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Tutorial 4: CHM101 (2016)

de Broglie Hypothesis
1) Using de Broglies hypothesis, show that you get the angular momentum quantization
that Bohr assumed.
Purpose: This question connects Bohr and de Broglie, although Bohr assumed electron
as particle and de Broglie represented it as wave. Is it not surprising that Bohr got it
right?
2) Assuming you are moving at a speed of 5 m/s and that you have a wavelength of 1 m,
calculate the Planck's constant (fill in your weight accordingly). Now explain why you
are mostly particle and not a wave under normal conditions.
Purpose: Numerical practice. Also, this question helps us to realize our apparent
classical existence over the real quantum world
!

3) An electron is represented by a wave with an equation ! = !!! and another electron


!
by ! = !!"! . A and B are real positive constants (known as normalisation constant
which we will worry later). Which electron shows more wavy nature over other? [Hint:
Plot both functions and think].
Purpose: You will see later that electron wave function (although exponential) can be
represented by Gaussian. This gives you a feel about how the matter wave looks like.
4) Calculate the de-Broglie wavelength associated with electrons accelerated from rest by
potential difference of 200V.
Purpose: Practice of numerical problem.
5) Estimate the ground state energy of Helium atom using Heisenbergs Uncertainty
principle.
Purpose: Purpose is to connect the probability of the finding the electrons to their energy
in hydrogen and helium atom.
6) Why the effects of the matter-wave associated with a macroscopic (big) object cannot be
observed?
Purpose: Purpose it to understand why dual nature of matter is a surprise for us.
7) What is the potential energy of Hydrogen atom in its ground state ?
Purpose: Purpose it to understand the total energy of electron.

Probability Wave
8) Explain why matter wave is probability wave. Can we consider light also a probability
wave?
Purpose: This tests your conceptual understanding of matter wave and also about
electromagnetic waves. This is discussed in the class.
9) If all matter waves are probability waves, then why dont we see interference in big
particles?
Purpose: This again connects to question 2 above.

10) What is the physical significance of matter wave and its square?
Purpose: Purpose it to understand the probability of the finding the electrons.

Heisenberg's uncertainty principle


11) Use uncertainty principle to estimate the ground state energy of Hydrogen atom.
Purpose: Purpose it to connect the de Broglie and Heisenberg.
12) An air-rifle pellet has a mass of 20g and a velocity of 100 m/s. If its velocity is known to
an accuracy of 0.1%, what is the minimum possible uncertainty in the pellets position?
Purpose: Practice of numerical problems.
13) What aspect of the Bohr's model is violated according to the Heisenbergs uncertainty
principle?
Purpose: Understand why electrons cannot rotate around nucleus.