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Figure ___ General yield strength to average cost chart

The chart shows yield strength in tension for all materials, except for ceramics for which
compressive strength is shown (their tensile strength being much lower) vs the average cost in
British pounds per kilogram. Note that the prices shown are from a 2002 industry statistical data
on material cost but it will still be used for the preliminary selection because the price inflation
for each class of material is assumed to be relatively proportional against each other.
The desirable materials for use in chlorine transport should be of high strength (but not brittle)
and the cost should not be prohibitive. Hence, an initial selection that is represented by a grey
strip is drawn for the materials that reasonably fit the criteria. Based on this strength to cost
chart, ceramics (Porous and non-porous) and Metals-Alloys are considered here.

Figure ___ General yield strength to maximum temperature chart

Figure ___ Yield strength to maximum temperature chart highlighting metals-alloys

The chart shows yield strength in tension for all materials and the maximum service temperature
which indicates the temperature at which a material can be used in engineering above this is a
rapid decrease in strength. It is desired to have materials that can withstand intermediate and
low temperatures since the chlorine industry operates at a wide range of temperatures. We
desire materials that have low transition temperatures which means that a move from water
boiling temperature to ambient temperatures will not cause a serious and sudden decrease in
material strength. The section strip includes composites, metals-alloys, glasses-ceramics,
polymers, rubbers and some wood products. Due to the chemical to be transported and the
nature of chemical attack/degradation that is expected, weve narrowed down to metals-alloys
since these materials can exhibit good chemical resistance (alloys in particular) if treated or
reinforced and the intermediate to high strength to max temperature ratio is acceptable.
Ceramics are ruled out in this case due to the material being porous and brittle and chlorine
shows relatively high coefficient of thermal expansion which will cause problems. Figure ___
below illustrates this point.

Figure ___ Yield strength to percent elongation chart highlighting ceramics as brittle materials

Physical Insights
Ceramics - have directional covalent bonds; are weak in tension because they are sensitive to
small cracks or flaws; have very low elongations (<1%) because they cannot plastically deform;
Metals - do not have directional bonds and have similar tensile and compressive properties; can
be strengthened by heat treating to change the microstructure; have moderate elongation to
failure (1-50%) with deformation occurring by plastic flow;
Alloys - are much stronger than pure metals;

Withers , P., Lovatt , A., & Shercliff , H. (2002, February 25). Material information. Retrieved from
University of Cambridge - Material selection and processing: