersprovidedwithheavyliftingsystems

CENTRAL BRIDGE. ERECTION.LIFTING ARCH SEGMENTS

CENTRALBRIDGE.FINISHES

CENTRALBRIDGE.FINISHES

TWINBRIDGES.STRUCTURALDESCRIPTION
Structural Layout:
The twin bridges across the roundabouts are cable stayed bridges consisting of 1400tons of
S355 steel for each one. The pylon is positioned in the transversal plane to the direction of the
bridge (Figure) and divides the deck in two symmetrical spans of 90m
.

220m
90m

TWINBRIDGES.STRUCTURALDESCRIPTION.CENTRALARCH

Themainbearingelementisthe
centralsteelpylon,whichisa69m
higharchandrises58moverthe
platform
Thepylonispositionedinthe
transversalplanetothedirectionof
thebridgeanddividesthedeckintwo
symmetricalspansof90m.The
transversalsectionofthepylonisa
nonregular7sidedpolygonmadeof
38mmplates.

TWINBRIDGES.STRUCTURALDESCRIPTION.CENTRALARCH

TWINBRIDGES.STRUCTURALDESCRIPTION.DECK

Theplatformis12.5mwideandis
supportedby25pairsofcables.Itis
dividedinonelaneperdirectionfor
thevehiculartraffic.Theconceptof
thedeckisidenticaltothatofthe
centralbridge,acentralhollowbox
fromwhichtwocantileverribsspring
toformatotal14.6mwidedeck
(includinglateralparapets).Theribs
arespacedlongitudinallyat3.5m
centers.
Theboxgirderismadeof15and22
mmthickplatesandthefloorforthe
vehiclesisasteelorthotropicdeck
madeofa14mmplatewithopen
longitudinalstiffenersof20mm

TWINBRIDGES.STRUCTURALDESCRIPTION.CABLES

The25pairsof60mmdiameter
cables ofeachtwinbridgeare
lockedcoiltypeandtheyare
anchoredfromthecenterofthe
decktothepylonmakingavery
originalpattern

TWINBRIDGES.STRUCTURALDESCRIPTION

SUPPORTCONDITIONS
Bothendsofthedeckareslidingsupported.Thecentralsupport ofthedeckatthemid
spanconsistsonarigidconnectionwiththepylon.Thissupportisthepointwhich
restrainsthedecklongitudinally.
Duetothefactthatbothendsofthebridgeareslidingsupports,oneofthecritical
loadconditionswastheunsymmetricalcaseofjustonespanloaded.Inthiscasethe
cablesofthenonloadedspanplaytheroleofbackstays.Inthistypologyofbridge
underthiseventtheresistingactionisthebendingandaxialstiffnessofthedeck.

TWINBRIDGES.STRUCTURALDESCRIPTION

Forthetorsional loadcases,thepotbearings(compressiononlysupports)aresuppliedwithacoupleof
bars(tensiononlysupports)placedatbothedgesofthetransversalsection.Inthiswaythetorsional
forcescanbeabsorbedbytakingadvantageoftheleverarmbetweenoneofthebarsandtheopposite
potbearing.Benefitsinthecostofthebearingsarealsoimportantbecauseupliftresistingdevicesare
notnecessaryandthepotbearingcanbestandard.Thebarsareanchoredtotheendoftheribwitha
slottedpinwhichallowsthelongitudinalmovementsofthedeck.
Theabutmentsaremadeofreinforcedconcreteandtheycarrythereactionsfromthebridgetothe
groundby15unitsof1.5mdiameterspilesateachabutment.Thepylonissupportedbymeansoftwo
pilescapsof42pilesof1.5mdiameter

TWINBRIDGES.ERECTION

Theerectionofthecable
stayedbridgeswasmore
conventionalbutnotless
interesting.Theerection
consistedonsupportingthe
deckwithjusttwotemporary
supports.ThePylonwas
erectedinthreelargepieces
(twostraightlegsandthetipof
thearch)withoutanysupport.
Thenthecableswereinstalled
andputintensioninorderto
removethetemporary
supports

TWINBRIDGES.ERECTION

TWINBRIDGES.FINISHES

TWINBRIDGES.FINISHES

SAMUELBECKETTBRIDGE,DUBLIN
SUMMARY

OpenedDecember2009
Landmark movable structure spanning the
maritime gateway to the City, linking the outer
orbitalroute.
LocatedeastoftheCityscentre and within the
newlydevelopedDocklands area.
Forprivatecaruse,publictransport,cyclistsand
pedestrians.
Client&Engineer:
DublinCityCouncil
Engineerssupervision: DublinCityCouncil&
Flint&Neill
Designer:
SantiagoCalatrava
IndependentChecker: Roughan &ODonovan
Contractor:
GrahamHollandiaJV
Projectcost:
ConstructionPeriod:

ca.60000000 Euros
30months

SAMUELBECKETTBRIDGE
GENERALDESCRIPTION
123mlongswingbalancecablestayedbridgewithaninclined
andcurvedpylon,andwithunequalspans.Thebridgerotates
90 inthehorizontalplanetoallowshipstopass,withtheaxis
ofrotationapproximately28mfromthesouthquay.
Steeltonnage:Deck 1860t,Pylon373t,Cables 90t
CounterBallasttonnage:Steel+HeavyConcrete2820t

SAMUELBECKETTBRIDGE.DESIGN
STRUCTURALLAYOUTANDDESIGN
AstheSamuelBeckettBridgeisaswingbridge,twomainconditionsneededtobedesigned for:
1.
Openposition:
Novehicularloadingandnosupportattheends.
2.
Closedposition:
Subjecttoliveloadingsandsupportattheembankments.

SAMUELBECKETTBRIDGE.DESIGN
STRUCTURALLAYOUTANDDESIGN
AstheSamuelBeckettBridgeisaswingbridge,twomainconditionsneededtobedesigned for:
1.
Openposition:
Novehicularloadingandnosupportattheends.
2.
Closedposition:
Subjecttoliveloadingsandsupportattheembankments.

SAMUELBECKETTBRIDGE.DESIGN
STRUCTURALLAYOUTANDDESIGN
AstheSamuelBeckettBridgeisaswingbridge,twomainconditionsneededtobedesigned for:
1.
Openposition:
Novehicularloadingandnosupportattheends.
2.
Closedposition:
Subjecttoliveloadingsandsupportattheembankments.
ThebridgewasfirstdesignedfortheOpenposition.
Balancebridge,i.e.obtainminimalnetmomentatcentralsupportbyprescribingthecounterbalance
mass.
Achieverequiredprofileofthestructureandalignmentatabutments:Byspecifyingtensionsinfore
andbackstays.
Designthestructurewithoutvehicularloading.
Secondlythebalanced bridgewithcorrectshapewasdesignedfortheClosedposition.
Designthestructurewithliveloads.
Therefore,alltheelementsofthebridgeweredesignedaccordingtoanenvelopeofthetwoconditions.

SAMUELBECKETTBRIDGE.DESIGN
DECK
The main fore deck structure, the front span, is a multicell box girder, made up from relatively thin (10
20mm) steel plates stiffened internally using a combination of longitudinal bulb flats, angle sections and
trapezoidal stiffeners. Cantilevered from this main box section are the ribs and steel decking which form the
pedestrianandcycletracks.
Thebackspan,whichhousesthecounterbalance,isalsoamulticellboxgirderbut,madeupfromunstiffened
steelplates(2060mm).Thecellsinthebackspanweregenerallyfilledwithaheavy,selfcompactingconcrete,
whichalsosupportsthesteelplates,preventingthemfrombucklinglocally.

SAMUELBECKETTBRIDGE.DESIGN
DECK
The cross section of the deck consists of two pedestrian and cycle tracks and four lanes for car traffic, two of
whichcanbeadaptedtoaccommodatetramsinthefuture.
Thetopoftheboxatthefrontspanconsistsofa14mmthickplatewith12mmtrapezoidalstiffeners.The36
mmmasticasphaltlayerwastakenaccountofinthefatiguecheckforthisorthotropicdeck.
The single, central, line of forestays supporting the front span from a curved pylon tends to lead to large
torsional forces in the deck due to unbalanced live loadings either side of the line support. Therefore, an
advantageofusingamulticellboxsectionisitsinherenttorsional rigidity.

SAMUELBECKETTBRIDGE.DESIGN
PYLON
The pylonwas fabricatedfromshapedandweldedthicksteelplates(80120
mm),formingavariableboxsection.
The25forestaysareattachedtothecurved,inclinedandslenderpylon.The
pylon in turn transmits the applied cable reactions, via axial forces mainly,
but also bending moments, to its base where it is fully connected to the
main deck and the central lifting cylinder, and to its apex where it is
restrainedbythesixinclinedbackstays.
The pylon is restrained from buckling in the longitudinal direction by the
forestays, but is slender in the transverse direction between the top and
bottom where it is restrained by the backstays and deck structure. The
bucklingfactor(forthefirstshapeofbuckling)wasfoundtobe3.6.

SAMUELBECKETTBRIDGE.DESIGN
CABLESTAYS
Thecablestaysarealllockedcoilstrands,withtwentyfive60mmdiameterstrandssupportingthefrontspan
andatotalofsix145mmdiameterstrandstowardstheback.
BridonLockedCoilStrands:
ForeStayDiameter:
Min.BreakingLoad:
Max.PermanentForce:
Max.WorkingLoad:

60mm
3590kN
961kN
1292kN

BackStayDiameter:
Min.BreakingLoad:
Max.PermanentForce:
Max.WorkingLoad:

145mm
20100kN
9200kN
10050kN

SAMUELBECKETTBRIDGE.DESIGN
CENTRALSUPPORT
Themainsupportintheriverconsistsofeighteen1200mmdiametercastinplacepilessupportinga15x15m
pilecap, 3 m deep and a circular concrete pier of varying diameter housing the hydraulic turning and lifting
equipment, and the horizontal and vertical bearings, which support the entire bridge while turning. The
equivalentspringstiffnessofthepierwasfoundandappliedas circularspringsupportintheFEmodelofthe
steelsuperstructure.

SAMUELBECKETTBRIDGE
LOCKINGPIN&EXPANSIONJOINTSYSTEM
Attheendsofthebridgehydraulicallycontrolledlockingpinsattachthebridgestructuretothehousingscast
into the abutments. The locking pins are designed as part of the bridge rotation mechanism and provide the
finalalignmentofthebridge,verticallyandhorizontally.This isnecessaryduetotherangeofdeflectionsatthe
bridgeendssuchastemperatureeffectsandcablesag.
Anintelligenthydraulicallycontrolledexpansionjointsystemisinstalled.

SAMUELBECKETTBRIDGE.CONSTRUCTION
CENTRALSUPPORT
Siteinvestigationrevealedthepossibilityofwaterpressurein therockexertinganupliftontheunderside
of the clay, such that it could cause the base of the cofferdam to heave. Pressure relief wells were
installedandthepiezometers indicatedthatthepressure under the base remained at safe levels during
construction.
The top section of the pier was complex in its geometry with the outside surface curving in two planes.
Bespokeformworkwasdesignedandassembledandtheconcretecastinquarters.

SAMUELBECKETTBRIDGE.CONSTRUCTION
CENTRALCYLINDER
The central cylinder has a diameter of 2.5 m and has a plate thickness of
120mm. To reduce the friction moment resistance at the bottom, a 15
tonnesconeshapedcastitemwasweldedon.Atthelevelofthehorizontal
bearingsIconel(austenitic nickelchromiumbased superalloy) was welded
on and machined to create a hard and lowfriction surface. This cylinder
transfers the entire weight of the bridge (5,850 tonnes) and any out of
balancemomentwhenthebridgeisturningorinopenposition.

SAMUELBECKETTBRIDGE.CONSTRUCTION
ROTATIONMECHANISM

SAMUELBECKETTBRIDGE.CONSTRUCTION
FABRICATION,ASSEMBLYANDTRANSPORT
Thedeckwasfabricatedfirstineightsectionsandthepylonin five.Thesizeoftheindividualelementstowas
dictated by the facilities at Hollandias workshops (amount of handling necessary and their painting facility).
Hollandia determinedthatthebridgedeckshouldbemadeupofeightsectionsandthatthese,oncepainted,
would be joined together on a prepared assembly area where the completed unit could be easily transferred
ontoaseagoingbargefortransporttoDublin.

SAMUELBECKETTBRIDGE.CONSTRUCTION
WELDING
A range of welding processes were used during fabrication with each method selected to suit the joint
configuration and position. Automated processes such as submerged arc were used whenever possible but
with manual methods, mainly flux core, also being used extensively. All butt welds and a proportion of fillet
weldswereexaminedusingUTmethodsforburieddefectsandMPIforsurfacebreakingdefects.
Allvisibleweldsweregroundflushduetoarchitecturalreasons.

SAMUELBECKETTBRIDGE.CONSTRUCTION
ASSEMBLY

SAMUELBECKETTBRIDGE.CONSTRUCTION
ASSEMBLY
As the deck deck sections came out of the paint shop they were positioned at the correct position and
height at the assembly area, and welded to the adjacent section, finally forming one bridge deck. The
pylonbasesectionwasprefabricatedandfittedtothebridgedeckandtheremainingfoursectionswere
weldedtogether,liftedpositionedandtemporarilysupportedwhilstthefinalcircumferentialweldswere
laid.

SAMUELBECKETTBRIDGE.CONSTRUCTION
LOADOUT
Thebridgewasnoreadytobetransferredontothebarge.Trailerswaspositionedunderneaththebridge
anddroveofftheassemblyareaandontothebargeinaslowand controlledmanner.

SAMUELBECKETTBRIDGE.CONSTRUCTION
SEATRANSPORT
The Contractor investigated the sea route from Hollandias fabrication yard in Rotterdam to Dublin. The East
Link Bridge in Dublin was found to be the limiting width restriction and the Konigshaven Bridge in Rotterdam
giving the height limit. A detailed follow up investigation identified that if some railings and street furniture
could be temporarily removed from the East Link Bridge it would be possible for the complete bridge
superstructure,includingpylonandstays,topassthroughonasuitabletidelevel.

SAMUELBECKETTBRIDGE.CONSTRUCTION
SEATRANSPORT
The superstructure was shipped to Dublin in May 2009. The journey from Rotterdam to Dublin was carefully
monitored throughout the 628 mile journey. This took eight days to complete as the shipment was forced to
shelterfromhighwindsforaperiodbeforetraversingtheIrish Sea.

SAMUELBECKETTBRIDGE.CONSTRUCTION
SEATRANSPORT
The sea transport and the sudden appearance of a land mark structure received a lot of positive publicity in
localandinternationalmedia.
TheSamuelBeckettBridgethroughEastLinkBridgewhenarriving inDublin.

SAMUELBECKETTBRIDGE.CONSTRUCTION
C.O.G.ANDSKIDDING
Following arrival in Dublin, with the bridge still supported on the barge and now moored to the quay wall, it
was necessary to ballast the back span using heavy concrete and steel blocks to ensure the centre of gravity
waslocatedcentrallywithinthesupportzone.Thestructurewas thenskiddedalongtheseagoingbarge to a
positionthatallowedthebackspantobesupportedonasecondbarge,henceleavingthebridgesupportarea
free above the river. The bridge lifting cylinder had been positioned within the main support pier and would
laterbeweldedtothemainstructure.

SAMUELBECKETTBRIDGE.CONSTRUCTION
LOADTRANSFER
With the bridge now balanced and supported on two barges, at high tide the barges were moved so as to
position the bridge support area directly above the pier that had been cast in the river. As the tide level
continued to reduce, the barges could be moved away from the bridge leaving the structure balanced and
supportedontherimbearing.

SAMUELBECKETTBRIDGE.CONSTRUCTION
FIRSTROTATION/CLOSINGOFBRIDGE
Onceinposition,thefinalweldedconnectionofthebridgeliftingcylinderwasmadeandthehydraulicsystem
connectedandtemporarilyactivatedtorotatethebridgetospan theriverforthefirsttime.

SAMUELBECKETTBRIDGE.CONSTRUCTION
COUNTERBALLAST
Someofthecellsarefilledwithacombinationofsteelblocksandconcrete.Inordertoachievethefinalbridge
balancetheamountofsteelballastplacedonsiteduringconstructioninthesecellswasadjustable.Thisallows
for the addition or removal of mass in order to balance any future changes made to the superimposed dead
loadsonthebridge.
The final balancing was carried out by removing the horizontal bearings at the central support, leaving only
three vertical supports. If any of the two supports at the bridge ends did or did not not have any weight on
itself,thecounterballasthadtobeadjusteduntilbothhadapproximatelynoreaction.Duringthisprocessone
could easily calculate what the outofbalance moment was knowing reaction, measured with loadcells and
armofcantilever.

SAMUELBECKETTBRIDGE.CONSTRUCTION
GEOMETRYCONTROL
AstheContractorreportedactualdeadloadsanddeflectionsasignificantamountofreanalysiswas
requiredtoachieveagoodbalancebetweenfinalcableforcesandbridgedeformations.Wherecable
forceswerechangedtoamendthedeformationoftheendsofthedeck,stressesinthebridge
structurechangedaccordinglyandhadtobechecked.Thebackspanofthebridgeisextremelystiff,
whilstthepylonandfrontspandeformrelativelyeasily.Thisresultedinacomplexequationwith
numerousvariables,whichwasfinallysolvedbyamendinglevelsattheabutments,ballastquantities
andcableforces.

SERRERIA BRIDGE VALENCIA (2005-2008)


Cablestayedbridge.Span155m.Deckwidth38m
Inclinedcurvedpylon height125m

SERRERIA BRIDGE - VALENCIA


Client:CACSA(PublicentityoftheValenciaRegionalGovern)
GeneralContractor:Jointventure:FCCandPavasal
SteelSubcontractor:HORTACoslada,LaCorua,Spain
ProjectValue:40Millioneuros
ProjectCompletionProgramme:3years
TotalSteelTonnage:5055Tons
TotalConcreteVolumepoured:21160m3
Heightpylon125m,MainSpan155m,totalLength350m

ErectionofPylonunit.Boltconnectedandwelded

JERUSALEM BRIDGE ISRAEL


Period of Construction:

April 2006 to August 2008 (without the track bed)

Transportthefuturelightrailsystemandpedestriansoveramajorintersectionandplaza
Curveddeckplanview.Cablestayedbridge.Themastformsanangle

JERUSALEM BRIDGE ISRAEL

GeneralContractor:

RAMET

SteelFabricator:
KOORMetals
(CIMOLAI SPAassubcontractor)
Span=160m
HeightofPylon=118m
SteelTonnage:
Deck=2720tons
Footbridge=48tons
Pylon=1241tons
Concrete:

5500cubicmeter

VENICEFOOTBRIDGE.ITALY
20052008
Staticscheme:DepressedArch.Span81m.Rise4.8mRise/Spanratio1/16
Weightsteelstructure408tons
Specialprecaution:Horizontalreactionscontrolofsettlements

VENICEFOOTBRIDGE.ITALY
20052008

OLYMPICGAMESATHENS2004
OLYMPICSTADIUMANDVELODROMEROOFS

INTRODUCTION
Santiago Calatrava : Project of aesthetic
unification of OAKA area for the 2004
OlympicGames
Twosingularstructures:
OlympicStadiumRoof
VelodromeRoof

OLYMPICSTADIUMROOF.ATHENS
Goal: Provide a new roof for the existing stadium
compatible with the renovation works..
Main Challenges:
Tight schedule (18 months for fabrication, erection
and finishes).
Special Structural Tipology (tied arches large span).
Analysis difficulties (non-linearity, cables, seismic
loads).
Description:
The roof will be composed of a pair of bent leaves,
which will cover a surface of some 25,000 m2. The two
halves are simmetrical and connected only at two
points.
Each half-roof is 250 m long and has a variable width
between 45 and 75 m and is suspended by cables
connected to the main arch.
The roof is covered with policarbonat pannels, instead
of the laminated glass pannels designed in the project,
replaced due to time limitations .
The bearing structure is made of steel withe painted..

OLYMPICSTADIUMROOF.ATHENS
STRUCTURAL LAYOUT
Mainbearingsystem:2paralellarches
typeBowString 304mspan,80m
heightandlocated141.4mapart.

Transmissionofhorizontalloads
Externalside:diagonalelements
Internalside:diagonalsand
vierendeelbeamatthreelastribs.

4bearingpoints
NorthSide:Fullyrestrained
movementsandrotations
SouthSide:Fullyrestrainedbut
longitudinaldisplacements.

OLYMPICSTADIUMROOF.ATHENS
STRUCTURAL DESCRIPTION
Mainbearingsystem:
Mainarch( 3.25m) PrimarymemberinCompression.
Torsiontube( 3.6m) Tieofthestructuralschemeand
mainsupportfortheribsoftheroof,capableofcarryingthe
torsionaleffortsduetounbalanceloads.
Connections Bothtubesarefullyfixedatthesupports

andlinkedbymeansof8pairsofcablesdiameter90mm
and104mm.
Weightbalance: Thecenterofgravityofeachhalfroofis
locatedat2mfromthearchplanetowardsinside.

OLYMPICSTADIUMROOF.ATHENS
STRUCTURAL DESCRIPTION
Roof structural elements:

TransverseRibs: 54ribsperhalfroofevery5m.The
ribscarrytheloadofthepannelstothemainbearing
system.
Secondarycables: Theribsarefullyconnectedto

thetorsiontubeandsuspendedbymeansofapair
ofcableshangingfromthearch.
Otherelementsattheroofplanes:
Edgetubes.
Upperandloweranchortubes.
Diagonals.
ProfilesRHS.
PurlinsUPN.

OLYMPICSTADIUMROOF.ATHENS
ERECTION AND STRUCTURAL IMPLICATIONS ARCH ERECTION

MAINDECISIONS
Erectionofthetwohalfroofsseparatedfromthestadium
Preassemblyandweldingongroundoflargeelements:4
piecesof70m.
Onehalfroofstarted3weeksbefore

OLYMPICSTADIUMROOF.ATHENS
ERECTION AND STRUCTURAL IMPLICATIONS ARCH ERECTION
FirstStage PartialRemovalofshoringtowersofarches:
Desapeo

Lowering250mmattemporarytowers spanand
removingrestoftemporarytowers.

Desapeo
250mm

Desapeo

250mm

Thisprocesstransfers1850tononthedefinitive
supports42%ofthefinalweight.
Benefits:
1.Usingtheelementsofthecentraltowerforthe
secondarytowers.
2.Reductionofforcesinotherelementsduetoarches
selfweight.

Reductionupto30%bending
momentstransverseribs.

Reductionupto30%axialeffortat
diagonalsandlongitudinalelements.

OLYMPICSTADIUMROOF.ATHENS
ERECTION AND STRUCTURAL IMPLICATIONSERECTION OF HALF-ROOFS

SecondStageErectionHalf Roofs:
Stressingsecondarycables,removalof
secondarytowers,andfinallyremoving
shoringtowersunderarches.
Themainstructure(archtorsiontube)is
bearingonfinalsupports9000ton.
Thelongestribshadtobereinforcedwith
temporarytrussesuntilbothroofswere
connected.

OLYMPICSTADIUMROOF.ATHENS
Temporarysteelbeams
andskiddshoes

ERECTION AND STRUCTURAL IMPLICATIONS


SKIDDING OF HALF-ROOFS
Equipment:
1. Finalroofsupportsequipedwith
temporarysteelbeamsmountedon
skiddshoesbearingonconcretewalls.
2. SteelskiddshoesonPTFElayerslidingon
stainlesssteeltracks.

Concretewall
andlateral
guiding

Lateraldampers

3. Hidraulicjacksformovement.
4. Lateraldampersmountedatnorthside.
Slidingdata:

Finalsupports

1. Speed:1.4mm/seg
2. Mximumaceleration:7.2mm/seg2
3. Frictioncoeficient:2.6%

Temporary
beams

Hidraulicjacks

OLYMPICSTADIUMROOF.ATHENS
ERECTION AND STRUCTURAL IMPLICATIONS SKIDDING OF HALF-ROOFS

Finalpositionaftersliding:
Theconnectionjointofthetwohalf
roofswereintentionallyleft
separated160mmaserection
tolerance.Thegapisfilledwithsteel
plates.
.

OLYMPICSTADIUMROOF.ATHENS
ERECTION AND STRUCTURAL IMPLICATIONSFINAL SUPPORTS FIXED TO FOUNDATIONS

SupportsNorthSide:Fullyrestrainedallthemovements.

SupportsSouthSide:Fullyrestrained,butlongitudinalmovement

OLYMPICSTADIUMROOF.ATHENS
STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Mostimportantissues:
1.Archesstability.
2.Constructionstagestakedintoaccountintheanalysis.
3.Cablesmodelling.
4.Modellingofvariabledepthribs,incluidinglateralbuckling
analysis.
5.Nongeometriclinearity Precambersincludedinthe
analysis.
6.Acctions:
6.1Wind:Windtunneltestsforload
estimation.
6.2Seismicactions,twodifferentanalysis:
Responsespectrumlineardynamicanalysisandnonlinear
analysiswithequivalentstaticloads.

OLYMPICSTADIUMROOF.ATHENS
LIST OF PARTICIPANTS AND MAIN DATA
PROJECT: OLYMPIC STADIUM ROOF. OAKA-ATHENS 2004
CLIENT:

EYDE / GREEK MINISTRY OF CULTURE

ARQUITECTURAL AND STRUCTURAL DESIGN:

SANTIAGO CALATRAVA

GENERAL CONTRACTOR:

AKTOR

STEEL SUB-CONTRACTOR:

CIMOLAI

CABLE SUPPLIER:

TENSO-TECCI

SKIDDING EQUIPMENT:

ENERPAC

ROOF PANNELS

GALLOP

TOTAL SURFACE COVERED:

24000 m2

STEEL QUANTITY:

17950 ton ( 185 ton cables)

OLYMPICVELODROMEROOF.ATHENS
DESCRIPTION
The wooden ring of the existing Velodrome
had to be covered with a roof that is woodclad on the interior (for acoustical purposes)
and metal-clad on the exterior, with a central
area of sun-protected laminated glass.
The bearing structure is a pair of double
bowstring-tied arches made of tubular steel.
With dimensions of 145 m long by 100 m
wide and rising to a height of 45 m.
The roof will shield the athletes from
potentially disruptive winds. To improve
conditions for athletes and spectators, the
interior of the Velodrome will also be
completely renovated.

OLYMPICVELODROMEROOF.ATHENS

Longitudinal Elevation

Plan View

OLYMPICVELODROMEROOF.ATHENS
ERECTION PROCESS - Sliding
Erection of the roof separated 140m from its final
position .

OLYMPICVELODROMEROOF.ATHENS

Main data
Steel in structure
Cables
Total surface covered

3380 tons
80 tons
11900m2

Concrete poured

700 m3

Piles lenght

720 m

Participants
Client
Arquitectural and Structural design

EYDE. Greek Ministry of Culture


Santiago Calatrava L.L.C.

General Contractor

AKTOR. Greece

Steel Subcontractor

METKA. Greece

Sliding system

ALE-LASTRA. Spain

TURNINGTORSO.MALM
SUMMARY
The Turning Torso Tower is a highrise building for offices
and dwelling designed by Santiago Calatrava in the city of
Malm. The shape of the tower is based on a sculpture
called Twisting Torso, by Santiago Calatrava, which is
inspiredonahumanbodyinatwistingmotion.
The Tower has 55 floors and is composed by nine
geometrically equal cubes, each of one consisting of six
floors.Thetotalheightis190m.

The floors have a pentagonal shape with a surface of 420


m2.Eachlevelrotate1,62 withrespecttothefloorbelow.
The total rotation between the lower plan and the top of
thebuildingis90.
The main load bearing structural element is a central
concrete core with an internal diameter of 10,5m and
variablethicknessbetween2,5mto0,40m.
Another carachteristic element is the external steel truss
thatstiffenedthetoweragainsthorizontalloads.

TURNINGTORSO.MALM
LOCATION
HSB Turning Torso is located in Malm ( Sweden ) at the
Western Harbour area, near the sea and close to the city
center. The intention of the owner HSB Malm was to
createalandmarkforthecity.

FOUNDATION
Main tower foundation
ThefoundationoftheTurningTorsoconsistsofacylindricalboxwithadiameterof30mandadepthof15m.Thefoundationslabrestsonthe
limestonebedrockidentifiedintheGeotechnicalSiteInvestigationandhasadepthof7minordertocounteracttheeffectsofthewateruplift
andtoguaranteetherequiredmaximumexcentricityoftheresultantofthegroundreactionforceontheslabandtominimizetherequired
reinforcementamount.

CONCRETESTRUCTURE

Vertical Structural Elements


CentralCore

The main load bearing structural element for vertical


andhorizontalloadsisthecentralconcretecore,which
has an internal diameter of 10,5m and variable
thicknessbetween2,5minthebasementto0,40mat
thetopofthetower.

Inside this core there is the elevator and staircases


secondarycore.

ConcreteColumn

There is a continuous reinforced concrete column


(aproximate dimensions 1.5x1.5 m) located at the
corneroftheplans.

CONCRETESTRUCTURE

Conical slab: 90-40 cm thickness


Deck level : Diagonals and Horizontals
anchorages
Standard Floors: 27 cm thickness

Conical slab: 90-40 cm thickness

CONCRETESTRUCTURE
StandardSlabs
Each cube is composed of 6 rc slabs. The upper 5 are
standard slabs 27 cm thick, fully fixed to the concrete core
and supported by means of steel columns at the perimeter
thattransfertheloadtothelowerconicalslab.

STANDARD SLAB

Decklevels:Diagonalsanchorage
Theupperslabofeachcubeordecklevel iswherethediagonalsand
horizontalsareconnected.Theseslabsarethickerattheanchoragearea

DECK LEVEL

STEELSTRUCTURE
Main Elements

STEELSTRUCTURE

Exterior exoskeleton
The exterior steel truss or exoskeleton provides
additionalhorizontalstiffnesstothebuilding.
It is formed by the main column or spine (900 mm
diameter pipe), which is connected to the diagonals
and horizontals elements (variable diameter from
700mmto300mm)
The main spine is braced at every level to the
concretefloorsbymeansofstabilizers,andhasapin
joint at every cube in order to avoid large
hyperstaticalforces.

STEELSTRUCTURE

STRUCTURALLOADS
Wind
The wind effects were studied carefully at the
Boundary Layer Wind Tunnel Laboratory,
Ontario, Canada (Alan G. Davenport Wind
Engineering Group). The determination of the
overall structural loads and responses was
made conducting forcebalance tests and
pressure tests on a rigid model . The resonant
response of the building due to dynamic
amplification of the buffeting response at the
natural frequencies of the building were
determined
analytically
through
the
measurementofforce spectra and the dynamic
properties of the building. Together with the
statistical wind climate model of wind speed
and direction, predicted values of loads and
responses were determined for various return
periods.
The studies showed also that the peak
acceleration at the top levels for a 100 year
return period was 0,02 g, well below the
allowedlimitsforresidentialbuildings.

STRUCTURALLOADS
CONCRETE COLUMN:

Cube

-4

Shinkrage and Creep

Shrinkage(m/m)
-2.910

Creep(m/m)
-3.910

-4

-2.910

Total(m/m)

-4

Equivalent Temp (C)

-6.810

-4

-68

-2.910

-4

-29

NOTES:
1.- Linear interpolation for the intermediate cubes

Due to the fact that two different materials


were usedfor theverticalbearing structures,
concrete at the core and column and steel at
exterior truss, the effects of shinkrage and
creep are important as they will provoke
internal forces of compression at the steel
elementsandtensionattheconcreteones.

2.- The assumed thermal factor of the concrete is c=10-5 (C)-1

STRUCTURAL CORE:

Cube

Horizontal Direction
Shrink

Creep

Total

Vertical Direction
Thermal

Shrink

Creep

Total

factor
m/m

m/m

m/m

-310-4

-310-4

-310-4

-310-4

Thermal
factor

-1

m/m

m/m

m/m

c,v (C)-1

10-5

-310-4

-1.8510-4

-4.8510-4

1.6210-5

10-5

-310-4

-0.210-4

-3.210-4

1.0710-5

c,h (C)

NOTES:
1.- Linear interpolation for the intermediate cubes
2.- A constant variation of temperature has been applied to the whole core = -30 C

STRUCTURALANALYSIS
Global Model
Thestructuralanalysisofthebuildingwasmadewithaglobal
finite element model with the sofware SAP 2000. The model
simulates all the concrete and steel elements as well as the
foundationsslabsandpiles.

Deck
level
Standardlevel

Perimetercolumns

Conicalslab

ShearWalls
(radialand
perimetral)

STRUCTURALANALYSIS
Verification of Concrete elements. Reinforcement area.
Duetotheimportanthyperstaticalforcesandtheinteractionbetweenthedifferentelements(core,cloumn,slabsandshear
walls ) it is not possible to analyzed each element isolated but to extract the forces from the global FEM model. After the
analysisofthemodeltheoutputresultsoftheshellelementsofthecore,slabsandshearwalls,andforallloadcombinations
were processed with a postprocessing program in order to obtain the necessary reinforcement in both local directions and
bothfacesoftheelementforthepredominantcase,consideringallforcesandmomentsandthematerialfeatures.

STRUCTURALANALYSIS
Analysis of displacements
ThedisplacementsforserviceabilityLimit
State were calculated at the top of the
buiding for the worst wind actions for a
100yearreturnperiod.
The maximum drift (lateral deflection)
correspondstosouthwindsandthevalue
was 360 mm . This magnitude is
f/H=1/528, which is within the limits of
totalbuildingdriftforthisreturnperiod.

ERECTIONPROCESS
Erection Method

After finishing the foundations started the


constructionoftheconcretecore.Thecore
wascastinaslidingform,whichmeansthat
the form is suspended between vertical
beamsandcanslideupwards,onefloorata
time,bywayofjacks.
The walls around staircase and lifts were
pouredin formssuspended underneath the
sliding form. The walls were poured in
connection with the casting of the core.
Once the concrete had hardened to a pre
determineddegree,thecoreformaswellas
the forms for the staircase and lift shafts
couldthenclimbupwardstothenextfloor.
The next step in the pouring cycle was to
form and pour the structural slab around
thecorebeforethecyclecouldberepeated
with the core and lift shafts. Most of the
reinforcement was prefabricated at shop in
order to form large steel cages and then
erected to its final position where can be
overlapped.
.

ERECTIONPROCESS

During the pouring of each slab the


temporary supports were kept at
least7levelsbelow.
The core, lift shafts and structural
slabs were poured with vibrated
concretewhilethetransversalbracing
walls under each cube were made
with
socalled
selfcompacting
concrete.Becauseofitsflowcapacity,
this type of concrete does not need
vibrating. This method was used
because the transversal walls were
made after the structural slab above
and below them were finished,
making it impossible to insert
vibration rods down into the
concrete.
Theformsforthefloorswererotated
approx. 1.6 degrees for each floor in
order to create the characteristic
twist of the building. The time table
dictated that a new floor tier was
pouredevery10thdayontheaverage
formorethanayear

ERECTIONPROCESS

The erection of the exterior


exoskeleton started when the
construction of the concrete
structure had reached the 5th
cube and was completed few
weekslaterthantheconcrete.
Finally the faade and interior
finisheswerecompleted.

MAINDATA
Quantities
Heightofbuilding:

192m.

Numberoffloorsaboveground:55
Totalsurface:

31,900m2

Apartamentstotalsurface(cubes3to9):16,500m2
Officestotalusefulsurface(cubos1y2):4,500m2
Concrete:

25,000m3

Reinforcementsteel: 4,400Tons.
SteelstructureExteriorexoesqueleton:820Tons.
Faadesurface: 20,000m2
Glasssurface:
Elevators:3forapartaments,2foroffices.

5,500m2

PARTICIPANTS

Client

HSB Malm Ek Fr

Construction Manager

HSB Malm and NCC Construction Malm

Architecture and Structural Design

Santiago Calatrava SA, Zrich/Valencia

Interior Design

Samark Arkitektur & Design AB, Malm

Geotechnical Advisor

Dr. Vollenweider, Zrich

Geotechnical Investigation

SWECO, Malm

Structural Checker

SWECO, Stockholm

Concrete 1 (Underground concrete structure) PEAB AB


Concrete 2 (Concrete Structure above ground) NCC Construction AB
Faade fabrication

Grupo Folcr Edificacin SA, Espaa

Steel Fabricator

Emesa, Espaa

Steel Erector

Promecon, Dinamarca

Elevators

KONE AB

THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION